Browsing Tag: you

    Overgrown Railroad Crossing
    Articles, Blog

    Overgrown Railroad Crossing

    August 12, 2019

    Hello ladies and gentlemen, I’m over here are about two blocks West of the Miami International Airport, and I’m going to show you guys an overgrown FEC industrial spur There’s two tracks here One is still used. I doubt this one is, this is a track view like This would be north east Right and check out this growth over here Doubt that they used that See the switches in the back over there Two switches one two okay then you got this track It’s pretty rusty Right? Yeah And then over here, what have we here? Cut… Look at that, is that sabotage? Oh wow Somebody vandalized it, they don’t work anymore Okay, so then over here we got Three concrete guards an MI signal base This looks like it might be a GRS? gate mechanism This is old, the lights are also a MI Modern Industries lights, Modern Industries bracket WC Hayes mechanical bell Emergency contact info Those are definitely incandescent lights My personal favorite My personal favorite visors as well Rico lights on the Crossing gate Another look at the cut wires, look at that Man this is a shame And then the grade crossing isn’t in too bad of a condition, I’ve seen worse You got track view here, South West That one like I said, might still be in use. Then you got the relay case right there, NW 70th Avenue and the DOT number I don’t think trains been thru here for a while Perhaps it’s lightly used, but doubt it Northwest 70th Ave, the DOT number and then in case you want to rail fan Or look at an abandoned railroad or semi abandoned railroad got a sofa right there And then on this side you got this guy And you got more growth on the track over here, a lot more growth A few years ago, I think like in 15 there was an abandoned mail train parked right over here But they since moved it It used to come out on Google Maps. I’m not sure if it does, but I’ll include a Google map link to this location So you guys can go back in time and see it. So then here you got a different one, you got a Harmon signal base. You have a oh, WABCO my bad the other one wasn’t GRS. It’s a Wabco gate mechanism. You can see WABCO Wow You can even see here well I don’t know if you can see here, but Beneath the the spray paint, it says model 75 grade crossing gate mechanism So yeah, then we got MI lights all around here, too MI bracket, no mechanical bell on this side and Rico lights on the crossing gate. Here you got the old, the old ties The real is from 1950 1-9-5-0 I know Mel Perry tells me that the weight of the rail is right next to the date, but I do not see it here Okay, so you got that then yeah, it’s just growth all the way this way see Growth, not good See a piece of a crossing gate here, all messed up, man! All messed up! So yeah guys That’s gonna conclude this tour, please subscribe or Like. Thank you very much for viewing Over and out

    Abandoned Railroad Hollywood Florida
    Articles, Blog

    Abandoned Railroad Hollywood Florida

    August 12, 2019

    ladies and gentlemen I am over here next
    to the FEC main along Dixie Highway and I believe thats Taft over there Johnson
    so yeah I’m gonna include a Google map Link since you guys know exactly where I’m at
    but look at what I found today an abandoned industrial spur. Look the wheel
    stops and then we’re gonna walk along these tracks look at those rails They are rusted as rusted can be! wooden cross ties So right now I’m walking North bound, this would be facing south
    this would be facing north So yeah this is near the FEC mainline It looks like on the other side of that street which is McKinney Street it was cut off
    already damn look at this got some friends along for the ride on my shoe
    whatever its a small price to pay not every day you get to encounter 1 of
    these babies it appears that it abruptly comes to an end right here Yeah so as I said Damn look at this This is looking South then im on, just so you know oh wait a second look at what we got
    here he was hiding behind the stop sign little devil! It even has a DOT tag
    still nice alright you guys thank you nice Alright guys, thank you for viewing please subscribe or like
    over and out

    University of California, Berkeley – May Commencement 2019
    Articles, Blog

    University of California, Berkeley – May Commencement 2019

    August 12, 2019

    (orchestra playing Pomp and Circumstance) – And now, please welcome
    from the 50 yard line the beginning of our stage party. First the Californians class of 2019, the student award recipients
    of the class of 2019 and our commencement performers of the amazing class of 2019. And now we have our distinguished faculty who will be led by the
    Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, Paul Alvisatos who carries the Berkeley mace, a symbol of authority. They will be followed by
    the official stage party. Ladies and gentlemans,
    the academic procession and the official stage party. Please welcome members
    of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal Council, led by chairwoman Charlene Nijmeh and vice
    chairwoman Monica Arellano and also Vicki Puro and Lucas in our land blessing ceremony. (speaking foreign language) – We are Muwekma Ohlone. Welcome to our ancestral homeland. (speaking foreign language) Hello, my name is Charlene Nijmeh. I am the chairwoman of
    the Muwekma Ohlone tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area. Consistent with the
    University of California’s values of community and diversity, the Muwekma Ohlone tribe was asked to offer a land acknowledgement and make visible the
    university’s relationship to native peoples for the first
    time in Berkeley’s history. And this is why we are
    speaking here today. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) Thank you. We would like to begin by recognizing that while we gather at the University of California Berkeley, we are gathering in the region our people
    have always called (speaking foreign language) which is part of the
    ancestral and un-ceded land of our people, the
    Muwekma Ohlone tribe, the successors of the
    sovereign Verona Band of the Alameda County. This ancient place
    (speaking foreign language) extends from what we know today as Berkeley Hills to the Bay shore. From the contemporary West
    Oakland to El Cerrito. The land on which this university sits was and continues to be a deeply significant place for the
    Muwekma Ohlone people. This campus extends to areas that held a (speaking foreign language) a traditional round house,
    a place of celebration and ceremony, as well as a shell mound, our traditional burial mound. So, as Berkeley is viewed
    as a special place today, we respectfully
    acknowledge that this place has been settled for millennia, loved beyond measure,
    and nurtured by the hands of our ancestors for many
    generations to ever count. We recognize that every member of Berkeley community has,
    and continues to benefit from the use and occupation of this land, since the institution’s founding in 1868. As we gather on this campus as members of the Berkeley community,
    it is vitally important that not only we recognize
    the history of the land on which we stand, but also, we recognize that we, the first people of this place, the Muwekma Ohlone people, are alive and flourishing members of the Berkeley and broader Bay area communities today. Because of the tenacity and strength of our ancestors and our elders, our people have been able to keep our culture close and we never
    left our indigenous land. Today we repair the sustained damages of colonization and we are focused on keeping our traditional culture strong while we work for a
    glorious, shining future following in the footsteps of those who came before us. Thank you, and on behalf of
    the Muwekma Ohlone tribe, we congratulate the class of 2019. Thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (speaking foreign language) – Muwekma Ohlone tribe
    San Francisco Bay area (speaking foreign language) Good day, my name is Monica Arellano. I am the vice chairwoman
    for the Muwekma Ohlone tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area. With me today is our chairwoman Charlene Nijmeh, who offered
    the land acknowledgement, my son Lucas Tuhesde Arellano,
    holding our tribal flag. We are Muwekma Ohlone. Welcome to our ancestral
    homeland, where we are born. (speaking foreign language) On behalf of our people, Muwekma La Gente, we would like to offer
    an official welcoming to our ancestral homeland. To this ethno-historic tribal territory of the inter-married
    (speaking foreign language) speaking tribal group. Today, the University
    of California Berkeley and surrounding towns reside in our Huchun ancestral Muwekma
    Ohlone tribal territory. We welcome everyone in attendance at the UC Berkeley graduation to our
    (speaking foreign language) our beautiful ancestral homeland. As traditionally done, and
    in honor of our ancestors, we offer an opening prayer in our native Chochenyo language as a blessing for today’s graduation
    and all the graduates. (speaking foreign language) The people’s prayer in Chochenyo. (speaking foreign language) Thank you very much, hope. (audience applauds) – Thank you. So we’re here to celebrate
    the amazing class of 2019, and let me tell you,
    a little bit of rain’s not going to stop this celebration. Berkeley students are resilient. They are passionate,
    and we will get through this rain in glory. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) It is now my honor to welcome some of the amazing class of 2019, so please welcome Monishaa Suresh, Danielle Satin, and Anthony White, who will sing our national anthem. Please rise if able, and
    please remove your hats. (Anthony vocalizes to match pitch) – Ready? ♪ Oh say can you see ♪ – ♪ By the dawn’s early light ♪ – ♪ What so proudly we hailed ♪ – [All Singers] ♪ At the
    twilight’s last gleaming ♪ – ♪ Whose broad stripes and bright stars ♪ – ♪ Through the perilous fight ♪ – ♪ O’er the ramparts we watched ♪ – [All Singers] ♪ Were
    so gallantly streaming ♪ ♪ And the rocket’s red glare ♪ ♪ The bombs bursting in air ♪ ♪ Gave proof through the night ♪ ♪ That our flag was still there ♪ ♪ Oh say does that star
    spangled banner yet wave ♪ ♪ O’er the land of the free ♪ ♪ And the home of the brave ♪ (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Wow, thank you. Just a sample of the amazing
    talent of the class of 2019. It is now my great honor to
    introduce our Chancellor. Please join me in welcoming
    the 11th Chancellor of the University of California
    Berkeley, Carol T. Christ. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you Dean Greenwell, and thank you Monishaa, Danielle, and Anthony for that amazing rendition
    of the national anthem. Proud parents, grandparents,
    brothers, and sisters, relatives, and friends of our graduates, welcome to the University
    of California at Berkeley. Welcome, too, to the many
    faculty, staff, alumni, community members and other honored guests who are joining us today. And welcome especially
    to those we have gathered this morning to celebrate, the members of the remarkable, the amazing, the marvelous, the extraordinary UC Berkeley graduating class of 2019. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) And truly those words fit. Among you are students like Pooya Amin, an immigrant from Tehran who had trouble adjusting to
    life in American schools, and yet today is
    graduating Summa Cum Laude with a triple major. And Thomas Manglonia, a budding reporter so passionate about journalism that he’s produced a story every week since sixth grade, and was just awarded the prestigious Truman
    Scholarship for public service. And Beatriz Hernandez,
    an actress and writer who created an organization called Colors of Theater to
    look how artists of color navigate the entertainment industry. And Christine Anibway, a
    gifted student of sociology, who is writing papers about the bonds that form between college athletes, just a week or two before she was chosen as a first round draft pick
    in the 2019 WNBA draft. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) As Berkeley’s 11th Chancellor, it’s my distinct honor and pleasure to preside over today’s ceremony as we send these and so many other brilliant young scholars
    off into the world. I’m sorry that the weather has not been as accommodating as we might have hoped. California was especially declared drought free a few months
    ago, but evidently, the rain gods thought it was wise to be extra cautious and
    give us a few more showers. Still, rain or no rain, this is a day of joy and celebration,
    of friends and family, of achievements and high hopes, of powerful endings, and
    beautiful new beginnings. Graduates, you are no doubt experiencing relief, elation, wonder, and apprehension. But in addition to all
    that, I hope you also hold a keen sense of accomplishment. You’ve completed a
    demanding course of study at the nation’s best public university. Today you join
    (audience cheers) Today you join the long line of alumni reaching back 151 years whose lives are forever intertwined
    with this great institution. Today you become one of nearly 500,000 living alumni world wide, who can proudly call themselves UC Berkeley graduates. While today we honor you
    and your achievements, we can’t let this occasion pass without also recognizing
    the family members and friends whose devotion and support have contributed mightily to your success. Please join me in thanking everyone who has helped you reach
    one life’s great milestones. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) For those here, who like
    me, have been immersed in the seasonal rhythms
    of higher education for a long time, there’s
    a pleasing familiarity in the customs and traditions
    of today’s ceremony. Seeing you all today,
    in your caps and gowns, links you with generations of Berkeley graduates who have come before you. Just as the many rituals you’ve taken up over the last several years,
    from morning coffee dates at Cafe Strada, to
    afternoon study sessions in Morrison Reading Room, to
    sunset hikes up to the big C. They’re all points of connection you share with Cal’s students of years past. But for all the similarity that this gives your college experience
    to that of previous students, your Berkeley is also
    colored by the particular set of events that took place here and in the world during
    your time on campus. Events that guided your class discussions, that you and your friends
    debated ’til late in the night, that may have shaped
    the decisions you made with regard to coursework, internships, or even your major. Indeed, your Berkeley,
    the time that you’ve been on campus, has been marked by an absolute litany of historic events. Your class saw the rise of the strongest woman candidate for president
    that the US has ever known, ultimately delivered a stunning defeat, in an election that
    upended American politics. You bore witness to the most pitched political battles in decades, over taxes, the economy,
    Supreme Court nominees, election meddling, trade
    deals, and a border wall. And even saw the government
    sputter to a halt during the longest shut down
    in our country’s history. You spent your days in
    study at an institution committed to knowledge and truth, amidst a climate in
    which alternative facts became acceptable in public discourse, and post truths was the Oxford English Dictionary word of the year. You’ve been at Berkeley at a time when the national
    conversation has been framed by urgent and probing issues of race, class, justice, and equality. As the Black Lives Matter movement challenged institutional
    racism in law enforcement, and as the #metoo movement
    toppled abusive men in positions of power, and looked to right historical wrongs. You saw people and
    nations jump into action to respond to the humanitarian crises in Syria, and Venezuela and Yemen. Yet also saw disdain for immigrants and refugees take hold
    here and around the world as fear and hatred of the other became a dominant theme in many
    countries’ national politics. In your time, catastrophic
    national disasters, from monsoons in south Asia
    to a hurricane in Puerto Rico, to wildfires up and down
    the California coast, have motivated national discussions about wealth and power
    and our responsibility to aid victims and help
    rebuild their communities, not to mention debates
    about, I’m sorry to say, the veracity of climate change. A host of man made disasters, too. Including racially and
    ethnically motivated acts of terror and mass shootings, have heightened tensions
    between communities renewed disputes about gun rights, and seen thousands take
    to the streets in protest. Many of these events, and the intense discussion about
    responsibilities and privileges that come with them, have directly touched our campus or had analogues here, and that is why I know your class is ready to take on the
    challenges facing the world. Because you already have. You’ve embraced opportunities to stand up, to speak out, to advocate,
    to lean in to controversial issues, to participate in public life, to ensure that you leave this place, a world in miniature,
    better than you found it. It was your classmates in
    the black student union who were behind the creation of the Fannie Lou Hamer Resource Center, and the ones who helped craft the African American initiative, which is now working to improve our campus climate for black students on campus. It was the work of survivors
    and student advocates among you, who in 2016 and 17 helped this university critically examine its policies and procedures for handling cases of sexual assault and harassment and take up the process of improving them. You modeled strength and resolve in support of our undocumented students, even as these students were villainized by the leaders of our country and threatened by anonymous chalkings and posters on campus. You pushed our campus to put
    sustainability at the fore, making us the largest university to commit to 100% clean energy and winning us an award
    for the coolest UC campus. Your advocacy in Sacramento helped legislators better understand the profound importance of higher education in creating a more just society. Your work through bridges, retention, and recruitment centers helped bring in and bring up students from backgrounds historically underrepresented
    on college campuses. Your organizing helped create the Berkeley Basic Needs Center, a hub of resources for students with food, housing,
    and financial insecurity. You helped us learn how we might reconcile a commitment to community alongside a belief in the university’s role as a public forum,
    open even to viewpoints we might find abhorrent, and you joined us in efforts last year to use dialogue not violence to bridge
    the partisan divide. Now you enter the world at large, and it’s ripe with even
    more intractable problems. Problems that are pervasive, that have many dimensions, that
    span national borders, that don’t care about partisan lines. Problems like the need for teachers in under-resourced
    public school districts. One that today’s commencement speaker, Wendy Kopp took on, just
    a year out of college. I hope that you will not
    retreat from these challenges. Even when things seem
    hopeless or pointless, you must not abandon civic life and a commitment to the public good. Stay aware, stay woke, even. Engage with the world, and its goings on. Take action, organize, volunteer, advocate, campaign, or enter
    public service yourselves, dissent, protest when it is needed. It will take a firm
    commitment to civic life to bring grace, justice,
    and beauty to this world. Let me close by sharing just a few lines from a speech that Robert Kennedy gave at the Greek theater
    here back in 1966. He said “All of us have the right “to dissipate our energies and talents “in any way that we wish, but those “who are serious about the future “have the obligation to
    direct their energies “and their talents toward
    concrete objectives “consistent with the
    ideals that they profess. “You are the most privileged citizens “of a privileged nation, for you have “been given the opportunity
    to study and learn here. “You can use your enormous privilege “and opportunity to seek
    purely private gain, “but history will judge
    you, and as years pass, “ultimately, you will judge yourself “on the ways in which
    you have used your gifts, “in your hands, not with
    presidents or other leaders, “is the future of your world, and the best “fulfillment of the qualities
    of your own spirit.” Thank you, may the education
    you have received here serve not just your lives,
    but your society as well. May your years ahead be richly
    rewarding and fulfilling, and may you enjoy much happiness. Though I will not say that
    this is your world to save, it is yours to shape alongside many others in this long but persistent
    march toward progress. Congratulations, good luck, and go bears. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) Thank you. Each year we honor our finest teachers by awarding them a
    distinguished teaching award through a very rigorous competition. The recipients of this ward are truly great and inspired teachers. It’s my pleasure to
    announce to you this year’s distinguished teaching award recipients. One of those faculty members is with us. Professor Shagan, will you please stand? (audience applauds) Ethan Shagan is a professor of history with a focus in early
    modern Europe and Britain. Professor Shagan cultivates
    a love of learning while fostering an environment where his students learn to interpret history through many lenses. I’d also like to recognize
    the faculty members who received the award
    this year who are unable to join us this morning. Robert Littlejohn, professor
    emeritus of physics, Andrea Roth, professor of law, and Steven Raphael,
    professor and James D. Marver Chair in Public Policy. Please join me in recognizing
    these outstanding teachers. (audience applauds) And now I’d like to
    introduce the 2019 winner of the Peter E. Haas Public Service Award, which recognizes a
    Berkeley alumnus or alumna who has made significant voluntary contributions to the
    betterment of society. Here with us today is David Lei, who graduated with a degree in business administration in 1974. He actually told me it was 1972, but he waited to get his degree because he didn’t want Ronald Reagan’s name on his diploma. (audience laughs) Giving back to the community has always been important to David. While in high school, he mentored students in San Francisco’s Chinatown and he co-founded the
    Chun Ngai dance troupe. While a student at UC
    Berkeley, David served on his first board as a volunteer with Chinatown North
    Beach Family Planning. After graduating, he was a social worker with Chinatown’s YMCA and Richmond’s model cities program, where
    he worked with at risk youth. David ultimately became
    a successful entrepreneur and continued to volunteer countless hours with local not for profits. For over 40 years, he has selflessly dedicated himself to bringing together generations of Chinese
    American communities through art, culture, and philanthropy. His leadership has resulted
    in greater awareness of the important role this community has played in our state’s history and his commitment to equity and inclusion has inspired appreciation of our region’s diverse communities. David is especially
    committed to increasing national and international awareness of the Chinese American
    experience in the United States. He spent much of his recent time working with the California
    Historical Society, the Chinese Historical Society of America, and our own Bancroft Library, piecing together historical documents
    and personal histories of early Chinese families. David Lei leads by example, something that Peter E. Haas
    would recognize and applaud. And now, please direct your attention to the video boards. (energetic Chinese music) – My name is David Lei. Welcome to Chinatown. I was born in Taiwan in 1949, when China turned communist, so my family had to leave. I immigrated to America in 1956. There was overt discrimination. Most of the Chinese had to spend their time in Chinatown,
    and our activities center around Chinatown. Our social lives were here. I was drawn into Chinese
    history and culture because of my involvement with dance. I want to know how these
    dances get started, where did they come from, and doing this research myself, I found out a lot more about myself. Like most Chinese, I’m a blend of many different philosophies, religion. Most of them speak about the same thing, and is to be in community, to serve. I think partially you’re born into family, keep some of the traditions. So you carry all some of the things your ancestor did. What the Chinese value is very important. They value reciprocity, discipline. Value education, respect for seniors. These values helped me to succeed in life, and so I want to pass
    it to my descendants. The contribution that the Chinese provided for America was much more
    than building the railroad, civil rights, immigrant
    rights, the concept of equal protection under the law, the right to a public education although you’re not a citizen, the concept of political asylum, all these are concepts that the Chinese brought about, even what
    makes you an American. Many of things that the Chinese were involved with in building the West is not recorded, it’s not documented, so I’m trying to get all the institutions down here to donate their
    paper, their history to be part of the history of the West and the contribution
    that this community made. Unless these are
    documented and in libraries like the Bancroft, where mainstream researchers go for the information, the Chinese will always be left out. We’ll always be the others. So for me personally,
    this is very important. I’m hope I make an
    impact on people’s lives for the better, more positive. And I do see the impact of things getting better in this community. Sometimes it comes from different places. You don’t know you’re making
    impact until years later. A kid will come back and say oh, I saw you perform at one of the schools when I was young, that’s why I learned to dance. So sometimes, you don’t know what impact you’ve made until years later. But is a wonderful feeling
    that you are changing lives, hopefully for the better. Here you go, here you go. (woman laughs) – Thank you. (laughter) (audience applauds) Please join me in welcoming David Lei. (audience applauds) (Chancellor Christ laughs) – Thank you. Chancellor Christ, distinguished faculty, parents, graduates, and guests, and for those out of town guests, welcome to sunny California. (audience laughs) But despite of the weather, the enthusiasm in this stadium is better
    than at a Warriors game. Go Warriors, beat Stanford. The late 1960s through the early 1970s was a period of activism
    and protests here at Cal. I graduated during this time. Many of my classmates, myself included, did not attend our graduation ceremonies as another form of protest. I am so grateful for this second chance to don cap and gown and share this moment of joy and accomplishment with all of you graduates, friends, and families. I must first thank Mrs. Peter E. Haas for creating this award, and thanks all the people who stuck out their necks to nominate me and to vouch
    for me for this award. They must not have known
    about my poor grades and my poor attendance record
    when I was a student here. So I stand before you feeling undeserving, humbled, and unprepared
    to accept this award. As many of you might be feeling about life after graduation. My advice, be in service to other, be involved, be idealistic. I was born Chinese, so I naturally look to Confucius for my values. One of the things Confucius preached that has been the key to my success is that leadership is not being served, but service to others. This is a philosophy I learned in my community involvement, but has also been good business. My clients knew I was truly looking out for them and because of this, they were willing to pay me
    a premium for my service. Being of service to
    others is good leadership and good business. I immigrated with my parents
    to this country in 1956 when the immigration quota for
    Chinese was just 105 a year. Just a 105 Chinese a year
    can immigrate to America until the immigration reform of 1965. This was beating lottery odds. Thus I feel so lucky to be an American. America, like other countries, operated with government and with corporations. However, America’s very unique with its preponderance of non-profits. Over one and a half million non-profits whose mission is do the
    best in their endeavors without the need for making a profit. As Americans, no matter what your passion, no matter what you care about, there’s a non-profit you can join, volunteer, or work for. And if there isn’t one, you can start one, as your commencement speaker Wendy Kopp did at about your age when
    she founded Teach For America. Working with non-profits,
    I’ve learned so much and met so many wonderful people. Even met Linda, my lovely
    young wife of 45 years. And lastly, stay idealistic. The idealism formulated in
    me during my Berkeley years sustained me all these years. During difficult times,
    when accepting of reality was the easy way out, my idealism pointed the way and made sure I did not give up and lose my way. To the class of two oh one nine, be of service to others, be
    involved, and be idealistic. Thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – It gives me great pleasure
    to acknowledge awards to some of our very many
    outstanding graduates. Please rise when I call your name. The Jake Gimbel prize is awarded to Colin Morokawa of Men’s Golf. (audience applauds) The Adam Ebsenshade prize goes to Toni Anne Williams
    of Women’s Gymnastics. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) The highest honor the university can give to students is
    the university medal. The following students are the
    university medal finalists. Please come forward for your certificates. The university medal
    finalist are Samantha Hao. (audience applauds) Congratulations, so wonderful. Yvonne Hao
    (audience applauds) Han, or Harry, Main-Luu. (audience applauds) And Tynan Perez. (audience applauds) Let’s give them all a
    warm round of applause. (audience applauds) It now gives me great pleasure to present the university medal to the most distinguished
    graduating senior on the Berkeley campus, Tyler Chen. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) Tyler Chen is a graduating senior studying material science
    and bioengineering, with a certificate in
    entrepreneurship and technology. Tyler hopes to continue to develop new technologies to tackle
    disease and disability. He has designed microfluidic devices for single cell genomics at UC Berkeley’s Streets Lab, and developed genomic tools at iGenomX and the Scripps research institute in San Diego. Tyler also led Berkeley Hyperloop to design and build one of the first prototype vehicles for the
    SpaceX hyperloop pod competition. In his free time, he enjoys practicing martial arts, tricking,
    telling super lame jokes, and doing the unexpected. In the fall, he’ll be starting a PhD in bioengineering at Stanford as a Knight-Hennessy scholar, where he hopes to build foundational neuro technologies to enable people with ALS and similar disabilities to communicate using their minds. Tyler dreams of continuing this path to one day build neuro interfaces that empower human connection and empathy. Tyler Chen, it is my honor to present you the university medal, congratulations. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Thank you, thank you. Do I sit back down? – You could put it down, yeah.
    (chuckles) I now invite Tyler to
    share a few words with us. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – [Female] Yeah, Tyler. – [Male] Yea, Tyler. (audience cheers) – What’s up guys? Hey, everyone. Wow, this is crazy. I didn’t realize the
    real perk of the medal is that I get to stay under this tent. Sorry, but okay. So, real quick, before I start. I just want to give a huge shout out to all the parents, families, and everyone who’s out there for us today. We wouldn’t be here
    without you, so thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) I guess maybe I shouldn’t clap in front of the mic, sorry guys. Okay, there we go. My friends, teammates,
    classmates, fellow graduates, we made it, congratulations. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) You all know, it hasn’t been easy. In our time at Berkeley, we’ve pushed ourselves to the breaking point, trying to measure up to
    these lofty expectations the academic world has of us. And this need to be successful is kind of ingrained
    in Berkeley’s culture. You know, we have all these myths and legends about it. For the non-Berkeley students, everyone at Berkeley hears from day one about these cursed seals, these university emblems that
    are around Memorial Glade, and the legend goes you should never, ever step on those gold seals. Why? Because stepping on those seals means you get cursed with bad grades. Stepping on the seal
    means you lower your GPA. Stepping on the seal means you give up on Berkeley’s high academic standards. So, you know, every day we see these groups of students
    walking up Memorial Glade, and they all split to go around the seals. This curse is that powerful. So, just the other day, I was
    sitting there on the Glade, surrounded by the cursed Berkeley seals, and I had a rare moment
    where I could stop and think. So I’d like to take you
    there, and out of the rain. The sun’s beating down on Memorial Glade, in the heart of campus, which, graduates, you all know is a special kind of place. Because at Berkeley, they’ve
    taught us to do big things. But as I sit there on the glade, it’s the little things
    that catch my attention. There’s a guy using
    his laptop as a pillow. There’s a llama. (audience laughs) I hear snippets of conversation. Something about memes, and edgy teens. I look to my right, I look to my left, and I see beside me some of the best friends I have ever had. Perhaps, graduates, if you look at who’s sitting next to you right now, you can say the same thing. As I sit there, I know I’m going to miss this place. But I pick up my bag and
    walk past the library, up that asphalt path towards real life. I’m sure you can picture it, library’s on the right,
    glade is on the left and there’s this big hill up ahead. So, I’m walking and I hear
    this noise in front of me. And it gets louder. And it gets louder. And, this is a true story, I glance up and there’s this huge dude on a tiny bike and he’s barreling down
    the hill, right at me. First of all, raise your
    hand if that was you. (audience laughs) Okay, anyway, this guy’s
    coming right at me, and he doesn’t see me, I’m just terrified. I’m just standing there. And he’s definitely going to hit me, so I know I have to dodge,
    so I go to sidestep, and I look down at where my foot’s about to land, and I see it. (audience laughs) It’s the cursed Berkeley seal. And now I’m twice as scared, because the only way to avoid getting
    hit is to get cursed. And I definitely don’t wanna get hit so I just dodge, and just stand there. On the seal. And I can feel the curse, hitting me. (audience laughs) But, as the guy goes past me, I notice this guy’s actually singing. ♪ Hey, what a wonderful kind of day. ♪ (audience laughs) ♪ What a wonderful kind of day. ♪ And now I’m confused. I just almost got run over,
    and then I got cursed. This day is not wonderful. But in that moment, listening
    to that huge dude sing, I thought to myself, maybe
    this curse isn’t so bad. Maybe now’s the time. Maybe graduating from the academic ruler is the only way to find
    something that matters more. And that’s the true secret
    of the Berkeley curse. Realizing that there come’s a time when it’s okay to step on the seal. To graduate and move on. To stop living our lives
    by other people’s standards and let go of the rulers other use to measure our worth. Because only then can we choose to live by our own measure of success. It’s an exciting and
    scary world out there, and there are a lot of unsolved problems. You all know. At Berkeley, they’ve taught us that the equations to solve climate change are not online, that the solutions to inequality, war, and poverty are not handed out in discussion sections. And most importantly, we’ve learned that the answers other people use to solve last year’s problems may not be the right
    ones in today’s world. But that’s okay. Because Berkeley also taught us that life will throw problems at us and one day after
    graduating, we may wake up to find a huge dude, on a tiny bike, headed straight for us. As the curse bearing graduates of this fine university,
    we’ll know what to do. We’ll step on the seal. We’ll chart our own path,
    and we’ll lend an ear to listen to carefully for what the guy on the bike is
    singing quietly to himself. Hey, what a wonderful kind of day. Having spent the last
    few years with you all, I know our future will
    be just that, wonderful. Thank you, and congratulations. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you so much, Tyler,
    for those words of wisdom. It is now my honor to welcome Jesse Gil and Mackenzie Monroe,
    members of the class of 2019 gift committee to the podium with a special presentation
    to the university. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you. Good morning, faculty, friends, family and members of the
    graduating class of 2019. We are proud to be here as the student representatives of this
    year’s senior gift campaign. First and foremost, congratulations
    to the class of 2019. We would like to thank
    you for your donations. They are a testament to your commitment to maintaining Cal’s excellence for future Golden Bears. The senior class gift has been a long standing tradition that started with the class of 1874,
    whose gift was $48.10 towards text books. In recent years, the campaign has shifted to providing more than
    just benches and fountains. We now sponsor a vast
    array of student resources from night safety programs to libraries. And student groups to scholarships, in order to maintain Cal’s excellence for current and future students. To honor our senior class gift, a plaque will be installed
    outside of Dwinelle Plaza and will remain a symbol
    of the senior class’s dedication to helping future Cal students just as past alumni have done for us. – We, along with the rest
    of Cal Student Philanthropy, have been honored to
    lead the 2019 campaign, and we are happy to announce
    that this year, 1,894 seniors were inspired to leave their mark on Cal by making a contribution
    to the senior class gift. Thank you to all the
    seniors who gave back. We gave back because seniors before us made our Cal experience possible, and we will continue to do so, so that UC Berkeley can remain one of the top public
    institutions in the world. And now, without further
    ado, we would like to present Chancellor Christ
    with the class of 2019 senior gift of $73,541. Thank you, and go bears. (audience applauds) (Chancellor Christ laughs) – It’s a very big thank you to the senior gift committee and all the members of the class of 2019. It’s a great pleasure to receive this gift on behalf of the university. Your gift will serve to remind us and future generations of
    your spirit and generosity. Thank you. (audience applauds) – Hmm, ‘kay, hello again. My name is Jesse Gil. I am the president of
    the senior class council which has been hosting events to unite the graduating class since 1870. Today we are here to celebrate our growth and accomplishments. I am honored to introduce our
    keynote speaker, Wendy Kopp, CEO and co-founder of Teach for All and founder of Teach For America. As an undergraduate at Princeton, Wendy dreamed of creating a way for her peers to apply their talents towards solving the
    country’s biggest problems. She launched Teach For America to enlist outstanding graduates from universities across the country to teach underserved communities. That magnificent idea is now
    a revolutionary organization. A leader in the movement for educational equity and excellence. Close to 7,000 people of all academic disciplines are currently immersed in two year commitments in 51 regions across the United States. Overall, 60,000 people have joined Teach For America since its founding, and nearly 1000 of those dedicated members are graduates of UC Berkeley. In the last 10 years, Wendy has shifted her attention beyond our borders. Inspired by Teach For
    America, social entrepreneurs from different parts of the world have expressed interest in adapting the program to address educational inequality in their own homes. While the challenges facing children may differ from country to country, the root causes in systems
    of inequity are similar. In 2007, Wendy co-founded Teach For All, which today is a global network
    of independent organizations in 50 countries, all working to ensure that children everywhere have the education and support they need to fulfill their potential. In fact, the partner organizations in Pakistan and Brazil were both founded by Berkeley alumni. We’re honored to have such an inspiring woman here today to share her experiences and wisdom. Wendy Kopp, the graduating class of 2019 welcomes you to the podium. (audience applauds) – Thank you, Jesse. Thank you President Napolitano and the board of regents,
    Chancellor Christ, deans and faculty, distinguished guests, family, friends, and loved ones, and most especially, the
    University of California Berkeley class of 2019. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) I am so sorry about the rain. But I’m so honored to
    celebrate this day with you. This class is, has extraordinary
    strength and perspective. More than one in five of you are the first in your families
    to earn a college degree. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) And 90 dreamers are picking
    up your degrees today. (audience applauds) Each of you sitting here in cap and gown has worked so hard to get here. Let’s hear it again for the class of 2019. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) To the graduates’ families and friends, as the mother of four who has not yet made it across this
    finish line, I am in awe. Let’s hear it for them. (audience applauds) And, to the 53 graduates who are joining Teach For America, thank you. Your campus has sent more students to Teach For America than nearly any other school in the nation. (audience applauds) I am inspired by what Berkeley stands for and by your generation. JoJo Lam, a Berkeley
    alumna who is helping build Teach for Cambodia shared with me how much this institution influenced her. She said when you’re surrounded by people who care, it
    makes you want to care. World wide, Berkeley is
    known for student activism. As we heard from Chancellor Christ in your time here, you have acted against racism, sexism, sexual assault, basic needs insecurity, income inequality, anti-immigration policies, climate crises, suppression of free speech and many other systemic injustices. And even beyond this
    campus, your generation’s commitment to political
    and civic engagement surpasses that of any
    that have come before. That’s not just an impression. A survey of US college students showed that your class
    had the highest levels of interest in political and community engagement in 50 years. We need your ongoing engagement. We need each of you to get into the arena of addressing the world’s greatest injustices and societal
    threats as early as possible. After spending my senior year in college developing the idea for Teach For America, I set out to make it happen
    when I graduated 30 years ago. The journey to realize its potential, first at Teach For America, now across Teach For All, a global network
    of similar organizations in 50 countries and counting,
    has been challenging. Exhausting, messy. But there is not one year I would trade for a different path. I feel extraordinarily privileged to have found my way to
    this work early enough to have had the chance to understand the complexity of the issues, and to find my way to real solutions. Along the way, I’ve
    been able to work with, and become friends with, the most amazingly committed people. I even met my husband in this work, and had those four incredible
    kids I mentioned earlier. I’ve learned so much. Including from the more
    than 1000 Berkeley grads who have joined Teach For
    America over the last 29 years and who are now teachers, principals, civil rights and immigration attorneys, elected leaders and social entrepreneurs, tackling inequity from
    all levels and many sides. Most of you are heading
    into the working world where activism may not be
    part of your day to day. Many of you are heading to jobs in marketing, consulting,
    finance, law, technology. These are the right choices for you now, given the many pressures and the passions that led you to them, but you may find yourself encouraged to
    back off your activism. I urge you to continue with it and to stay conscious that many of the institutions you’re joining are built on and
    supporting the status quo, politically, socially, and economically. I think we all recognize that there are major problems with the status quo. We face many issues that seem intractable. Climate change, historic
    levels of inequality, multiplying global conflicts. And the way we’ve been
    addressing them isn’t working. We tackle one piece and
    create new problems, or we see only incremental progress. Or we are simply
    immobilized in a vitriolic and divided place. I’m betting on you to break us through. I’m betting on you to learn
    from previous generations, to bring your energy and ideas, and as the most diverse generation of college graduates yet, to bring your experiences, your family histories, your community backgrounds to the table. I’m betting on you to make meaningful progress in the struggle for justice, freedom, and a sustainable future. This is why I want to share with you the most salient lesson
    from my last 30 years, which is about the kind of leadership we need to reach our aspirations. I’ve learned that we need
    collective leadership. Our culture is rooted in the ideal of the individual leader. We hear the word leadership, and we imagine heroic superstars. We valorize the
    entrepreneurs, particularly here, so close to Silicon Valley. We wanna be our own bosses,
    to venture out on our own. This archetype deeply defines our vision of success in this country. But the more I see, the more I realize that individual leadership alone will not get us where we’re trying to go. When I started pursuing the
    idea of Teach For America as a 21 year old, I believed individual leadership was everything. I’d internalized, no doubt because of my experiences growing
    up in our western culture that if I wanted accomplish something I just needed to work
    harder and think harder. The experience of
    getting Teach For America off the ground and sustaining it only reinforced that mental model. Whether we lived or died seemed to me to rest on how much time I spent raising funds, on
    how good my plans were. And my whole theory of change for addressing the extreme and entrenched inequities facing
    children was to cultivate a bunch of individual leaders. To recruit and develop individuals with leadership potential,
    to help them succeed as teachers, so they had a real impact on kids and gain a deep understanding of the problem and its solvability, then to accelerate their individual paths as school system leaders, innovators, advocates, and political leaders who would pursue systemic change. But over time, what I’ve
    seen in communities, here and around the world, has led me to rethink my belief in
    individual leadership alone. I’ve been thinking about the need for collective leadership,
    a kind of leadership where individuals work
    together in a new way. Collective leadership asks diverse groups to maximize their differences rather than be immobilized by them. It encourages us to come together, to speak, to listen, reflect,
    understand the whole picture, develop shared vision for the future, and generate new solutions. Collective leadership recognizes that our power is so much
    stronger than my power. Over the past few years,
    I’ve been fortunate to spend time with Anseye Pou Ayiti, Teach for Haiti in Creole. At it’s outset, its incredible CEO, Nedgine Paul Deroly spent more than three years in the rural communities where her team was planning to work, building relationships and considering one question, as a people, when
    are we at our best in Haiti? Stemming from that question came conversations about education and what the community wanted to be
    true for its young people. Nedgine listened to reflections that repeatedly focused on respect for local culture, customs, and community. Collective leadership gathers entire communities to exert leadership. The people in these Haitian communities came together, listened to each other, and created a vision for what would be true for their kids by the
    time they are young adults, that they would have the education necessary to provide for their families, be proud and value their own heritage, and be active citizens and leaders committed to social justice for all. Almost five years into this work, this collective leadership has created transformational changes. To share just one example, although it’s technically outlawed, Haitian schools for decades have utilized
    corporal punishment as the primary discipline system. This practice is embedded in the country’s colonial past, passed down from generation to generation as it has been in many parts of our country and in the world. And yet in the five years
    since Anseye Pou Ayiti launched, whole schools have shed that entrenched approach and created positive discipline systems. This is deep change. Change that laws could not effect. How did it finally happen? It happened because diverse people came together, listened to each other, developed a vision, and realized that they would never get where they were trying to go
    using that old system. They chose to become more invested in the new vision than in the old ways. In our country, we too often fail to create the space necessary to bring the people from different
    perspectives together to develop new paths forward. Take what’s happening here in Berkeley’s backyard, in Oakland’s
    public school system. Thanks to so many committed individuals across the system, there are many things to be hopeful about. In the past 10 years
    alone, graduation rates have risen from 55% to 73%. Having first visited there 28 years ago, I can tell you that today, many more of Oakland’s children are on a path to college and to meaningful careers. Yet, there is still so
    much trauma in the system. Maybe some of you followed the news of Oakland’s recent teacher strike. Protesting untenable teacher salaries that are not enough to let teachers live sustainably here in the Bay Area. The successful strike and hard fought resolution resulted in an increase in teacher pay of 11% over four years. That is not nearly enough to keep up with rising housing and living costs in this area, and many are concerned that that deal will bankrupt the district. Why can’t we figure out how to enable teachers to live sustainably and take care of themselves and our children? What I know for sure, is that there are no easy answers, and there is no path to progress without dialogue
    and generative problem solving. We need all the actors: students, parents, teachers, advocates, employers, philanthropists, and government leaders to talk and to listen. We need them to consider
    together the whole picture. Not only teacher pay, but housing costs, pension costs, our willingness to pay taxes in support of
    public education and more. And yet this kind of discussion seems utterly impossible. It’s impossible because there is deep anger in the community. Particularly at the philanthropists who’ve been investing in the city and at any advocates or organizations that accept their support. Because it’s corporate leaders who have had a loud voice, even when they’ve played a role in perpetuating the income inequality at the
    root of Oakland’s issues. With so much anger and fear, there seems no way for
    people to come together, to get to know each other’s perspectives, and develop new solutions. So we’re stuck. And Oakland is just one example of dozens and dozens across this country where this same story plays out. To create different outcomes, we need to develop different capabilities than most of us have learned. We must learn to build authentic relationships across lines of difference. To see strengths in those from different walks of life and different
    ideological perspectives. To listen, and learn from each other. We must develop the muscle to think beyond our individual pursuits and hold the space necessary to bring diverse people together. And we must be literate with trauma, our own, other’s, and the world’s, so that we can have generative discussions even when others hurt us. Class of 2019, I wanna challenge you to lead us forward differently. To make it your life’s
    work to create dialogue. To make it your job to replace
    judgment with curiosity. To co-construct a vision of the future that works for all, not for some. You don’t need to wait to find yourself in a position of influence. We need you now. Seek out a conversation with someone who has a radically
    different point of view and listen generously. Be curious and willing to be surprised. Understand that just like you, they have hopes and fears, things they value, and things that make them feel vulnerable. Make time to do the inner work to understand yourselves. Know your deepest values, and take time for you own healing, because as we ground ourselves, we’re
    able to be more generous with others, and more generative in our public and collective spaces. Always look around the table and invite in voices that are not heard. And if you’re not the one who can offer an unheard perspective, something that can move our shared humanity forward, have the courage to speak up
    even when it feels difficult. Real progress requires moments of tension. If we approach those
    moments with generosity and curiosity rather resistance and blame, we can find entirely new ways forward. This may be slow in the beginning, but I’ve come to realize that many diverse people trusting each other and working together is the only path to achieving a just, peaceful,
    sustainable, inclusive world. I’m placing my hopes in you. With every generation, humanity
    goes through an evolution, and we’re going through one now. Your generation brings new wisdom, consciousness, and a yearning for justice. We need your imagination
    and collective spirit. I’m so excited to learn from you as you live into your potential as a generation of change makers and create the world we long for. Thank you class of 2019, and good luck. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you Wendy, for
    your inspirational words. It is now my honor to
    welcome Tiffany Moore, one of the amazing members
    of the class of 2019 as she shares her talents with you in a performance of Climb Ev’ry Mountain. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (orchestra plays Climb Ev’ry Mountain) – ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Search high and low ♪ ♪ Follow every byway ♪ ♪ Every path you know ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ ♪ A dream that will need ♪ ♪ All the love you can give ♪ ♪ Every day of your life ♪ ♪ For as long as you live ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ ♪ A dream that will need ♪ ♪ All the love that you can give ♪ ♪ Every day of your life ♪ ♪ For as long as you live ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Thank you so much, Tiffany. And now, class of 2019, what
    you’ve been waiting for. I ask that all candidates for the degrees please rise if able for the conferring of the degrees by
    Chancellor Carol T. Christ. Please be aware that the cannon will sound after the Chancellor’s remarks. – By virtue of the authority vested in me by the president of
    the University of California, I grant you the degrees
    of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Bachelor of Arts, and Bachelor of Science. Congratulations, graduates. (audience cheers) You may now move your tassels from the right to the left side. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (cannon bursts) (graduates laughing)
    (graduates clapping) Please remain standing as the members of DeCadence lead us
    in Hail to California, the university’s alma mater. (DeCadence matches pitch) – [Man] One, two, three, four. – ♪ Hail to California ♪ ♪ Alma mater dear ♪ ♪ Sing the joyful chorus ♪ ♪ Sound it far and near ♪ ♪ Rallying round her banner ♪ ♪ We will never fail ♪ ♪ California, alma mater ♪ ♪ Hail, hail, hail ♪ ♪ Hail to California ♪ ♪ Queen in whom we’re blest ♪ ♪ Spreading light and goodness ♪ ♪ Over all the west ♪ ♪ Fighting ‘neath her standard ♪ ♪ We shall sure prevail ♪ ♪ California, alma mater ♪ ♪ Hail, hail, hail ♪ Go bears. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – It may be raining, but it’s raining Cal graduates today. (audience cheers) Thank you for attending the class of 2019 commencement ceremony. Congratulations to the
    class of 2019 graduates, and your families. Graduates please meet your family members at the Campanile. We wish you all a pleasant
    and safe afternoon. Again congratulations,
    and forever, go bears! (audience cheers) (drums beat)

    Almost Untraceable Abandoned Railroad Remnants
    Articles, Blog

    Almost Untraceable Abandoned Railroad Remnants

    August 12, 2019

    ok ladies and gentlemen, RailROL82 here again with you today I’m gonna be doing a first for me I’ve never been
    to Texas and I’ve never filmed a Union Pacific Railroad and this is my first
    time so here we have the relay case Union Pacific Railroad Laurel Avenue
    Mall post 153 point 15 dot number and grade crossing High Line so let me take
    you or let me give you a little scenic view of what this little town looks like
    very Texas brick pavers and then we’re coming up on the line I’m not sure it lost all sense of
    direction here so this is one track to you and this is another track to you there’s a great crossing okay this is something I’ve barely seen
    before we got a female Siemens Sigma base Seamans gate mechanism we got a oddly
    placed ebo right there and forsaken LED lights I mean you go to the other side
    because it’s Sun over here okay you got a better view and then same deal and
    they said we have the emergency contact all right old here we go Siemens signal base Siemens
    gate mechanism Ebell were for it save trendline and those lights on passing
    here I’ve never seen those in the South Florida you guys know what they are
    please comment below I’d love to know you we see uh what was once an oil well I’m gonna try to find out day on the
    rails here nope don’t see what but I’m guessing they’re 30 new bent
    about it by the neck that they’re not the old stuff I don’t want to get too
    close because since this is not abandoned I don’t want I don’t know if
    there’s police looking or something so oh look my lucky day when I start
    selling these guys if you guys are interested in buying spikes that you
    know I’ll start them to you so this is my first door access to a Union Pacific
    Railroad I was hoping to see the Train actually I want an inside dog it’s a
    barbecue place here called City Oh oh look at this look at this abandoned
    line look at that the road archaeologists
    never let you guys out huh so probably all this year it used to be a spoiler right along this
    line wait we’ll go over there and see we
    catch something I think on this side they’re pretty much all removed
    everything I wonder if this funnel because that
    would have been doesn’t make sense he’s gonna say that where the old
    crossbuck would have been but now they said we have no traces of it knows where
    it moves on this side go back in give you one more look and a link to the Google Maps in six
    locations you guys come follow along if you want and maybe go on historic
    Ariel’s comm so we can see our historic aerials on this on this particular
    location see what it look like back in the days and we might see or this pearl
    went or who had serviced all righty guys thank you for viewing please subscribe
    or like comment if you can over and out

    SKY COURT | Episode 2 | Drama | ORIGINAL SERIES | english subtitles
    Articles, Blog

    SKY COURT | Episode 2 | Drama | ORIGINAL SERIES | english subtitles

    August 12, 2019

    Art Director NATALYA KOCHERGINA Make-up Artist ANNA ESMONT
    Composer ILYA SHIPILOV Camera Director
    SERGEY MACHILSKY R.G.C. Screenwriter and Director
    ALYONA ZVANTSOVA Executive Producers
    ALEXEY MOISEEV SECOND EPISODE The Peace Sector is over there. The Reflection Sector is over there. Each of the sides simply
    sends out a motorboat. So there are no demons or white-hot frying pans. So you are aiming to lose? That’s what I thought. I’m not aiming at anything. I just wanted you not to be afraid. On the other hand,
    who deserves the Peace Sector? Those who attained
    some sort of enlightenment in their mortal life. I don’t know… Mother Theresa, for example. Gandhi. I wonder what’s going on
    in the mind of a person who has to try a case? He irons his collar,
    polishes his shoes and casually, between
    breakfast and lunch, sends someone
    to hell or to heaven. — We don’t use these terms in our work.
    — And who are you? I wonder what was your last deed in life? First of all, we are conscripted
    into these positions. And it’s not for ever. And second of all, I’m helping
    a person to go in peace. So he would feel
    not like a pig, but like a person
    who’s done a lot of good. And the prosecutor’s position is the Reflection Sector itself. Because going through
    other people’s sins every day reminds you of your own. I think this hearing is trivial.
    Half an hour tops. So let’s go to a bar
    afterwards and drink a glass
    of something. A glass of what? Of nice Irish whiskey? Whiskey that doesn’t get you drunk? Just an illusion, the same as this knife, this wax, my hand. I prefer to think of myself
    as a special form of life. And I prefer to recognize
    that I don’t exist and stop playing. What are you doing?! Are you nuts?! What are you..? Underdeveloped Houdini! Excuse me, Sir Harry! What do you want to show? A finger disappearing
    into thin air? Or a new one growing? I do not enter
    into informal relations with trial participants. We do not create laws.
    We merely follow them. Is he here? Yes. Clean, groomed.
    You’ll get him in tip-top shape. Take this. And… …please put… …this on his neck. This. Oh! Sorry! — Thank you!
    — You’re welcome. This case could in fact have been comic and tragic
    at the same time. Think yourself. What could be more absurd than dying of waxing? Than a man dying of waxing? Than a 50-year-old man, a husband and a father, dying of leg waxing? The thing is
    my client has an allergy. He’s allergic to wax. He died in a second following him saying, “I’d like my legs to look nice.” But he lived
    a wonderful life. Together with his wife he raised
    three charming children and no doubt — no doubt! — he deserves a ticket
    to the Peace Sector if not for one terrible mistake. The defense is calling a witness. Antonio Amore! Antonio Amore who let it slip out
    in a bar a week ago that he missed his aim. We all know the activities
    of Amore family. Did I get caught
    or something? In this case
    it’s not about smuggling. Every single one of us
    in our mortal life got shot at least once by this wonderful family. A shot hits your heart
    and so a love is born. Which means passion, suffering, melancholy. Wait, did I get caught
    or something? So, March 23rd, this year. Antonio Amore missed. Bring in the weapon. This year, on March 23rd, Antonio Amore fired two guns with the aim of creating a mutual love. Who did you want to hit? Antonio Luigi Amore, you are warned against
    committing perjury as well as refusing to testify pursuant to Article 14 Chapter 72 of the Supreme Court Code. This chick… And a dude… This one? No, not this one. Here! Members of the jury, please notice that Antonio did hit
    the first victim. The first victim was a driving instructor who was then buying potatoes
    in a supermarket. But who else
    did you want to hit? Who should have been
    the second victim? She bent over. A terrible mistake took place. A woman, a folk dance teacher, bent over to pick up a grapefruit she dropped and in this moment… He happened to come
    in the line of fire. My client was shot in his heart. He didn’t have
    any other alternative except for, upon reaching the age of 52, desperately fall in love with a driving instructor. Stop-stop-stop! Objection! How come he didn’t have
    any other alternative? With all due respect to the powerful Amore family, I tend to doubt that a shot made by our so-called sniper could override everything that was a person’s life. Everything he held for normal, for right. Why? Because there are duties. There is integrity. What’s with the ‘so-called’? Eh, prosecutor? You said, ‘so-called sniper’? I hope you didn’t want
    to make fun of me. Else I will shoot. Do you want to suffer here, even after death? Eh? Prosecutor of the first degree? I want to suffer. I do. Puppy! What do you know about love? Except for shoot-and-run? You guys are so funny, by God! What love? What duties?! What integrity?! I’ll tell you one thing. Where would you all be if we could dual wield? But it’s only Don Sergio
    who can use two guns at once and yours truly. In all our love only one person
    is heart-wounded. The other one sells out for dough, for food, for water. — In 99.99% of the cases.
    — Actually, he’s right. Our band all members of which have died in the air crash of Flight
    Moscow to Magadan presents you
    this love song. He wanted to hurt you
    on purpose. Amores always bring pain,
    you know that. I know what you are thinking about. I understand it very well. But we can’t know that. There’s no need to. Were you and your wife
    shot with two guns..? Did you have it good? That’s it. That’s it? Yes. Let’s have a dance. Here. What’s this? Smuggled goods. Vodka was intercepted by a patrol. Beer is finished. But in fact, the similar effect is achieved
    with smuggled yogurt. My treat. Get burned or buried? What? You will get burned or buried. In 24 hours, earthly time. So what should I do now? Pee my pants? Aren’t you scared? Aren’t you? Of her forgetting you sooner than me? Rude. Actually, you got a regular yogurt. Mine is from out there and yours… …is locally produced. So it’s too early to be drunk. That’s the way we joke here. Want a body? What? You too? No! No-no-no-no!
    With all due respect — no! You are drunk! Have I ever broken anything? A finger on a ballet dancer. It was dislocated and fixed with tape. But still… I ask you..! Don’t! Don’t ask me for anything! As you wish. Looking where to put Nikitos? — Excuse me, and who might you be?
    — And you? The widow of that first one,
    under the juniper tree? Or of the second one that you will bury under some linden? Big-leaf linden? Excuse me, I don’t understand. You had a ceremony, you gave an oath to love till the dying day. It means till your dying day. Not just bury, stick a juniper in
    and off to the next one. Or maybe you didn’t love him? Your first husband? — Right from the start?
    — Let me go. You are hurting me. But hey! It was fun.
    And convenient. An apartment, a car…
    Right, darling? — Traveling, money, great sex.
    — Let me go. Or..? Sex wasn’t so good either? Andrey? I’m dreaming of you again, aren’t I? I knew it was you the moment you started
    talking about sex. Forgive me. This suit looks very nice on you. Oh, God! I miss you so much, Andrey! Tell me, why is the life so unfair? Just because some smart-ass in your… …Upstairs said
    that it has to be this way…? You were the best. The best, Andrey. Nikita was a kind and decent man. I don’t get it,
    why do you leave and I stay? Why? Prosecutor, what brings you
    to my humble abode? The shop is downstairs. it has a selection
    of artificial cheese, pizza, wine. I didn’t come for that. For smuggled goods? Oh dear! Is the world falling apart
    in front of my eyes or did Prosecutor come to ask help from Don Amore
    who can’t be put in prison yet should be kept
    at a distance? What do you want? For some Señor or Señorita
    down there on earth to start pining for you
    beyond any control? Or do you want to find out if at some point
    many years ago somebody made this kind of shot? Don Sergio, I… I’ve heard about the ways
    of this house. And before asking you
    for anything, — I…
    — Attorney of the first degree. …attorney of the first degree, will say the words
    that are usually said by those who ask. I’m an ordinary person, and I don’t always do
    the right thing. And? What were you doing
    in Amore’s house? It doesn’t matter. You are a prosecutor.
    You can’t rub elbows with him. Understand? You can’t! Or what? Amores always walk the line
    between good and evil. One wrong move — and that’s it. End of your powers. The Sector. What if I deserve the Sector no less — actually
    even more — than those who I send there? Venechka, I lived an empty life and died like a Ken doll in a make-believe gear on a make-believe battlefield. Don’t you think it’s too late to save me? The final session of the jury trial on the case of the deceased Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich is now open. I remind both parties that they should finish
    presenting arguments today and the jury members have to reach a verdict. Please, Prosecutor. Your Honor! Jury members! Let me remind you how this trial started several days ago. Lying. This exact word prompted the Counsel to make a cascade
    of knee-slapping jokes. Then it turned a regular telltale school student almost into a hero
    that saved a beauty,… We’ll lose. —…my widow…
    — Don’t die ahead of time. …if someone didn’t get it yet. So today I suggest to look the lie in the eye, to feel its heinous breath. Have a look at the screen. These events are almost
    twenty years old. The leftmost is our hero with a placid smile. And that’s a girl who was cruelly lied to and whose life was mangled like an old and boring toy. The prosecution would like
    to call its witness, Antonio Luigi Amore who made a single
    well-aimed shot twenty years ago. Antonio, tell us what happened on Zimny railroad stretch
    in Archangelsk Region twenty years ago? Antonio Luigi Amore, you are warned against
    committing perjury —…as well as refusing to…
    — Easy, man! I remember all that. Zimny railroad stretch, right? There was this construction brigade. A local girl. I didn’t dual wield
    at that time yet. Fired only one gun. From thirty meters away. Clean shot, right in the heart. Whose heart? The girl’s, of course. The eyes she had…
    The legs… Oh my! So twenty years ago
    with a well-aimed shot you planted love
    for the defendant —…in this girl’s heart?
    — Objection! Interfering with the witness. The witness didn’t state
    whom the victim came to love. Objection is sustained. Nah, nothing secret about that. This loser over here. I keep thinking… What you said last time was so touching. Duties, integrity… It’s all true. Why couldn’t he, say, accept her love, give her a dress as a farewell, and tell her, “Ciao, my love!
    I will always remember you”? So what did the defendant do? He said, “Meet every train
    from Moscow. I’ll come back to you soon.” I was drunk.
    I don’t remember her. Twenty years have passed. During these twenty years every Monday, Wednesday and Friday Anna Vladimirovna Borovskaya has been coming
    to meet Moscow trains. Anna Vladimirovna is 39 years old. At this time the prosecution rests. Counsel? Witness, you are excused. Your Honor, may I call
    the next witness? The prosecution has requested
    the testimony of a living person,
    realized through a dream. The living witness,
    hereinafter called Witness, will be called to this courtroom
    in his earthly sleep and questioned while perceiving it… I don’t remember her. All recollections
    of this dream-questioning will be erased at the moment of his awakening. The awakening on earth
    will occur fifteen minutes later according to the alarm set for going to work. Anna Vladimirovna Borovskaya. Anna Vladimirovna, do you remember this man? Yes or no? No. So at this day of the 39th year of your not so very cheerful life the face of this man
    doesn’t stir anything in you? Objection! Appealing
    to jury’s emotions. What exactly are you objecting? Do you think the witness lives a happy life? Let’s define the term ‘happiness’. Gentlemen, you are not allowed
    to speak at the same time. with the exception
    of cross-examination. Okay. Cross-examination it will be. If my colleague
    is fine with it, of course. Are you married? No. Do you have children? No. Do you have happy dreams? — Does she have happy dreams?
    — Yes. The witness occasionally
    has happy dreams of a) landscape, b) adventure, c) erotic nature. Happy dreams, that is the dreams causing
    a pleasant euphoria, accounts for 54% of the total number of dreams. How much time
    does a person spend sleeping? One third of his life. As a result
    of a simple calculation we see that during one sixth of her life Anna Vladimirovna is happy. How many married women, burdened with a family
    and a household, can boast with fifty four percent of happy scenic, adventure and… …erotic dreams? Let’s stay away
    from rhetorical questions and stick to the ‘yes or no’ pattern. Anna Vladimirovna, every Monday,
    Wednesday and Friday you go to meet the Moscow train
    arriving at 5:40 AM. — Is that right?
    — Yes. In any weather?
    Rainy, snowy, windy… Yes. Some compartments
    are still at sleep. Some have lights on. Passengers, still soft from the sleep,
    are drinking tea from the glasses. Objection!
    Irrelevant information. Sustained. The feeling you have
    when meeting the train… Can it be called hope? Yes. Is hope a nice feeling? Yes. So these twenty minutes a day, three times a week, on your way from home
    over the bridge can be added
    to the happy moments? The time is running out. Anna Vladimirovna,
    please concentrate. A person’s fate
    depends on your answer. If you could change your life, live it in another way, would you want
    to be waiting for the Moscow train three times a week, no matter rain, snow or wind? No. But tomorrow
    you will come to the station? Yes. And Friday,
    and next Monday? Yes. And in a month?
    And in a year? I was nineteen years old. I was a drunk and stupid asshole. I… I forgot. The jury will now retire
    to reach a verdict. The verdict. By voting 9—3 the jury has decided to find Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich not guilty on the Premise 1: Lying as humane concealing in the context of preventing
    smoking among teenagers; and guilty on the Premises 2 and 3: Lying as defamation of the deceased Rybakov, Denis Valeryevich; Lying as unfulfilled promises to the living Borovskaya, Anna Vladimirovna. Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich
    is sentenced to the return
    to the world of living for mandatory completion
    of unfinished business, namely meeting Borovskaya, Anna Vladimirovna and relieving her
    of false hope and responsibilities. What’s happening? Nikita Mikhailovich, you will be sent
    to the world of living in your own body. You will keep all the memories
    for eight hours. Exactly eight hours later you will forget everything
    that happened. The hearing on the case
    of Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich is now concluded. I will live a genuine
    and honorable life. It’s so stupid to waste it on idleness, parties… Acquisitiveness… I had one coming back like this about eighty years ago. He was so touching,
    “I will start a new life, free of envy, anger, acquisitiveness”… Took back his job
    in a bank in a week. One more month later he took a dump
    at a neighbor’s doorstep. Hello! What time is it? Midnight. Thank you. Take care. Anna Vladimirovna? Yes. I’m Nikita. To be honest,
    I don’t remember you. I’m Nikita. You don’t remember me? I’m that same Nikita
    who twenty years ago promised you to come back on this train. Aren’t you meeting the trains from Moscow? And waiting for Nikita? That is for me. I’m selling mirrors. The factory price is low, and folks from Moscow buy them. Here. So you are not waiting
    for anyone. And never were. You just sell mirrors. I don’t remember her. Quiet. Quiet.
    Or we’ll be done. Anna Borovskaya…
    Anna Borovskaya… Gentlemen… Cross-examination… Excuse me. Legs up higher, Antonio! You can do better! Uncle, the ladies don’t want
    to dance anymore. And you? Don’t you want
    to entertain your uncle who is covering
    for your perjury? Uncle, but you asked me yourself. Or was it a prosecutor? So show me your catalog. I strongly recommend the hotel. Can’t I appear
    to my own wife in a normal, regular setting? In a tank top and sweats? Men… No romance whatsoever. Are you in my dream again? Uh-huh. Second time in several days. Recently you came as a white-haired old lady. I will ask up there so you’d dream only
    of beautiful things. Ocean… Jungles… Guinea pigs… — I don’t want guinea pigs.
    — Why? I want you. These guinea pigs
    will be wonderful, with a long and silky fur. Andrey? Veronika, it’s me. I’m alive. I woke up
    in the morgue. Right in the coffin.
    They said it was a lethargy. The funeral is
    in an hour and a half. Don’t be scared. I’m really alive. Veronika? — I’m really alive.
    — Fine-fine. Stay there! Stay there! Morgue? Yeah. Yes-yes. I…. Stay there! Yes. Ran away… Stay there! Touch me. I’m warm. This isn’t a dream? I have weird dreams. He loves you very much. Loved you. How would you know? I don’t know. Just occurred to me. I love you very much. No regrets? And you? Me? I signed up
    for this because we should be facing
    the official investigation together. Oh, come on! The official investigation
    is launched against those who did something. And you mumbled
    just a couple of words during the cross-examination. — Oh yeah?
    — Uh-huh. And who was distracting the jury with the conversation
    about erotic dreams? So no regrets? You know that he would’ve been sent to the Reflection Sector. Nah! No way! I would’ve crushed you
    at the last session. Just because
    I really miss my wife. “I received a letter Zoyka wrote. Three words only in it — Miss me not!” Do you have a candy? Sure. One sec. Listen, what kind of presents
    do men give? Fur-coats, paintings, cars… And you! Got a man out of the morgue
    on the third day… This is so stupid. Nah. Pompous. Beautiful. Fresh! “Though we know there’s no train to come to our poor and godforsaken place…” We don’t use the term… “Aren’t you drawn by sorrow of my heart somewhere to the North and to the East? Zoyka?” Venya, look! This asshole left his socks
    right on the bedstand. What did you expect? He’s the master
    of the house now. Wait till he draws
    a mustache on your photo and fries the aquarium fish. Listen, what is it? Fingers are short. Knees are cracking. The nerve you have! Try wearing this,
    freaking esthete! You know that Avgust Karlovich
    made a complaint about you? How did he put it..? Using municipal bodies
    for non-official purposes and demoralization
    of the deceased. Wow! Happens.

    Help Shawn teach the car about traffic signs! (SPANISH) – Señales de tráfico
    Articles, Blog

    Help Shawn teach the car about traffic signs! (SPANISH) – Señales de tráfico

    August 12, 2019

    Look what I found! It’s the car that ran away from us when we were learning how to count. Wait car! I didn’t mean you go. Let’s learn the traffic signs and teach this car how to drive. You look nice and shiny! Frank the fire truck did a good job washing you. Ok, car, don’t drive fast and listen to what we tell you. The first sign is the stop sign. Make sure you stop in front of each stop sign. Ah, ah, ah! Never try to beat the train! Always stop in front of the railroad crossing signs when the light turns red. You see why… Hi, Donald! Do you hear that, car? It’s a fire truck! Pull over and let emergency vehicles pass you. Look red light! Always stop at the red light. Good job! Don’t speed. It says: “School zone, 15 miles per hour”. Always stop if a school bus is loading or unloading. This is a construction zone. Be very careful! No, car, don’t go there! Not again! Great! And I just washed you not long ago. Ok, car, let’s find the fire truck so we can wash you again. Now you see how important it is to know traffic signs.
    Thank you for learning signs with us!

    Astronauts! Children’s Song – Kids Space Adventure | Bounce Patrol
    Articles, Blog

    Astronauts! Children’s Song – Kids Space Adventure | Bounce Patrol

    August 12, 2019

    We are go for liftoff in T minus 30
    Roger that Houston, all systems 5 by 5 Ready for liftoff? 10… 9…. 8… 7… 6… 5… 4… 3… 2… 1… Liftoff! We’re Bounce Patrol, Astronauts
    We travel the galaxy Flying through outer space is where we love to be We float inside our rocket ship
    It’s zero gravity Join us on our mission of discovery Outside our window there’s a million stars and more Planets, moons, asteroids for us to explore If we’re lucky now and then we get to meet some aliens Greetings Earthlings! Would you like to be our friends? We’d love to be to your friends We’re Bounce Patrol Astronuats
    We travel the galaxy Flying through outer space is where we love to be We float inside our rocket ship, it’s zero gravity Join us on our mission of discovery There’s fun and adventure to be had everywhere Flying through outer space without a care One day on a mission we landed on Mars Ran into some Martians who played guitars We’re Bounce Patrol Astronauts, we travel the galaxy Flying through outer space is where we love to be We float inside our rocket ship, it’s zero gravity Join us on our mission of discovery We’re Bounce Patrol Astronauts, we travel the galaxy Flying through outer space is where we love to be We float inside our rocket ship, it’s zero gravity Join us on our mission of discovery We’re Bounce Patrol, Astronauts! Hi kids! You know, we’re using our imaginations
    and playing pretend in this video There aren’t really aliens who play guitars…
    Well, that we know of anyway! But there really are astronauts
    who travel to space in rocket ships and do really cool experiments to learn all about our galaxy Maybe they’ll even go to Mars one day You know, when you grow up, maybe you could be one of those astronauts who goes to Mars What an adventure that would be! So dream big, and keep bouncing!
    See you next time

    Swiss Travel Pass Or A Rented Car For Exploring Switzerland on a Budget – All You Need To Know..
    Articles, Blog

    Swiss Travel Pass Or A Rented Car For Exploring Switzerland on a Budget – All You Need To Know..

    August 11, 2019

    I am Traveling Desi, and in this relaxed episode of the Switzerland series , I am picking up my car and heading towards the next destination And I will be staying there for one night, as it is a very small city and its name is Lucerne . And on the way, I will share with you guys, why didn’t I get the Swiss travel pass to go ahead from Zurich , and why I chose to rent a car for 13,600 rupees for 7 days ! And I will also tell you, if you guys are planning to visit Switzerland, depending on various factors, which option will be most suitable for you ! First lets get to the main factor, Money !! My target in this trip was to explore a total of 10 cities and village towns in 10 days, and ultimately, I had only two options ! Either I buy the Swiss rail pass valid for consecutive days ! Which was quite expensive ! OR a to get a rented car in almost same price ! Renting a car or traveling in the train is costing me a similar amount as train tickets are very expensive here ! All inclusive Swiss rail passes are very expensive ! Rightfully so, as they give you access to connect with the amazing and scenic rail network of Switzerland ! Another reason for the train tickets being expensive is that the tracks a laid on a mountainous terrain, Construction, maintenance of which and running a state of the art railway system on it is quite expensive ! Besides, these passes also include entry to 500 museums across Switzerland But as I said before, Switzerland is more about its outdoor natural beauty. And a history enthusiast like me couldn’t manage any time to go to a museum leaving its scenic beauty ! Its been 3 or 4 minutes since I started my drove from Interlaken, and I am in this beautiful area with lots of farms ! But again, its a personal choice as, museums provide an amazing insight in any country’ history ! Also, these passes include some mountain excursions as well, and offer a 50% discount on some ! And if you plan to explore only 1 or 2 peaks, you won’t get its complete worth ! Swiss rail pass, which is not only valid in intercity trains, but also in city buses and boats for 3 consecutive days Can cost 225 Swiss franks or around 16,000 rupees. A 4 day pass can cost around 20,000 rupees and 8 day pass will set you back around 30,000 rupees ! per person So now you can guess that if you’re a couple, how will you have to spend ! But this option is suitable when you move ahead after exploring a city for 1 or 2 days like me and recover the cost of this pass !! And if not, if you with to explore only 2 or 3 cities in 8 days , you can choose a flex pass option by paying some extra money . This pass is also valid for 3 days but those 3 days need not be consecutive ! And you can choose these 3 days during your travel ! For example, lets say you spent Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in Zurich and you have to go to Lucerne on Thursday, so you will use your first day on this card on Thursday . And after spending Thursday and Friday in Lucerne, you have to go to Interlaken on Saturday, so you’ll use your second day of the pass on Saturday ! This pass is also available in 3, 5, 8 or 15 day options . So this pass give you the flexibility of choosing your travel days, which you have to use within 30 days ! And this these flex passes are around 3000 to 4000 rupees expensive than the consecutive pass . But there is something you should keep in mind ! Now that you’ll use the flex pass on selected days only, so its other benefits like local transport, museum entry and mountain excursions can be used only on that day ! For example, you can go to a mountain excursion in the morning, visit a museum in the afternoon, and in the evening take a local bus to the railway station and catch a train to your next destination . And no train journey is longer than one and a half to two hours, as Switzerland is a very small country ! So this way, on your travel day itself, you can get the maximum worth of you paid travel day with excursions, local transport and intercity trains. But be careful with the trams, as they go zig zag , and they can crush you if you’re not very careful ! Other than this, you can altogether ignore the Swiss rail pass and buy individual tickets be it for a train or bus. Other than this, after the peak season, i.e. from the beginning of winters to 31st of March, you can get Swiss rail passes on discounted prices . Like an extra free day in the 4 day continuous pass ! You can visit the Swiss railway website for all the details regarding these passes of which I have out a link in the description box below ! And I did not even think about getting an intercity taxi in Switzerland as where the taxi charges 3,000 rupees to go from the airport to the hotel, how much would they charge to go from one city to another, and that too if the taxi is a 5 series BMW or E-class Mercedes Benz, Well, god knows ! By the way, to commute in major cities like Zurich, Lucerne or Geneva , you can also take a bus, of which the tickets are available on . But unfortunately, Interlaken, which is the centre point of every Swiss trip, has no bus connectivity and you have to take a train to get there ! And in Switzerland, intercity buses take around 30% more time than trains But they charge 30% less money as well ! And to avoid all this confusion and costs, I thought, why don’t I just rent a car ! But honestly, Swiss pass or trains or buses or a car, will be a personal choice related to your plan and comfort ! So I am back at Zurich airport to collect my car, that I’ll be using for the next 7 or 8 days ! And the 6 or 7 cities I am planning to visit with this car would cost me less money than ,traveling in the train . Now lets talk about the car and I will tell you why I preferred to get a car ! But before that, let me tell you about the challenges you will face with car rental in Europe In travel videos, renting a car or events like couch surfing look quite fancy but in real life these things aren’t this simple ! Let me begin by telling you like all of North America and Europe, Switzerland is also a right hand drive country , Which means the steering is on the other side of the car, and driving in a right hand system for the first time can be confusing . Okay that was it, off to the next destination . As this is a single road, your subconscious mind might think that you are driving on the wrong side of the road , but the forward lane over here is on the right hand side of the road . And roundabouts can be really confusing specially when you have to take a right ! But as I’ve been on various roadtrips in around 15 countries across USA, Canada and Europe so it wasn’t a hassle for me, but I have to tell you this, it can be very confusing in the first hour ! Like I was about to take a left turn over here according to the Indian system but then I realised that I have to drive on the other side of the road ! But in some time, the mind becomes set and you become more comfortable ! But you have to be attentive ! And don’t forget to get a sim card as well, because driving without google maps is next to impossible ! Its not necessary that you’ll get a car with an inbuilt navigation system . With that said, lets go ahead to the part where I tell you from where to, how to, what all should you have in mind and from which websites should you book a car ! In Europe, and even rest of the world, the largest car rental companies include Sixt car rental, from which I rented a car in London ! Europcar, from which I rented a car in Poland once ! National, from which Ive rented a car in the Canada and US And finally, Alamo or Enterprise from which I rented a car in Switzerland ! All these are big and reputed car rental companies, all of which I’ve tried at some point without any hassle ! And you can get all the bets prices from all these companies on a single website, . Which is also a sister company of . Basically, you should rent a car form Because they usually include a basic insurance and a theft cover ! Some other websites like kayak car rental also provides this service , But on rentalcars, on most deals you get a free cancellation, collision damage waiver, theft protection and unlimited kilometres are included in the rental price ! Automatic cars are a little expensive compared to manual cars in Europe, but I always rent an automatic car in Europe as then we at least don’t have the headache of changing the gears on the other side ! I have finally received my car, and I booked a compact SUV so that my bags fit in the car but that car wasn’t available today so they gave me an upgrade ! Audi Q2 And this is an amazing car, and now my drive will be a lot more fun ! Thats right guys, I booked a baby SUV Opel Mokka that cost me 13,600 rupees because in automatic transmission, there was no car available cheaper and smaller than this . And this actual booking from rentalcars you can see that I booked this automatic transmission car from Alamo car rental which I picked up form Zurich airport on 9th of May and returned at Geneva airport on 15th of May . In this booking for 191 Franks or around 13,000 rupees I got Collisoin manage waiver or accidental damage cover, Third party liability cover, Theft protection cover, local taxes, airport parking surcharge, road fees and unlimited kilometres ! And you need a Credit card, Driving License, Passport and the booking voucher issued in the name of the primary driver when picking up the car ! Do you to get an international driving permit ? Well, Switzerland doesn’t require one now They didn’t even ask me for a License, as long as the driving license is in Roman characters, you don’t need an international driving permit ! But as these rules keep on changing, always reconfirm before leaving ! Usually, car rentals companies take a small charge for destination drop change , but this is waived off a lot of times on . As you can see, out of these two similar costing options, one has and additional one way drop fees and the other doesn’t ! So make sure that you check this if you pickup your car from one city and drop it off in another like I did ! And now I’m gonna give you a very important tip that is necessary for everyone to know when renting a car , always take a look of you car and make a video while picking it up, from the outside and from the inside as well, so that if there’s any scratch on the car you know of it already, so that you can report it to them before taking it and feed it in their system ! This looks like a brand new car . Oh, by the way, this is a diesel car ! Diesel is a little expensive but it gives good average ! In most cases, a rental car insurance doesn’t give you full cover, And this is the rent agreement ! For example, in case of an accident or a theft, you have to pay the first 500 Euros and the rest will be covered by the insurance company ! And this 500 Euros or any XYZ about is known as excess And this excess amount is blocked by the car rental company on your credit card as a security deposit . and when you return the car, this amount is released on your card ! And I need a credit card for the guarantee deposit .
    Sure ! American Express ?
    Yeah ! And this security cannot be deposited in cash, you need a credit card issued in the name of the primary driver ! I have to give you an example for this . Lets say, I want to rent a car in Poland Warsaw for a week, i get a lot of options in results ! And the cheapest option is Seat Ibiza, which includes all the basic stuff . so lets say I go to its booking page and check all the basic inclusions like theft protection, free cancellation and then open its information page, where all the security deposit and excess information is given ! Now in this deal, in case of any damage to the car, the excess is 1,000 Polish Zloty which means around 20,000 Indian rupees. That means, in case of an accident, you have to bear the first 20,000 rupees and the rest will be covered by the company . And if you notice, this itself is the security amount, and the car company will block this amount on your card and when you return the car in the same condition, the amount will be released form your card . It is very important to understand that, car excess varies from car to car and company to company like if you want to get a Mercedes Benz on the same days, the excess fees jumps to 4,000 Zloty or 80,000 rs. The system is like our country just to make sure that you drive extra carefully ! And if you want, you can get a full cover as well, but that is generally quite expensive ! Personally, when I rented a car for the first 2 times, I got full protection , but after that I always got the basic insurance included in the rent ! And if you want to buy a full cover, you can buy it from the rental counter of the car company itself as if the car company have their own insurance, there won’t be any problems with the claim ! But as a general rule, make sure that you understand all the insurance terms well ! And I am finally ready to go on a road trip through Switzerland ! What, where’s the start button in this ! Before coming to the complexities of a rented car, let me tell you some benefits that I completely took use of The most basic advantage is flexibility, like if you see a good scenario, you can just stop whenever you want to ! As soon as I saw this place from above, I decided that I have to stop and go down over here ! Besides, I had to ! The third benefit is savings on food ! If you buy food from a supermarket in the city, you can actually just get some from any hypermarket like Lidl before entering the the city which is around 30% cheaper than Meegno or Coop outlets ! And the main benefit is that you can make any main city as your base, and explore the nearby villages in a day or two without spending money on multiple train tickets ! For example, when I reached Interlaken, I booked a hostel that had free parking ! So along with Interlaken, I explored a few villages adjoining it as well ! And I drove to every one of them ! Anyways, You’ll get to see the real Switzerland 5th episode onwards ! And if I get a chance to visit Harder Kulm, I’ll surely go there if the weather is clear ! And Harder Kulm is completely covered in clouds, so there’s no point going there ! else I’ll take a small detour on my way to Bern, And visit the iconic railway station where Simran mossed her train in DDLJ ! So this way, all the locations I saw was due to bad weather at other locations, And like this you can also bring last moment changes in your plan ! And now lets talk about the complexities ! Parking is very expensive in Europe and that is the case with Switzerland as well ! And so I searched for those particular hostels that had free parking ! By the way, most airbnbs and holiday rentals have free parking but there are less chances in a hotel ! Because if its not free, you might need to pay 7 to 15 Franks per night ! And in the cities there a various parking spots marked with these blue lines where you can park your car for an hour for free if you indicate your parking time on this indicator which you get with the car as well . And you can read all its details on the Swiss tourism website ! And when you want to explore any city, you can leave your car at your hostel or airbnb you can use the public transport pass ! On weekends or holidays, parking is mostly free ! But you have to be very sure about reading the parking instructions on every slot ! One more thing, Rules are very strict ! Red light means that you have to stop in any case, and a speed limit of 50 means that you cannot go above 55, else you’d get a ticket ! And if you get a ticket on a rented car, it’ll be deducted from the security amount you deposited at the company Third, for any Indian who has never driven in snow before, I wouldn’t recommend renting a car because there a lot of ice on the streets at this time which can be very risky. Besides, winters is not the time to visit Switzerland unless you love snow sports or extreme cold ! So guys, the fuel tank is now empty and its my last day today, and I have to return the car and I’ve used the entire tank I have to refill the tank and return it back ! And the airport is 20 kms form here, and it won’t matter So I will just refill the tank, and I used Diesel for 125 rupees a litre for the first and the last time ! for 86 Franks ie.e around 6000 rupees. So guys, this was a comparison of the Swiss travel pass and a rented car And to summarise it, if you are 2 or 3 people, you can benefit from a car overall as you can split the cost of the car and fuel . And in case of a travel pass, everyone will have to buy an individual pass ! But if you take a Swiss pass for your one week trip which is quite expensive, you won’t have any hassle like renting a car and its complications like right hand drive and parking confusions ! And buying separate tickets for internal city transport or for boats or trams or museums can be avoided completely ! So choose wisely guys, a car comes with savings=, flexibility and freedom but at a cost of confusion of right hand driving system which can be a disaster for a lot of people ! And on the other hand, you get peace of mind with the Swiss travel pass also including ease of access to all modes of public transport and few mountain excursions ! but obviously, at a much higher cost ! I had right hand drive experience, and the energy and excitement to do a lot in very few days the budget was tight, and car was a little cheaper hence I chose to rent a car ! And if you’re taking these three things with you, this option would be ideal ! But if not, you can invest in the Swiss travel pass like all other Indians which is a little expensive After all Swiss train routes are one of the most beautiful train routes in the world ! And if you’ve come this far in the video, I am pretty sure you might’ve found this video useful Its a sincere request from my side, please hit the like button and share the video guys, lets keep this channel going ! And lastly, for more such videos every week, don’t forget to hit the subscribe button and the bell icon ! And I honestly hope that I did not miss any topic or possible outcome and answered the maximum possible questions but if I have missed out on anything, please feel free to ask in the comment section below !

    The Great Transitions in Evolution with Neil Shubin
    Articles, Blog

    The Great Transitions in Evolution with Neil Shubin

    August 11, 2019

    – [Announcer] This program
    is a presentation of UCTV for educational and
    noncommercial use only. (gentle music) – Good afternoon, my name is Ellen Gobler. I manage the Graduate Council Lectures, and we’re pleased to have
    all of you here today. Thank you so much for joining us. It’s my pleasure to
    introduce Andrew Szeri. (audience applauding) – Good afternoon. My name is Andrew Szeri, I’m
    Dean of the Graduate Division, and we’re pleased along with
    Graduate Council to welcome you to the Charles & Martha
    Hitchcock lecture series. Our speaker today is Neil Shubin. The story of how the
    endowment came to Berkeley is a nice example of the
    ways in which this campus is linked to the history of
    California and of the Bay Area. Dr. Charles Hitchcock was
    a physician for the army and came to San Francisco
    during the gold rush, where he opened a
    thriving private practice. In 1885, Charles
    established a professorship here at Berkeley as an expression of his long-held interest in education. His daughter, Lillie Hitchcock Coit, still treasured in San Francisco for her personality as
    well as her generosity with respect to Towers, greatly expanded her
    father’s original gift to establish a professorship at Berkeley, making it possible for us to
    present a series of lectures. The Hitchcock Fund has become one of the most cherished endowments of the University of California, recognizing the highest distinction of scholarly thought and achievement. Now I would like to invite William Lester, Professor of Chemistry and Chair of the Hitchcock Professorship Committee, to say a few words about our speaker, Professor Neil Shubin, thank you. (audience applauding) – Well thank you, Dean Szeri. Good afternoon. Although you’ve heard it
    before, I’m William Lester, Professor of Chemistry and Chair of the Hitchcock Professorship Committee. On behalf of the Hitchcock Committee, I’m pleased to welcome Neil Shubin as this year’s speaker and the Charles M. and Martha Hitchcock Lecture Series. Neil Shubin is a
    distinguished paleontologist whose research seeks to understand the mechanics behind
    the evolutionary origin of anatomical features of animals. His work focuses mainly on the Devonian and Triassic periods, to understand the pivotal ecological and evolutionary shifts that occurred during that time. In 2004, after scouring the
    Canadian Arctic for six years, Shubin and his team unearthed
    Tiktaalik roseae crae, a fossil fishapod, which
    despite its fishlike features, had a neck, skull,
    ribs, and parts of limbs similar to land animals. This discovery represents the transition between fish and four-legged mammals that occurred over 350 million years ago. His announcement about the
    discovery of this phenomenon on April 6, 2006 in the journal Nature made front page news in
    newspapers worldwide. Finding the 375 million year old fossil also spurred Shubin to
    write the recent book, Your Inner Fish: A Journey Into The 3.5-Billion-Year
    History Of The Human Body, arguing that fish provide an important evolutionary step in human history. Shubin received his BA from
    Columbia University in 1982, he earned his PhD from Harvard University in Organsimic and
    Evolutionary Biology in 1987, and in 1996 he was awarded an Honorary MA from the University of Pennsylvania. He was a Miller postdoctoral
    fellow at UC Berkeley from 1987 to 1989 and held positions as an assistant, associate,
    and full professor of biology at the University of Pennsylvania
    before joining the faculty at the University of Chicago in 2000. Shubin in currently the Robert R. Bensley Professor of Organismal
    Biology and Anatomy. He serves as the Associate Dean of the Biological Sciences
    division and as a member of the committee on evolutionary biology. Shubin has been honored with
    a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Marcus Singer Award, and was named Person of the Week by ABC News for the week of April 7th, 2006. In addition, he has appeared
    on the Colbert Report and Public Radio International. Please join me in welcoming
    Professor Neil Shubin. (audience applauding) – Thank you Dean Szeri, Professor Lester, members of the Hitchcock
    Committee, my hosts in the Department Of Integrative
    Biology here at Berkeley. Thank you for the honor of
    being a Hitchcock Professor and thanks also for
    giving me the opportunity to return to Berkeley, which is the place of
    my intellectual roots. Much of what I do is
    really sort of flowed from the concepts, ideas, and approaches that I learned during my
    time here at Berkeley. So today we’re gonna talk about
    the great transformations. And if you take the four
    and a half billion year history of our planet, you can begin to visualize in a number of different ways. And one of the most
    common ways to visualize the history of our planet, is as some sort of
    linear series of events. And so this is one taken from a textbook. It’s from Press and Siever, a very prominent geology textbook. And what you see is this
    linear series is depicted as sort of a corkscrew so
    they can fit it on the page. And you see the various
    events and the trajectory in the history of our planet, and the history of life on our planet from the presence of the first rocks, the earliest visible life
    in the fossil record, the origin of bodies
    and plants and animals, and then you see sort of the major events in the history of vertebrate life, creatures with bones, the shift from water to land, the shift to the origin
    of dinosaurs and so forth. When you look at the world this way, in this sort of linear way, from beginning to present, what you sort of see is there are times that kind of look revolutionary or the sort of revolution in the air where there are big things happening. And those time periods have
    always attracted my attention for one reason or another. And that’s why I’ve ended up focusing on two time periods in
    the history of life, the Triassic and the Devonian, time periods from 200 million years ago and about 375 million years ago. But anyway, I’m gonna show you how this kind of way of
    depicting the history and the sequence of events in our world, actually it gets in the way of really understanding and decomposing some of the main events we see
    in the history of our planet and life on our planet. And what I’m gonna do is I’m gonna take one particular example, one major transformation, the shift from fish that lives in water to limbed animals that live on land. I’m gonna take that shift and
    really analyze it in detail to show you how an integrative approach, integrating fossils, and
    studies with living organisms, can tell us a lot about how
    this transformation happened. And I’m gonna use that as a microcosm, an example really of how we can approach all the other transformations
    that are out there. So let’s start with the
    transformation from water to land. So here what we have the
    transformation from water to land. And you see here, I’ve shown a cartoon. This is a complete
    caricature of the situation. And if you were to sort
    of blue sky this thing, on the back of an envelope, and you know look at a fish, and look at a land living
    vertebrate animal with bones, you can sort of say wow
    geesh, life in water is vastly different from life on land. Almost every single
    system of these creatures had to change. And I just showed you
    several here, I mean, respiration, feeding,
    locomotion, and head mobility. And if you look at the end
    states of this transition it looks really large and
    indeed almost impossible. Now just take a few of
    them, take respiration, and you have a shift from creatures that are largely water breathing to creatures that are air breathing. This involves whole sweeps
    of changes to organs and the ways that organs develop, and circulatory systems,
    and lungs and so forth. Feeding, feeding in water is very different from feeding in land. You go from where you have water where you can suck the food into the mouth by changing the volume of the mouth cavity to biting, where on land you can’t suck in unless you’re a Hoover
    Dustette or a vacuum cleaner. It’s really more of a biting approach to the capturing and chewing food. Locomotion is completely
    different on land from water. I mean, here you have water supported, where you basically have to
    support yourself in gravity, it’s not gravity supported, but it’s basically you’re
    dealing with gravity as a force. And the skeleton had to change from a water supported to
    actually dealing with gravity as a force, on the
    ground, on the substrate. And there’s all kinds of other
    changes associated with this. Head mobility, you know fish have heads that are largely connected to the body by a series of bones so
    when you move the head you move the rest of the body. They don’t have necks whereas land living creatures have necks, their head can move
    independently to the body. Now for this whole talk
    I could have gone through a whole long list of things from excretion, reproduction, and all kinds of different systems that would have to change. And when you look at these
    systems, you’d say golly gee, I don’t see how this
    transformation could ever happen. So my sort of goal for the last 20 years has really been to look at this in detail. To try to collect new fossils, to try to collect understandings from living recent creatures that tell us a lot about how fish achieve this important shift in evolution. This was sort of the
    state of affairs in 1987. This is a textbook written
    by one of my predecessors at the University of
    Chicago, Len Rodinsky. And I saw this in 1987
    in a graduate seminar and it really attracted my interest. ‘Cause what he showed is a
    lobe-finned fish on the top. This is a creature from about, the first ones of these appeared about 380 million years ago. And on the bottom you see
    an early limbed creature. This is a creature from Greenland, at least that’s what we thought
    it looked like at the time, from about 365-ish or
    so million years ago. And I remember looking at this and saying, “Golly gee, this is a big transition. “There’s a lot for features
    that have to change.” And to approach this,
    it became pretty clear that if we wanted to address this, we had to find new fossils. In fact if we wanted to find new fossils that bridge this gap, we had to find whole new
    places to look for fossils. So off we went to start looking for places to find new fossils to tell us about this important anatomical shift. And so like paleontologists everywhere, there are actually some simple rules to go when you want to design a new expedition to look for fossils. We look for places in the
    world that have sort of a convergence of three things. The first is you look
    for places in the world that have rocks of the right age to answer the question
    that you’re interested in. I mean so I’m interested in
    the shift from water to land and fish, so it’s no mystery
    that I’m interested in rocks around 380 to 365 or so million years old. The next thing is you look
    for rocks of the right type. Not every kind of rock preserves fossils. Sedimentary rocks preserve fossils better volcanic or metamorphic ones. And indeed within the sedimentary rocks there are certain
    depositional environments, environments where those rocks were formed which are more likely
    to preserve fossil bone than others for a variety of reason. One because they might reflect
    areas where creatures lived. The other is, because they were formed in very gentle environments
    with little erosion so that whatever fossils were there were preserved in some detail. The third variable is really important. Actually it’s one of
    the most important ones. It does me no good if my wonderful rocks of the right age and the right type are buried five miles underground. I mean these rocks have to
    be exposed to the surface. I mean what we do as paleontologists is walk over rocks for long days, just to find bones weathering out. So it’s really exposures,
    rocks of the right age, and rocks of the right type. There’s a third variable when
    I stated out on this quest. And that was lack of money. And so I started on my,
    this is really true. I started my first academic job after leaving Berkeley as a Miller Fellow, I moved to Philadelphia as
    a young assistant professor here in the southeastern
    portion of the state. And what I wanted really
    was a field program that I could do on the cheap,
    or on weekends out of my car. You know paying like
    turnpike tolls and gas money. And the first thing I did was obviously pulled out a geological map
    of New York and Pennsylvania and the first thing you
    see when you pull out a geological map of New
    York and Pennsylvania is you see that the place is just littered with Devonian Age rocks. So I basically stripped out everything unimportant out of the
    state of Pennsylvania and what’s left here is
    the Devonian. (laughs) And you can see, I mean it’s
    loaded with Devonian Age rocks. And these span an age pretty
    much in the late Devonian is the ones I was interested in. And these are rocks about
    365 million years old from the Catskill
    Formation and they extend into New York and into the
    Catskills, hence the name. So it’s pretty clear, from about a three hour
    drive from Philadelphia, you know I had access
    to Devonian Age rocks. Got even better when we started to look at the geology of these rocks
    and what geologists knew. The Pennsylvania State Geological Survey was mapping these rocks for years and concocted a cartoon really version of what Pennsylvania
    was like at this time. If you wanna think what
    Pennsylvania was like in the Devonian, get
    Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, and Philadelphia out of your
    brain and think Amazon Delta. This is really just a cartoon
    of the reconstruction. Essentially a series of highlands to the eastern part of
    the state of Pennsylvania, and an inland sea to the
    west, called the Catskill Sea. So if you look at the Devonian rocks of Pittsburgh or Cleveland, you’ll find they’re marine
    rocks from this inland sea. And a series a rivers that
    drain from east to west. Now if you’re a paleontologist interested in the transition from fish to limbed animal, and you wanna find
    fossils along those lines, this is perfect. Because you can sample if you’re lucky, ancient seas, ancient estuaries, all the way up the stream if you’re lucky. I was also lucky in this regard because a graduate student
    started working with me. This is Ted Daeschler here, this is a picture of us last year, not when he was a graduate student. We were a lot younger when
    this whole thing started. But Ted and I have been working ever since and Ted really has been a
    major, major, major part of much of the work, fossil
    work, you’re gonna hear about. But Pennsylvania has a problem, I mean it has two of these variables, it has rocks the right age
    and rocks of the right type, but unfortunately it’s not
    renowned for its exposures. Pennsylvania’s not a desert. And so it turns out the
    best exposures for us were areas where the Pennsylvania Department Of Transportation
    decided to put in new roads. What would happen, or
    where there are streams, but it’s actually the road cuts that were kind of a critical thing. What happens is, you know
    Penn DOT will come through and you know when they want to put a road or a bend in a road or widen a road, what would they do, they’d
    blow it up, they blow up rock. When they blow up rock,
    if we were really lucky, they’d blow up rock in the Devonian. And if you’re super really lucky, they’d blow up rock in
    you know the right part of the delta system of the Devonian rocks. And to his was one area
    which was widened in the 70s. It’s a road about an hour north of State College, Pennsylvania. It’s a road cut called,
    don’t be surprised, Red Hill, ’cause it’s a red hill. A large road cut and when
    it was widened in the 70s, it exposed a series of
    the strata, the beds here which you can see going up. This is really a fluvial
    river environment. And what you see as you walk through here are cross-sections of ancient streams. Ancient streams, their
    overbank or marginal deposits, sometimes you’ll see point bars, these streams look like they meander, it has a very classic sort
    of deltaic even part of, and some meandering
    streams within this area. So it’s a really rich area. And you see the scale here. There’s a car and there’s
    a human being for scale. What is actually our research program was, was to climb up and down
    the sides of these hills. It got a little tricky but pretty soon, by about 1991 we started to
    find all kinds of fossils. I mean the first things we started to see were like teeth the
    size of railroad spikes coming out of the hills here. We started to find jaws
    to these creatures. This is Ted holding one
    of our first jaws we found out of this thing. It was just the front end of the jaw. These jaws are like long as your arm and you know with teeth
    the size of your thumb. So these are really big monstrous fish that are about 16 feet
    long, up to 16 feet long. So large carnivorous fish
    coming out of the rocks here. We have lots of other kinds
    of fish, invertebrate animals. This is the sidewall of a fish,
    you can see its body armor, it’s got a squashed head here. Tons of these kinds of things. And then by about 1993 we started to find bits and pieces of early limbed animals. And this was one that was particularly important at the time. It’s an upper arm bone, the humerus, and we started to find a femur, which is an upper leg bone. We found other bones of
    the skull and so forth. And this humerus is particularly important because it was very similar
    to a humerus known from a Devonian limbed animal from Greenland. The one actually I showed
    you in a cartoon earlier. So it was pretty successful. We started to find by the mid-90s, a whole ecosystem really. And I’m not describing the plants. Some of the earliest known forests, with trees, we found their
    leaves and trunks and so forth. Land was loaded with lots of life, scorpion-like and spider-like creatures, and many of those from these sites, and then tons of fish from within here. And this is what this road cut, Red Hill road cut in
    Pennsylvania looked like when we reconstructed it
    with National Geographic. You know you got that large fish, you know with the teeth the
    size of railroad spikes. You have lots of little
    armored fish around here, and then you had these limbed animals with the tetrapods, literally
    four legged creatures of which there are about
    three or four types coming out of here. It’s really remarkable. But it became really clear that to get to the problem that I was interested in, this transition, we weren’t
    making a ton of headway. We were finding tons of fossils, but these rocks are about
    365 million years old. And what we were picking up at this point were mostly really well formed tetrapods. We were picking up some of
    these creatures as well. But from our knowledge of the rocks and faunas around the
    world, it was pretty clear we were probably in rocks too young. We would have to move back in time. Because to move back in time, we begin to understand
    some of the transition here and I just want to run through some of the anatomy that’s different. And here you see the
    lobe-finned fish on top, which we knew was closely
    related to limbed animals. And just look at the head. You see basic differences in
    the architecture of the head. You know here at the top you see, you know these creatures
    have like a conical head with eyes on either side. The early limbed animals have got almost like a crocodilian kind of head. It’s a flat head with eyes on top. And the architecture of the bones in here actually is somewhat different than the fish on top as well. If you look at the neck,
    fish don’t have a neck. Again as I said before, the head is actually
    connected to the shoulder via sort of linkages of bones and the head is not independent movable, whereas in early limbed animals, like all their descendants, you and I, have a neck with a head that’s
    separate from the shoulder and there’s a series of joints
    at the base of the skull. And you know finally, and I
    can make a long list here, the thing that was
    really interesting to me was to understand the
    shift from fins to limbs. Fish had fins with fin webbing, you lose the fin webbing when you get to these
    early limbed animals, and you gain fingers and toes
    and wrists and ankles okay. And we weren’t making
    a whole ton of headway in understanding this transition. And it became very clear from what we knew and this is what we were finding. This is the family tree more or less. Here’s limbed animals up here. These are the fish that are successfully mostly related to them. If we wanted to make any headway, we had to find creatures that were sort of more on this branch, which would really be able to very clearly tell us the sequence of keys or the origin of key features that led to the origin of limbed animals. And to do that, when we look at the age of these things, these things, many of these first appear back around 380, 390 million years ago. Some of them continue all the way up. The earliest limbed animals, tetrapods, appeared around 363,
    365 million years ago, the good scalable material. At the time, that’s what we knew. But there is a big gap in our knowledge. We didn’t have many faunas
    or floras at this age really here about 375 million years ago. So we had to move back in time. And so we began our hunt again right. So you look, remember we
    look for rocks the right age, rocks the right type and exposures. And going through it,
    it became pretty clear we had to, we were thinking
    about going to Brazil, we were thinking about
    working in Colorado. Everything changed for us one
    day in the winter of 1998, in my office at the
    University Of Pennsylvania. Ted and I were having an argument and to settle the argument, I pulled out a college undergraduate
    geology textbook. (laughs) This is I think, the one that
    I had was the second edition of Dott and Batten,
    Evolution Of The Earth. I believed it was pre-plate
    tectonic when it was written. This book is now I think
    in the 11th edition or something like that. We settled the debate and as I was thumbing through the book, after that little set to, I came upon this figure in the
    textbook in like chapter 14. And it stopped me in my tracks and basically defined my research, at least in the field
    for the next six years. So I want to spend a
    second on this diagram, it’s that important. It says, Upper Devonian
    Sedimentary Facies. Which means, you know rocks
    more of less the right age and you know maybe
    rocks of the right type. And what you see here is
    a map of North America, here’s the United States, here’s Mexico, here’s Canada, Greenland, Canadian Arctic. And superimposed on that, is a map of the depositional environments, or the environments of rock
    formation in the Devonian. And the western part of North America was mapped as an ancient ocean. The rocks there were formed,
    the Devonian at least, were formed in the ancient ocean. But these authors, Dott and Batten, with their citations, identified three areas around the world that were formed in ancient Delta systems, like the Amazon Delta today. One of them, the first one
    I showed and right here, we know about that one right, that’s the Catskill project. That’s where Ted and
    I were already working and finding fossils. The second one is up in Greenland, this is East Greenland, I already showed you a
    limbed animal form there. This is well known. But there’s a third area
    that stopped me in my tracks, and it’s an area extending
    about 1500 kilometers east to west across the Canadian Arctic, which was mapped by
    these guys and said to be Devonian Age rocks,
    like Devonian Age rocks, formed in ancient delta systems, completely unexplored. And that, you know, that
    literally stopped us. So we ran to the library, and
    this all happened one morning. Ran to the library, and there we started to uncover a really wonderful story. And just indulge me as I spend a second or
    two on this little story. The story begins in 1890s in Norway where the Norwegians wanted
    to run to the North Pole. There’s a race to get to the North Pole. And the Norwegians had
    a really bright idea to design a ship, a
    really strong wooden boat, and that this wooden boat
    would be sitting in the Arctic and get carried by currents
    up to the North Pole. That was their idea. And they had an explorer named Nansen who was a remarkable
    individual in many ways, who helped design this boat. And this boat’s called the Fram, which means forward in Norwegian, and it’s truly a remarkable ship. This is a boat that took
    Nansen furthest North, it didn’t get him to the North Pole but it got him close in the 1890s, it was eventually to take Amundsen to the South Pole around 1910, so it went from north to south. In the interim, it went
    to the Canadian Arctic with this crew. And this is the crew led by Otto Sverdrup, he doesn’t look like
    he’s a very funny guy, but you know what they did was for three or four years, they went up to the Canadian Arctic overwintered there on the ship, the sole purpose being to understand the flora, the fauna, and the
    rocks of the Canadian Arctic. On the boat was this
    gentleman here, Per Schei, he’s the hero of the story. So what they did was, they went to Southern Ellesmere Island, from 1898 to 1902. And they went to these fjords
    down here overwintering, and it’s a pretty harsh
    place to overwinter, I can tell you that much. And Schei would get off the boat and start mapping the geology. This is Per Schei. He started mapping the
    geology and you can see, here’s a fjord he went
    to called Goose Fjord, and he started mapping it out and he started to pull out bones of fish. And these were the species of fish, the fauna list that he brought about. Little pieces, rhino
    flex and this and that. This was actually to be lost. No one really was to cite this. Per Schei passed away tragically after the return of the Fram, he died at age 30. And this work was
    subsequently just picked up by a guy named Keran in 1915, who described it and then this paper sort of sat in the literature, never really, never
    really cited until 1974. This gentleman comes along, Ashton Embry, who mapped, who was partly
    responsible for running a mapping project in the Canadian Arctic, mapping the rocks of the Arctic for a variety of economic reasons. And what Ashton did,
    is a map in the Arctic, he really did a precise
    map which basically told us that we had to work there, and where we had to work. And the paper that did it is this, and it was published in 1976. And the reason why I’m
    showing you this paper is there’s a single page in the paper that basically told us we had to go immediately to the Canadian Arctic. And this is the page. It doesn’t look like much,
    a lot of words on the page, but I’ll blow up two areas for you. Where he talks about
    age, blow it up it says, the available data indicate an age of Early to Middle Frannian. You remember the question
    mark I showed you before, that’s the question mark. Then it really, where we lost it, (laughs) was essentially when we saw what he described as the Fram Formation. The Fram Formation is similar to the Catskill Formation of Pennsylvania. So here we had rocks at the question mark that were similar to the Catskill
    Formation of Pennsylvania. This all happened in the morning in 1998, in you know, in my office in a library at the University of Pennsylvania. We were shaking, there was
    nothing else we could do, we went to get some Chinese food. So um, we went for Chinese food, I had my kung pao chicken, and this really sealed the deal. I opened my fortune cookie, and it said, soon you will be at the top of the world. (laughing) So I was like, okay we’re out of here. Anyway so that got us there. So um, so this is what, so we’re dealing with Nunavut territory, here’s the North Pole, we’re 600 miles or 700
    miles from the North Pole, this is Ellesmere Island
    right here, here’s Ellesmere. This is what Ashton maps
    as the exposures of the, of the Devonian the Canadian Arctic. He named the key formation, the one that’s most like
    the Catskill Formation, after that boat The Fram, and it’s called the Fram
    Formation right here. So it’s actually right at that right edge, the question mark. The earliest-known tetrapods,
    limbed animals at the time, were from up here, so we’re significantly earlier in time. And again just to show you the cartoon, he mapped it as a Delta system, with a series of Highlands
    to the east and north, and Inland Sea to the west, and the series of streams and rivers draining from east to west, so off we go. It was a little bit of challenge because the places up there right, it’s not here where I could
    drive with my Subaru to, you know Pennsylvania, it’s up here which creates problems, I mean logistic problems. So the nearest town to us
    where we ended up working, is a couple hundred miles away, and this is a picture of that town, with a population of about
    170 people in spring. It’s Grise Fjord, Grise Fjord, Nunavut. It’s not, you know, not
    a hotbed of activity. So it’s quite remote you know, so everything we bring is fairly precious, we bring a small crew as
    I’ll show you in a second, because we get around
    through this ferry operation of helicopters and planes since we’re so, we’re farther than a tank of gas could take us in a helicopter, so fuel has to be ferried in to get us to where we want to go. So we take these planes
    which land actually on the rock and Tundra here, it’s pretty thrilling actually, and then, if you define that term loosely, and then the helicopters
    take us into our camps. Because of that it really
    affects the science we can do, we can’t bring big crews and importantly, when we find something, and ie fossils, which are very heavy, we can’t bring a lot of them back. And so we leave a lot of
    what we find out there, and we, you know it’s a real decision. We’re out there for five or six weeks, and we’re making sort of,
    hard choices about what stays and what comes with us. So we started in 1990, the
    fortune cookie was in 1998, it took us about a year to raise money, and so we went to the western
    part of the Arctic first, this is what camp looks like, it’s the personal tents, main tent. What we do is basically,
    these are the Devonian rocks, and since you have this
    freeze thaw in the Arctic, the bones come weathering
    out, quite nicely. And you know we walk over the rocks, and when you find bones, you look for the layers
    that they’re coming from. In 1999 we didn’t find much,
    we had terrible weather, and it turns out we were
    actually in much deeper ocean ancient deeper ocean,
    than we wanted to be. So following the Delta model,
    we had to move upstream, and what that meant
    geologically, is moving east. And when we moved east to
    southern Ellesmere Island here, that’s when we started to
    find lobe-finned in abundance, bits and pieces of them at least, along these sort of cliff things, as we walk up and down the cliffs. The big discovery was made by a college undergraduate Jason Downes, who joined us one year
    to sort of apprentice. This is the site Jason was to discover in the morning before he discovered it. So about three hours later, Ted took this picture. About three hours later Jason was to walk over this little patch here, I
    don’t know if you can see it, it’s sort of a greenish gray patch. We didn’t know it at the time, but Jason had discovered, an enormous quantity of bone. He was late back to camp, it
    was actually quite a worry, but he returned to camp with
    pile after pile of bone. So what we did that night was, since it’s daylight 24
    hours a day in the Arctic, this is us that night around midnight or 1:00 in the morning, actually crawling Jason’s site, to find the layer that Jason’s
    bones were coming from. Now this grayish green
    carpet here was formed, I mean I should say a carpet, of thousands and thousands
    and thousands of fish bones of which you’re seeing
    like lungfish tooth plates, and things like that here. It took us about a year I
    should say, I mean a whole year, to actually find that layer,
    it was actually quite hard, but when we found it, we
    were able to isolate it, this is Ted here and the crew, the layer was exposed as
    a series of fish skeletons buried one on top of the other. So Jason’s little carpet of fish fragments was formed by skeletons, mostly you know half skeletons, occasionally a full skeleton, but it was really articulated
    material that was coming out. So we opened up the hole fairly large, and this is what it looked like in 2006 actually after a while, and the big discovery happened here, with the my colleague Steve Gatesy who was cracking rock and discovered this, I don’t know if you’re going to see it but you the Devonian rock here, see this little V and
    there’s a little slash there. This little V, he said,
    “Hey guys what’s this?” We looked at it, turns out
    it’s the snout of a fish, and not just any fish, a flat-headed fish. You could tell it was flat-headed snout. So remember I showed you before, conical head, flat head? Here I had a flat head
    sticking out of the cliff, looking me in the eye right. So I kind of knew we’d found
    what we were looking for. And so what it became then, was to remove these things very carefully. As we remove this one,
    we found about four more of these flat headed fish,
    we now have about 20 of them, in various states, from individual bones to whole skeletons, to the skeletons we have about five. So come home on the bottom
    of the helicopter anyway. So when these came back,
    it was in the fall of 2005, the preparators take
    over and these are people who work with a needle and pin, and these things come
    back encased in plaster. And this is Steve’s specimen, they sit for months of the time, this took several months, Fred Mollison in Philadelphia did this, removing the rock grain by grain. And here you can see after
    about six or seven weeks, a top of a head was revealed. This is one orbit where an eye would be, this is another orbit
    where an eye would be, looks like you’re dealing
    with the top of a flat head. A few more months go by, and this was starting to be exposed, here’s the head showing itself, here’s one orbit, here’s the other, this is a shoulder,
    and this is a shoulder, it looks like we have a neck with no connection of
    bone to the shoulder, this thing got really interesting. As this was happening, a trial was going on in Pennsylvania, the Dover trial, Kitzmiller
    case where intelligent design. And some people were
    saying during that trial, that whether that there
    are no transitional fossils with transitional
    features in the fossil record, and here sitting on our desks, both in Chicago and Philadelphia, were these things exposing themselves. So as we began to prepare it, you know here’s a fish from
    about 380 million years ago, here’s a early limbed animal, from about 365 million years ago, here’s the new fish, I use that term for lack of a better word. What it is, we have the extended size from about a foot and a half
    long to nine feet long. The creature here is 4 feet long, and only I’m showing you the front half. You can see it had scales on it’s back, these have been squashed in, scales on it’s back and a fin, fins with fin wedding, yet it has a flattish
    head with eyes on top. It has a real neck so
    it’s lacking an operculum, which most fish have. So it has a mosaic of
    features of both fish and land living creatures. So you see as a mosaic
    like a lobe-finned fish, it has fins and scales and primitive jaws. Like a land-living animal,
    it has a neck, wrists, flat head and expanded ribs. So here we have a wonderful fossil with transitional features, limbs, heads and so forth. So being the discoverers of this creature, we got to name it, and so we wanted the name to
    reflect its Inuit heritage. We worked there with the permission of the Inuit government, and the Inuit elders, they were very helpful to us, and we wanted the name to
    reflect it’s provenance. And so we had a naming
    project where we engaged the Nunavut elders, these
    are the Nunavut elders here, to come up with a name
    to meet two criteria. Criterion number one, was a name that was
    meaningful to them and to us. And number two, was a name
    that we could pronounce. And this is the name of the committee, so that secondary, didn’t
    lend for a lot of confidence that we have a name it yeah. Anyway so um, talked
    to one of these people, I believe it’s this guy
    here, I’m not totally sure. But we were talking on the
    phone over about a month, trying to describe what it was, and you know I’d said, well
    you know we have a fish, and it comes in rock you know, long pause, well no, hunters don’t find fish in rocks, they’re in the streams or ocean. Like no no no, it’s a fossil, and there were so many gaps in
    the way to communicate here, they had no concept for
    fossil and so forth. So eventually one conversation
    I’ll never forget he said, “You know, just what is it, “tell me what it is and where it lived.” I said, “Oh it’s a it’s
    a large freshwater fish.” He says, “Why didn’t you just say so, “you have yourself a Tiktaalik.” I said, “A Tiktaalik, what’s that?” He said, “It’s a large
    freshwater fish in our language,” So that was the, um, how the name stuck. But anyway back to the biology here. The um, so we had several of these things, and we were very fortunate
    to have several specimens, because that means we
    can now take them apart, to begin to understand,
    how did the bones work, how did the joints work,
    how does, and then, put the animal together
    again to figure out, how it compares to creatures
    along the evolutionary tree. And how does it tell us about how this great
    transformation happened. And this is what this is all about. And so here you’re looking at
    one of our large specimens, about nine feet long, and you see here’s a lower jaw, here’s another lower jaw so you’re looking at it like
    this, two jaws like yay. And it was one specimens like these, that we started take limb bones apart. So we found here’s an
    upper arm bone, a humerus, and here’s a shoulder. And so we took all these things out and we were really fortunate in that not only did we have many of
    the bones of the of the fin, so you take off the fin webbing, this thing had fin webbing, and then you see, just like our arm, if you were look at your
    own arm in the skeleton, you have one bone, upper arm bone, two bones in the forearm, a series of joints here,
    that as they go distally, they can flex and extend, and those joints go all the
    way out to your fingers. And that’s essentially what you have here. One bone, two bones, you
    have a series of joints that are capable of flexion, just like like your wrists and fingers. And indeed, we can compare these bones, this bone here and this bone here, to bones that are actually in amphibians, creatures for lack of a better word. And we can compare them up and down the file in the evolutionary tree. What got really interesting is
    when we took the bones apart, we were able to take each joint apart. So what we did was, we
    took the shoulder apart. And here’s the shoulder of Tiktaalik. Here’s the socket on the shoulder, here’s the ball on the humerus. And we can see from the detailed shape, what the likely and unlikely
    patterns of kinematics, of motion of one bone on the
    other would be at the shoulder. Very unusual shoulder in
    some ways, it has a ball, but has a sort of cam-stop here, which would prevent it from
    this action of protraction. We could see the elbow of Tiktaalik. Here’s the radius and here’s the ulna, and you can see the sockets, where they’d fit on the elbow
    joint of the distal humerus. This is the arm bone and you
    can see where they’d fit on, and you can see how this one facet, which sort of rotates
    this down this side here. That means this bone could rotate far down into the plane of the
    slide, that’s important, I’ll show you later. And then we can do it for
    every other joint in the thing. It was really remarkable
    to be able to do that, and what we’re doing now is
    actually modeling it digitally, to see how these bones
    would move on one another. But to give you a sense of all this, let’s just look at the shoulder. And I have three creatures here. I have one, a lobe-finned fish, this is a Eusthenopteron, here’s an early limbed
    animal Acanthostega, and you’re seeing the shoulders
    here from from the side. Okay so you’re like looking at the animal from the side like this, and here’s Tiktaalik. One of the things is, you
    can see the shoulder socket, here in Acanthostega and you
    can’t see it in Eusthenopteron. Well if you pop on the humerus you can see the upper arm bone you can see what that means. In Acanthostega, this early limbed animal, the humerus or upper arm
    bone is coming out at you, like this, like a crocodile,
    so the limb is held to the side of the body. Whereas in fish like Eusthenopteron, the humerus is facing backwards like this. In Tiktaalik it’s different it’s rotated, that whole joint is rotated, so it’s sort of intermediate in position between the bone that faces
    to the side in Acanthostega, and backwards in Eusthenopteron. And then you just add the other bones in. If you add the forearm
    bones, the radius and ulna, turns out that the radius
    and ulna in Tiktaalik, just like Acanthostega, are
    capable of flexion like yay. And indeed the radius can rotate inwards, and work with a motion called pronation, like moving your thumb inwards. And when you add the other bones in, we can begin to see what
    Tiktaalik was able to do. Tiktaalik is specialized
    into a form of a push-up, with elbow bent and wrist extended, with a small set of
    palmish bones it could, and remember the fin webbing
    is sticking out here as well, you can support the body
    in a form of a push-up with a palm-equivalent
    flush against the ground. What was nice about these specimens too, and it’s something we
    haven’t really published it, is the notion that we can begin to see how the fin webbing
    changes during this change. So you’re looking at the type specimen, one of the better specimens of Tiktaalik, from the top, and here you see the fin with its fin webbing. We have several these
    specimens that are intact, which show the relationship between the limb bones I just showed you, and the fin webbing. And that’s really important, because, if you look at a
    fish like Eusthenopteron and Acanthostega, you see the big shift in the fin webbing, they lose it. fish have fin webbing, limbed animals do not. If you look at Tiktaalik, it’s reduced the fin webbing, but it’s done so in a very important way. It’s done so, not from the outside in, but from the inside out. It’s done it over the joints. So where it’s lost the fin
    webbing and these big rods, is over the elbow joint
    and over the wrist joint. Which totally makes sense, those are the areas
    where the fin would bend. So this is a sort of more
    or less what we think what the fin of Tiktaalik was able to do, function like a paddle, or like a prop, enabling the creature to do a push up. This is the reconstruction of
    Tiktaalik as it was in 2006, as a flathead with eyes
    on top, pair of nostrils, has a neck where the head is
    separate from the shoulder, and key in this, is
    the loss of many bones, including the opercular bone which the, a whole series of opercular bones. It has a fin webbing and
    inside that fin webbing is an upper arm bones,
    forearm bones the equivalence, and both proximal carpal
    and distal carpal bones that is the equivalence of
    a wrist, big expanded ribs. We now know a lot about the hind fin, with the pelvis and so forth, we’re lacking the femur so that’s why I haven’t drawn it in yet. One of the key things here is really understanding
    Tiktaalik as a living animal, because then we can begin
    to see this transformation, And that’s what we are going to get to. One of things about Tiktaalik, is if it’s supporting itself
    as the appendanges suggest, on the ground like in a push-up, that’s when the neck
    becomes comes quite handy. If you look at a fish, it has
    a head fused to the shoulder, and it does so by a series of bones at the back of the skull, and a series of opercular
    bones, a whole opercular series that connect the cheek to the shoulder. These bones, I should
    say the opercular bones, have several functions, they actually connect
    the head to the shoulder. They function in
    breathing in fish as well. They’re pumps that draw
    water across the gills. One of the big changes in
    the transition to tetrapods, the limbed animals, is the loss of all these bones, so not only do you have a neck, but you’ve lost the operculum as well. And it turns out Tiktaalik
    is much the same. It’s evolved the ability to do push-ups, and at the same time it’s lost this whole series of bones here. And what this shows is,
    with this opercular series, is how one change, loss of simple bones, can affect several traits of the creature, from head mobility, which
    is important for locomotion and the variety of behaviors it has, to breathing as well. Because as you lose the operculum, there are new ways that have to come about to bring water through the mouth. So what’s Tiktaalik specialized to do? Here’s the reconstruction
    it’s a benthic animal, able to live on the water bottoms, with a flat head with eyes on top, looking at prey as they go by. It’s also an animal that’s
    able to live at the margin of water and land, and to feed as a carnivore, to feed either on fish or on the large variety of invertebrates that are present on land, and in the air at this time as well. So if you look at the
    family tree and you plot with all the various
    characters that we can do, Tiktaalik turns out to
    be very closely related to limbed animals. And so no surprise given all
    the features that we found. Now to really make sense of this, and to get back to the
    whole point of the talk, which is really understanding
    great transformations. Remember I opened with up the fact that this is an integrative discipline, this is something we have to pull in data from many different lines of inquiry. When it really comes down,
    we have to think of ways to integrate these studies of fossils. And I should say right off the bat, that Tiktaalik only gains
    meaning in relationship to the other fossils that
    we have in this sequence in this series here okay. It alone doesn’t tell us anything. It’s this whole batch
    of things which tell us how this transition happened. But we really have to begin to think about what living fish can tell us, and how they can, what lessons
    can we learn from them about how fish evolved to walk on
    land and to live on land. And there’s a couple things, I’m just gonna to isolate three. One is, we can study
    their genes and genetics. That is, we can look at the genetic recipe that builds the bodies of fish, and builds the bodies
    of land living animals and we can ask the question
    what’s different among them, and we can do that at the level of organs, we can do that the level of tissues, we can do that at a variety
    of different levels, with increasing precision every year. We can look at appendage support, how do fish support themselves
    with their appendage, what are the models of living organisms that do this kind of thing today, and we can look at air breathing. How does air breathing happen in fish? And you know we can do
    with, this is arbitrary, I could add in another four
    or five things on here, but I wanted to give you
    some take-home messages about what we can learn from living fish. Well if you look at it, what I’m going to show you here is, what you can see are limbs, these are fins up here
    and limbs down here. If you take living creatures
    alone, with no fossils, we have limbs with one bone, two bones, little bones and fingers, and I’m showing you a chicken and a human, and they have a one bone, two bone, sort of finger arrangement as well, despite the fact that it’s in a fin, and if you’re compare to fish
    fins that are alive today they don’t look a whole lot alike. Here’s a lungfish here, a creature Neoceratodus from Australia, and it has one bone okay down here, but it doesn’t have any other bones that look very limb-like, neither do any of these other fins here. Where the comparison gains meaning are when we add the fossils
    to this evolutionary tree, that we begin to see this one
    bone two bone limb pattern appearing and evolving in our own lineage. So if you just take living creatures, this transition from fin, I’m sorry from fin to limb, looks vast. But when we start to
    add in the fossil taxa, the fossil creatures and species, you begin to see the links between them. but really where it’s important is we can study the genetics
    and developmental biology of living creatures, in a way that we can’t do with the ones that have been
    dead for 375 million years. And when we do that, what
    we can begin to understand is the genetic toolkit and the recipe that builds the skeleton of an appendage. We can begin to ask the question is, what are the set of genetic interactions that build the pattern
    of one bone two bones, little bones, fingers? We begin to ask the question,
    what’s the genetic recipe that controls the number of bones in different parts of the body? It’s size and shape and so forth. And if we do that we can begin to see, and by about the late 90s we began to see that there’s a very
    characteristic set of patterns of gene activity and gene function, genes called the Hox genes and others, I’m not going to go through them all, that characterized the
    development of limbs. It’s a cascade of events, of cellular events and genetic events, that produced the pattern of limbs, I’m going to talk about
    that more tomorrow. However what was really interesting is we knew what this stuff was, how it was happening in
    chickens and mice and frogs. The real surprise came when we started to look at
    these genetic interactions and processes acting in fish fins, and what was truly remarkable, is that many of the genetic processes that build the fins and the
    skeleton of the fins of fish, and indeed that pattern
    them, are very similar to those that pattern the
    limbs of limbed animals. And in fact it’s very clear that you know, if you were to ask the question, are there any new genes that are patterning the
    limbs of limbed animals that aren’t in present in fins. The answer’s likely no. That is it’s not like the
    origin of limbs involved, necessarily involved the origin
    of whole new sets of genes, it involved whole new sets
    of genetic interactions, and new ways of genes
    being turned on and off in new places and so forth. so it’s using existing genes in new ways, and reconfiguring them. So the genetic, if you want toolkit, that’s necessary to build appendages, was already present when a lot of these fossils hit the scene. So the repertoire was already there. If we look at appendage
    support in extant creatures, what you’ll find is a lot of fish actually support themselves
    with their appendages. Most famous among this is the mudskipper. Mudskippers can live on
    land for a period of time, about 24 hours about the max in the mud, and they have appendages but
    the little type of elbow. And if you look at frog fish, the frog fish is a creature
    that can walk in the water, this is actually an aquatic
    creature they can walk around. It even has a little sort of
    elbow and a distal paddle. What’s remarkable about
    all these creatures that have evolved to sort of walk or support themselves
    with their appendages, is oftentimes they do it with
    equivalent kinds of joints. shoulders and and paddles and so forth. But in each case that they do it, they do it with different bones. So here is the frogfish fin, and you remember we have this
    one bone two bone little bone ray pattern, this is nothing like that. This is three bones, a big
    old plate, a big old rod, a big old rod here and a
    bunch of spikes coming off. That’s very different
    from the limb pattern in early, in limbed animals. So what you see is when fish, that are distantly related to
    Tiktaalik and other creatures evolved appendage support, they evolved similar kinds of joints but they do it with
    different sets of bones. Only one lineage did it our way, and that’s the Tiktaalik
    lobe-finned fish of ourlineage. Finally you can ask the question you know, the creatures that are
    doing appendage support and walking in mud and so
    forth, how they breathe? Well if you look at the
    evolutionary tree of fish, and you ask the question, how many of these things
    are air breathers? There are about 30,000
    different species of fish, say 29,000 of them or so. Of those that are looked at so far, in the last major monograph
    somebody identified 375 species of air breathing fish, which is what’s been looked at, there are certainly a whole lot more, in 49 different families
    and if you map it to a tree, it evolved at least 24 times. That likely is about three times to love, based on if you look at
    the trees that mapped on. So air breathing in fish has evolved many times independently
    in living extant fish. And how do they do it? The most common way that fish breathe air, at least in the evolutionary tree, is they use lungs. In fact lungs are primitive, lungs are primitive to this
    thing here, a Polypterus, to lung fish, indeed if you look at Tiktaalik and where it fits on this tree, Tiktaalik’s right about here. So lungs hit the scene
    well before Tiktaalik, and even its distant relatives were around in Devonian streams. They evolved in each case
    like in the lung fish they evolved to allow creatures to breathe when water gets anoxic and oxygen poor, they go up and gulp air
    in many different ways. And there other examples as well, there are diverse air breathing
    organs in this group here which is very specious. Some of these creatures
    vascularize their swim bladders, they vascularize their mouths there are numerous strategies
    for air breathing in fish, but lungs are the ones
    that are actually primitive to our own lineage. So returning to the
    initial sort of challenge. With air breathing evolving
    multiple times independently in fish, with the genes
    necessary to build limbs, already present in fish fins, with appendage support appearing in numerous kinds of fish independently, with intermediates in the fossil record at just the right time
    in the fossil record, you, you know don’t ask the question, how could this transition
    ever have happened. Ask the question, why
    did it happen only once. It’s so, this barrier
    between water and land seems to be very porous, at least for creatures
    that are specializing for the interface between water and land. And why did it evolve only once, I can only speculate. In our lineage and only evolved once. Perhaps it’s some sort of
    ecological king of the hill situation where, you have an incumbent, and it sort of displaces
    any other lineages that would evolve to walk on land, ’cause there’s already an
    incumbent set of species there. So all this is in terms
    of its extrapolating to great transformations. You know one way of thinking
    about great transformations, is the popular one you
    see day-to-day in cartoons and oftentimes in texts, which is as a ladder-like
    notion of change that is, you know one species
    leads to another species leads to another species. That’s not how it works. that’s not how the water
    to land transition works, that’s not how any of the
    other great transitions works. It’s not like Tiktaalik and its kin were sitting around thinking, oh golly I wanna to evolve
    lungs so I can walk on land, I wanna evolve wrists to walk on land. It was adaptation to life in water, it was diversification in life in water, finding new strategies to
    live on the water bottom in the shallows, in the interface between water and land, on the mud flats and so forth, that led to the diverse
    adaptations which became useful when the need came to walk on land. And so what we think about is
    evolution not as this ladder, but as Darwin originally
    proposed, as a tree. As a tree of evolution with a diverse set of strategies evolving. And I should say that
    there is a unifying theme to many of the great transformations, I’m gonna just close
    with a series of these. You can think of the
    transformation from something like you know the common
    ancestor of an acorn worm and the earliest fish with a skull. If you look at this change, if you look at creatures
    both living and long dead, what you’d find is a wonderful series of creatures with transitional features between acorn worm and
    fish and I should say, some of the most important
    species in this transformation have just been discovered
    in the last 30 years. You could say the same thing with any other great transformation. Take whales and their derivation
    from four-legged creatures about 50 million years ago, you could find fossils that have a series of transitional features
    leading to whales, devise a family tree well
    supported by characteristics which show how this sequence
    of changes happened. And again the major fossils
    that support this transformation discovered in the last 20 years. And the same thing is true with the shift from reptiles to mammals, to the evolution of our
    own species Homo Sapiens from our primate relatives, from birds to dinosaurs, when underlying all these
    transformations is this, that some of the most important
    fossils and understanding the great transitions
    in the history of life, have been discovered in the last 30 years. and when you think about this field, these are the great times in understanding great transformations. Nowhere has it become
    easier to find fossils from around the world, to analyze them in new
    ways with new imaging and new quantitative techniques, to study living creatures
    with understanding their genes and genomes and sequencing
    in an ever rapid clip, to understand the the
    genes that build bodies, and control development, to understand the
    biomechanics of the features that these creatures
    use to walk and to live, to understand the ecosystems and the systems that
    function as ecosystems and the food webs, the ways these creatures
    would have interacted. Nowhere, at no other time in
    the history of our science has it been a better time to
    study the great transformations because this is now a
    fundamentally integrative field, and an integrative biology. Thank you very much. (audience applauding) (gentle music)

    Making an H-Brace
    Articles, Blog

    Making an H-Brace

    August 11, 2019

    [music] Yeah, we’re going to probably go about
    right here. So we want to hole right there. Absolutely try to dead center split that
    post. A little more. You should stay about the same height and we… …want a hole there, kind of heading
    directly towards those posts in… …horizontal. Smack in the center of that
    post as you can. [drill whirring] -Like you’re drilling to the other end.
    Line it up. [drill whirring] -Drill right in line with the post.
    We’re going to fit that post between those two. That’s why we need some slop
    on one of them. [laughter] -Yeah, we can probably pull those out. -I have a hammer here somewhere.
    Where’d my hammer go? There. Now you can tamp that post! -That’s okay, but… -Tamping is the most important part. [post tamping] -If you put your wire up here and then
    down there as you squeeze it together… …it’s going to push this post that way,
    and that’s going to brace it against the… …wire stretching this way.
    So, this time we definitely need staples at… …both ends. We’re gonna, again,
    gonna wrap our wire around. [clanking] -Maybe a good, sensible deal would be to start by just putting a staple in down low. [pounding]
    -You don’t want it to slip off the staples. -Leave a little bit loose, so all it’s
    gonna do is hold it there. -No. When you… when you wrap, you
    probably want to… I think you probably… …want to kind of get it going at this right
    angle as quick as you can. That way it’s… …a lot less likely to loosen up. Rather
    than, you know, run it along the wire. -It works better with gloves. -Okay, another trick when you go to wrap this…
    what you’d like… …to probably do is… do kind of like he did
    there. Maybe get your wrap in here… …but get it at a place where you actually
    have to tip it off to the side to get by… …this post. That way, when you get it
    wrapped up, you can just flip it up here… …and it’s not going unwind. Okay.
    So if you get it about here, you want to be a… …little ways away from either end, I think…
    but kind of wrap it so that if you have to… …you might have to, you know, weave it
    back and forth to get by. But the idea, and what I’m getting at is…
    once we get it wrapped up pretty good, then we… …can swing it over, and it’s not going to
    come unwrapped. It’s going to butt up… …against this this brace post here.
    All we want to do is brace this, so as we put… …tension on it with… when we stretch the
    wire, that it’s coming up against… …something solid, and it’s not going to
    move. We’re not going to end up with… …a post that’s leaning in here over the
    years. That’s what we want…so… …that’s probably fine. [music]