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    Death of the American Hobo (Documentary)
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    Death of the American Hobo (Documentary)

    August 14, 2019

    BEN: Your heart’s racing. Obviously, you’re hoping that
    we wouldn’t get caught. -There’s something about the
    hobo that has to be recorded in American history. BEN: The whole time we were
    asking ourselves, what is the story here? What is the story of the hobo? What is a hobo? EMPRESS VAGABOND HOBO LUMP: It’s
    not like people think. It’s hard, like, a hard life. -It’s speeding up! Go go go go go go! [APPLAUSE] AARON SMITH: This
    is Britt, Iowa. It’s a small town of about
    2,000 people out in the central Iowa cornfields. Over the last 112 years,
    Britt has become known for one thing– an annual event called The
    National Hobo Convention. There’s a hobo jungle, a hobo
    museum, and a hobo cemetery. In 1900, Britt was just a newly
    incorporated farming community in search of
    migrant workers. The town founders enticed the
    hobos to move their annual gathering from Chicago
    to Britt. A tradition was born that still
    brings self-described hobos to Britt every year
    for one August weekend. HOBO MIKE: I’ve been traveling
    trains since I was eight, and as a living since ’63. FROG: I started riding trains
    when I was 20 years old. I’m 62 years old now. WRONG WAY: [LAUGHING] I’m Wrong Way. My nephew gave me that name
    in the early ’70s. HOBO SPIKE: I started in 1952,
    and I used a train to go from one place to another
    to find work, and that’s how I survived. AARON SMITH: Most historians
    agree the hobo emerged after the Civil War. Young men from both sides set
    off across the country in search of work. By the turn of the century, the
    hobo had become part of the fabric of America. But today, what was once a
    substantial culture and way of life seems close
    to extinction. We wanted to see what was left
    of the hobo community, and we hoped we’d find it in Britt. In our minds, there was only one
    way to travel to the hobo convention– the
    freight train. We began our journey in Oakland,
    California, hoping to travel 1,900 miles on the
    rails in five days. AARON SMITH: These are the maps
    that show the different rail lines all over California,
    with like, special zoom-ins that show you all the
    little small towns that you can stop in, different crew
    changes, and this is something totally like, pre-iPhone. Now you can totally just
    GPS your location. But these maps were really
    helpful for a lot of people for a long time. Before a cohesive network of
    roads was laid across America, the train was the fastest way
    to get from place to place. Early hobos learned to ride by
    swapping information with other travelers they met along
    the way in hobo jungles. Chris is from Virginia and
    spends his time hopping freight trains around the
    country for pleasure. Our friend Ben lives in San
    Francisco and had a couple weeks off work and decided
    to join us. BEN: I wasn’t sure what
    to expect of the trip. I knew it was going to be an
    adventure, but I didn’t know exactly what the details
    and the minutiae of the trip would hold. We woke up that morning, hoping
    to catch a train. But we woke up, got ready,
    there was no train there. And as more time passed, we
    realized that the information we had gotten was probably
    incorrect. AARON SMITH: We decided to wait
    for another train, but a worker spotted us in the yard
    and called the bull. Bull is an old-time term
    for a railroad cop. It’s always been a cat and mouse
    game between the hobo and the bull. Back in the day, bulls had
    no problem killing hobos. Today, it’s a little
    bit different. -We don’t really have
    hobos anymore. -A transient, a hobo, vagrant,
    is a guy who participates on the rail property– trespass, hopping
    freights, yeah. -And a tramp, tramp’s in
    the middle, right? -What did they call it? Tramps. I like that. That was back in the day, man. That was back in the day. Tramps, hobos. -When have you seen somebody
    with a broomstick– -A tramp with a bag tied around
    his shoulder, right? All right, guys. You know how to get out
    of here, right? Don’t come back, all right? -Don’t come back. AARON SMITH: There seem
    to be very few people hopping trains anymore. The hobo seems like
    a museum piece. It’s like a joke, a word
    nobody uses anymore. We didn’t want to go to the
    Oakland jail, so we headed to Amtrak station with our tails
    between our legs. We got out to the next crew
    change stop on the line– Roseville, California. As soon as we got to Roseville,
    there was a train getting ready to take off. Bad decision. A conductor saw us and we got
    pulled off the train five miles outside of town. Uh, we just got pulled
    off this train here. -Again. AARON SMITH: Yeah, yeah, it
    was the second time today. Morale was low. Chris decided to set off on
    his own to Denver, and we hopped a gambling bus
    to Reno, Nevada. JACKSON FAGER: Now we’re in
    Reno, Nevada, feeling a little better about our situation, and
    hoping a train comes in the next couple hours. AARON SMITH: In the yard,
    avoiding bulls and workers is one concern. Finding a rideable
    car is another. Some of the wells on these
    double-stacked cars have a cubby hole you can
    ride in, but we weren’t seeing anything. The locomotive at the back of
    the train, called the rear unit, seemed like
    our best bet. But it’s risky. Workers periodically
    check the cars. Lucky for us, the train
    aired up, and we finally got on our way. We’re indoors, Amtrak style, and
    we’ve got these big plushy seats, continuing along. We’re in the middle
    of nowhere. For the first 100 miles,
    there were no roads, no highways, no nothing. It was just desert as far
    as the eye could see. It was beautiful. It was amazing to kind of get
    that, see what that was like, vast expanses of nature. MEDICINE MAN: Now, everybody
    thinks that the real hobo life is great, and it’s part of
    wanderlust, but it’s not. The hobo life is a very,
    very dangerous life. ADMAN: Sometimes painful, when
    everything is all fucked up. You’re looking around, and
    the bulls are out there. BEN: It felt like something out
    of a special operations combat mission. We spotted a grain train. We knew that this was our
    ticket out of Elko. Go go go go go! ADMAN: Riding on a flat car with
    a full moon, and watching the [CLICKING NOISE] It’s a game that gives you
    a fucking hard-on, I can tell you that. MINNESOTA JIM: Once you
    do it, it’s with you the rest your life. You want to keep on the move. ADMAN: We see the world
    in a different light. FROG: Always total, absolute
    freedom, every day of my life. HOBO SPIKE: I don’t think
    there’s any better way to see this great world of ours,
    especially our nation, than from a freight train. AARON SMITH: We were crossing
    the Great Salt Lake. The air was cool, and
    the smell of sulfur rose from the water. It was the most undisturbed
    stretch of natural beauty any of us had ever seen. The train forces you to slow
    down and take it all in. All the frustrations and
    anxieties of life back in civilization seemed
    to disappear. HOBO SPIKE: When you’re on the
    rails, if you don’t get caught, there’s no one to tell
    you what to do, when to go to bed, when to get up,
    what to eat. You’re on your own for 100%. AARON SMITH: Although we were
    loving the ride, we were running out of water fast. After close to 24 hours on the
    train, we were hungry, tired, dirty, and dehydrated. Well, our train stopped here
    in Green River, Wyoming. It’s just a little railroad town
    here in southern Wyoming. Just kind of roamed around and
    got the vibe of the town. HOBO SPIKE: Then when you get
    into a community, of course you have to fit into society,
    so you have to abide by laws at that time. But if you’re by yourself,
    you don’t have to pay attention to any law. AARON SMITH: So we walked over
    this bridge that we’re sitting under now, probably about
    110 degrees, dry heat. BEN: Just took a dip
    in the Green River. After four or five days not
    showering, it felt amazing. AARON SMITH: I’m gonna go
    get in there right now. BEN: Our days have
    been very full. We haven’t gotten
    a lot of sleep. It’s been a few hours here, a
    few hours there, trying to hop on trains successfully,
    which we sometimes have, sometimes haven’t. We’re always on the move trying
    to get to our end goal, which is Britt. AARON SMITH: No eastbound trains
    were coming through. The sun went down, and we
    enjoyed the solitude of the Wyoming landscape. Up to this point, we hadn’t seen
    any other travelers on the trains. At the turn of the century,
    there were around a million hobos on the rails. After the Depression,
    that number doubled. Hobos had organized their own
    union, and there were over 60 hobo colleges all across
    the country. Boxcars were crowded
    with riders. But something happened midway
    through the century. Maybe it was American
    prosperity. Where there were once millions
    on the road, today, there’s probably a couple thousand. In my experience, you hardly
    ever see anyone on the rails. The next morning, we decided to
    try our luck in the Green River yard. -Hey, man. -How about yourself? -We’re hitchhiking. -Sorry, man. -Oh, really? -All right, thank you. -OK, man. -Thank you. AARON SMITH: After getting
    warned by the cops to leave, we went back to our original
    spot under the bridge. MEDICINE MAN: Today, you don’t
    want to jump a train. It’s so dangerous, because the
    old steam locomotives, it was chug, chug, chug, and pretty
    soon, it was [ENGINE NOISE]. But today, in two minutes,
    they’re flying. AARON SMITH: Our train stopped
    in the middle of the yard, and we didn’t know why. AARON SMITH: An hour went by,
    and it felt like an eternity. Each time you get on
    the train, it’s a role of the die– a unique and unpredictable
    experience. Perhaps that’s one
    reason we do it– to gamble, to relinquish control
    completely, and give ourselves to fate and luck. That was one of the faster
    ones I’ve hopped on. You kind of had to run alongside
    and kind of throw yourself up. But we all made it. Really grateful for that. The train out of Green River
    had three units and looked like it would blaze across
    Wyoming, but it puttered along the entire time at
    35 miles an hour. It was time for a
    change of plans. We arrived in Laramie, Wyoming
    on Friday morning, with still 800 miles to go to
    get to Britt. We were behind schedule,
    and the convention had already started. We got off here in Laramie,
    Wyoming because the train was so damn slow. Rent a cars were too expensive,
    the Greyhound would take two days, so we ended
    up getting this U-Haul. 12-hour drive ahead of us, and
    we’ve gotta haul ass to Britt. In keeping with the spirit of
    our trip, we picked up all the hitchhikers we saw
    along the way. JOE YOUNG: Hey, what’s
    up, guys? I’m Joe Young. I’ve been on the road for about
    four or five years. The only way I get around
    is on bicycle. AARON SMITH: We picked
    up another guy. This is Alex. He’s coming from Colorado. ALEX: How’s it going? AARON SMITH: It didn’t take us
    long to fill up the back of the U-Haul. After six grueling days
    of traveling, we finally arrived in Brit. We were ready to hang out with
    hundreds of hobos and swap stories about our travels
    on the rails. -Hello! Happy Hobo Days! -Happy Hobo Days! -What we found instead was a
    family-friendly event with a bunch of tourists. BEN: Just a number of
    townspeople, big farm tractors, fancy or unusual cars,
    and homemade floats. People– not hobos. -All aboard! -The hobo convention has gone
    county fair mainstream. This wasn’t the wild, drunken,
    turn of the century event that brought 1,800 hobos
    here in the 1940s. -Well, we’re serving mulligan
    stew, and it is what the traditional hobo
    used to serve. Meat– we have pork in ours–
    and then it has beef flavoring, and pork flavoring,
    and then vegetables, barley, and rice in it, and
    then water. -Every year for the past 112
    years, the hobos have elected a hobo king and queen. -This year, our new
    queen is Angel. And your new king is
    Minnesota Jim. -It’s an important moment for
    them, especially now that most of the hobos are senior
    citizens. The hobo jungle in Britt is a
    well maintained park on the edge of town. It used to be a pretty
    This is not the same. They bring in like a family
    affair, and a history thing, and people learning. Because the hobo, you wouldn’t
    be finding no children in an old camp, you know
    what I mean? People really was kind of
    sleeping out, and across the tracks or in the bush. It was more like a jungle. AARON SMITH: Today, there’s
    a lot of rules. No drinking, no drugs,
    no unleashed dogs. It’s become the kind of place
    that people used to become hobos to get away from. Most of the hobos we met were
    retired from riding trains. Living an itinerant life for
    decades takes its toll. MEDICINE MAN: A modern-day
    hobo, probably in my estimation, is getting to the
    point where it’s rubber tire hobos that come together
    and perpetuate history. AARON SMITH: The convention
    has become a shadow of its former self. The city’s turned it
    into a parody. There are still plenty young
    people out there riding the rails for adventure, but those
    who call themselves hobos and travel around looking for
    work are a dying breed. FROG: And it’s still there. Though I’m not riding freight
    trains, it’s still there. I still want to ride. AARON SMITH: Out on the rails,
    we slowed down and experienced an adventure that was
    once a way of life for a lot of people. The train tracks persist on,
    relics on the landscape, entry points into the hidden world. We felt a deep nostalgia for a
    time that’s passed and sadness for the American hobo, fast
    disappearing down the westbound track. FROG: I have one final ride, and
    it’s my westbound journey. -For the moments of happiness,
    for the love, for the moments of disappointments, for
    everything, hobo is thankful to the railroad.



    August 13, 2019

    – [Coyote] You ready? – [Cameraman] Oh,
    spider, huge spider! Right there right there,
    Oh, whoa. right there, right there.
    Is that a tarantula? – [Coyote] No no no no no. I think that’s a
    funnel web spider. – Okay, a bite from this
    is potentially lethal. I’m just gonna set that down
    and see if I can coax it. It’s in, it’s in
    there, it’s in there. (highly energetic music) Australia’s arguably the most dangerous continent
    in the world. I’m sure that as your
    imagination begins to run wild, you are likely
    thinking about being snatched from a river’s
    edge and eaten alive by a giant Saltwater Crocodile. Or perhaps you are envisioning
    how terrifying it would be if you were to stumble
    upon and be bitten by one of it’s incredibly
    venomous snakes, like the Eastern Brown. However, it’s not
    only the reptiles that you need to be weary off. Tonight we are exploring
    just outside of Sydney, the most densely populated
    city in Australia, which also happens to be home to the world’s deadliest spider,
    the Sydney Funnel Web. Armed with a set
    of massive fangs, and an incredibly toxic
    venom, just a single bite from this spider has the
    ability to kill a human. Sounds terrifying, yet these
    spiders are rather illusive and tend to avoid
    humans at all cost. In fact, they can be
    rather difficult to find, as building their silk
    lined, funnel shaped burrows under rocks or in rotting logs keeps them hidden
    and out of sight. Ooh, covered in ants,
    watch out for that. Let’s go on the back
    side of this tree. There’s some logs
    to flip over here. So, unless you’re like me
    and are flipping over debris in the environment, your
    odds of encountering one are pretty unlikely. You ready? Lift this up. Oh, spider, huge spider. Right there, right there,
    Oh, Whoa. right there, right there.
    Is that a tarantula? No, no, no, no, no, I think
    that’s a Funnel Web Spider. Right there, just came out
    from underneath that log. Look at it’s
    abdomen, right there. Holy cow, that’s definitely
    a Funnel Web Spider. Hold on, I need to get
    it in this container. Oh my gosh, did you see? It’s a good thing I picked up
    the log from the other side. It was just burrowed
    right underneath there. – [Cameraman] That’s a
    tiny container, dude. That looks too big
    to be a Funnel Web. – [Coyote] No, no,
    no, it definitely is. Look at the front of it’s body. – [Cameraman] Oh yeah. – [Coyote] Wow, that
    spider’s so big, I don’t think it’s going
    to fit in this container. Mario, you have that bigger jar? – [Mario] Yeah, I think might
    have one in my backpack. Hang on. – [Coyote] Let me see
    if I can peel back some of these grasses.
    It looks like a tarantula but, Ooh, it’s moving, hurry up. – [Mario] I understand, here. – [Coyote] Okay, bite from
    this is potentially lethal. I’m just going to set that
    down and see if I can coax it. I’m going to try to coax it
    right into the container. Now they cannot jump but
    they will lunge forward. Oh, it’s in, it’s
    in there, it’s in. There we go. Wow, look at that.
    Oh yeah. That is 100 percent
    a Funnel Web Spider. – [Cameraman] That is a big one. – Wow, we can not
    miss getting this up close for the cameras. Okay, let me grab my bag and
    let’s head up to those rocks. Wow, that is without
    question a Funnel Web Spider. The question that remains
    is what species is it? I want to find a
    good, flat open rock. – [Cameraman] How about
    that one right there? – This? Yeah.
    Yeah, that looks pretty. – [Cameraman] Or that
    one. Is that better? – Yeah, that’s a
    little bit better. Let’s see if it will just
    sit on top of the rocks if it’s just like this. – [Cameraman] Yeah, I
    like this, this is good. – Wow. – [Cameraman] Let’s have a look. – That is intimidating. It does, it looks
    like a tarantula. I know you said,
    “Is it a tarantula? “You sure it’s a
    Funnel Web Spider?” 100 percent certain it’s
    a Funnel Web Spider. One of the ways that you can
    identify this species as such is they have a very
    bald cephalothorax. Now, they do have hairs on
    their legs, and on the abdomen, but that is how you can
    recognize a Funnel Web Spider, and that’s the perfect
    sort of place to find them. Underneath logs
    where they can wait and ambush for their prey. Now, they will also,
    obviously, be inside of burrows with those little funnel web
    systems, and whoa, am I glad that I picked up the log
    from the end that I did. Now, my fingers didn’t
    tuck underneath the log. I was on the top side
    and that’s why you always pick up a log from an
    area that you can see, because if you tuck
    your fingers underneath, you grapple onto that
    spider, and you take a bite, you are on your way to the
    hospital, without question. Okay, now, I know it’s probably
    kind of tough to see it inside of this container, so
    let me see if I can take it out and place it on the rock here, and let’s get some
    shots with you. Are you ready for that? – [Cameraman] Okay,
    let me help the guys break out the light real quick. – Okay,
    It’s getting dark. We’re losing light here. (dramatic music) Alright guys, we have
    the lights set up now, and in the lights, the
    spider is even more intimidating looking. You can see the sheen on the
    legs and the cephalothorax. Ah, it’s already cast
    a little bit of webbing inside the container
    there, and uh, I think if you guys are ready, let’s take it out
    of the container and see if it will just hold
    it’s ground here on the rock. Now, this is an extremely
    aggressive spider species, and often times, they won’t run, but what they will do is rear up and show you those fangs,
    and those front legs. Okay.
    We have to be very cautious. Yeah, I’m just going to
    gently tilt this down like this, and let’s
    see if it will crawl out and just stop right
    there, here we go. Okay, see if I can
    get it to stay still. Ooh, you stay, you
    stay, you stay. Actually, maybe I’ll do this. It seems to be more comfortable
    inside the container. – [Cameraman] Yeah,
    that works for me. How about you, Mario?
    Okay. This is such a dangerous spider. I mean, even more so
    than a wandering spider. – [Cameramen] Ohh.
    Okay. Look at those hooked legs,
    allowing it to hold on to the edge of the container. Let me see if I do
    this, maybe if I put the container over
    top of it, and give it just a second to
    stay right there. Now, one reason that
    the bite it so bad is that because when they
    bite, their fangs are so long, they actually will
    hook into you, hold on, and continue
    to pump venom. And it’s not like a Black
    Widow or a Red Back Spider where they might give
    you a warning bite. A bite from this spider
    species is full on, as much venom as I can inject. Okay, let’s try this. Everybody got a decent
    shot on the spider? There you have it, wow,
    and just for scale. Look at how big that
    spider is next to my hand. Not taking my eyes
    off of the arachnid. That is definitely as close
    as I feel like I can get. Alright Mark, let’s try this, I’m going to try to present it from just it’s still
    position, right there, and like all spider species,
    you see those very defined eight legs, but they also have
    very long pedipalps upfront and that helps them to
    grapple on to their prey, and when they rear up,
    they show those fangs, and their fangs are
    incredibly long. Longer, in some
    cases, than even some of the snake species
    here in Australia. Now, one of the reasons that
    this spider is considered so dangerous, is because
    they can often times be found in residential areas. The Sydney Funnel Web
    specifically is often times found right in
    people’s backyards. That’s why they tell
    you if you’re out there working in the garden, make
    sure you have on gloves. You can be tilling up
    dirt, accidentally grab one of these things, it bites
    you on the tip of the finger, and you may be seeing symptoms
    in as few as 15 minutes. Now, the immediate bite, you’re
    definitely going to notice. The fangs are long
    enough to draw blood, but immediately you’ll feel
    throbbing in your finger, and shortly after,
    you’ll start to feel a tingling in your
    mouth and lips. Now, if you’re bitten
    by one of these spiders, you want to apply compression
    to the entire arm. So, let’s say you’re bitten
    on the top of your finger, put compression straps up
    the length of your arm. That will help slow the movement of the venom into your body. Wow, that is impressive. Now, there are around
    40 recognized species of Funnel Web Spider, with
    one of the most dangerous being the Sydney Funnel
    Web, and I can’t identify exactly if this is
    a Sydney or not, but what we do want to do
    is actually take this spider back with us into civilization. Where we want to go is the
    Australian Reptile Park. They are, oh, it’s moving. The Australian Reptile
    Park is the one place in Australia where they
    actually extract venom from these spiders
    and then in turn build an antivenom for
    people that are bitten. So, this spider that
    we found right here, might actually be used
    to save some lives. How cool is that?
    Awesome. I think the best thing to
    do now is put a cap on this, place it in my pack,
    and call it a night. I’m Coyote Peterson,
    be brave, stay wild. We’ll see you on
    the next adventure. Alright, we are
    taking this spider to the Australian Reptile Park. Wow, what a find! Australia’s home to a collection
    of dangerous arachnids, from the Red Back,
    to the Huntsmen, and ultimately the Funnel Web. This beautiful continent is
    crawling with venomous spiders. Catching a Funnel Web
    Spider is something I had always hoped to do, and
    now with one in my possession, it was time that the crew and I headed to the
    Australian Reptile Park. Famous for being the only
    sanctuary of it’s type in Australia, they’re
    renowned for their spider and snake venom milking program. Will our spider’s venom be
    used to save human lives? Stay tuned for the
    fascinating conclusion as I get dangerously close
    to this creepy arachnid. And don’t forget, subscribe so
    you can join me and the crew on this season of
    Breaking Trail. Things are about
    to get dangerous. (animal noises)

    Cursed by Coal: Mining the Navajo Nation
    Articles, Blog

    Cursed by Coal: Mining the Navajo Nation

    August 12, 2019

    this mine been here enough enough at digging enough for ruining Mother Earth enough for ruining the skies enough of that I feel for my mom she fought for her land this time and she’s still going I stand on opposition to this service our earth was being violated our very life is being violated there needs to be a line drawn and the rez dirt the southwestern united states as we know it is a feat of modern engineering with some of the fastest growing cities in the country from Las Vegas to Phoenix to Los Angeles we’ve managed to manufacture urban oasis in the middle of the desert but this growth comes at a price for more than half a century these cities have drawn a great deal of their energy resources from one place the Navajo Nation for the last six decades the Navajo Nation the largest Native American reservation which spans three states has been mined for its coal reserves powering much of the southwest and profiting some of the largest energy companies in the world but for the people living here coal has been a mixed blessing so behind me as far as I can see are these hills of black and that’s all coal and it’s hard to begin to fathom what it’s doing to the environment out here just kind of laying out in the open my dad my mom everybody still used to walk up here and we just see everybody working here with a big old US coal mine you know like a dust flying all over the place people don’t even know that there’s you know you can get you your health or anything like that and my grandma everybody says to say man I think they’re coming this way you gonna keep digging they’re gonna keep digging until they get to my house Joe Allen grew up here and has seen how the continuous blasting and excavating has devastated the land how is the environment around here change since you were young seems like everything is just dying out here everything just dying and is it because of the mind I think it’s because of the mind yeah and everything is being ruined they don’t care about people living on that land we grew up right here this area here and that’s smoke right there you can feel all the ashes coming down like like snow sometime when when I was a little kid and I used to say hey grandma is snowing over here look at that and says nope that’s all the stuff they burn off the power plant over here the four-corners power plant is one of the largest and dirtiest of the 633 coal-fired power plants in the country its views toxic mercury emissions into the air and dumps dangerous coal waste into the nearby storage ponds okay right here is a pond the fly ash that they have that fly ash been sitting there for it’s probably about 30 or 40 years it’s been there that’s not safe right here and they said that some of this stuff was seep into the ground and goes in the water so it’s a pond filled with this ash that has potential toxic chemicals in it yes and it’s lying right out here in the open mm-hmm because the way sits and online pits in the ground there’s very little to stop it from contaminating nearby rivers and drinking water sources harmful levels of lead copper and mercury have been found in the nearby Chaco River which flows into the San Juan River Basin it seems like there were a lot of people living pretty close to the mine and to the plant did anybody suffer from any health effects yes yes asthma eye problem are you concerned about it oh i’m concerned about everything i’m concerned about that smoke I’m concerned about that power plant and I’m concerned about that pond air and I’m concerned about the land that they ruined in the sky why burn this they’ve got dollar signs under hit yes and hey we need to get that money the coal is also the biggest employer on the reservation where the unemployment rate hovers somewhere between 40 and 60 percent so many work at the mines despite the damaging effects on their health built up a gay worked at the cayenne Tomine for 22 years now he has black lung a terminal respiratory illness caused by long-term exposure to coal dust I didn’t teacher sit or dude oh hey Jake it is a hot day the deficit at a chica it seems like coal mining isn’t going away anytime soon how do you feel about your future and the future of others in this community hey a day says the kid a Squealer sighs you’d be el que todo de nada the Fox Antonis look II noticed mr. Lindy was accredited your loan in 2013 one of the mines on the Navajo Nation threatened to shut down putting the local economy and nearly a thousand jobs at risk so the tribe elected to buy the mine to keep it running the decision was a controversial one many in the community were angry at tribal leadership for making the purchase I call the score the company is fun and the Navajo Nation is Sara you cannot let us know this was gone tribal elder Dwayne chili Ozzie has been one of the most vocal advocates against the purchase of the mine how has coal affected this community coal has been very significant in our community history the positive impact of coal in terms of the livelihood that it provides is only for a small number of the people whereas all of us continue to suffer the environmental consequences of coal mining and coal burning what are your thoughts about the purchase of the mine it was a bad deal the coal mining company was able to put into the contract that they would not be held liable for any liability past present or future and for them to be free and clear stupidity of the highest order how about the economic future this purchase was made to secure financial stability it seems like do you think that that’s viable in the years to come the nomination didn’t have 85 million dollars to to to write a check for the coal mine purchase and the arrangement is the company is fronting that money and it still remains a mystery as to what the the interest rate is on that that’s something that that’s so confidential that we still do not know about our tribal leadership has been negligent they have not protected our interests this isn’t the first shady coal dealing for the Navajo Nation a deal made on Black Mesa the site of the largest known coal deposit in the country has haunted the tribe since its signing in the 1950s a lawyer named John Boyden appointed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs set up a deal to open Black Mesa for mining he also just happened to be on the payroll of a coal company Peabody Energy who then set up one to the largest coal strip mining operations in the country all the coal that was mined was transported in what was the only coal slurry pipeline in the u.s. which used billions of gallons of water a year from Black Mesa aquifer the sole drinking water source in the area today Black Mesa is dry residents have to travel great distances to water pumps like this one Mary is filling up for her mother who lives over an hour away so is there no water where you live on the Mesa there’s no water we had to haul water for ourselves for our animals how long has there been no water where you live for years the slurry line takes so much water with coal going into that pipe and all the springs the spring water there they’re dried out it causes too much but we’re hanging in there I know a life is hard I feel for my mom I know she’s getting old she’s she’s 92 years old and she’s so strong she fought for her land this time and she’s still going she’s just strong strong lady over the past several years Peabody has tried to expand its mining operations but a few holdout stand in their way Mary’s mom 92 year old Rena Lane is one of the last resistors of the expansion on Black Mesa Rena’s been told she’s trespassing on our own land but refuses to back down when one day her sheep cross into the contested area rangers paid her a visit Koko’s attended that mm-hmm and that’s a love she has on again yes it’s no I don’t know at age 100 this alluring I sure Tasha nuts interceding and essentially with the city by not focusing yaga yaga stun Julian Allah your disguise no no I don’t get bored indecision that’s when she had her bone fracture on her collar and they told her that they weren’t it go to jail and then they won’t come back and take take her animals the next day do you think this happened because they want you off the land they should Benigno that you oh yeah shared tthe lucky banana I should tell you they’ll get this shot oh you or the dish shut the joke witnesses ashamed job because the G double cut no side of a carton a studio but cut across securedoc home wash alone he was cheap in Judah other than that you know that bent the huddle in over 12,000 people have been displaced since coal mining began on the Navajo Nation making it one of the largest removals of Native Americans since the 19th century while there’s talk of coal production decreasing the reality is that it’s an energy source will be dependent on for decades to come so for the time being millions of tons of coal will continue to be extracted and burned here providing cheap electricity at a high cost

    Best Train In the World? | Wild Bucket List Train to Machu Picchu!
    Articles, Blog

    Best Train In the World? | Wild Bucket List Train to Machu Picchu!

    August 12, 2019

    Good morning Vagabuddies. It is about 8 a.m. We’re outside of Cusco in the town of Poroy, and we’re on our way to Machu Picchu. There are only two ways to get to Machu Picchu: hiking or taking a train, and we are taking one of the top ten trains in the world here in Bingham. This is going to be an experience. Marko is so excited. He’s always been obsessed with trains even when he was a little baby. He was like…trains. This train is a luxury train. We’re going to have cocktail service, champagne, live music, food, white linen service, and it’s going to be incredible, not to mention the scenery that we’ll be going through…. some of the most beautiful in South America. Are you ready? Oh yeah. It’s a three hour 15 minute long train ride, and the champagne is being poured. I believe we’ve got a train to catch my friend. Ah touche! All right.. well we are boarded and we’re boozed. They’ve already served us champagne. They have that stuff called Maca. I don’t know “whatta I like-a” about Maca, but um yeah. It’s going to be about the potato soup. It’s going to be a fun trip. It’s like in three and a half hours. No wifi, just beautiful views. Are you excited, Mark? I love trains, and this is one of the top 10 train rides in the world. So, I’m definitely excited. The name of the train is Hiram Bingham. And Hiram Bingham was the American Explorer who found Machu Picchu in 1911. He went on to become a senator and philanthropist, but back in 1911 he was the first kind of foreigner to rediscover Machu Picchu. He had a lot of interesting ideas about the significance of Machu Picchu; a lot of those have been kind of proven wrong throughout the subsequent decades, and archaeological digs have kind of shed light on what Machu Picchu, at least what we think it actually was. When he found it, it was completely overgrown, and it was kind of an exciting time. It was the turn of the 20th century. Big things were happening. It was right before First World War. Okay, so now we’re making our way downhill because Machu Picchu is lower than Cusco. Cusco was about 3,500 meters, and Machu Picchu is about 7,500 feet Not sure what that is and meters, but it’s downhill. This area right here we’re going down about 400 meters in just five kilometers to get into this gorge, and the views are just becoming increasingly stunning. We’ve kind of moved away from the agricultural communities, and now we’re in the more steep, narrow valleys of the sacred valley. It must be hard to keep this railway open. Just looking out the window right here there’re construction crews working on the road that kind of mirrors the train tracks. There are landslides galore, and very, very large boulders to the point where now we are actually backing up. The train is going uphill Actually, we need to descend 40 meters. Yes, that’s why we need to use a switchback system. This is called the Spanish zigzag. Exactly, we are changing tracks , yes, you see? Oh, I see. Now we’re going to change to another track because it’s coming in the wrong way. It’s very high. Yeah. Awesome. Love me two times, girl because I’m going away. Love me two times, baby. One for tomorrow; one just for today. Love me two times. I’m going away. Well this is awesome. Totally see why this is a top ten train ride in the world. The views are stunning. The party is going, and the Pisco Sours are flowing. It’s insane. Beautiful scenery, really good vibes, good drinks. Yeah, I mean there’s nothing quite like hanging off the back of a train with a cocktail in hand. Right now we’ve started entering the Valle Sagrada, the sacred valley. Right here you see Urubamba River This is the sacred river. This is awesome. I got one more Pisco Sour for the road. It’s time for lunch. They’re serving lunch. I’ve got to walk back through the train, which could be kind of challenging because I’ve had a few of these things. We shall see. Now it’s lunch time. We have a beautiful little plate here. I arrived late, so I have no idea what I’m about to eat. Marko, please enlighten me. Trucha Ahumada, smoked trout with salmon and also a spread of avocado. Enjoy. Bon Appetit. For the main course we have lomo saltado, but kind of like a filet mignon with some cute little vegetables tied up with vegetables. I don’t know how they did that, but they did that. Corn husk is how they did that. Sometimes, it’s better not to know. All right ladies and gentlemen.. well we have descended from the high Andes, and now we are on the eastern slope of the Andes Mountain Range heading down towards the Amazon Basin. It’s pretty incredible. The mountains have changed from this dry.. kind of high alpine into lowland jungle with lots of vegetation. Beautiful flowing river next to us, but we’re getting closer to Machu Picchu. Ladies and gentlemen we have arrived to the base of Machu Picchu. This was probably the coolest train ride I’ve ever been on, and I think that we are in for a very awesome adventure in the next vlog. We’re about to go up to Machu Picchu. We’re going to film a VR video and the behind- the -scenes video. So make sure you stay tuned for both of those. Big thanks to Peru Rail for inviting us on this trip. This was honestly one of the best experiences of all my travels. So thank you to Peru Rail, and thank you guys for watching. If you enjoy this video give it a thumbs- up, share with your travel buddies and subscribe to Vagabrothers and turn on notifications, if you have not already. This train is about to depart. We’re about to hike up to Machu Picchu. So stay curious, keep exploring, and we will see you on the Inca Road.

    Crossing Mexico’s Other Border
    Articles, Blog

    Crossing Mexico’s Other Border

    August 9, 2019

    Wir sind jetzt in Guatemala, Tecun Uman. Das ist der Fluss Suchiate. Hier kommen alle auf dem Weg in die USA durch. Alle, die keine Papiere haben, “Wetbacks”. Sie verlangen 10 Quesal oder 20 Pesos (1,30 Euro), nur für die Flussüberquerung. Wenn du keine Papiere, eine Erlaubnis, einen Ausweis oder
    ein mexikanisches Visum hast, darfst du die Brücke nicht überqueren. Chiapas ist ein Bundesstaat, der eine gemeinsame, 654,5 km lange
    Grenze mit Guatemala hat. An dieser Grenze gibt es acht offizielle Übergänge. Gefunden haben wir aber über 300 illegale. Mexiko ist ein wichtiger
    Empfangs- und Transitstaat für Migranten. Zwischen 2005 und 2009 stiegen die Migrationsströme auf einen Rekord von
    433.000 uns bekannten Fällen. Migranten kommen hauptsächlich aus Guatemala,
    El Salvador, Honduras und Nicaragua. Die meisten sind auf der Suche
    nach dem Amerikanischen Traum. Sie haben sich aus Geldmangel und fehlenden
    Möglichkeiten entschlossen auszuwandern. Wirtschaftliche Faktoren sind für die
    Migrantenströme aus Honduras verantwortlich. In El Salvador spielen Bandengewalt
    und die Maras eine Hauptrolle. Und aus Guatemala kommen die, die Arbeit suchen. Mexiko ist ein Herkunftsland, ein Transitland, ein Land, das Menschen aufnimmt und
    wohin Menschen zurückkehren. Mexikaner und auch
    Ausländer kehren hierher zurück. Wenn es regnet, ist es unheimlich,
    weil es dann viele Wellen gibt. Es ist ein gefährlich, aber es funktioniert. Gott sei dank ist mir noch nie etwas passiert. Sie sind wirklich allen
    Arten von Missbrauch ausgesetzt: Erpressung, Entführungen, Menschenhandel, Drogenhandel, Zwangsarbeit
    und Zwangsprostitution. Natürlich sind es die Frauen, die am verwundbarsten und am meisten von den Missständen betroffen sind. Wenn du nach Chiapas kommst, siehst du entlang der Grenze Frauen, meist aus Zentralamerika, die Opfer von sexueller Ausbeutung sind. Die meisten sind nur auf der Durchreise. Sie wollen in die USA,
    um dort eine richtige Arbeit zu finden, denn sie haben Kinder, eine Familie,
    einen Freund und Eltern. Sie wollen nicht als Prostituierte arbeiten und schon gar nicht wie Sklaven behandelt werden. Ein paar Frauen entscheiden
    sich dazu hier zu bleiben und in einer Bar als Prostituierte zu arbeiten. Es gibt auch Migranten, die in Mexiko bleiben wollen. Ich denke, das sind die wenigsten,
    im Vergleich zu den Unmengen, die im Norden nach einer
    Verbesserung ihrer finanziellen Lage suchen. In den “Toleranzzonen” gibt es Bars, “Cantinas” und Bordelle, in denen Frauen aus freien Stücken
    als Prostituierte arbeiten. Diese Dinge stehen zweifellos
    mit dem Strom von Einwanderern in Verbindung. Im Bundesstaat Chiapas
    gibt es ein paar große “Toleranzzonen”. Hier in Tapachula gibt es
    “Las Huacas”, in Tuxtla die “Galaktische Zone”, und natürlich gibt es welche in San Cristóbal,
    Huixtla und Frontera Comalapa. Ich heiße Yoana und
    wir sind hier in Huixtla, Mexiko. Ich komme aus Guatemala und
    ich habe das Land verlassen, weil es in Guatemala gefährlich ist. Ich kam hierher, weil mir jemand sagte,
    dass es in Huixtla besser sei. Ich kam hierher,
    habe mit dem Manager gesprochen und ihn gefragt, ob er mir einen Job
    geben könnte, und er sagte “Ja”. Ich heiße Josue Toledo. Wir sind hier in der “Toleranzzone” von Huixtla. Joanna ist nicht immer hier. In der einen Sekunde ist sie hier, dann ist schon wieder woanders. Sie verkaufen ihre Körper … Vergnügungen, die Männer brauchen. Die Mädchen sind in diesen Räumen. Sie zahlen Miete, nicht viel, 50, 60 Pesos (3,50 Euro). Was sie da drinnen machen, ist ihre Sache. Das ist Joselin. Verpiss dich, Chepe! Sie ist neu hier. Alle anderen Zimmer sind abgeschlossen. Wir haben keinen Terminplan. Wir kommen und gehen, wann wir wollen. Keiner zwingt uns zu irgendetwas. Ich heiße Patricia Trinidad López. Ich arbeite in Bars und “Cantinas”. Wir sind hier in Huixtla, Chiapas. Die “Toleranzzone” besteht aus vielen “Cantinas”, Bars, Restaurants und Nachtclubs. Darum geht es schließlich in einer “Toleranzzone”. Neben dem Verkauf von Alkohol und Bier gibt es auch Prostitution. Aus der Not heraus kommen sie hierher, um zu arbeiten. Man könnte sagen, es sind ausschließlich Migranten. Mexikanische Frauen findet man hier nicht. Die meisten kommen aus Guatemala,
    El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua. Das Geld reicht hier länger als dort. Die Lebensqualität ist höher, Essen, Kleidung und andere Dinge sind besser. Mit jedem Kunden verbringen sie 10 bis 15 Minuten. Egal, ob der Mann gekommen ist oder nicht, er hatte seine Zeit und muss dann gehen. Sie sind hier von 9 Uhr bis 23 Uhr. Wenn sie es gut machen,
    dann bleiben sie 15 Tage oder einen Monat. Wenn nicht, bleiben sie eine Woche und gehen dann. Alle haben Kinder und arbeiten hier,
    um sie zu versorgen. Ich denke, sie tun es für ihre Kinder. Das sind meine Kinder.
    Das ist Justin und das ist Henry. Die meisten verlangen 50 Pesos (3,20 Euro) aufwärts. An einem guten Tag verdienen sie zwischen 1.000 und 1.500 Pesos (60 bis 95 Euro). Wenn es schlecht läuft, zwischen 300 und 400 Pesos (20 bis 25 Euro). Soweit ich weiß, sind die meisten von ihnen erwachsen. Bis jetzt sind die Mädchen
    immer von selbst hierher gekommen, und sie wissen, dass sie hier als
    Prostituierte arbeiten werden. Manche Mädchen werden
    von jemandem hergebracht, von einem Zuhälter. Der nimmt sich das, was sie verdienen, und
    sie dürfen nur einen kleinen Teil behalten. “Du gibst mir soundsoviel. Ich weiß, wo deine Familie, deine Kinder leben.
    Es ist deine Entscheidung.” Menschenhandel ist etwas anderes als Prostitution. Prostitution ist für alle sichtbar,
    sogar die Hygiene wird kontrolliert. Menschenhandel ist etwas anderes. Menschenhandel beginnt
    auf mexikanischem Boden. In den “Toleranzzonen”
    findet auch Betrug statt. Und wenn wir von Betrug sprechen,
    dann sprechen wir von Menschenhandel. Betrug spielt bei Menschenhandel immer eine Rolle. Sie versprechen ihnen einen Job als Kellnerin. Sobald sie dort sind, nehmen sie ihnen
    die Papiere weg und erpressen sie: “Es war schwer und teuer, dich hierher zu bringen
    und du musst dafür zahlen.” So werden sie reingelegt und
    geraten in ein System sexueller Ausbeutung. Menschenhandel ist psychologische Sklaverei. Sie sage ihnen, dass sie unwürdig,
    wertlos und nutzlos sind. Sie schwächen ihr Selbstwertgefühl
    und erpressen sie. Besonders, wenn sie sie drogenabhängig machen. Menschenhandel ist eine
    moderne Form der Sklaverei. Deshalb wird es in Chiapas bekämpft. Es gibt Ermittler, die in Gebiete gehen, von denen wir durch anonyme und direkte Hinweise oder sogar aus Pressemeldungen wissen, dass Migranten sexuell oder
    als Zwangsarbeiter ausgebeutet werden. Die Staatsanwaltschaft und
    die Polizei werden dorthin von Leuten begleitet, die die Opfer kompetent betreuen. Wir wollen sehen, was dort passiert. Ich heiße Alejandro Vila Chávez. Ich bin Staatsanwalt, spezialisiert auf
    Verbrechen gegen Migranten. Wir sind hier im Büro des Sonderstaatsanwaltes, in Tapachula, Chiapas. Durch das Allgemeine
    Bevölkerungsgesetz werden die, die Menschenhandel mit Migranten betreiben,
    als Kriminelle angesehen. Deshalb wurde die Sonderstaatsanwaltschaft
    für Verbrechen gegen Migranten ins Leben gerufen. Die Migranten wissen,
    dass sie ins Justizministerium kommen können, da wir für sie kämpfen und ihre Rechte schützen. Zusätzlich haben wir auch Programme
    zur Verfolgung von Kriminellen. Wir durchkämmen Gebiete zu Fuß, in denen die Verbrechensrate,
    nach Aussage der Migranten, besonders hoch ist. Das Ziel der Staatsanwaltschaft ist es, Migranten vor Verbrechen zu schützen. Wir sind hier in Huixtla, Chiapas, in einer Gegend bekannt als La Arrocera. Das ist der Huayate-Kontrollpunkt, der vom Nationalen Institut für
    Migration betrieben wird. Das ist der Kontrollpunkt,
    den die Migranten umgehen müssen, um nicht abgeschoben zu werden. Migranten reisen nicht mehr ab
    Tapachula auf dem “Beast”. Unterwegs müssen sie das Fahrzeug wechseln und das macht das Ganze gefährlicher. Sie müssen den Huayate-Kontrollpunkt umgehen. Mit dem Zug würden sie einfach geradeaus fahren. Hinauf nach Arriaga und dann Oaxaca. Es ist unsere Pflicht, sie auf dieser Strecke zu beschützen, wenn man bedenkt, dass die Staatsanwaltschaft
    der Staatsgesetzgebung untersteht, wohingegen das Nationale Institut für Migration der Bundesgesetzgebung unterliegt. Unsere Aufgabe ist es,
    uns um die Migranten zu kümmern, zu versuchen, dass sie nicht ausgeraubt,
    vergewaltigt oder getötet werden. In diesem Gebiet sind sie stark gefährdet. Die Migranten kommen hier vorbei und später sieht man sie ohne Kleider vorbeirennen. Heute rauben sie sie aus, morgen kommen sie nicht, dann kommen sie wieder. Auf diesem Streifen hier. Wenn das Sicherheitsprogramm läuft,
    halten sie sich zurück. Etwa eine Woche nach Beendigung
    des Programms sind sie wieder da. Manchmal rauben sie sie aus und
    nehmen ihnen die Kleider weg, damit sie aus Scham nicht nach Hilfe rufen. Die Leute suchen nach etwas,
    mit dem sie sich bedecken können, während die Angreifer entkommen. Migranten beginnen die Reise
    in der Nähe von Tapachula und ziehen weiter nach Huixtla in ein nahe gelegenes,
    sechs bis zehn Kilometer langes Gebiet, das La Arrocera heißt. Dieser Weg führt bis nach Arriaga. In Arriaga gibt es einen Zug, das berüchtigte “Beast”. Alle zwei bis drei Tage fährt ein Zug ab, mit vielen Leuten, 200 bis 300, sogar 500 bis 600 Migranten. Alle wollen ihnen das Geld aus der Tasche ziehen. Das organisierte Verbrechen
    kontrolliert die Immigrantenströme. Zuerst wurden sie als Drogenkuriere benutzt, die die Drogen auf der ganzen Strecke transportierten. Von Zentralamerika über Mexiko und bis zu den amerikanischen Drogenkurieren. Dann merkten sie,
    dass sie mehr waren als das. Sie waren eine Ware und
    man fing an, sie nach Wegezoll zu fragen, durch die Schleuser,
    die fast alle mit den Zetas kooperierten. Sie können nicht außerhalb des
    Zetas-Kartells arbeiten, oder sie riskieren es,
    getötet zu werden. Jeder weiß, dass er bezahlen muss,
    wenn er dort vorbeikommt. Manchmal reicht es nicht,
    wenn sie bezahlen. Sie werden entführt, damit ihre wohlhabenden Familien
    in den USA oder Zentralamerika zahlen, obwohl die meisten gar kein Geld haben und mehr als nur ein einfaches Wegerecht zahlen. Ich komme aus Honduras. Ich bin auf dem Weg nach Ixtepec,
    Oaxaca und danach zur Grenze. Wenn wir das Land verlassen haben,
    wird es sehr schwierig. Wir werden ausgeraubt und angegriffen. Wir sind nicht weit gekommen,
    weil ich ausgeraubt worden bin. Die Polizei hat mich ausgeraubt und
    sie nahmen mir mein ganzes Geld weg. Ich musste meine Familie nach Geld fragen,
    um mit meinen Freunden weiterzukommen. Wir alle nehmen den Zug,
    weil wir kein Geld mehr haben. Ich habe gesehen,
    wie sich Leute die Beine gebrochen haben. Sie fallen, und der Zug fährt ihnen über die Beine, oder sie werden gleich getötet. Fehleinschätzungen, Unfälle und
    manchmal sind auch Drogen oder Alkohol schuld. Ich habe in Houston, Texas, gelebt. Ich wurde wegen eines
    Verkehrsverstoßes angehalten. Da ich illegal dort war,
    haben sie mich in mein Land zurückgeschickt. Ja, ich habe eine Familie. Meine Tochter wurde sogar in den USA geboren. Nein, ich habe keine Angst,
    weil ich weiß, wofür ich es tue. Für meine Tochter. Ich habe keine Angst. Willkommen. Steigt vorsichtig runter! Pfarrer Alejandro Solalinde
    ist einer der besten Leute hier in Mexiko, weil er Migranten hilft. Wenn jeder so wäre wie er,
    dann würden wir problemlos durchkommen. Hier ist die Unterkunft. Wenn du willst,
    bekommst du hier etwas zu essen. Kommt rüber Jungs! Kommt in die Unterkunft. Willkommen. Wie geht es euch? Die Unterkunft ist geradeaus. Geht einfach hinein.
    Es gibt dort Essen für euch. Ich heiße Jose Alejandro Solalinde Guerra. Ich bin Missionar. Wir sind hier in der
    “Hermanos en el camino”-Unterkunft in Ixtepec. Sie wurde gegründet, um Migranten Schutz und
    humanitäre Hilfe zu bieten. Zu eurer eigenen Sicherheit
    werden wir euch mit Bild registrieren. Wir hoffen, das niemals benutzen zu müssen, aber sollte euch irgendwann
    einmal etwas passieren, und sollten sich eure Familien nach euch erkundigen,
    dann können wir sagen: “Er war hier.” Im Moment werden Migranten in
    Chiapas und Oaxaca beschützt. Problematisch ist es auf dem Weg
    von hier nach Veracruz. Das ist die schlimmste Gegend. In Veracruz findet ein Drittel
    aller Entführungen statt. Wenn ich sage, Migranten werden
    kommerzialisiert und verkauft, dann meine ich,
    dass sie nicht als Menschen, sondern als Ware angesehen werden. Wir leben in einer Welt,
    in der Menschen nichts wert sind. Jeder hat einen Preis und kann entführt werden. Der Unterschied zwischen ihnen und uns ist, dass keiner nach ihnen suchen
    und sich beschweren wird. Ich gehe weiter nach Medias Aguas,
    Veracruz und dann nach Tierra Blanca. Ich bin auf dem Weg nach Kalifornien. Ich habe meine Mutter noch nie gesehen. Sie lebt in den USA. Ich gehe nach San Antonio. Es ist schwieriger und Richtung Norden,
    nach San Antonio, auch gefährlicher. Das Problem liegt nicht so sehr in Arriaga, sondern auf der Strecke von hier nach
    Medias Aguas und Tierra Blanca. Diese Gegend ist am schwierigsten zu durchqueren. Wenn sie hier ankommen,
    dann trennen sich ihre Wege. Manche nehmen die Küste, manche
    Oaxaca, die Berge oder Veracruz. Es gibt viele Strecken,
    viele Wege in die USA. Ich dachte, ich würde mein Land nie verlassen. Ich denke, es lohnt sich,
    weil wir damit unseren Familien helfen können. Mexiko ist ein gutes Land und die USA auch. Es bietet viele Möglichkeiten. Ich denke, wir sind jetzt 400 oder 300. Wie viele werden es wohl schaffen? Ich wünschte, alle würden es schaffen. Aber ich denke, von den 400, so Gott will,
    werden es vielleicht nur 120 schaffen.