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    Man killed on Missoula railroad tracks ID’d
    Articles, Blog

    Man killed on Missoula railroad tracks ID’d

    August 19, 2019


    we now know it was a Missoula man who was struck and killed by a train on Sunday the Missoula County Sheriff identifying the person as 26 year-old Robert Callen ik of Missoula his body was discovered by Montana rail link employees on the tracks between Orange Street in Van Buren in Missoula the police department responded to the scene and they are investigating authorities are release

    Learn the History of Industrial Revolution
    Articles, Blog

    Learn the History of Industrial Revolution

    August 19, 2019


    The Industrial Revolution was the
    changeover to new industrial processes from somewhere in 1760 to
    sometime between 1820 and 1840. This evolution comprised of
    moving from manufacturing goods with hands to machineries,
    bettered efficacy of water power, manufacturing of new chemicals and
    producing iron through new ways, usage of steam power, the advancement of machine
    tools and the upsurge of the factories. In terms of employment fabrics were the
    leading trade of the Industrial Revolution. Keeping in mind the value of
    production and the principal invested; the fabric industry was the first to
    use contemporary manufacturing ways. The foundation of the Industrial
    Revolution was laid in the United Kingdom and some of the most significant
    technical inventions were from Britain. The revolution took pace in 1815 and
    continued till the next century. The steam power was a
    breakthrough in this revolution; the idea was mainly to pump out water from
    the English iron and coal mines, this artificial power rapidly converted to
    driving force for the coming century. In years to come this invention
    was used in textile production, mining, iron smelting and
    many other industrial quests. The beginning of 19th century
    witnessed yet another invention after the steam
    engine: railroads. The steam engines also directed the
    way to invention of first steamboats and then steamships that made
    regular journeys across the ocean, radically decreasing the time
    taken to travel overseas. There are many factors
    that can be taken into consideration which lead
    to Industrial Revolution however there are three
    main factors to which this industrial age could be entrenched
    to: steam, iron and coal. Coal was used to fire the steam engines and
    was produced in huge quantities in England. These mechanical devices and other machines
    were designed and forged out of iron. The vagaries that started in the Industrial
    Revolution never actually came to an end. The roots of this revolution dated
    back to thousand years ago. History speaks of Iron
    Age which began in 1000 B.C. when man carved
    weapons and tools of iron, the Iron Age sustains as we
    are still dependant on this essential metal and the effects
    of Industrial Revolution persist to amend modern economies creating
    undulations in the industrialized world. The Industrial Revolution symbols
    a key turn-off in history; nearly every facet of day-to-day
    life was swayed in some way. In specific, average
    revenue and populace began to display extraordinary
    constant progress. Many economists say that
    the main effect of the Industrial Revolution was
    that the standard of living for the overall people arose steadily for the
    first time in history, though others say that it did not begin to evocatively progress
    till the late 19th and 20th centuries. At about the same time the Industrial
    Revolution was happening, Britain was experiencing an agricultural revolution, which
    aided to expand the standard of living. In early 19th century, production of
    textile in a mechanised way spread from Great Britain to Europe, France being
    the home to most important centres. An important iron manufacturing
    centre established in Belgium, industrialisation spread fast throughout
    the world since its inception. The exact start and end date of the
    Industrial Revolution is still argued by the historians, as is the stride
    of social and economic change. GDP per capita was approximately
    steady prior to the Industrial Revolution and the advent of
    the modern capitalist economy, whereas the capitalist economies
    witnessed an age of per capita economic growth in the capitalist economies
    in the age of Industrial Revolution. Beginning of Industrial Revolution has
    been labelled as the most significant occurrence in the history of mankind since
    the domestication of plants and animals. Between the shifting years
    1840 and 1870, when technology and economy progressed rapidly
    embracing steam transport and mass production of machine tools and the
    usage of machines in factories that were powered by steam, the first
    Industrial Revolution evolved to Second
    Industrial Revolution. Where it All Started There are many countries
    who have been active participants in the
    Industrial Revolution however it all started with
    Great Britain which then slowly moved to America, Europe and
    the rest of the Continent. Great Britain Heads the Way Earlier the English had become one the
    most powerful nations of the world. Early in 18th century overseas trade
    made Britain a wealthy country. During the many wars that happened in the
    century particularly the Seven Years War, Britain extended their control
    over many colonies across the seas. England’s main rival France
    lost control of Canada and India to the English
    in the mid-century. The English navy commanded powerful
    trading ships spread across the world. The English faced a lot of
    problems on various fronts; population of British
    Isles multiplied quickly which led to shortage
    of wood and cloth. People replaced wood for coal
    and used it in place of wood to cook, heat the homes for
    smelting and blacksmithing. Huge demands for coal lead to extensive
    mining, miners dug deep to supply the people with coal and to find coal
    in the surface was no more possible. Deep mines posed a problem
    because water seeped in them and something needed to be done to
    pump out the water from the mines. The solution was soon invented –
    steam powered pumps, these machines forced water out of the flooded coal
    mines making it mineable again. Earlier the English used wood to smelt
    iron which they soon replaced with coal. First they used charcoal to heat iron
    and to remove its carbon impurities but later on in the 18th century these
    smelting industries started using coke – which was a greyish, hard substance produced
    when soft coal was heated in an air tight oven which removed the coke gas and
    coal tar as the fuel for smelting iron. This expanded the business
    of coal mining in England. Since Middle Ages, England was home to wool
    trade, the English men raised sheep in their farms and spun thread which was later
    spun into woollen clothes and garments. The growing population now required
    clothes and to overcome this shortage many new machines took over
    the old system of cloth production. When the English expanded their
    trade to Egypt and India, they were introduced to a new
    type of material: cotton. There were thousands of women who worked
    to spin wool and now cotton but since the requirement was too much they
    lagged behind in the mass production. The old ways of using the spinning wheel
    could not keep up with the demand. There were two things required more
    quantity and better quality for which two things were required
    good machines and to build faster. These set ups required bigger space and
    bigger facilities, which led to the establishment of factories which was also
    the result of Industrial Revolution. Revolution in Metal Industry Once coal replaced wood and other
    types of natural fuels there came about a drastic revolution
    in the metal industries. When given a certain amount of
    heat coal needed less labour in mining than chopping wood and
    then turning it to charcoal. Coal was naturally obtainable in plentiful. Coal gained its importance in 1678,
    when Sir Clement Clerke and a few other inventors started using it in
    reverberatory furnaces called cupolas. These cupolas were operated
    by controlling flames on the charcoal, coke mixture and ore
    which reduced the oxide to metal. The advantage of using this
    mechanism was that the impurities like sulphur ash did
    not combine with the metal. The same technology was
    later applied to smelt lead and copper in 1678
    and 1687 respectively. Later in 1709 Abraham Darby
    successfully fuelled his blast furnaces at
    Coalbrookdale with coke. The coke iron that was
    manufactured by him was used to make cast-iron products
    like kettles and pots. He had patented his cast and hence had an
    advantage over his rivals because the pots Darby manufactured were thinner and cheaper
    compared to his competitors products. Darby’s sons established
    two furnaces at Ketley and Horsehay who produced bar
    iron in the mid 1750’s. Coke pig iron was now cheaper
    than charcoal pig iron and since iron cast was also cheap
    and was available in plenty it was started to be used
    as materials to build new structures like the
    Iron Bridge of 1778. Till now the ironsmiths still
    used the finery forges to make daily consumer
    products from the bar iron, but with time new procedures were developed
    and implemented in the years to come. The earlier methods were known
    as potting and stamping which were later modified by
    Henry Cort’s pudding process. Cort made two important
    iron producing processes: in 1783 he developed the rolling process
    and in 1784 he made the puddling process. In order to consolidate wrought
    iron and remove scum hammering was replaced by rolling which was about
    15 times faster than hammering. Initially the rolling mills were
    used to make sheets but later on the process was used to roll structural
    shapes like rails and angles. When pig iron was decarburized
    using slow oxidation, and iron ore was used
    as a source of oxygen as it was stirred manually
    with the help of a long rod, the process
    was known as puddling. Decarburized iron has higher melting point
    compared to cast iron so it was scraped into blobs by the puddler and once the blob
    was big enough the puddler removed it. It was not easy to pudlle in such high
    temperatures in the reverberatory furnace and there were only some
    puddlers who made it to the age of 40. Puddlling was used till
    the 19th century when steel was slowly taking
    the place of iron. The process of puddling could
    never be mechanised as it needed the skills of a human
    to sense the iron blobs. Till mid 17th century
    the British iron manufacturers used substantial
    quantities of iron that was imported to add-on
    the local provisions which mostly came from
    Sweden and Russia. Later from the 1785 they
    stopped importing iron from the countries thanks to their
    iron making technology and began exporting
    wrought iron products to customer and bar iron
    to other countries. The most vital development of
    the 19th century was the hot blast which was made and patented
    by James Beaumont Neilson, the process saved energy in the
    process of making pig iron. The combustion air was preheated
    by using waste exhaust heat so the quantity of fuel required
    to make one unit of pig iron was decreased by around one-thirds if
    coal was using and two-thirds if coke was used, the effectiveness was more
    every time the technology was bettered. Hot blast kept the
    temperatures of the furnaces high and helped in
    growing their capacity. The lesser the coke or
    coal was used the fewer impurities was present
    in the pig iron, this also meant that anthracite or lower
    quality of coal could be used in places where coking could not be done or the
    process was too expensive to be performed. Nevertheless by the end of the 19th century
    the transportation costs fell extensively. About twenty years before
    the Industrial Revolution laid its foundations, the
    production of steel; an expensive commodity then, was improved
    and used to make products like springs and cutting edge tools as iron couldn’t
    be used to make such commodities. In 1740’s Benjamin Huntsman developed
    a crucible steel technique which use blister steel as raw material
    made by the cementation process. Inexpensive steel and iron
    helped many industries like nails, wire, hinges
    and hardware products. Improvement in the machine tools made
    it easy to work with iron because of which the metal was used in making
    of machines and engine industries. Revolution in the Textiles For years England was
    the spearhead in the making and extension of
    Industrial Revolution. There are some noteworthy reasons to why
    there was a sudden shift of England; from being dependent on agriculture to
    relying increasingly on industrialization. For example, in the 1700’s Britain was
    led by parliamentarians and ministers who reacted compassionately to commerce,
    trade and industrial expansion. Their lands were rich with
    raw materials such as coal and iron ore and
    human labour was cheap. There were many financial
    institutions like banks and lending houses which
    helped in raising capital to purchase steam engines, make factories,
    construct mills and employ workers. Moreover England had many overseas markets
    they had to be ready with products which could be used for trading like coal,
    iron, textiles or any other things. One of the causes of Industrial Revolution
    was originated in the textile industry. When cotton material was introduced
    to England in 1600’s it completely changed the way of producing cotton
    thread and cotton materials. There were a series of improvements and
    creations that brought about the change. An English weaver John Kay from Lancashire
    invented the flying shuttle in 1733, in which a handloom could be operated
    by a single person instead of two. However the mass was not quite
    happy with the invention as they thought the new machine could
    leave many people unemployed. The angry crowd attacked Kay’s
    home and demolished it. Kay’s flying shuttle took time to
    gain recognition, which however helped to improve the production
    speed of a single weaver but the one-man loom
    needed thread from four to five spinners to keep
    a loom worker busy. Within years in 1765, a carpenter
    from Lancashire, James Hargreaves, invented a spinning machine
    which could spin eight threads at a time he named the machine
    “Jenny”, after his wife”. He patented his new invention in 1770. Slowly the number of
    threads which a spinning machine could produce
    increased to 100 however; the cloth workers reception of
    such new inventions was slow as a matter of fact Hargreaves too faced
    the same consequences as Kay when his house was attacked and his newly
    invented spinning jenny was burned. Cotton thread industry was transformed
    by these wonderful devices. The spinners were now spinning around
    20000 spinning jenny’s by 1778. This machine cut down
    the working hours which were spent in spinning
    thread and yarn. Earlier one had to work for
    1000 hours to make about 22 pounds of cotton thread
    whereas the spinning jenny brought down the spinning
    hours to 400 and with further improvements and creations it
    came down to just 20 hours. Lancashire seemed to be
    home to many inventors. In 1769, Richard Arkwright a barber from
    the same place held patent to water-frame. These rollers were powered
    by water which were used with spindles to produce
    coarse but strong thread. Some years later Samuel
    Crompton a tinkerer also from Lancashire produced fine
    and strong cotton thread by combining Hargreaves
    spinning jenny and Arkwright’s water-frame and
    called it Spinning Mule. These machines brought
    about a revolution in the textile industry to an
    extent that the English who were spinning about 8 million
    pounds of thread in 1770 started spinning 37 million
    pounds of cotton by 1790. The quantity kept
    increasing and in 1815 the English reached the 100
    million pound mark and by 1850 the English
    weavers boasted of spinning around 250
    million pounds of cotton. Edmund Cartwright was aware
    that once Arkwrights patent expired the demand
    for spun cotton would go up and leading to a shortage
    of weavers he invented a power loom in 1784 which
    he patented in 1785. Edmund Cartwright had built two factories
    both of which were destroyed by his workers and burned down by his
    workers and angry mob respectively. Cartwright’s machine design had many faults,
    especially thread breaks and in 1813 Samuel Horrocks patented
    a better loom which proved to be fairly good
    and was successful too. Richard Roberts bettered his
    loom in 1822 and Roberts, Hill & Co. manufactured these looms were
    manufactured in huge numbers. The increasing demand for cotton was
    a good prospect for the planters of Southern United States if they
    could remove the seed with ease. Keeping this in mind Eli Whitney
    invented the economical cotton gin. What a woman could do in two
    months cotton gin did in a day. More inventors effectively
    improved the steps required in spinning
    increasing the supply of yarn. These inventions and innovations
    were supplements for the weaving industry which helped
    them to grow and flourish. The final product or the outcome
    of a labourer increased intensely. Although Richard Arkwright is
    accredited with many creations they were truly developed by
    John Kay and Thomas Highs; Arkwright was an entrepreneur who fostered
    these inventors, patented the concepts, funded the creativities and
    sheltered these machines. He established a cotton
    mill that brought together all the processes of
    production under one roof and it was he who developed the
    use of horse power and then water power simultaneously, which
    mechanised the industry of cotton. Back in 19th century Manchester
    was known as Cottonopolis because of many textile
    industries in the city. Revolution in Steam Power What drove the Industrialization
    age was primarily exploiting a natural
    source of power – steam. The innovative minds of
    the ancient ages also understood the marvellous
    power of steam. In A.D 60 a Greek tinkerer, Hero of
    Alexandria made a small machine that was made up of metal spheres with sprouting
    jets and was mounted on centre shaft. When the water present in
    the sphere was heated using fire, the ball moved when steam
    spurted out if the jets. It cannot be called a perfect device
    as it did not serve any cause, it was more like a toy and the rudimentary
    device was named aeolipile. Many years later the
    device was built again but this time, it was
    for a specific purpose. Increased demands of coal
    required the English to dig deeper into mines which
    drove water in them, in order to get rid of this problem these
    devices were used to pump out the water. Deeper the mines more
    acute the problem became. Earlier when the water problems
    were closer to the earth’s surface were solved by using horse gins –
    gin was short word for engine. The method involved horses
    who walked in circles with a huge drum tied to
    a pulley and a bucket. Since the mines were now deep
    the horse gins could not solve this problematic situation, a
    new technology was required. Thomas Savery, a British citizen
    came to the rescue for this problem; in 1698 he invented a low power steam
    engine which functioned as a pump. The water pump – that was branded by the
    name Miners Friend, produced around one horsepower and was put to work for many
    water related works and coal mines. For minor horsepower ranges related works
    Savery’s pump was very cost-effective but was susceptible to explosion of its
    boiler for large horsepower ranges. These pumps sustained in the
    market till late in the 18th century till an English metal and
    iron salesman Thomas Newcomen built his piston steam
    engine in 1712 in the Midlands near Dudley
    Castle near Coalbrookdale. The engines were productively used in the
    deep mines which were blocked by water, since these engines were kept on
    surface they were huge in sizes, needed a lot of investment to be
    built and produced 5 horsepower. If we look at the machine
    from our perspective it was incompetent as per
    our modern standards but if they were set
    on pit heads where the coal was cheap it gave
    way deep coal mining. Despite a few disadvantages
    the engines of Newcomen were easy to
    maintain and dependable too, hence they continued to give their services
    to the coal mines till early 19th century. By the time Newcomen died his
    work spread far and wide beginning with Hungary ,
    Austria, Sweden and Germany. According to the records an aggregate
    of 110 engines were been built by 1733 after the joint patent
    expired 14 of which were in abroad. Within years an engineer John Smeaton
    built many large and improved engines and the total number of engines
    built reached to 1,454 by 1800. James Watt from Scotland
    brought about an essential variation in the
    operating principles. Englishman Matthew Boulton had
    almost perfected his steam engine by 1778 which assimilated
    many essential enhancements, of it the most noticeable thing
    was that the upper part of the cylinder was sealed off enabling
    the low pressure steam engine to drive the top of the piston in
    place of the atmosphere, there was a separate chamber for condenser
    and the usage of a steam jacket. The cooling water which was inserted
    right into the cylinder in order to cool it and was used to waste steam, was
    removed because of a separate condenser. The inclusion of a steam jacket
    retained the steam from condensing in the cylinder which also improved
    the competence of the engine. The bettered ways and
    processes that had now been integrated in the steam
    engine by Watts and Boulton used just 20 to 25
    percent as much coal per horsepower per hour as
    compared to Newcomen’s engine. Watts and Boulton
    manufactured such engines in the Soho Foundry which
    was established in 1795. By 1800, Watts steam engine could straight
    away drive the rotary machinery of a mill or a factory, it had been completely
    transformed in a double acting rotative type. Watts engines were profitable and popular. Their company Boulton
    & Watts had made 496 engines – 24 serving blast
    furnaces, 164 driving pumps and 308 powering mill
    machinery, almost all the engines produced
    5 to 10 horsepower. Many metal machinery tools
    played an important role in making these
    powerful engines. Engine planning, milling, lathe and
    shaping machines were power-driven by these engines which enable the
    accurate cutting of the metal parts. The design of the steam engine
    until the 1800 was based on beam engine, made as an essential part
    of a brick or stone engine house but soon many different
    outlines of a self-sufficient rotative engine was produced
    like the table engine. In the beginning of the 19th
    century, Richard Trevithick, a Cornish engineer along with
    an American, Oliver Evans, built non-condensing high pressure steam
    engines, fatiguing against the atmosphere. The engines were solid
    enough and could work on rail locomotives, mobile
    road and steam boats. Revolution in Machine Tools The many machines that
    were being developed increasingly required
    machinery to cut metal parts. Some small tools were
    developed earlier by the watch and other small
    instrument repairers. Before machine tools were invented
    there were many hand tools that were in use like files,
    scrapers, hammers, chisels and saws. Metal was hardly used
    and the wood products would split or crack
    with changes in weather. With the revolution metal frames and parts
    became popular and had soaring high prices because of the hard labour behind
    it to achieve the meticulousness. Many craftsmen gave their inputs by
    crafting wind mills and wooden frames etc. The first big machine tool build was the
    cylinder boring machine which could be used to bore the large-diameter cylinders
    on the earlier built steam engines. The planning, shaping and
    milling machines followed. In the early parts of 19th century
    Joseph Bramah an inventor and locksmith, had patented a lathe similar
    to that of a slide rest lathe, hired Henry Maudslay to
    produce high security metal locks which required
    meticulous workmanship. Maudslay was a perfectionist
    in the slide rest lathe which could
    perfectly cut screws with various pitches of thread using variable gears
    between the lead screw and the spindle. Later on Maudslay set up his own shop
    and trained many men on this machine. Revolution in Chemicals John Roebuck has been credited with
    the production of first chemical sulphuric acid, which he did by using
    the lead chamber process in 1746. He replaced the expensive glass
    containers with compartments made of lead and produced large quantities
    around 100 pounds at a time. Production of alkali and
    sodium carbonate followed which was produced by
    Nicholas Leblanc in 1791. He also introduced the Leblanc process
    in which sodium chloride was reacted with sulphuric acid to produce
    hydrochloric acid and sodium sulphate. Sodium carbonate had
    many uses in industries like soap, paper,
    textile and glass. Earlier sulphuric acid was used to remove
    rust from iron and to bleach clothes. Based on the discoveries of Claude
    Louis, in 1800 Charles Tennant made an improvement in the
    production of bleaching powder, earlier the process had required
    months which he now reduced to days. His factory at North Glasgow had become the
    biggest chemical factory in the world. Later in the 1860’s Germans took
    the lead in producing dye and had many ambitious chemists rushed to
    German to learn the procedure. British did not set up
    any universities as an alternative just employed
    German chemists. Revolution in Other Trades Cement – A British, Joseph Aspdin,
    patented portland cement in 1824. The portland cement was
    used to construct the London sewerage system
    and the Thames tunnel. Gas Lighting – William Murdoch was the
    person who brought in this revolution and in London between 1812 and 1820 the first
    gas lighting utilities were set up. Gas lighting played a crucial role in
    the industrial organisations as because of light the factories and other set up
    could remain open for a longer time. Paper Machine – Nicholas Louis
    Robert invented a machine which made continuous sheet of paper and the
    machine was named Fourdrinier. This method of paper production
    is still used by today although there have been many
    alternations made to it. Glass Making – In the year 1832,
    Lucas and William Chance (Chance Brothers) first used the cylinder
    process to make glass sheets. The continuous sheets of glass helped
    in planning many interiors freely. Agriculture – The main machines
    that helped in the revolution of agriculture were the Dutch plough,
    threshing machine and seed drill. In 1701 a better seed
    drill was invented by Jethro Tull but it was
    an expensive machine. The first marketable plough was made
    by Joseph Foljambe Rotherham in 1730 and the threshing machine was
    made by Andrew Meikle in 1784. The threshing machine bought about riots and
    revolts as manual threshing required a lot of labour, many labourers lost jobs and caused
    the agricultural rebellion Swing Riots. Transportation – The turnpike road
    network, railway lines, waterways and canal were all improved because of the
    Industrial revolution in Britain. It was now easy to move
    products, commodities and raw materials speedily, easily
    and at a cheaper price. Better transportation helped new
    ideas to spread across fast. Canals – The first canal Bridgewater
    Canal in North West England was built in the 18th century and most of the fund
    came from the 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. Many canals followed soon and
    Thames and Severn Canal and Leeds and Liverpool canal were the most
    noticeable ones on the list. Later on Manchester Ship
    Canal was the largest canal in the world and was
    inaugurated in the year 1894. Roads & Railways – Before the revolution
    could start roads were not properly kept and later on after the 1720 turnpike
    trusts were set up to maintain the roads. John McAdam, Thomas Telford and
    John Metcalf were responsible to engineer the roads and they did not
    disappoint their fellow countrymen. The first steam run public railways began
    in 1825 with Stockton and Darlington Railway and in 1830 Liverpool and Manchester
    Railways were opened for the public. Railways took pace in 1829
    when hot blast was developed which lessened the fuel
    intake of making iron. Social Effects Industrial Revolution was a roller coaster
    in the lives of those who witnessed it. Although the changes were for good in
    long term there are many who suffered the wrath of modern machinery and inventions
    of various machines and products. The cottage industry was practically
    applicable in every home, where a farmer and his family
    mostly produced goods themselves. The spinning jenny’s were
    fairly priced and could be afforded but the
    products which replaced it were very expensive and the only thing a
    man could do was get a job in the factory. The factory labourers were poorly paid. It was not until the late
    1980’s that the standard of living for the
    common masses improved. Most of the population
    constituted of the poorer class who endured much declines in
    their standards of living. The wages were increased only
    by 15% in the late 1780’s. Earlier many died of hunger and
    malnutrition in France and Britain and on an average people
    lived only for about 35 years, this was because of the increasing
    population with the Industrial Revolution things became cheaper and
    food prices were decreased too. People during these times
    lived in extremes; factory owners had beautiful houses whereas
    the labourers of the factories did not even have a proper enclosed home
    which lacked sanitation facilities also. People shared small rooms and
    slept on sawdust, unhygienic situations gave rise to many diseases
    and there were many diseases that were caused by water like typhoid and
    cholera were common among the children. Conditions improved only in
    19th century when many health regulations were followed
    and conditions improved. Industrialization Beyond United Kingdom Belgium Just after the Industrial Revolution
    in Britain, Continental Europe also lined up with their inventions and
    creations to bring about a revolution. Most of their ideas were borrowed
    from Britain and a part of Ruhr Valley in Westphalia got
    the name of “Miniature England” because their inventions were
    same as that of the English. In many situations only some parts of
    the British inventions were adopted as their locally available resources
    were different than the English. There were many mining areas build in Liege
    and Charleroi and John Cockerill set up a factory in Seraing which had all the
    processes from production to supply. Historians have also stated
    about many developments on iron making as well especially in
    Sambre, Haine and Meuse Valleys. The revolution was considered
    to be quite traditional and didn’t quite affect
    most of the population except for those areas which were situated
    near the coal mining and iron making areas. Unite States of America While other countries were
    experiencing Industrialization America continued to be
    an agricultural economy. Railways, roads, waterways and canals
    were important to move the agricultural products and the natural especially in
    such a huge but thinly populated country. America saw Industrial
    Revolution with the invention of cotton gin and a method of
    making interchangeable parts. The invention of machine tools and
    the way of making interchangeable parts lay foundations for
    the industrial revolution. Oliver Evans made an automatic four
    mill which required absolutely no labour from the time of loading
    the grain to the flour discharge. Later in 1787, Cabot Brothers and
    Thomas Somers found the Beverly Cotton Manufactory which was the
    biggest cotton mills of the time. The American Industrial Revolution was
    set on the banks of the Blackstone River and its tributaries and around
    1100 mills functioned in this valley. In 1854 Waltham Watch Company
    situated in Waltham in Massachusetts was recognised to bring industrialization
    in the watch industry. Samuel Slater set up the Slater
    Mill in 1793, he mastered his skills from Derbyshire in England
    and moved to New York in 1789, by breaking the British laws of the
    emigration of skilled workers, where he later owned 13 textile mills
    after he founded the Slater Mill. Germany The Germans were wonderful chemists and
    they flourished in their chemistry. People flocked from all
    over to study in their universities and learn
    the new ways of dye. Earlier because of lack of
    unity among them the Germans lagged behind in building
    efficient roads and railways but Britain’s quick development
    buckled them up and they were soon constructing
    railways and roads. Sweden Sweden experienced two
    revolutions simultaneously agriculture revolution and
    industrial revolution. They had large estates, new
    farming tools and crops and developed a system of
    proto-industrialization where the farmers could grow their crops
    and when they were free after the harvest in the winters they could
    move to the industries to earn wages. The industrial revolution focused on
    their local markets which circled on paper making, textiles, mechanical
    engineering and power utilities. The country prospered with trade
    and commerce when they opened the gates for free trade and
    exported wood, steel and crops. Japan The leaders from the Meiji
    period helped in bringing about an Industrial
    Revolution in Japan in 1870. They sent thousands of
    youngsters to Europe and United States to learn their ways and
    employed over 3,000 experts from western world to learn their language,
    technology, mathematics and modern science. The Iwakura Mission of Japan
    was a break-through in their revolution and Japan quickly
    caught up with the others. In 1882, Bank of Japan was
    founded and used taxes to set up textile factories
    and model steel. Japan’s first modern
    industries came up in textiles which comprised of cotton
    and the famous silk. Silk was made in many workshops which
    were at home mostly in the rural areas. The History has experienced
    much turmoil and Industrial Revolution has
    contributed much to it. This phase saw the most intelligent
    of people who set base to modern machines, tools
    and techniques that we use. Historians have varied
    opinions about the Industrial Revolution which cannot
    be summed up easily. Capitalism was caused as when science
    was on its boom and developments which brought about an upgrade
    in the society as a whole. The machines helped the
    people to work with ease and provided jobs to
    everyone in the factories which led to increase in
    wealth and only the adults worked while the children
    and adults were free. Socialism came up as an
    evaluation of capitalism. According to Karl Marx Industrial
    Revolution divided the society into two; bourgeoisie were who possessed
    the means of production, the land and the factories and
    the other was proletariat, the labourers who performed the work in
    the factories under the bourgeoisie. He saw the industrialisation
    procedure as the rational dialectical development
    of feudal economic modes, essential for the complete growth of
    capitalism, which he saw as in itself a required predecessor to the growth of
    socialism and ultimately communism. The debate can be endless
    however it can be concluded by saying that Industrial
    Revolution was a significant era and mankind is still evolving
    with those basic principles of inventions which took
    place during that period.

    Fighting for Freedom: Lewis Hayden and the Underground Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Fighting for Freedom: Lewis Hayden and the Underground Railroad

    August 18, 2019


    (dogs barking) (dramatic music) (dogs barking) (dramatic music) (knocking and door opens) [Male Guest]
    A friend of a friend sent me. [Gentleman] Come in, quickly! It’s alright You’re safe here. [Lewis Hayden Voiceover]
    I belonged to the Reverend Adam Rankin, in Lexington, Kentucky. My master was a minister, yet he sold my mother. He sold all my brothers and sisters at auction. He swapped me for
    a pair of horses. [Narrator]
    From the time of its inception, America was deeply rooted in a system of slavery. The right to own slaves was enshrined in the Constitution and was a bedrock of the American economy in both the South and North. Yet despite the dangers to themselves and their families, many enslaved people tried to escape. Some on their own, and some with the help of a secret network. Lewis Hayden was born
    enslaved in 1811. He would be sold three times. Owned by a Reverend, a clock peddler, and leased out to others. As a young man, he married an enslaved woman named Esther Harvey. They had two sons. One who died in infancy. Esther and their surviving son were also soon sold away and Lewis never saw them again. [Lewis Voiceover]
    I have one child who is sold nobody knows where, and that I never can bear to think of. [Narrator]
    In 1840, at age 29, Lewis was sold to a cruel slaveholder who demanded long days and was quick with his whip. During that time, using a bible and discarded newspapers, Lewis taught himself to read. He also remarried, having met and fallen in love with an enslaved woman named Harriet Bell. She lived with her son at her owner’s home, where she worked as a housekeeper and child nurse. Lewis looked after the boy, Joseph, as if he where his own child. But every moment was shadowed by the fear that they could be torn apart at a moment’s notice. [Lewis Voiceover]
    The trader was all around, the slave-pen at hand, and we did not know what time any of us might be in it. When a friend was carried off, why it was the same as death. [Narrator]
    Like so many other enslaved people, Lewis yearned to escape. But he would not leave without his wife and son. Slaveholders would go to great lengths to recover their valuable property, often hiring slave catchers – well-armed and ruthless
    bounty hunters. The consequences of being caught were horrific. (bell tolling) In 1844, when Lewis was 33, he was leased to the owners of the Phoenix Hotel in Lexington. It was there Lewis met a woman named Delia Webster who introduced him to her friend, Calvin Fairbank. She was a schoolteacher from Vermont, and he was a ministerial student from Oberlin College in Ohio, a center of anti-slavery activity. As they would come to reveal to Lewis, Calvin and Delia were actually operatives on the Underground Railroad and Calvin had arrived in Lexington on a mission that would offer Lewis
    his chance for escape. Calvin asked Lewis, “Why do
    you want your freedom?” To which Lewis replied, “Because I am a man.” On the evening of Saturday, September 28, 1844, Lewis helped Harriet and Joseph steal away from their slave owner’s house. They met Calvin, Delia, and Israel, the driver, an enslaved man who had been hired out to Calvin with a hackney. Together they took their first, dangerous steps to freedom. [Calvin]
    Let’s go. [Narrator]
    The group traveled as inconspicuously as they could through Kentucky. (dramatic music building) At dawn the Haydens finally
    reached the Ohio River, the borderland between slavery and freedom. Crossing into Ohio, a free state, Calvin left the Haydens in Red Oak, a bedrock of abolitionist activity. The Haydens worked their way north to Sandusky, Ohio. They often moved under the cover of darkness. If they were lucky, their next stop would be arranged in advance, where a friendly face would feed and shelter them. Other times, they just made their way north without knowing where they would next find safety. Like many freedom seekers, the Haydens were on their way to Canada, where slavery had been abolished a decade earlier in 1834. Yet others escaped to the south and some even crossed oceans to get away. The Underground Railroad was as old as slavery in America itself. As slavery grew in the 19th century, the means of helping people
    escape grew more organized. By the 1830s, a decentralized network had evolved. As steam engines emerged around the same time, the escape routes were dubbed, “The Underground Railroad.” Yet as much as it was a network, the Underground Railroad was a movement shaped by abolitionists, social activists, former slaves and ordinary people who were simply moved to help those who stood before them in need. They organized through family networks, community institutions, and local churches. Molly Horniblow was a free black woman who helped her enslaved granddaughter,
    Harriet Ann Jacobs, hide in her attic storeroom for seven years before she escaped north by boat. Levi Coffin, a Quaker, purportedly assisted more than 3,000 slaves. And the legendary Harriet Tubman, who escaped from bondage herself and then made 13 trips back to Maryland, where she led 70 others out of slavery. Yet the engine that drove the Underground Railroad was the indomitable will of the thousands of enslaved men and women who sought freedom. Just before the Haydens crossed into Canada, they received word that Calvin Fairbank and Delia Webster had been caught as they returned to Lexington. For assisting with the Haydens’ escape, Israel, the driver, was whipped and tortured until he revealed the escape route. Calvin was sentenced to 15 years. Five for each slave he helped escape. The Haydens’ freedom had come at a terrible price. Safely in Canada, Lewis sent a letter to his former owner. [Lewis Voiceover]
    Sir, you have already discovered me absent. I never was a great friend to the institution of robbing and crushing slavery. I have concluded for the present to try freedom. To be my own master, so farewell. [Narrator]
    Lewis, Harriet, and Joseph lived in Canada for six months. But it was a restless freedom. Determined to join the struggle to end slavery, they moved to Detroit but it was not long before Lewis was drawn to the epicenter of the abolitionist movement, and home to one of the nation’s most dynamic free black communities: Boston, Massachusetts. By 1848 the Haydens had opened a successful clothing store and began sheltering others escaping from slavery. Lewis had not forgotten Calvin Fairbank who, after four years, still languished in a Kentucky prison. Lewis negotiated a payoff with his former owner who had pressed charges against Calvin. From his network in Boston Lewis raised the money to secure Calvin’s release. It would be a small victory for Lewis in the face of a looming battle. In 1850, Congress passed the “Fugitive Slave Law,” making it easier for slave catchers to hunt people in free states and return them to slavery. The architect of the law was Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, the very same man who had sold away Hayden’s first wife and son. The new law required all citizens to assist in the capture of a “suspected” slave. Assisting a fugitive would be punished with a fine of one thousand dollars and six months in prison. As part of the payment that freed Calvin Fairbank, Lewis had also purchased his own freedom but Harriet and Joseph were still fugitives and faced being sent back into slavery. In defiance of the Fugitive Slave Law, and despite the risk to his family, Lewis helped plan and execute a series of daring rescue missions, directly challenging the federal government. Only a few months after passage of the law, Shadrach Minkins, a freedom seeker, was arrested by slave catchers and held captive in the Boston courthouse. Lewis led black abolitionists as they stormed the courthouse. Rescuing Minkins and delivering him to freedom in Canada. All the while, Lewis and Harriet continued sheltering people fleeing slavery. Lewis was known to keep barrels of gunpowder in his basement and on one occasion threatened slave catchers he would drop a torch onto the barrels if they did not walk away. The Hayden’s home became known as the “Temple of Refuge”: the most important stop on the Underground Railroad in Boston. When the Civil War began, Lewis fought for the right for African Americans to serve in the Union army and helped recruit troops for the 54th Regiment: the first African Americans enlisted in the North. With the Northern victory in the Civil War, over two and a half centuries of legalized slavery came to a close. Lewis Hayden was 54 years old. [Lewis Voiceover]
    Although the dark and damning curse of slavery is disappearing, its hissing may still be heard. [Narrator]
    Like so many others involved in the Underground Railroad, Lewis’ focus shifted to the pursuit of equality. In 1873, Lewis was one of the
    first African Americans elected to the Massachusetts state legislature, and until his death in 1889 he remained a leader in the fight for freedom. (music) By some accounts,
    the Underground Railroad helped well over 100,000 enslaved men, women and children escape servitude. It was America’s first Civil Rights Movement. [Music] Day by day I work the line Every minute overtime Fingers nimble, fingers quick My fingers bleed to make you rich You can take my body You can take my bones You can take my blood But not my soul You can take my body You can take my bones You can take my blood
    But not my soul.

    Metra Asking For More Funding To Upgrade Stations
    Articles, Blog

    Metra Asking For More Funding To Upgrade Stations

    August 18, 2019


    THE PROPERTY IN CLEAR DREAMS. THE CEMETERY SAYS FAMILY SHOULD CHECK THE WEBSITE FOR THE LATEST UPDATES ON WHEN THEY WILL REOPEN. TORN UP FLOORS AND REPAIRS MADE WITH DUCT TAPE. CONCERN VIEWER CONTACTED US ABOUT THIS WORN-OUT METRO METRA ELECTRIC STAYS IN. JEREMY ROSS IS LIVE WITH WHAT HE FOUND. Reporter: THE STATION BEHIND US IS IN NEED OF REPAIRS, THE COMBINATION OF TIME AND THE WEATHER HAVING AN IMPACT IN AND OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. YOU CAN HEAR THE METRA ELECTRIC LINE ROLLING IN FROM THE PLATFORM BUT SOME SAY THE STATION A NEARBY INFRASTRUCTURE IS A LESSON WELL OILED MACHINE. ASIDE FROM THE KANSAN TEAM 115th STREET STATION SHOWCASES A WHOLE AND INSIDE OTHER SIGNS OF DISREPAIR LIKE THE STAINING ON THE CEILING THAT MAKES ITS WAY TO THE WALLS BELOW. WATER DAMAGE WITH WATER LEAKING AROUND. SHE NOTICED THE DISCOLORATION AND WONDERS IF SHE SHOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT MORE THAN WATER OR WET FLOORS. IT WAS LIKE MOLDY. IT WAS PRETTY BAD. I WAS WALKING GINGERLY BECAUSE THE CRACKS IN THE SIDEWALK AND THE PLATFORM. THE CEMENT AND EVERYTHING. YOU WILL FIND OTHER KINDS OF CRACKING AND EXPOSED SUPPORTS. INSIDE THE STATEMENT THERE STATION THERE’S REST AND DUCT TAPE ON EXPOSED PIPES. THE ELEVATORS OPERATION WAS CLEANED AND WE CANNOT SAY FOR THE SAME FOR THE FLOOR INSIDE. LAST TIME I WAS UP THERE WAS PRETTY CLEAN. DO YOU THINK RIDERS DESERVE BETTER I THINK THE RIDERS DESERVE BETTER BECAUSE THE FARES ARE STEADILY GOING UP. IN A STATEMENT METRA ACKNOWLEDGE THE WATER SEEPAGE ISSUE ADDING THAT IT CANNOT COMPLETELY BE SOLD UNTIL THE

    Articles

    Thought Experiment: The Spider in the Urinal – Learn Liberty

    August 18, 2019


    Warning, the following program is
    a philosophical thought experiment. Do not attempt at home. A few months ago, in the men’s
    room in the philosophy department, a large spider appeared in the urinal. I saw him in the same spot for
    a week straight. I noticed that whenever
    the urinal was in use, he would try to scramble out of
    the way as fast as humanly possible. Often, he would get caught,
    tumbled and drenched by the flushing torrent of Princeton’s city water and
    the urine of aspiring philosophers. The worst part was, that there was no
    way for the spider to get out, and no way to tell if he even wanted to. None of the other students or professors
    did anything to alter the situation. As the months wore on,
    I arrived with much uncertainty and hesitation at the decision
    to liberate him. He just sat there, not moving a muscle. The next day,
    I found him in the same place. His legs shriveled in that way
    characteristics of dead spiders. His corpse stayed there for
    a week until they finally swept the floor. No! For weeks after, I had recurring
    nightmares, giant spiders, teeth, webs, me, your humble narrator, charged with
    manslaughter in the high spider court. Your honor, my client was acting
    with the best of intentions when he rescued Mister Spider
    from the urinal. Mister Spider was forcibly
    removed from his home. Objection! Sustained. Please proceed. Your client without fully considering
    the potential consequences of his actions proceeded to interfere in and
    ultimately, end Mister Spider’s life. We find the defendant guilty! This thought experiment forces us to
    question the morality of intervention. Good intentions do not
    always yield good results. You gotta let these people think for
    themselves. If you were in my position,
    would you move the spider or let him be? What do you think? I’m not that bad of a guy. Am I? Am I? Am I?

    Drunk on tracks
    Articles, Blog

    Drunk on tracks

    August 18, 2019


    information the tying one on usually doesn’t tie up the commute for thousands of people but one British man did it Paul Davies with ITV News tells us how it happened it looked like a body on the busy railway line outside Epsom station only a witness noticed the body was snoring former company director Kevin creswell was drunk when he wandered onto the track lay his head on the rail and went to sleep a police helicopter filmed the chaos that ensued trains on four lines had to be stopped and diverted railway workers had to disconnect power as mr. Cresswell’s foot was just a few inches from the third live rail and through all the drama he slept on even when a train passed just a few feet from where he slept oblivious to the noise oblivious to the risk and unaware that thousands of commuted journeys were being disrupted eventually when the track was safe police officers and paramedics were able to reach him and only then did he wake up Kevin creswell says he’s deeply ashamed of what he did that day he says he’d been drinking so heavily he has absolutely no recollection of walking onto the track here and then lying down to sleep on it british transport police say he’s incredibly lucky not to have been electrocuted he feared of outstretched his leg he would have touched the third rail and had been electrocuted 750 volts if he had have moved his leg one foot he’d have been dead a recovering alcoholic kevinc Roswell was told he could have been sent to jail instead he was fined and ordered to undertake community service ball Davis ITV News Epsom everyone needs a little help every now and then that’s especially true when it comes to the 3 R’s and homework for school kids the controversial way one company is helping tutor kids

    Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville
    Articles, Blog

    Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville

    August 18, 2019


    >>>IT’S THE STORY OF OUR LAND. A STORY OF EARLY OHIOANS AND THE MARK THEY LEFT BEHIND.>>HERE’S THE BLUEPRINT OF THE SITE BEFORE IT WAS DEVELOPED, SHOWING THE EMBANKMENT AND THE TWO MOUNDS.>>HOW ANCIENT HUNTING GROUNDS GIVE WAY TO FARMS AND FAMILIES. AND HOW THE LAND TURNS A BLIND EYE –>>ARE YOU READY TO GO?>>THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD WAS VERY SECRETIVE AND YOU COULD NOT BE OUT DURING THE DAY TIME.>>IT’S A STORY OF HOW THE LAND FEEDS A COMMUNITY AND THEN A CITY. AND WITH THAT, A NEIGHBORHOOD FEEDS ITS SOUL. IT’S A STORY OF SUSTAINABILITY AND HOW A NEIGHBORHOOD’S IDENTITY TODAY IS INTERTWINED WITH THE HISTORY OF ITS LAND.>>BUY LOCAL, EAT LOCAL, BANK LOCAL.>>THIS IS THE STORY OF CLINTONVILLE. ♪♪ ♪♪>>>SUPPORT FOR “COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS” IS PROVIDED BY — SINCE 1921, THE STATE AUTO GROUP HAS CALLED COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS HOME. OFFERING PERSONAL AND BUSINESS INSURANCE THROUGH INDEPENDENT INSURANCE AGENTS. FOR YOUR CAR, HOME, AND BUSINESS — THE STATE AUTO GROUP. AS WE’VE GROWN AND CHANGED WITH COLUMBUS, WE’VE NEVER LOST SIGHT OF ONE THING — WE ARE NEIGHBORS SERVING NEIGHBORS. CHASE AND ITS MORE THAN 15,000 CENTRAL OHIO ASSOCIATES ARE PROUD TO CELEBRATE THE HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOODS OF COLUMBUS. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER FOUNDATION, A RESOURCE FOR CHARITABLE INITIATIVES AND COMMUNITIES SERVED BY A.E.P AND BEYOND TO IMPROVE PEOPLE’S LIVES THROUGH EDUCATION, BASIC NEED, HEALTH CARE, AND THE ARTS. THE LAW FIRM OF BAILEY CAVALIERI, A LOCAL FIRM WITH A NATIONAL PRESENCE. BAILEYCAVALIERI.COM. AND BY THESE AND OTHER LOCAL FOUNDATIONS AND FAMILIES AND VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. ♪♪ ♪♪>>>I WAS BORN SEPTEMBER 9, 1837. I AM A WYANDOTTE INDIAN AND THE SOLE SURVIVING, FULL-BLOODED MEMBER OF THAT TRIBE. OUR TRIBE WERE OF A RELIGIOUS NATURE AND HAD THEIR WORSHIP TREES, UNDER THE BRANCHES OF WHICH THEY WORSHIPED GOD, WHOM THEY CALLED, THE GREAT I AM. I ATTRIBUTE MY LONG LIFE TO LIVING CLOSE TO NATURE AND OBSERVE THE CUSTOM OF MY TRIBE IN SLEEPING OUT OF DOORS IN THE SUMMER. AND ONE NIGHT OF EACH MONTH THROUGHOUT THE WINTER, WITH ONLY ONE BLANKET FOR COVER. ON MY NEXT BIRTHDAY, I WILL BE 100-YEARS OLD.>>WE WERE REALLY BLESSED IN OUR SIXTH GRADE CLASS TO HAVE A NEW YOUNG TEACHER. AND HIS NAME WAS MERRILL STEVENS OR BETTER KNOWN AS “COOKIE” IN THE COMMUNITY, WHO HAD REALLY INNOVATIVE IDEAS.>>1953, A GROWING COMMUNITY IS PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY. BUT SOME CLINTONVILLE SCHOOL KIDS LEARN THEY AREN’T THE FIRST TO LIVE HERE.>>THE DOMINION LAND COMPANY WAS DEVELOPING THIS AREA BETWEEN GLENMONT AND URONIA, PUTTING A ROAD THROUGH. AND IN THAT, THEY FOUND THIS ADENA INDIAN MOUNDS. THE SITE ORIGINALLY CONSISTED OF AN EMBANKMENT WALL THAT WAS AROUND 2.9 ACRES AND ORIGINALLY TWO MOUNDS. WHEN OHS GOT ON-SITE, THERE WAS A LOT OF BULLDOZING GOING ON AT THE TIME AND IT WAS A SALVAGE ARCHEOLOGY PROJECT TO TRY TO COME IN AND GET AS MUCH INFORMATION BEFORE IT WAS JUST COMPLETELY GONE. HERE IS THE BLUEPRINT OF THE SITE BEFORE IT WAS DEVELOPED, SHOWING THE EMBANKMENT AND THE TWO MOUNDS. AND UNDER ONE OF THE MOUNDS WERE THESE POST PATENTS THAT WERE FOUND. THESE ARE SMALL PITS WHERE A WOODEN POST OR PART OF A TREE WOULD HAVE BEEN PUT IN.>>AND IT MAY HAVE HELD A STRUCTURE OR A FENCE.>>THERE WAS A BURIAL THAT WAS FOUND AND IT WAS OF A 6 TO 8-YEAR OLD CHILD. THE THINKING IS THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN A STRUCTURE THAT WAS USED A MORTUARY COMPLEX.>>AND WHEN THEY WERE FINISHED USING THE STRUCTURE, THEY TORE IT DOWN OR BURNED IT DOWN AND THEN MEMORIALIZED IT BY BUILDING A MOUND OVER TOP OF IT.>>PEOPLE ACTUALLY USED THE PITS TO PUT THINGS INTO THEM AND BURY THEM DOWN THERE.>>THE ASSEMBLAGE CONSISTED OF ABOUT 90% POTTERY. SO, THERE’S A THOUGHT THAT THESE DEPOSITS WERE LEFT OVER FROM THE FUNERARY GATHERING.>>THESE WERE LARGE BARREL SHAPED VESSELS, PROBABLY HELD UPWARDS OF FIVE GALLONS.>>WE WOULD TRAIPSE ACROSS THE RAVINE AND UP ABOUT EVERYDAY TO WATCH THE EXCAVATING OF THIS MOUND.>>PEOPLE HAVE BEEN HERE EVERY 10,000 YEARS. THE AREA HAD THE RIVERS, THE FLOOD PLAINS, AND THE VERY RICH ENVIRONMENT WITH LOTS OF DIFFERENT PLANTS AND ANIMALS TO EAT.>>FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS, THE ADENA, HOPEWELL PEOPLE, AND NATIVE AMERICANS HAD BEEN LIVING IN WHAT WE TODAY CALL CLINTONVILLE. BILL MOOSE WOULD BE ONE OF THE LAST AND ONE OF THE MOST BELOVED.>>BILL WAS BORN IN UPPER SANDUSKY.>>THE WYANDOTTES WERE REMOVED FROM OHIO TO KANSAS IN 1847.>>BILL MOOSE AND HIS PARENTS ALONG WITH 50 OTHER INDIANS THAT REFUSED TO LEAVE. NO ONE KNOWS EXACTLY WHERE ALL THE FAMILIES WENT BUT BILL MOOSE’S FAMILY CAME TO COLUMBUS IN AN AREA NOW KNOWN AS HIGHBANKS METROPARK.>>BILL MOOSE JOINED THE SALES BROTHER CIRCUS IN LATE ’70s AND TRAVELED ALL OVER THE WORLD, INCLUDING TO AUSTRALIA.>>THE BILL MOOSE STORY HIT ITS PEAK WHEN BILL MOOSE MOVED TO CLINTONVILLE.>>HE COLLECTED BERRIES, HE HUNTED, HE TRAPPED. BUT, HE ALSO, IN FULL INDIAN REGALIA, ATE AT THE WYANDOTTE COUNTRY CLUB.>>THE YEAR WAS 1915 IS WHEN HE BUILT THIS LITTLE SHELTER. THE SIGN ON THERE SAID “HOME OF INDIAN BILL MOOSE, SURVIVOR OF THE WYANDOTTE INDIANS.”>>HE TOLD HIS STORY TO LEONARD ENDSLY, A REPORTER WHO WAS FASCINATED THAT MOOSE WAS STILL LIVING IN THE TRADITION OF HIS ANCESTORS.>>AND LEONARD WAS SO ENGROSSED WITH THIS STORY, HE SAID “BILL, IF I COULD MAKE A POSTCARD FOR YOU, AND YOU COULD SELL THIS FOR A QUARTER, HE SAID, “THAT COULD BE A LIVING.” SO, HE MADE A POSTAL CARD. ON ONE SIDE OF THE CARD, BILL STANDING IN FRONT OF HIS CABIN, PROUD. AND ON THE BACKSIDE, WAS WHAT HE TOLD LEONARD ENDSLY, WHICH WAS AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY.>>EVERYBODY WAS SO NICE TO HIM. MY MOTHER BAKED MANY PIES AND TOOK THEM UP TO HIM.>>BILL LOVED KIDS. AND THE KIDS CAME IN DROVES TO HEAR HIS STORY.>>MY FATHER HAD A HORSE HERE, A PONY. AND, A LOT OF OTHER KIDS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD HAD HORSES TOO. AND THEY CALLED THEMSELVES “THE CLINTONVILLE PONY CLUB.” AND THE KIDS APPARENTLY WOULD JUST TAKE OFF ON THEIR PONIES AND RIDE ALL THROUGH CLINTONVILLE. AND THE MOST SPECIAL THING THAT HE TALKED ABOUT WAS GOING TO VISIT A NATIVE AMERICAN MAN. LATER ON WHEN MY FATHER GREW UP, HE BECAME INTERESTED IN PHOTOGRAPHY AND ONE OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS HE TOOK WAS THIS PICTURE OF BILL MOOSE. AND HE CALLED IT “VANISHING AMERICAN” BY JOHN KESSLER, MY DAD. ♪♪>>WHEN BILL MOOSE DIED IN 1937, 20,000 PEOPLE ATTENDED THE FUNERAL. HIS EPITAPH READS — “BILL MOOSE, LAST OF THE WYANDOTS. BORN IN 1837, AND WHOSE DEATH IN 1937 MARKS THE PASSING OF THE INDIANS FROM THIS TERRITORY.”>>BALSER HESS WAS A REVOLUTIONARY WAR SOLDIER WHO BASICALLY ARRIVED IN THE OHIO COUNTRY WHEN MANY PEOPLE WERE COMING OUT HERE TO FIND A NEW LIFE AND A NEW LAND. HE WAS A COBBLER AND A TANNER BY TRADE AND HE AND HIS FAMILY ACQUIRED SEVERAL HUNDRED ACRES ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE OLENTANGY RIVER, NORTH OF DODDRIDGE STREET TODAY.>>IN 1803, THERE REALLY WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN ANYBODY THIS FAR NORTH UNTIL YOU GOT TO WORTHINGTON.>>BALSER HESS AND HIS SON CUT A ROAD THROUGH THE FORREST, ALL THE WAY FROM DOWNTOWN FRANKLINTON, THE CENTER OF THINGS IN THOSE DAYS, ALL THE WAY UP TO HIS PROPERTY.>>HIS FAMILY’S CEMETERY BECOMES A STARTING POINT OF UNION CEMETERY. WHEN HE DIED IN 1806, HE WAS BURIED ON THE FAMILY FARM AND THAT IS PART OF WHAT IS TODAY UNION CEMETERY.>>BAILER, STEP UP.>>DAVID BEERS WAS GENUINELY A FRONTIERSMEN. HE AND HIS SISTER HAD BEEN CAPTURED BY THE INDIANS AND HELD FOR A CONSIDERABLE PERIOD OF TIME BY THEM. HE EVENTUALLY RETURNED. HE BUILT A GRIST MILL. HIS HOUSE WAS A TRADING POST WHERE PEOPLE STOPPED COMING UP THROUGH THE RAVINE AS THEY WERE MAKING THEIR WAY ALONG THE WARRIOR’S TRAIL FROM LAKE ERIE TO THE OHIO RIVER.>>CLINTONVILLE GETS ITS NAME FROM CLINTON TOWNSHIP, WHICH WAS NAMED FOR GEORGE CLINTON, A VERY POPULAR GOVERNOR IN NEW YORK. ONE OF THE FIRST SETTLERS WAS THOMAS BULL.>>IN MANY WAYS, THE STORY OF CLINTONVILLE STARTS WITH THE BULL FAMILY. THOMAS BULL JR. CAME FROM VERMONT. HE BROUGHT 687 ACRES FROM ABOUT BREVOORT’S, DOWN TO WEBER ROAD. AND FROM THE RIVER TO WHAT WE NOW KNOW AS INDIANOLA AVENUE.>>THOMAS BULL ARRIVED IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD IN 1812 WITH HIS WIFE AND FAMILY. HE CARVED HIMSELF A HOME OUT OF THE VIRGIN FORREST AND MADE FARMLAND WHERE TREES HAD ONCE BEEN, GREW INDIAN CORN, AND GENERALLY TRANSFORMED THE LAND.>>EVEN THIS EARLY IN ITS HISTORY, THE LAND WAS IN TRANSITION. THE FRONTIER WAS BECOMING FARMLAND. THE PIONEERS HAD MADE SETTLEMENT POSSIBLE.>>ONE YEAR AFTER THOMAS BULL ARRIVED IN 1812, HIS DAUGHTER CHLOE ARRIVED WITH HER HUSBAND, ISAAC BREVOORT AND MOVED INTO A HOUSE THAT THOMAS BULL HAS BUILT. TRAGICALLY, WHILE TRYING TO CROSS THE SWOLLEN OLENTANGY RIVER, ISAAC BREVOORT DROWNED AS WAS LOST.>>THOMAS BULL’S THREE SONS BECOME INSTRUMENTAL IN CLINTONVILLE’S EARLY GROWTH. NATHAN WAS A PHYSICIAN AND AN EDUCATOR. ALANSON WAS A DIRECTOR OF THE COMPANY THAT IMPROVED THE ROAD TO WORTHINGTON.>>IN 1847, ALANSON BULL ALONG WITH SOME OF HIS RELATIVES AND OTHER FOLKS DECIDE TO SET UP A FEW STORES AND SHOPS IN THE VICINITY OF WHAT IS NOW NORTH HIGH STREET AND EAST NORTH BROADWAY. THE POST OFFICE HE ESTABLISHES COMES TO BE CALLED CLINTONVILLE BECAUSE IT SITS SMACK IN THE MIDDLE OF CLINTON TOWNSHIP.>>THAT MARKS THE STARTING POINT OF CLINTONVILLE AS A NAMED ENTITY.>>ANOTHER SON, JASON BULL, WAS A CIRCUIT RIDING PREACHER IN THE BURGEONING METHODIST DOMINATION AND CARVED OUT A PIECE OF HIS SHARE OF THE FAMILY LAND FOR A CHURCH. THE SONS OF THOMAS BULL ARE NOT ONLY BUILDING A COMMUNITY IN THE WILDS OF OHIO, THEY’RE EXERCISING THEIR STRONG ABOLITIONIST BELIEFS AND CREATING A NETWORK FOR FUGITIVE SLAVES.>>THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD IN OHIO WAS LIKE A SPIDER WEB OF ROUTES AND TRAILS. PROBABLY THE MAJOR ROUTE IS WHAT IS NOW ROUTE 23, COMING FROM PORTSMOUTH, OHIO, UP THE SHADE RIVER CORRIDOR, RIGHT INTO COLUMBUS, AND THEN GOING ONTO LAKE ERIE.>>THE CLINTON CHAPEL WAS THE FIRST CHURCH IN CLINTONVILLE AND JASON BULL BECAME THE PREACHER. BUT HIS WORK WENT BEYOND DELIVERING A SERMON FOR THE FAITHFUL EACH SUNDAY.>>HE WAS A ZEALOUS ABOLITIONIST AND SERVED AS A CONDUCTOR ON THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD ALONG WITH HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD.>>THE MOTHER OF THESE GENTLEMEN DOES NOT REALIZE THAT THEY ARE ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN THIS WORK UNTIL ALANSON LEAVES AN ABOLITIONARY MAGAZINE ON THE COFFEE TABLE.>>AND SHE WAS INCENSED. SHE SAID SHE WOULD NEVER LIVE UNDER THE SAME ROOF AS AN ABOLITIONIST.>>HE ENDS UP BUILDING A WING ONTO HIS HOUSE SO THAT SHE COULD ACTUALLY LIVE SEPARATE FROM THE REST OF THE FAMILY BUT STILL BE SUPPORTED BY THEM.>>THE CHAPEL THAT WAS VERY MUCH CONNECTED WITH THE BULL FAMILY WAS REALLY THE HIDING PLACE THAT WE CAN POINT TO. FUGITIVE SLAVES WERE BROUGHT TO BEHIND THE CHAPEL, POSSIBLY TO STAY NEAR THE WOOD PILE IN THE WOODS. AND IF YOU KNOW HOLLEY, YOU KNOW IT’S VERY WOODED>>ARE YOU READY TO GO?>>AND THEN IF THEY NEEDED TO, THEY BROUGHT INTO THE CHAPEL AREA IN A ROOM THAT WAS ACCESSED ONLY THE ATTIC SO THERE WAS NO APPARENT DOORWAY. AND THEN, WHEN THEY WERE SAFE, THEY WERE BROUGHT OUT AND BROUGHT UP HIGH STREET, INTO WORTHINGTON OR TO WESTERVILLE.>>THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD WAS A HIGHLY ILLEGAL OPERATION. THOSE WHO WERE INVOLVED WITH IT REALLY TOOK THEIR LIVES IN THEIR OWN HANDS.>>WE SOMETIMES HAVE THE IMPRESSION THAT MANY PEOPLE WORKED ON THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD IN OHIO BECAUSE TO AN EXTENT, IT’S OUR ENDURING MYTH. THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS MOST PEOPLE DIDN’T. IT WAS A CRIME TO BASICALLY HELP RUNAWAY SLAVES ESCAPE TO FREEDOM AND YOU COULD BE FINED HEAVILY AND IN FACT EVEN IMPRISONED. MANY PEOPLE KEPT THEIR ACTIVITIES ON THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD QUITE SECRET. A GOOD EXAMPLE OF THAT IS CYNTHIA BULL, WHO ONCE WROTE A LETTER.>>SHE WOULD BE GIVEN A BASKET AS IF SHE WAS GOING TO COLLECT EGGS BUT THERE WERE PROVISIONS IN THE BASKET. SHE WOULD TAKE THAT LITTLE BASKET AND FEED THEM, MANY TIMES WHILE HE WAS PREACHING.>>EVEN THOUGH THE BULL FAMILY BUILT THE CHAPEL AND USED IT AS AN UNDERGROUND RAILROAD STATION, DISAGREEMENTS SPLIT THE CONGREGATION. THE CHAPEL BECAME THE HOME MATHIAS ARMBRUSTER. HE WAS MORE INTERESTED IN PAINTING THAN REPENTING. HE OWNED A STUDIO IN DOWNTOWN COLUMBUS THAT CREATED THEATRICAL BACKDROPS.>>IT WAS ABOUT THE SECOND LARGEST SCENIC STUDIO IN THE UNITED STATES AROUND THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. AND AT THAT TIME, IT WAS THE LARGEST. IT WAS ACTUALLY JUST DOING THEATER.>>AS EARLY AS PHOTOGRAPHY WAS, HE TOOK PICTURES ALL OVER THE CITY, ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. ACTUALLY, ALL OVER THE WORLD. HE CONTINUED TO TRAVEL AND HE WOULD TAKE PICTURES AND PAINT THEM INTO THE SCENERY. THEY WOULD PAINT THE DROPS IN THE SCENERY FOR A LOT OF THE TOURING SHOWS THAT WOULD COME THROUGH TOWN. VAUDEVILLE SHOWS, MINSTREL SHOWS. SOME OF THE SHOWS THAT WOULD COME THROUGH WOULD BE MAGIC SHOWS. SO, THEY PAINTED DROPS FOR HOWARD THURSTON WHO WAS A VERY FAMOUS MAGICIAN WHO WAS ACTUALLY ALSO BORN IN COLUMBUS.>>HE SOLD OFF A PIECE OF HIS PROPERTY TO A DEVELOPER WITH THE STIPULATION THAT HE WOULD RETAIN THE RIGHT TO NAME THE STREETS. AN ADMIRER OF NORSE MYTHOLOGY, HE NAMED ONE OF THEM VALHALLA, WHICH MEANS THE HALL OF THE GODS.>>THE OLD CLINTON CHAPEL HAD SERVED AS A CHURCH AND THEN AS A HOME FOR THE ARTIST. AND WITH THE DEATH OF MATHIAS ARMBRUSTER, IT WOULD FIND ANOTHER LIFE.>>GRANDPA USED TO WORK FOR THE RAILROAD AND THEN HE DECIDED, FOR SOME REASON, TO BECOME A FUNERAL DIRECTOR. SO HE STARTED IN BUSINESS IN ’23 AND MOVED OVER HERE IN ’38.>>ONE DAY WE WERE IN THE ATTIC, THE ORIGINAL BEAMS OF THE BUILDING ARE THERE, AND I REACHED UP AND THERE WAS A BOX AND IT WAS GLASS NEGATIVES. THIS IS A PICTURE OF MR. ARMBRUSTER AND THIS WAS IN HIS GARDEN AREA. THIS ONE IS LOOKING FROM THE SOUTH ON HIGH STREET TOWARDS THE NORTH. THE FAMILY OWNED SEVERAL PROPERTIES IN EDITION TO THE CLINTON CHAPEL. THIS IS A PICTURE TAKEN FROM THE ATTIC LOOKING SOUTH ON HIGH STREET. AND AT THAT TIME, HIGH STREET HAD TREES DOWN THROUGH THERE. IT WAS LIKE A BOULEVARD. AND THIS IS ONE OF THE AMUSEMENT RIDES AT THE OLENTANGY PARK.>>MANY OF THE PROPERTIES IN CLINTONVILLE ARE CHANGING HANDS AMONG PROMINENT FAMILIES. YOU CAN SEE WHERE THEY LIVED AND RAN BUSINESSES BY CHECKING THE STREET SIGNS. COOK AND HENDERSON FOR INSTANCE. ♪♪>>COOK FAMILY WAS HUGE. THERE’S HUNDREDS OF THEM. AND THEY’VE GOT THEIR OWN LITTLE BOROUGH. THEY’VE GOT CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS, THEY’VE GOT A MILL. AND THEY CALLED THEIR FARM “MAPLE GROVE.”>>THE CHURCH TOOK ITS NAME FROM A STATELY MANSION AT HENDERSON AND HIGH. AMONG THE ESTATE’S OWNERS WAS THE ALDRIDGE FAMILY. EDGAR ALDRIDGE MADE HIS FORTUNE AS AN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER AND RETIRED IN HIS 40s AND TRAVELED THE WORLD WITH HIS WIFE.>>AS LUCK WOULD HAVE IT, THEY HAPPENED TO BE ON SITE THE DAY OF THE DISCOVERY KING TUT’S TOMB. SINCE THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC DID NOT HAVE THEIR PEOPLE ON SITE, HELEN AND EDGAR BECAME WHAT WE THINK OF AS THE CNN OF THEIR DAY, GIVING NEWS FEEDS TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD ALONG WITH THEIR PHOTOGRAPHS.>>EDGAR AND HIS WIFE SEEMED TO LEAD A CHARMED LIFE. THEY WERE FRIENDS WITH LORD CARNARVON, WHO BANK ROLLED THE KING TUT EXPEDITION AND LIVED AT HIGH CLAIR CASTLE OF “DOWNTON ABBEY” FAME. BUT, NO ONE COULD ESCAPE THE CURSE OF KING TUT. LORD CARNARVON DIED OF AN INFECTED MOSQUITO BITE. THE ALDRIDGES DIED IN A CAR ACCIDENT.>>HELEN WAS WEARING A RING THAT WAS GIVEN TO HER BY HOWARD CARTER AND LORD CARNARVON. THE FACT IS THE RING STILL EXISTS WITHIN THE FAMILY AND NO ONE EVEN TO THIS DAY HAS THE TEMERITY TO WEAR IT.>>BY THE LATE 1890s, CLINTON TOWNSHIP HAD AROUND 2,100 PEOPLE. AND ABOUT A FOURTH OF THE POPULATION WAS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURAL WORK. IT WAS A PLACE WHERE FARMERS RAISED CLOVER SEEDS, OATS, APPLES, PEARS, CHERRIES, WHEAT, HAY, PLUMS, GRAPES, AND VEGETABLES. ITS PROXIMITY TO COLUMBUS MADE IT AN OASIS FOR THOSE WANTING TO ESCAPE THE GRIME, POLLUTION, AND BUSTLE OF THE CITY.>>DEVELOPERS LIKE HERMAN DENISON AND JAMES LAUREN DECIDE THAT THE FAR NORTH SIDE OF TOWN, FIVE OR SIX MILES OUT, MIGHT BE A PLACE TO BUILD A LUXURY SUBURB.>>EAST NORTH BROADWAY IS AN INTERESTING AREA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLINTONVILLE. IT WAS ACTUALLY DESIGNED AND PLATTED TO BE A MAJOR STREET AND THERE WAS A REQUIREMENT THAT IF YOU BUILT ON THE STREET, YOU HAD TO SPEND AT LEAST $3,000 ON THE HOUSE. SO, THEY HAD A MINIMUM PRICE WHICH WAS QUITE SIGNIFICANT AT THE TIME.>>ONE GUY WILL BUY FIVE LOTS AND THE LOTS OF THE LAUREN AND DENISON SUBDIVISION ARE ALL ONE ACRE. SO, THESE LARGER LOTS FACILITATE MANY FARMS, SO THE ACTON PROPERTY IS ACTUALLY KNOWN FOR ITS PEACHES, AND CHERRIES, AND PEOPLE PLAY CROQUET.>>THE NEIGHBORHOOD WAS STARTING TO DEVELOP, BUT EVEN BY 1910 THERE WERE ONLY ABOUT 20 HOMES ON THE STREET. IT WAS STILL COUNTRY LIVING. ONCE YOU BUILT YOUR HOUSE, YOU HAD TO GROW YOUR OWN FOOD BECAUSE THERE WERE NO STORES. SOME OF THE WOMEN IN THE BIG, NEW HOUSES WERE GETTING BORED.>>YOU HAVE A COMBINATION OF FARM LADIES AND CITY LADIES. AND THE CITY LADIES, THEIR HUSBANDS ARE RIDING THE TROLLEY DOWNTOWN. AND SO, THEY’RE HERE WITH THEIR CHILDREN LOOKING FOR THINGS TO DO. AND IN 1912, A BOOK SALESMAN COMES THROUGH THE AREA AND HE TALKS FOR THESE LADIES ABOUT THIS FABULOUS LEARNING TOOL THAT HE’S SELLING. SO THEY DECIDE TO FORM THIS KIND OF GROUP. SO THEY START TO EXPLORE NEW METHODS THAT ARE BEING TALKED ABOUT IN THESE BOOKS, THINGS LIKE HOT LUNCH. THEY START SERVING HOT LUNCH AT THE SCHOOL. THEY ALSO START TO WORK ON BABY CAMPS WHERE BABIES NEED A LOT OF FRESH AIR AND SUNSHINE. SO, I GUESS WE TAKE THEM OUT FOR FRESH AIR AND SUNSHINE!>>AFTER 25 YEARS OF MEETING AT EACH OTHER’S HOMES, THEY DECIDED FOR THEIR 25TH ANNIVERSARY, THEY WOULD MAKE THIS SCRAP BOOK. THEY WENT INTO THEIR OWN PERSONAL COLLECTION OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES AND PHOTOGRAPHS, AND THEN THEY WROTE DOWN THEIR RECOLLECTIONS THAT WENT WITH THOSE PHOTOGRAPHS.>>HERE’S THE BREVOORTS –>>THIS IS THE BREVOORT’S HOUSE.>>THIS IS THE HOUSE THAT IS ON NORTH HIGH STREET. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN ACTUALLY ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE HIGH BUT THESE PHOTOS BACK HERE –>>ON THE RIVER.>>SHOW THE RIVERSIDE OF THE BREVOORT LAND.>>THEY LOVED TO MAKE APPLE BUTTER HERE IN CLINTONVILLE. WHEN YOU CAME HERE TO OHIO YOU NEEDED TO BE ABLE TO FARM THE LAND. SO, BEING ABLE TO PLANT APPLES AND USE THEM TO MAKE APPLE BUTTER OR TO MAKE APPLE JAM AND THEN USE THE RINDS AND THE LEFTOVERS TO FATTEN HOGS, LOTS OF FARMS.>>THERE WERE SEVERAL DISTILLERIES, THERE WERE SEVERAL ORCHARDS, THERE WERE SEVERAL VINEYARDS.>>THIS IS A PICTURE OF A DAIRY OPERATION, WHICH DAIRY FARMING WAS PRETTY POPULAR IN THE CLINTONVILLE AREA.>>IN THE EARLY DAYS, FARM BOYS AND GIRLS DROVE TO SCHOOL IN BUGGIES AND CARRIAGES. FOR MANY YEARS, THE LONG SHEDS USED FOR STABLING THE HORSES REMAINED NEAR THE BUILDING. CLEARING AWAY THESE OLD EDIFICES WAS ONE OF THE EARLY MISSIONS OF THE CLINTON LEAGUE.>>SO, THIS IS AN ABSOLUTELY BEAUTIFUL PICTURE OF THE 1904 ANNEX BUILDING, SITTING OUT IN THE MIDDLE OF A FIELD ALL BY ITSELF.>>THIS IS A HOUSE, JUST HUGE OPEN LAND.>>AND THOSE PICTURES ARE UNDERNEATH A HEADLINE THAT SAYS “OUR SUBURBAN HOMES.”>>I LOVE THIS! SO, THERE WAS A TRADITION OF HAVING GOATS AND LITTLE PONIES, AND PEOPLE WOULD COME AROUND WITH THEIR CAMERAS AND TAKE PICTURES OF YOUR KIDS WITH THE GOATS OR THE LITTLE PONIES. AND THERE’S A WHOLE BUNCH OF KIDS GETTING THEIR PICTURES TAKEN WITH “THE HORSE” AND “THE GOAT” AND “THE GOAT WAGON.”>>THE CLINTON LEAGUE WAS ALL WOMEN. THEY WERE IN EXISTENCE THROUGH WORLD WAR I, THE FLU EPIDEMIC OF 1918, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, WORLD WAR II, THE KOREAN WAR, THE VIETNAM ERA. WITH ALL OF THAT, THEY TALK ABOUT ALL OF THEIR GOOD DEEDS.>>BUT THEY BARELY MENTION THE VOTE IN 1920 AND I JUST FOUND THAT ASTONISHING THAT THAT WASN’T ONE OF THEIR PROJECTS.>>SINCE THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS HAD CLEARED LAND FOR CABINS THERE, CLINTONVILLE HAD BEEN A SMALL SETTLEMENT BETWEEN COLUMBUS AND WORTHINGTON. BUT AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY, IT WAS BECOMING LESS REMOTE. STREET CARS CONNECTED CLINTONVILLE TO COLUMBUS AND INTERURBAN RAILROAD CONNECTED IT TO NEARBY TOWNS.>>YOU COULD ALSO LEAVE TOWN ON AN ELECTRIC TROLLEY THAT WOULD GO AT THE THEN STUPENDOUS SPEED OF PROBABLY 45, 50, MAYBE 60 MILES PER HOUR. THERE WAS A SMALL, VERY ORNATE DEPOT. THAT WAS SITUATED AT THE POINT WHERE NORTH BROADWAY DEAD ENDED AT THE RAILROAD TRACK. AND IT WAS AN INTERESTING STATION BECAUSE IT ACTUALLY SERVED NOT ONLY THE RAILROAD, BUT IT ALSO SERVED THE COLUMBUS, DELAWARE, AND MARION INTERURBAN LINE. WHEN YOU DRIVE OR WALK UP INDIANOLA AVENUE, A LOT OF THE BUILDINGS ARE SET BACK AT A FAIRLY GOOD DISTANCE FROM THE STREET. THE REASON FOR THAT IS THAT WAS THE RIGHT OF THE WAY OF THE STREET CAR LINE.>>THE STREET CARS REPLACED HORSES, BUT YOU STILL HAD TO HAVE A BARN FOR STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE. IN CLINTONVILLE, IT WAS AT THE CORNER OF ARCADIA AND NORTH HIGH.>>IT WAS EVENTUALLY TORN DOWN AND THEY BUILT ONE OF THE FIRST WHITE CASTLE RESTAURANTS IN COLUMBUS THERE.>>THE STREET CAR WAS ALSO A CONVENIENT WAY TO GET TO A POPULAR PICNIC AND CANOEING AREA ON THE SOUTH END OF CLINTONVILLE.>>AT THE END OF THE STREET CAR LINE, IT WAS WONDERFUL TO HAVE SOMETHING THAT PEOPLE WOULD GO TO ON WEEKENDS.>>IN 1899, THE DUSENBURY BROTHERS BOUGHT OLENTANGY PARK FROM THE COLUMBUS RAILWAY COMPANY. AND THEY USHERED IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF OLENTANGY PARK. AND WHAT OLENTANGY PARK DID WAS DECIDE TO MAKE THIS AMUSEMENT PARK A FAMILY FRIENDLY AMUSEMENT PARK.>>THE BROTHERS ADDED RIDES, TURNED THE HISTORIC BEERS MILL INTO AN ATTRACTION AND MADE OTHER IMPROVEMENTS THAT MAKE THE PARK MORE FAMILY FRIENDLY. THEY ALSO BUILT A SUMMER THEATRE AT THE PARK THAT SEATED 1,000 MORE PEOPLE THAN THE LARGEST THEATRE DOWNTOWN. ON A VISIT TO THE 1904 WORLD’S FAIR IN ST. LOUIS, THE DUSENBURY BROTHERS SAW THE FASCINATION PEOPLE HAD WITH THE JAPANESE EXHIBIT. THEY MANAGED TO RELOCATE MANY OF THE FEATURES FROM THE FAIR TO OLENTANGY PARK. OLENTANGY PARK WAS A POPULAR PLACE FOR REUNIONS AND COMPANY PICNICS.>>CROMWELL DIXON IS SEEN HERE IN AN 1907 PICNIC WITH THE PRESIDENT OF OLENTANGY PARK, J.W. DUSENBURY. CROMWELL DIXON WAS KNOWN AS THE YOUNGEST AERONAUT AND INVENTOR IN THE WORLD. AT AGE 14, HE INVENTED WHAT WAS CALLED A SKY CYCLE. ONE OF HIS FIRST FLIGHTS WAS MADE AT OLENTANGY PARK.>>OLENTANGY PARK WAS THE MOST POPULAR AMUSEMENT PARK IN THE AREA, IT FEATURED FOUR ROLLER COASTERS OPERATING SIMULTANEOUSLY, INCLUDING A FIGURE EIGHT, A SCENIC COASTER THAT PARALLELED HIGH STREET AND LATER BECAME THE RED DEVIL, AND A LOOP-DE-LOOP.>>IT WAS AN EARLY DESIGN THAT WAS VERY CIRCULAR IN NATURE, SO WHEN YOU WENT INTO THE LOOP, THE FORCES KIND OF SLAMMED YOU INTO THE HILL AND IT GAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE WHIPLASH. THAT COMBINED WITH THE FACT THAT SOME PEOPLE GOT STUCK SITTING AT THE TOP AND THE FACT THAT THEY HAD VERY THIN BARS HOLDING PEOPLE IN, EQUALED THE DEMISE OF THE LOOP-DE-LOOP BY ABOUT 1912.>>THOSE WHO COOPERATE MUSTER THE COURAGE FOR THE COASTERS COULD VISIT A 10 ACRE ZOO AND FLORAL CONSERVATORY AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE PARK. THE DANCE HALL AT THE PARK WAS MADE OF STEEL, SO A WAYWARD CIGARETTE OR CIGAR BUTT WOULDN’T SEND IT UP IN SMOKE.>>SO YOU WOULD BUY A TICKET, GET OUT ON THE DANCE FLOOR, AND THEN ONCE THE TUNE WAS FINISHED, YOU WOULD BE USHERED OFF THE FLOOR BY A LARGE ROPE THAT WOULD BASICALLY WRESTLE EVERYONE OFF THE FLOOR LIKE CATTLE.>>ONE OF THE PARK’S SHOWPIECES WAS AN ELABORATE CAROUSEL THAT FEATURED THE SPECTACULAR AND FLAMBOYANT CREATIONS OF MARCUS ILLIONS, AT ONE TIME CONSIDERED THE PREEMINENT CARVER OF CAROUSEL HORSES.>>MEN WOULD BE THERE IN THEIR FULL SUITS AND TIES, WOMEN WOULD BE THERE IN FULL DRESSES, USUALLY WHITE DRESSES, LARGE HATS.>>THE CAROUSEL WAS RENOVATED IN 2000 BY CAROUSEL WORKS IN MANSFIELD, OHIO, AND STILL THRILLS PEOPLE OF ALL AGES AT THE COLUMBUS ZOO. OLENTANGY PARK FEATURED ONE OF THE LARGEST SWIMMING POOLS IN THE MIDWEST, WHERE THOUSANDS OF BATHERS GATHERED. THE PARK REQUIRED YOU TO RENT ONE OF THEIR BATHING SUITS, WHICH ADDED A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF DRAMA TO THE EXPERIENCE. SOMETIMES THEY WERE BAGGY AND A LITTLE ILL FITTING AND HAD THE TENDENCY TO KIND OF FALL OFF. OLENTANGY PARK ALSO HAD A FEATURE THAT DELIGHTED YOUNG KIDS, AND THAT WAS TANDA, THE BABY ELEPHANT. HE USED TO WALK AROUND THE GROUNDS, THEY WOULD LET PEOPLE CLIMB UP ON HIM. AND AT CERTAIN TIMES, THEY LET HIM SWIM IN THE POOL.>>FOR A GRADUATION PARTY, I LOVED TO TAKE MY GIRLFRIEND, BETTY, TO OLENTANGY PARK, AND THEY HAD A TUNNEL OF LOVE YOU COULD GO INTO. AND THAT WAS PRETTY HANDY BECAUSE IT WAS MY FUTURE WIFE. NICE TRIP THROUGH THE TUNNEL OF LOVE.>>THEN, IT BECAME LESS POPULAR. PEOPLE HAD OTHER DIVERSIONS, THEY HAD CARS, THEY WERE LESS RELIANT ON STREET CARS. AND BY THE 1930s, IT WAS PURCHASED BY L.L. LEVEQUE AND IT WAS DEMOLISHED AND THAT’S WHERE OLENTANGY VILLAGE IS TODAY.>>THEY WANT TO DO A GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE. THE ORIGINAL PICTURES HAD A LOT MORE APARTMENTS HERE. THEY HAD MID-RISE, I MEAN, IT WAS VERY HIGH DENSITY.>>IT WAS THE FIRST BIG APARTMENT COMPLEX THAT WAS BUILT HERE IN COLUMBUS.>>AND IT WOULD ALSO BE A COMMUNITY. IT WAS GOING TO HAVE THE GROCERY STORE, IT WAS GOING TO HAVE SHOPS AND RESTAURANTS.>>THE VILLAGE TAVERN WAS VERY POPULAR, THE BEAUTY SHOP.>>THE MAJOR BAKERY IN COLUMBUS WAS ANTONIO’S BAKERY. IT WAS KNOWN FOR ITS WEDDING CAKES. IT LATER BECAME PO ZART’S BAKERY.>>A BOWLING ALLEY AT THE OLENTANGY VILLAGE WAS THE FIRST IN THE NATION TO USE AUTOMATIC PIN SETTERS. THE SYSTEM WAS DEVISED BY OHIO STATE STUDENTS AND THE DESIGN WAS SOLD TO THE AMF COMPANY. THE BOWLING ALLEY REMAINED POPULAR UNTIL 1980 WHEN IT WAS DESTROYED BY FIRE. INVESTIGATORS SPECULATED THE BLAZE BEGAN IN THE BASEMENT ROOM WHERE THE PIN SETTER MOTORS WERE LOCATED.>>THAT WAS A REAL SAD DAY FOR PEOPLE WHEN THAT BOWLING ALLEY WAS BURNT.>>COLUMBUS WAS A VERY SMALL TOWN FOR A VERY LONG TIME. IT WAS FARMLAND SURROUNDING CENTRAL CITIES, AND AS THE VALUE OF PROPERTY GOES UP WITH URBAN GROWTH, FARMLAND GETS SOLD.>>THE UNDEVELOPED LAND THAT HAD BEEN SO IMPORTANT WHEN CLINTONVILLE WAS A FARMING TOWN WAS DISAPPEARING. AND ONE OF CLINTONVILLE’S LAST LARGE PIECES OF LAND WAS HELD BY A LARGER THAN LIFE FIGURE.>>PAT MURNANE WAS FLAMBOYANT, TALL, FLASHY DRESSER, ALWAYS LOOKING FOR A GOOD SPOILING FIGHT, NEVER MET A PERSON HE DIDN’T LIKE AND YET, HE WAS GENEROUS TO A FAULT. HE GREW UP ON THE NORTH SIDE, WENT TO SACRED HEART SCHOOL FOR A LITTLE BIT. ATTENDED OHIO STATE FOR A VERY LITTLE BIT, AND SEEMS TO HAVE HAD AN EARLY PASSION FOR GAMBLING.>>ONE DAY, HE CHANCED IN TO A GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT AND PLAYED AND WON. HE ACTUALLY WON THE GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT. SO NOW, HE’S A GAMBLER. PAT MURNANE’S GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT WAS REALLY AT THE CORNER OF BROAD AND HIGH, AND IT WAS ABOVE A RESTAURANT, DORISON’S RESTAURANT, I IMAGINE VERY MUCH LIKE ONE OF THOSE SALT FILLED CROWDED ROOMS WITH A LOT OF THINGS HAPPENING BACK AND FORTH.>>IF YOU WENT INTO A GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT AS A ELABORATE AS PAT MURNANE’S, IT WAS NOT SIMPLY TWO POKER TABLES SITTING OVER AT THE SIDE OF THE ROOM, BUT MOST PEOPLE PROBABLY CAME TO A GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENT TO DO WAS EITHER PLAY ROULETTE ON THE ONE HAND OR PLAY CARDS ON THE OTHER. ANY CITY OF ANY SIZE HAS ALWAYS HAD A LITTLE BIT OF VICE ASSOCIATED WITH IT. IN MOST CITIES, IT’S PRETTY WELL HIDDEN THROUGH MOST OF THE 19TH CENTURY. COLUMBUS, LIKE MOST CITIES OF ITS SIZE, HAS NOT ONE BUT SEVERAL VICE MYSTERIES. PRESIDING OVER THIS IN THE CENTER OF THINGS IS A MAN NAMED PAT MURNANE.>>HIS FIRST WIFE, CARRIE, DIED YOUNG HE REMAINED A BACHELOR UNTIL HE FELL FOR THE CHARMS OF COLUMBUS’ MOST FAMOUS MADAM, GRACE BACKENSTOW.>>SHE CAME FROM ATHENS, OHIO AS A CHILD. HER NAME WAS GRACE DARDY. THE NEXT THING WE KNOW ABOUT HER IS SHE WAS MARRIED TO GEORGE BACKENSTOW, AND SHE AND GEORGE WERE A COLORFUL PAIR. SHE OBVIOUSLY MET HER MATCH WHEN SHE MARRIED GEORGE. HE RAN A SALOON ON CHESTNUT STREET DOWNTOWN, AND RIGHT UP THE STREET FROM HIS SALOON, GRACE RAN A WHORE HOUSE.>>SHE’S SORT OF A SHADOWY FIGURE, ETHEREAL AND VERY MUCH AN INDEPENDENT WOMAN WHO DOESN’T ALLOW HER BUSINESS TO BE INTERRUPTED IN ANY WAY BY PAT MURNANE.>>IN 1910, IN THE CENSUS, GRACE IS LISTED AS A DIVORCEE, AND SHE’S LIVING DOWNTOWN IN A HOUSE WITH A NUMBER OF YOUNG WOMEN LODGERS, AS THEY’RE LISTED IN THE CENSUS. AND THAT’S PROBABLY WHERE SHE MET PAT MURNANE, WHO HAD A BUSINESS VERY CLOSE BY. IT MUST HAVE BEEN A REAL OPEN TOWN, BECAUSE ALL OF THIS WAS GOING ON RIGHT DOWN WHERE LAZARUS NOW IS.>>THERE’S A BIT OF FOLKLORE AND MYSTIQUE SURROUNDING PAT AND GRACE’S RELATIONSHIP. HOW DID THEY FIND EACH OTHER? WERE THEY MARRIED OR NOT? WAS GRACE PAT’S MISTRESS? WHAT WE DO KNOW IS THAT THEY WERE VERY MUCH IN LOVE.>>GRACE AND PAT OWNED A PIECE OF PROPERTY UP NORTH ON HIGH STREET, AND IT WAS ORIGINALLY OWNED BY THE JEFFREY FAMILY. IT’S HUGE, AND IT STARTS AT THE OLENTANGY RIVER AND GOES ALL THE WAY OVER TO HIGH STREET. AND IT’S ONE OF THE LAST TRULY GREAT BIG PIECES OF PROPERTY LEFT BETWEEN COLUMBUS AND WORTHINGTON.>>THERE WERE AT LEAST THREE LOVES IN PAT MURNANE’S LIFE — GAMBLING, HORSE RACING, AND GRACE. HE STABLED 60 THOROUGHBREADS AT HIS BELOVED CLINTONVILLE HORSE FARM. HE CALLED IT “GRACELAND.”>>YOU GOING TO WIN MY RACE FOR ME AND MAKE ME SOME BUCKS, HUH?>>PAT MURNANE WAS ALSO A PHILANTHROPIST, WHICH WAS KIND OF SURPRISING TO MOST PEOPLE. HE WOULD MEET SOMEBODY AT THE DOOR AND SAY “YOU’VE GAMBLED ENOUGH, YOU CAN’T AFFORD TO WASTE ANYMORE OF YOUR MONEY.” OR HE’D GRAB SOMEBODY AT THE TABLE AND SAY “YOU’VE LOST ENOUGH, IT’S TIME FOR YOU TO GO HOME. TAKE CARE OF YOUR WIFE, TAKE CARE OF YOUR KIDS. THEY NEED THE FOOD, YOU DON’T NEED TO SPEND ANYMORE MONEY.”>>PAT MURNANE WAS VERY RELIGIOUS AND WAS CATHOLIC. HE GAVE TO JUST NUMBERS OF CHARITIES. HE ALSO MADE IT VERY POSSIBLE FOR WESLEY GLEN TO BE ESTABLISHED WITH THE VIRGINIA GAY TRUST.>>VIRGINIA WALCOTT GAY WAS A RESIDENT OF CENTRAL OHIO. IN 1905, SHE ESTABLISHED IN HER WILL A TRUST FOR A RETIREMENT COMMUNITY FOR WOMEN OF CULTURE AND REFINEMENT WHO WERE RETIRED SCHOOL TEACHERS. TO BE A SCHOOL TEACHER AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY, YOU COULD NOT BE MARRIED. SO, THESE WERE WOMEN WITHOUT PENSIONS, THESE WERE WOMEN WITHOUT HUSBANDS. THEREFORE, THEY WERE WOMEN WITHOUT CHILDREN TO HELP PROVIDE FOR THEM IN THEIR OLD AGE. SHE PASSED AWAY IN 1914, AND THE WILL WAS TO IMMEDIATELY BECOME EFFECTIVE, AND THEN THERE WAS A WILL CONTEST. THE NIECES CONTESTED THE WILL, AND THE BATTLE OVER THE WILL AND THE PROCEEDS OF THE ESTATE WENT ON UNTIL 1930.>>THE WILL WAS UPHELD, AND PAT MURNANE SELLS THE VIRGINIA GAY TRUST, THE NORTHERN PART OF HIS GRACELAND ESTATE. THE VIRGINIA GAY HOME OPENED IN 1932, AND RETIRED SCHOOL TEACHERS LIVED THERE UNTIL 1966, WHEN THE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH PURCHASED IT AND ESTABLISHED WESLEY GLEN, A CHURCH AFFILIATED RETIREMENT COMMUNITY.>>VIRGINIA WALCOTT GAY, SHE REALLY WAS A WOMAN OF VISION, AND I’M VERY GRATEFUL TO HER, BECAUSE I THINK WE’VE BEEN ABLE TO CARRY ON HER MISSION OF PROVIDING QUALITY CARE. ♪♪>>SINCE HE SEEMS TO BE THE ONE AND ONLY GAMBLER THAT EVERYBODY KNOWS, IT SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN HIS PATRIOTIC DUTY TO KEEP THE MOB OUT OF COLUMBUS DURING PROHIBITION.>>PAT MURNANE IS RATTING ALL THESE GUYS OUT, AND HE’S WANTING TO MAKE SURE THAT HE IS THE BAD EXPERIENCE IN TOWN. AND THE COLUMBUS POLICE DEPARTMENT IS SUPPORTING HIM IN THAT. ♪♪>>PAT WAS ALWAYS KNOWN AS SOMEBODY WHO DIDN’T BACK AWAY FROM A FIGHT. AND HE HAD THAT FAMOUS FIERY, IRISH TEMPER, BUT HE HAD THAT LARGE HEART OF GOLD. HE STEPS IN A SIDEWALK FIGHT TO BREAK UP TWO PEOPLE, AND IS STABBED. HE RECOVERS FROM IT, BUT NEVER FULLY REGAINS HIS HEALTH.>>WHEN PAT MURNANE DIED IN 1937, IT WAS ONE OF THE LARGEST FUNERALS IN COLUMBUS’ HISTORY. BUT THAT WASN’T THE END OF THE PAT MURNANE STORY.>>THE FAMILY DID NOT REALLY HAVE RELATIONS WITH HIM BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T APPROVE OF THE BUSINESSES HE WAS IN. SO, WHEN HE PASSED AWAY, THEY WERE ALL SURE THEY WERE GOING TO GET SOME MONEY.>>BUT GRACE MAINTAINED UNTIL HER DEATH TWO YEARS LATER THAT SHE WAS PAT’S WIFE. THERE WAS NO PROOF THAT THERE HAD BEEN A MARRIAGE, SO THE COURT HAD TO SETTLE THE ESTATE. GRACE’S HEIRS ARGUED THAT IN FACT THERE HAD BEEN A MARRIAGE, WHEN THE COUPLE VACATIONED OUT WEST.>>THERE CAN BE FOUND NO PAPERS THAT SAY THIS INDEED HAPPENED. AND LATER, WHEN THIS ISSUE WOULD COME UP IN COURT, THERE WOULD BE A NUMBER OF EYE WITNESSES WHO WILL SAY “OH, NO, NO, NO. HE INTRODUCED HER AS HIS WIFE.”>>IN THE END, THE COURT DECIDED THAT PAT AND GRACE WERE MARRIED IN 1915, AND GRACE MURNANE’S HEIRS WERE AWARDED THE GRACELAND ESTATE.>>THE LAND WAS EVENTUALLY AUCTIONED OFF TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC DIOCESE FOR THE PURPOSE OF BUILDING A HIGH SCHOOL. BUT, THEY CHANGED THEIR MIND AND BUILT BISHOP WATTERSON HIGH SCHOOL IN A DIFFERENT LOCATION. SO, WHEN THE PROPERTY IS SOLD FINALLY TO DON CASTO SR. AND DON CASTO JR., AND THERE ARE DEVELOPMENT PLANS TO BUILD A SHOPPING CENTER THERE, IN THE END, WHAT HAPPENS IS THAT PAT HAS EXACTLY WHAT HE’S ALWAYS WANTED, THAT SOMEHOW, HIS BELOVED GRACE IS REMEMBERED, AND GRACELAND SHOPPING CENTER IS BORN OUT OF THAT.>>MY GRANDFATHER WANTED TO BUY IT. IT WAS A LITTLE BIT DIFFICULT, BECAUSE I DON’T THINK HE HAD THE MONEY TO BUY IT AT THE TIME. AND HE ARRANGED AT THE LAST MINUTE TO HOOK UP WITH THE GIBSON FAMILY OUT OF WARREN, OHIO.>>THE GIBSON COMPANY DID THE PHYSICAL BUILDING OF THE SHOPPING CENTERS.>>CASTO PUT LIFE IN HIM BY RENTING THEM TO A DESCRIBED MIX. YOU HAVE A LITTLE BIT OF SOMETHING TO APPEAL TO EVERYBODY.>>WE WERE VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE THE UNION STORE. JC PENNEY WAS THERE.>>YOU COULD TAKE YOUR CHILD THERE, AND FOR A PENNY A POUND, GET THEIR PICTURE TAKEN.>>BIG BEAR USED TO BE THERE. THAT WAS KIND OF THE ANCHOR STORE. I REMEMBER THAT WAS A BIG THING WHEN I WAS LITTLE, BECAUSE THERE WERE PONIES OUTSIDE THAT YOU GOT TO PUT IN A DIME, YOU GET TO RIDE.>>IT WAS THE LOCATION OF ONE OF THE FIRST WILKO STORES IN THE COUNTRY, WHICH WAS THE F.W. WOOLWORTH FIVE AND DIME STORES’ EFFORT TO REINVENT THEMSELVES INTO A DISCOUNT STORE.>>BY THE TIME GRACELAND OPENED, CLINTONVILLE’S FARMS HAD GIVEN WAY TO BAKERIES AND SODA FOUNTAINS AND MOM AND POP STORES. IT SEEMED LIKE MAIN STREET U.S.A. RAN RIGHT THROUGH CLINTONVILLE.>>I DO REMEMBER ISALY’S ICE CREAM STORE AT THE CORNER OF NORTH BROADWAY AND HIGH STREET. OUR PARENTS WOULD GIVE US MONEY TO GO TO CHURCH ON SUNDAY, AND WE WOULD SNEAK OUT AND GO TO ISALY’S AND USE THE MONEY WE WERE SUPPOSED TO PUT IN THE COLLECTION. WE WOULD GO TO ISALY’S FOR ICE CREAM.>>THEY WERE THE FIRST ONES THAT HAD CHIP CHOP HAM, AND EVERYBODY HAD TO GO HAVE CHIP CHOP HAM. YOU’D GET A PILE OF HAM LIKE THAT.>>EVERYONE LOVED TO GET THE SKYSCRAPERS. IT WAS A BIG, TALL ICE CREAM CONE ABOUT THIS BIG, ONE SCOOP, STRAIGHT UP.>>RESIDENTS WERE DEVOTED TO MANY OF THESE LOCAL FAMILY-OWNED BUSINESSES. BEECHWOLD HARDWARE HAS BEEN IN THE SMITH FAMILY SINCE 1944, AND PERSONAL SERVICE WAS THE TRADEMARK OF BERNIE PANNELL, WHO KEPT CARS RUNNING FOR YEARS AT HIS CLINTONVILLE GARAGE.>>THE OLDER LADIES JUST ADORED HIM. HE LIKED GOING OUT AND WASHING THEIR WINDSHIELD AND CHECKING THEIR OIL, AND PUMPING THEIR GAS.>>THAT ATTENTION TO PERSONAL SERVICE WAS EMBRACED BY NEIGHBORHOOD GROCERY STORES. YOU DIDN’T HAVE TO PUSH A CART UP AND DOWN THE AISLES AT WEILAND’S ON INDIANOLA AVENUE AND GARDEN ROAD.>>WE DID HAVE A DELIVERY SERVICE. WE HAD TRUCKS THAT WOULD — PEOPLE WOULD CALL IN THEIR ORDER, WE WOULD FILL THE ORDER, TAKE IT OUT, DELIVER IT.>>AND SERVICE WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE EXPERIENCE AT CLINTONVILLE’S DINERS AND RESTAURANTS. MANY OF THEM WERE SO SMALL AND INTIMATE, YOU WERE RUBBING ELBOWS WITH THE COOK ACROSS THE COUNTER.>>WARREN’S SANDWICH SHOP WAS ABOUT THIS BIG. I MEAN, IT WAS JUST THIS TEENY, REALLY, HOLE IN THE WALL. WARREN WAS THIS TALL, LEAN MAN WHO I JUST REMEMBER FLIPPING HAMBURGERS ENDLESSLY DAY AND NIGHT.>>JERRY’S DRIVE-IN WAS AT THE CORNER OF MORSE AND HIGH STREET. SO IMAGINE 1950s LEATHER JACKETS AND POODLE SKIRTS AND JERRY’S.>>WE’D PULL UP IN THE CAR, MY DAD WOULD ROLL DOWN THE WINDOW, AND WE’D SPEAK INTO A LITTLE SPEAKER TO MAKE YOUR ORDER. AND THEN, SOMEONE WOULD BRING IT OUT TO THE CAR AND HANG IT ON THE WINDOW.>>EVERYBODY WOULD DRIVE AROUND THE PARKING LOT AT JERRY’S ON A SATURDAY NIGHT OR AFTER A FOOTBALL GAME AT NORTH.>>THE FAMOUS THING ABOUT JERRY’S DRIVE-IN WAS THE FACT THAT IT HAD THE CITY’S BIGGEST SIGN, NEON, PROBABLY ABOUT 40 FEET HIGH.>>THE SIGN IS QUITE LARGE, AND IT’S PROBABLY LARGER THAN IT’S PERMITTED THIS DAY AND AGE.>>SOME CLINTONVILLE FAMILIES ARE REVERED FOR THE BURGERS THEY MADE OR THE ICE CREAM THEY CHURNED. THE GATHERING PLACES THEY DEVELOPED HELPED CREATE A SENSE OF COMMUNITY, AND OTHER CLINTONVILLE FAMILIES FORGED CLINTONVILLE’S IDENTITY IN DIFFERENT WAYS.>>C.C. HOLLENBACK REALLY MADE HIS MONEY AND MADE HIS NAME BY BEING AN OFFICER OF THE AMERICAN INSURANCE UNION, WHICH WAS A COMBINATION INSURANCE COMPANY AND SECRET SOCIETY THAT BUILT THE AMERICAN INSURANCE UNION CITADEL, WHICH IS NOW THE LEVEQUE TOWER.>>HE WAS AN EARLY ADAPTER OF EVERYTHING TECHNOLOGICAL. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT HE WAS REALLY, REALLY INTERESTED IN WAS PHOTOGRAPHY. HE WAS TAKING PICTURES EVERYWHERE, HE LOVED TO TRAVEL.>>HE WENT TO THE CHICAGO WORLD’S FAIR.>>THERE’S A REALLY INTERESTING PICTURE THAT HE HAD SOMEONE TAKE OF HIM IN A RICKSHAW.>>HE WAS A PUBLISHER. WHEN HE BOUGHT PROPERTY AT CALIFORNIA AND HIGH, HE CREATED THE PRESS OF HOLLENBACK.>>C.C.’S SON, RAND HOLLENBACK, FOUNDED THE CLINTONVILLE BOOSTER NEWSPAPER, WHICH BECAME A FIXTURE IN THE AREA FOR MANY, MANY YEARS.>>THE REASON THAT GRANDFATHER HOLLENBACK STARTED THE NEWSPAPER DURING THE DEPRESSION WAS, FIRST OF ALL, HIS INTEREST IN THE COMMUNITY, BUT ALSO, HE NEEDED TO MAKE SOME MONEY. AND EVEN THE LITTLE PROFIT THAT HE COULD GET OUT OF THE ADS IN THE NEWSPAPER KEPT THE PRESS OF HOLLENBACK AFLOAT.>>THE OUTCOME OF HAVING THE CLINTONVILLE BOOSTER IS THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPED A VERY DISTINCT AND ROBUST IDENTITY.>>IF THERE WAS ANYTHING GOING ON, WHETHER IT WAS THE LOCAL BASEBALL TEAM OR WOMEN’S ISSUES AND THINGS, HE WAS INVOLVED IN IT, HE HAD AN OPINION ON IT, AND HE WAS WRITING ABOUT IT. EDITORIAL ADVOCACY AT ITS FINEST. AND HE WAS ABLE TO CROSS PARTY LINES AND MAKE DEALS THAT WE DON’T SEEM TO BE ABLE TO MAKE TODAY.>>ONE OF THOSE DEALS INVOLVED THE E.A. FULLER FARM, ONE OF THE LAST OF THE OLD CLINTONVILLE FARMS. IT WAS A POPULAR PICNIC AND GATHERING SPOT. IN AN ERA OF AMBITIOUS DEVELOPMENTS, RAND HOLLENBACK THOUGHT IT SHOULD BE PRESERVED IN ITS NATURAL STATE.>>THE FIRST PERSON THAT HE TALKED TO WAS THE FARMER, AND WHEN HE FINALLY GOT HE FARMER’S AGREEMENT ON, YEAH, I THINK WE CAN DO THIS, THEN IT CAME TIME TO SIT DOWN WITH THE MAYOR. IT HAPPENED IN THE WHITE CASTLE ON ARCADIA, SO WE HAVE MY GRANDFATHER RAND, THE FARMER, AND THE MAYOR, SITTING DOWN OVER SLIDERS AND COFFEE, AND THAT’S HOW THAT DEAL WAS MADE. THE DEAL FOR WHETSTONE PARK HAPPENED OVER — PROBABLY AT THAT POINT IN TIME — A FIVE CENT SLIDER. AND IF YOU THINK ABOUT THAT IN TODAY’S CIRCUMSTANCE HOW THAT FARMER COULD HAVE MADE A LOT MORE MONEY IF HE’D SOLD OUT TO A DEVELOPER. AND THERE WOULD BE HOMES ALONG THAT BEAUTIFUL RAVINE.>>Narrator: WHETSTONE PARK OPENED IN 1949, AND THREE YEARS LATER, IT WOULD GET ITS SIGNATURE FEATURE, THE PARK OF ROSES, WHICH WAS CREATED BY THE COLUMBUS ROSE CLUB AND THE CENTRAL OHIO ROSE SOCIETY.>>THE ROSE GARDEN IS 13 ACRES AND THERE ARE 475 VARIETIES OF ROSES. AND EVERY YEAR, WE’RE INCREASING THE NUMBER OF VARIETIES.>>THE PARK BECAME THE COMMUNITY’S GATHERING PLACE. EVERY FATHER’S DAY, A MAIDEN OF THE ROSES WAS CROWNED AT A FESTIVAL. HOLIDAYS WERE A SPECIAL TIME AT THE PARK.>>ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I REMEMBER IS THE EASTER EGG HUNTS THAT WERE IN THE LOWER MEADOW. THERE WERE HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF KIDS DOWN HERE WITH THEIR BASKETS. IT WAS UTTER CHAOS, BUT WHAT I REMEMBER MOST IS MY FATHER AND ALL THE OTHER KIWANIANS AND JAYCEES WALKING AROUND AND DROPPING EASTER EGGS IN FRONT OF THE KIDS THAT DIDN’T GET ANY.>>EVERYBODY WOULD GO TO THE PARK OF ROSES ON THE FOURTH OF JULY. YOU WOULD START OUT IN THE MORNING AND THEY WOULD HAVE ALL KINDS OF BOOTHS, GAMES, FISHING POND, AND YOU’D SPEND THE WHOLE DAY THERE. AND THEN, THE FIREWORKS WOULD GO OFF AT NIGHT, SO YOU’D LAY YOUR BLANKETS OUT AND JUST SIT THERE UNTIL THEY WERE OVER.>>THERE WOULD BE THE BIKE PARADE AND THE PET PARADE AND THE PIE CONTEST AND THE CAKE CONTEST. A REAL COMMUNITY EVENT.>>I DO REMEMBER CHRISTMAS PARADES. OH YES, THAT’S WHEN SANTA CAME TO TOWN. OH, ABSOLUTELY. YOU WOULD LINE HIGH STREET AND WAIT FOR THE PARADE.>>I THINK IT WAS THE SUNDAY AFTER THANKSGIVING, AND IT WOULD START AT NORTH BROADWAY AND HIGH, AND THE FLOATS WENT DOWN RIGHT IN FRONT OF THE FUNERAL HOME HERE. WE’D ALL STAND OUTSIDE AND WATCH AS THEY TOOK SANTA CLAUS DOWN TO LAZARUS.>>HOLIDAY CELEBRATIONS IN CLINTONVILLE SEEMED TO BRING EVERYONE TOGETHER. BUT, THE ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AN OLD FARMING VILLAGE TRANSITIONING TO A BUSTLING SUBURB CAUSED PEOPLE TO TAKE SIDES. THE COUNTY BUILT A NEW BRIDGE ACROSS THE OLENTANGY RIVER AT WEST NORTH BROADWAY, BUT NO ONE COULD ANTICIPATE THAT THE CRABAPPLE TREES CLINTONVILLE WOMEN PLANTED TO BEAUTIFY THE AREA WOULD LAUNCH A CONTROVERSY.>>WORLD WAR II BREAKS OUT, AND SO THEY DECIDED THAT THEY WERE GOING TO OFFER TREES FOR THE MEMORY OF SONS THAT MAY BE LOST IN THE WAR.>>MY UNCLE WAS ONE OF THEM BECAUSE HE WAS LOST AT SEA IN A SUB, HE WAS ONLY 19 YEARS OLD AND I NEVER REALLY KNEW HIM, BUT I KNEW HIM THROUGH THAT STORY.>>THE ENDED UP ACTUALLY SELLING 110 TREES BEFORE THEY RUN OUT OF SPACE, SO THEY’VE GOT A ALLEY OF TREES PLANTED ON EITHER SIDE OF WEST NORTH BROADWAY FROM HIGH STREET CLEAR TO OLENTANGY ROAD. AND UNDER THE TREES THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORLD WAR II VETERANS ARE BRASS PLAQUES. IN PREPARATION FOR 315 COMING THROUGH THE AREA, ALL THE CITY TELLS THESE PEOPLE THAT THEY NEED TO GET THEIR PLAQUES AND TREES OUT OF THE WAY.>>IT WAS VERY EMOTIONAL, BECAUSE YOU GOT PASSIONATE PEOPLE LIVING HERE THAT CARE, AND TO SEE IT USED AS THE PATHWAY TO A FREEWAY ON AND OFF RAMPS, YOU KNOW, THAT WAS VERY DIFFICULT.>>THERE WASN’T A WEEK THAT WENT BY THAT THERE WASN’T AN EDITORIAL BEING WRITTEN ABOUT WE NEED TO MOVE IT OVER TO THE 71 CORRIDOR OR WE NEED TO MOVE IT FURTHER WEST. IN THE END, IT DIDN’T WORK OUT. THAT WAS ONE OF THOSE TIMES WHEN IT DIDN’T SEEM LIKE THERE WAS ANY DEAL MAKING.>>CLINTONVILLE COULDN’T CONVINCE COLUMBUS TO MOVE THE HIGHWAY AND PRESERVE THE CHERISHED MEMORIAL AND SCENIC RIVER. BUT, THE FIGHT ENERGIZED THE COMMUNITY. THE NEXT BATTLE WOULD BE OVER THE BELOVED NORTH HIGH SCHOOL. A LANDMARK SUIT ALLEGED THAT COLUMBUS CITY SCHOOLS WERE RACIALLY SEGREGATING STUDENTS AND FACULTY.>>SO WHEN THIS DECISION COMES DOWN THAT COLUMBUS SCHOOLS ARE INDEED SEGREGATED AND THERE WILL HAVE TO BE ATTEMPTS TO REMEDY THIS, BASED ON THE FACT THAT TWO OTHER SCHOOLS THAT HAVE CLOSED WERE PREDOMINATELY AFRICAN AMERICAN, THEY CHOOSE TO CLOSE NORTH HIGH SCHOOL.>>1979, WHICH WAS THE LAST GRADUATING CLASS. AND THEY TRIED TO KEEP THE SCHOOL OPEN. THEY DID EVERYTHING THEY COULD. THEY HAD RALLIES AND STUFF LIKE THAT.>>BUT, WE SPENT A LOT OF TIME ON TUESDAYS AT SCHOOL BOARD MEETINGS ARGUING OUR CASE, PRESENTING CASES, AND FOR OTHER SCHOOLS POSSIBLY TO BE CLOSED INSTEAD OF NORTH. BUT, ULTIMATELY, THEY DECIDED AGAINST IT AND COLUMBUS DID DESEGREGATE.>>CLOSING NORTH WAS ONLY PART OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM’S DESEGREGATION REMEDY IN THIS SUIT THAT WENT ALL THE WAY TO THE SUPREME COURT. AS IN OTHER COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS, KIDS WOULD BE BUSSED TO SCHOOLS ACROSS TOWN.>>THEY SPLIT US UP. MOST OF US WERE AT LINDEN AND A LOT OF THE KIDS FROM CLINTONVILLE GOT SENT OVER TO EAST, AS WELL.>>WITH THE CLOSING OF NORTH HIGH SCHOOL, THERE WAS A REAL BLOW TO THE CLINTONVILLE COMMUNITY. AND THERE WERE A LOT OF DIVIDED FEELINGS ABOUT IT.>>THERE’S SOMETHING GOOD ABOUT CHILDREN GROWING UP IN THE SAME NEIGHBORHOOD HAVING TO WALK TO SCHOOL.>>DECADES AFTER THEIR HIGH SCHOOL CLOSED, ANY MEMORY OF TIME THEY SPENT THERE WAS BITTERSWEET. BUT, IN THE 90s, NORTH HIGH SCHOOL ALUMNI DECIDED IT WAS TIME TO RECLAIM AND CELEBRATE THEIR CONNECTION TO THE SCHOOL.>>THEY STARTED NORTH ON THE FOURTH, AND THIS IS OUR HOMECOMING, OUR CHANCE TO COME BACK TO THE OLD SCHOOL AND RELIVE MEMORIES AND SEE FRIENDS WE HAVEN’T SEEN FOR YEARS.>>GUESS WHAT? WE’LL DO IT EVERY YEAR, YEAR AND YEAR OUT, BECAUSE I ALWAYS SAY “OH, I HOPE THEY COME THIS YEAR,” AND THEY DON’T DISAPPOINT ME.>>AND THEY ALWAYS HAVE A WHITE CASTLE THING UNDER THE STADIUM THERE, AND EVERYBODY GOES OUT AND GETS THEIR WHITE CASTLES.>>TODAY SCHOOL BELLS ARE RINGING AGAIN AT NORTH. COLUMBUS INTERNATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OPENED THERE IN 2010, AND THE OLDER RESIDENTS OF CLINTONVILLE ARE THRILLED TO SEE THEIR OLD SCHOOL COMING TO LIFE AGAIN.>>AS WE ENTERED INTO THIS INCREDIBLE BUILDING THAT YOU REALLY FEEL THE HISTORY, YOU FEEL THE SPIRITS THAT ARE STILL HERE FROM ALMOST 100 YEARS AGO WHEN THE SCHOOL WAS BUILT. I THINK MORE THAN ANYTHING, WE HOPE TO KEEP THE NORTH SPIRIT ALIVE BY CONVINCING OUR KIDS THAT COLUMBUS IS SOMETHING WORTH CARING ABOUT.>>WE WANT THE STUDENTS TO REALIZE THAT THEY ARE MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY AND WE WANT THE COMMUNITY TO FEEL LIKE THEY’RE ALSO A PART OF OUR SCHOOL. ♪♪>>CLINTONVILLE IS PROUD AND PROTECTIVE OF ITS PAST, BUT DETERMINING THE CHARACTER OF PRESENT DAY CLINTONVILLE CAN BE ELUSIVE. IT’S MORE DIVERSE THAN MANY REALIZED, AND IN WAYS MANY WOULD NOT IMAGINE.>>YOU’LL COME DOWN FROM 71 ON NORTH BROADWAY AND LOOK AT THE HOMES, AND IT LOOKS LIKE THEY’RE HOMES FROM “GONE WITH THE WIND.” IN THE SHADOWS OF THOSE MANSIONS ARE MUCH MORE MODEST HOMES, AND THERE ARE FOLKS LIVING IN POVERTY.>>WE HAVE A WORLD RECORD, 16,000 POUNDS OF FOOD. NEVER HAD MORE THAN 11,000.>>WE HAVE OUR FAMILY SERVICES PROGRAM THAT’S BEEN AROUND SINCE THE INCEPTION OF OUR AGENCY TO HELP THOSE FOLKS TO GET BASIC NEEDS LIKE FOOD AND CLOTHING. JUST ASSURE THAT THEY HAVE EVERYTHING THAT THEY NEED. THE NORTHERN PART OF OUR NEIGHBORHOOD HAS THE ZIP CODE 43214, WHICH HAS THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF SENIORS OF ANY ZIP CODE IN FRANKLIN COUNTY. SO, FOR OUR OLDER NEIGHBORS, WE HAVE SOCIAL WORKERS AND PROGRAMS TO HELP THEM GET EVERYTHING THAT THEY NEED.>>BECAUSE OF THE THOUGHTFUL WAY IT WAS DEVELOPED, CLINTONVILLE’S CONNECTIONS TO ITS PAST ARE STILL APPARENT. THERE ARE PARTS OF THE COMMUNITY WHERE ITS RURAL BEGINNINGS ARE STILL EMBRACED.>>I’VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT BRINGING FARMERS INTO CLINTONVILLE TO HELP OUR NEIGHBORS CONNECT WITH THE LAND AND WITH THE FOOD. FIRST SIX FARMERS, ABOUT HALF OF THEM CAME FROM WITHIN 20, 30 MILES OF COLUMBUS, THE OTHER HALF WERE PROBABLY ABOUT 50, 60 MILES AWAY.>>CLINTONVILLE IS THE PERFECT NEIGHBORHOOD FOR A FARMER’S MARKET. PEOPLE ARE EXCITED TO TRY NEW THINGS AND PRODUCERS LOVE COMING TO OUR MARKET FOR THAT REASON.>>WE LOVE THE FARMER’S MARKET. EVERY SATURDAY MORNING IT’S A RITUAL FOR US TO GET UP. WE PUT OUR KIDS IN THE WAGON, WE WALK OUR MILE DOWN HIGH STREET, GRAB OUR CUP OF COFFEE, AND THE KIDS GET THEIR SPECIAL TREAT.>>MANY OF THE VENDORS AT THE CLINTONVILLE FARMERS MARKET ARE ALSO VENDORS HERE.>>WE PURCHASE A LOT OF WHAT WE SELL HERE FROM PRODUCERS AND FARMERS IN THE COMMUNITY. THERE ARE PEOPLE HERE IN THIS COMMUNITY THAT ARE MAKING TOOTHPASTE, THAT ARE MAKING SKIN LOTION. ALL OF THIS IS WITHOUT CHEMICALS, WITHOUT THE USE OF GMOs.>>IT’S BUY LOCAL, IT’S EAT LOCAL, IT’S BANK LOCAL, INVEST LOCAL. ALL OF THESE GOOD LOCALS. SO LOCALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY IS CRITICAL.>>IT’S JUST LIKE THE WHOLE ECOSYSTEM IS BENEFITTING FROM THAT WAY OF THINKING. ♪♪>>PATTYCAKE IS IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSITIONING TO A WORKER OWNED CO-OP. ALL OF US ARE PART OWNERS, SO WE BUY IN AND THEN WE HELP MAKE ALL THE DECISIONS ABOUT RUNNING THE BAKERY AND WHERE THE BAKERY IS GOING TO GO.>>THE WHOLE REASONING BEHIND DECIDING TO DO THEM BY BIKE WAS TO BE MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AND NOT TO USE GAS, AND THAT’S KIND OF OUR WHOLE MOTTO.>>THE CREST GASTROPUB, OUR GOAL IS TO GROW AS MUCH FOOD AS WE POSSIBLY CAN. SO NOT ONLY ARE WE GROWING ON THE ROOF, BUT WE HAVE WHAT WE CALL OUR COCKTAIL GARDEN, WE’VE GOT PARKING LOT GARDENS, WE’VE GOT A COMMUNITY GARDEN ALONG THE STREET. SO WHATEVER WE CAN’T GROW IN SOURCE, WE’RE GOING TO REACH OUT TO OUR LOCAL FARMERS AND SUPPORT THEM, TOO.>>THE MORE EXPERIENCE WE GET, THE GOAL IS TO LIMIT OUR NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRIAL FOOD SYSTEM AND CONVENTIONAL FARMS.>>WE’RE GOING BACK TO THE WAY THINGS WERE DONE AND SHOULD BE DONE, WITHOUT PESTICIDES, WITHOUT ANTIBIOTICS AND HORMONES, AND THIS IS JUST NATURAL. THAT’S THE WAY IT STARTED, THAT’S THE WAY IT SHOULD BE.>>EVER SINCE I WAS YOUNGER, I’VE ALWAYS NOTICED HOW PEOPLE IN CLINTONVILLE SPECIFICALLY FOCUS ON HOW THEIR ACTIONS AFFECT ENVIRONMENT. PEOPLE ARE VERY AWARE OF WATER PURIFICATION, AIR QUALITY, GROWING YOUR OWN FOOD. YOU JUST WALK DOWN THE STREETS AND YOU SEE GARDENS IN PEOPLE’S FRONT YARDS.>>CLINTONVILLE’S EARLIEST SETTLERS WERE INEXTRICABLY TIED IN THE LAND. AND EVEN NOW, SOME PEOPLE ARE FINDING THAT THE LAND THEY LIVE ON IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THEIR CLINTONVILLE EXPERIENCE.>>MY DREAM FROM CHILDHOOD ON WAS TO BE A HOMESTEADER. I ALWAYS ENVISIONED THAT HAPPENING IN GRANDIOSE PLACES LIKE ALASKA AND THE WILD. BUT, IN FACT, TURNED OUT THAT I HAD TO SETTLE FOR BEING AN URBAN HOMESTEADER. I’VE BEEN MAKING MAPLE SYRUP HERE IN CLINTONVILLE FOR ABOUT FIVE YEARS, AND WHAT PEOPLE MIGHT NOT REALIZE IS THAT ALL YOU NEED IS A MAPLE TREE OR TWO. YOU CAN DRILL A HOLE, AND THE SAP STARTS RUNNING IF THE WEATHER’S WITH YOU. NOT MUCH GOES ON AFTER THE FIRE AND THE POURING IN OF THE SAP. YOU JUST HAVE TO WATCH IT AND KEEP ADDING SAP ALL DAY. SO NEIGHBORS GENERALLY STOP IN AND ASK WHAT YOU’RE DOING AND HANG OUT A LITTLE BIT. IT’S SO WONDERFUL TO HAVE PEOPLE AROUND YOU THAT ARE INTERESTED IN KEEPING UP SOME OF THOSE OLD FOOD WAYS AND TRADITIONS. I HEAR THE HORROR STORIES OF THE SUBURBS MAYBE THAT HAVE CODES SAYING YOU CAN’T EVEN PUT UP A CLOTHES LINE OR HAVE A GARDEN. WELL, THERE’S NONE OF THAT IN CLINTONVILLE.>>MY WIFE AND I AND MY SON ALL REGULARLY GO TO WHETSTONE PARK, BECAUSE I DRIVE DOWN HOLLENBACK DRIVE AND WE WALK THROUGH THE PARK. IT’S REALLY NICE FOR ME TO TALK TO MY SON ABOUT THE IMPACT THAT HIS FAMILY HAS HAD ON THE EARTH. THE PARK HAS JUST TURNED INTO SOMETHING INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT TO THE COMMUNITY. IT’S A TOUCHSTONE THAT EVERYBODY HAS THE OPPORTUNITY TO USE. THAT’S NOT TRUE WITH A LOT OF THINGS.>>CLINTONVILLE DEFINITELY SELLS ITSELF. TWO MINUTES FROM A VERY BUSY HIGH STREET OR INDIANOLA, THEN YOU’RE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE RAVINE, AND THEN YOU LOOK UP AND YOU ARE LIKE, IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FOREST.>>WE MADE THIS DECISION TO SIMPLIFY OUR LIVES AND COME BACK TO OUR ROOTS. SOME OF OUR FRIENDS WHO HAD NOT KNOWN US PRIOR TO THAT SAID WHY ARE YOU MOVING INTO THE CITY? AND THE FIRST TIME THEY CAME TO VISIT US, IT WAS AMAZING. THEY’D SAY “WE DIDN’T KNOW THIS EXISTED. WE DIDN’T KNOW THIS WAS DOWN HERE. THIS IS AMAZING.” ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪>>Announcer: SUPPORT FOR COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS IS PROVIDED BY — SINCE 1921, THE STATE AUTO GROUP HAS CALLED COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS HOME. OFFERING PERSONAL AND BUSINESS INSURANCE THROUGH INDEPENDENT INSURANCE AGENTS. FOR YOUR CAR, HOME AND BUSINESS, THE STATE AUTO GROUP. AS WE’VE GROWN AND CHANGED WITH COLUMBUS, WE’VE NEVER LOST SIGHT OF ONE THING. WE ARE NEIGHBORS SERVING NEIGHBORS. CHASE AND ITS MORE THAN 15,000 CENTRAL OHIO ASSOCIATES ARE PROUD TO CELEBRATE THE HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOODS OF COLUMBUS. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER FOUNDATION. A RESOURCE FOR CHARITABLE INITIATIVES AND COMMUNITIES SERVED BY A.E.P. AND BEYOND TO IMPROVE PEOPLE’S LIVES THROUGH EDUCATION, BASIC NEEDS, HEALTHCARE AND THE ARTS. THE LAW FIRM OF BAILEY CAVALIERI, A LOCAL FIRM WITH A NATIONAL PRESENCE. BAILEYCAVALIERI.COM. AND BY THESE AND OTHER LOCAL FOUNDATIONS AND FAMILIES, AND VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. ♪♪

    Beginning of the Underground Railroad to Canada | 2015 |TD Gallery
    Articles, Blog

    Beginning of the Underground Railroad to Canada | 2015 |TD Gallery

    August 18, 2019


    Afua Cooper: The Underground Railroad to Canada
    was initiated by the resistance of an enslaved woman named Chloe Cooley, who lived in the
    Niagara region of Upper Canada, or Ontario. In March 1793, her master, Adam Vrooman, sold
    her to slave buyers in New York state. Two men, Peter Martin, a black man, and William
    Grisley, a white man, witnessed the removal of Chloe Cooley from the province. They noted
    that Vrooman tied up his slave woman with a rope, beat her, manhandled her, threw her
    in a boat and with the help of associates, rode her across Niagara River into New York
    state, where he sold her to slave buyers. The two men also noted that Cooley screamed
    violently and made resistance. She fought off Vrooman and his henchmen, but to no avail,
    yet it was her screams that brought them to witness her dehumanization and empowered them
    to take the matter to Governor Simcoe and two members of his cabinet. The Governor had
    recently arrived from England and was surprised to see how deeply rooted slavery was in the
    new colony he was sent to administer. He moved to end the practice, but was not successful
    because of the slave-holding opposition in the Government. AC: In other words, many of the Cabinet and
    Assembly members were slave holders, and they opposed Simcoe’s action to end slavery. He
    then introduced another bill, and this bill was to limit slavery in the province. This
    piece of legislation was titled ‘The Act To Prevent The Further Introduction of Slaves
    and To Limit The Term of Contracts or Servitude Within This Province,’ and it was passed in
    the Upper Canadian Parliament on 9th July, 1793, but it was a compromised piece of legislation:
    It did not end slavery; it did not free the slaves. It allowed for the gradual, but not
    immediate, abolition of slavery. AC: And this act, this piece of legislation,
    had three main clauses, the first clause: Repeal the Importation Act of 1790. In 1790,
    the Imperial Parliament in London passed this act that gave authority to slave owners anywhere
    within the British Empire to come to British North America with their slave property without
    any kind of taxation. They wouldn’t have to pay any tax on their slave property, come
    to British North America. So, the first clause in Simcoe’s legislation repealed that piece
    of legislation and banned the importation of slavery. The second clause: Confirm the
    status of enslaved blacks within the colony, meaning, July 1793, after 9th July, if you
    were a slave, you’re gonna remain a slave. The third clause in this piece of legislation
    gave freedom to children of slave mothers upon their 25th birthday. So after 9th July,
    1793, if you had a child, that child would continue as a slave until his or her 25th
    birthday. AC: It was the first clause, the clause that
    banned the importation of slaves, that impinged directly on the creation of the Underground
    Railroad, for not only would it slow the growth of slavery in the colony, it would also mean
    that any foreign slave entering Upper Canada would immediately be free. In other words,
    touching the soil of Upper Canada guaranteed the freedom of any foreign slave. How did
    news of Upper Canada as a site of freedom for foreign slaves spread? Well, through a
    number of ways. First, through the grapevine. Merchants, travellers, diplomats and other
    people in the know who moved between British North America and the United States took news
    of this to enslaved people. Secondly, African-Americans who fought in the war of 1812 for the American
    Republic took this news back to the United States, and they would say to their slave
    brethren, “Look, if you can reach Upper Canada, you would be free.” AC: Ironically, enslaved blacks within the
    Province, as mentioned, remained in their status as slaves. If they wanted freedom,
    they would have to escape to such states as Michigan and Ohio and other places in the
    old Northwest that had prohibited slavery. Thus, by 1818, we know that Upper Canada was
    this destination for runaway American slaves, especially sites along the Windsor and Niagara
    border region. We know this as a fact because JC Brown, among numerous other commentators,
    JC Brown was first an enslaved and then a free black from Louisville, Kentucky, spoke
    about this in Benjamin Drew’s book “The North Side View of Slavery,” and he notes that,
    by 1818, many Kentuckians, free blacks and enslaved blacks who were contemplating their
    freedom, thought of Texas, which was not yet a part of the United States or upper Canada.
    JC Brown himself had worked for the American Republic during the war of 1812 as a fifer.
    He was a young boy at that time. 06:14 S1: People started migrating to upper
    Canada. As a result of these migrations from Kentucky and other states like Maryland and
    Virginia, the Underground Railroad began to grow. Another impetus that led to the growth
    of the Underground Railroad was the passage of the American Fugitive Slave Code of February
    1793. This slave code empowered slave owners or their agents to seize and capture their
    runaway property. The Chloe Cooley incident happened in March of 1793. The Simcoe legislation
    was passed in July of 1793. So, it is likely that Simcoe and his legislators were influenced
    positively by the American Fugitive Slaves Act. So, 1793 was an important year in North
    America for slavery and anti-slavery. 07:16 S1: A final and perhaps the most important
    reason for the growing activity on the Underground Railroad was the agency of enslaved African-Americans.
    No Underground Railroad would have happened if these people did not have the courage,
    determination, and tenacity to make a run for their freedom. Such an act was dangerous
    and could lead to the loss of life and limb. But for them, slavery was infinitely worse.
    Therefore by 1830, there were sizeable black communities in upper Canada in such places
    as Toronto, Windsor, Hamilton, Chatham, Amherstburg, Guelph, St. Catharines, and other places.
    Other important sites of Underground Railroad population were Montreal in lower Canada,
    Fredericton, and Saint John in New Brunswick and Halifax in Nova Scotia.

    Almost Gone Historic Abandoned Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Almost Gone Historic Abandoned Railroad

    August 17, 2019


    you we’re over here ladies &
    gentlemen your humble your honor our colleges with you today so this is a
    stop West 85th Street in South West 17th Avenue I’m going to include a Google
    Maps links to this location this is a follow up video this was one of my first
    videos that I made when I when I created this channel a couple of years ago and
    this is actually my favorite railroad well it was my favorite railroad not my
    favorite abandoned although there is still part of it left
    luckily the rig about 98% of the rails have been pulled on this railroad and
    this is the only part that has not been pulled yet so I’m gonna show you that
    right now but first I’m gonna show you so right there are the rails and this is
    where it crossed this bridge this bridge was removed like you know 2000 here
    maybe 2000 the crossed going south and eventually over there is us one it went
    parallel see was one so yeah when I was kid in the 80s you could drive by here
    and see this track well I think the last train
    came by an 84 that’s when they put the motorway over there well so yeah I was
    oh that’s where I was standing already I began filming and then this here is
    door but the bridge once stood I’m going to show you guys right now part of
    history legend has it that at night you can still hear the rumble of chains
    through you so here it is oh actually this I’d never seen before
    holy moly is on a huge iguana there that just drove into the canal so here it’s
    actually part of whether the pilings for the trustfull was look at 1 2 3 I had
    not seen this before well I’m glad I decided to come here today look at that
    that is history right there the railroad archaeologist and that’s me touching
    history that tie this well this rail road was made circa 1928 because though over there where that material is
    the elevated rail that one was made in 1896 to go to the Florida Keys and then
    this branch line was made after to connect us one going north to Miami
    International Airport about ten miles or so so yeah I’m gonna see if I can find a
    history or a manufacturer on this rail so again this is facing south and this
    is facing north Beauty oh I was gonna say she’s not so
    beautiful anymore but she still is beautiful in my eyes because I’ve been
    seeing it since I was a kid she will always be beautiful at this this tree grew around the the
    rail look at the anchor is rating still firmly in place you got this going on
    over here sitting those rails with pretty modern I don’t fall I love it
    they have those wheels in 1928 honestly cuz I know the seaboard ones had that
    fin neck oh here we go there’s some information there right okay so 1945 is
    this one but this perhaps wasn’t all the original real it could have been a face
    it could irritate the original good saw so it’s still kind of jumbled a railroad
    here every tree here I’m guessing the ones that are cut was
    because of Hurricane Andrew but all the other ones Hurricane Andrew happen in 92
    so this tree and those two over there they’ve been growing after 1984 and
    there’s been nothing to deter their growth because I mean it’s not a trace
    come by so it is global at their own free will and the house look at how deep
    the grass is here it’s like me high but you’re not that’s why your railroad
    archaeologist is here he doesn’t care about new high grass goes in it forever
    and this time we’re completely track we have another date here we had another date there but it’s part
    suyo I wrote it so yeah this sadly month it’s almost gone I mean it’s been 1984
    was 35 years ago and this it’s still pretty intact for being abandoned 35
    years ago I really don’t know why they ripped you even still see the baddest I
    really don’t know why they uh they ripped all this this was ripped by the
    way that got in 2008 so in 2008 they ripped going north to here they ripped
    all over they began ripping all the rails and they began ripping or removing
    the railroad crossings like in 2012 ish sad but you okay I’m gonna walk some
    more down the line and you guys can come along with me if you like you said I’m
    gonna include a Google map in so you guys can follow along so yeah so when
    the overseas railway was going on when it was going to us it was all here you
    go typing hey it’s hot it’s like 82 h87 80 degrees right now so you guys know
    hot that things yeah so it was primarily a primarily know it was a passenger
    railroad up until 1935 when the Labor Day hurricane wiped it out Stacey noise facing south so yeah so
    well everything maybe the hair can wipe that out and then FBC thought it was too
    costly to replace the railroad so they ended up selling from Florida City South
    to Key West they ended up selling it back to the state
    and then from Florida City North Woods the railroad
    was still active up until in 1984 and then from 1935 to 1984 you may ask what
    did they go do all the way to Florida City and I’ll tell you they went over
    there to ha produce potatoes and such bring them back and eat for cards but
    then on the 80s is when trucking began taking it’s off its rise and rail began
    taking a decline so that’s what happened here sadly enough up until I think a few
    years ago there was still over could be used to see some concrete sides over
    here I’ll put a tough few years ago like you
    can still see this is where the great blossom would they still had that
    advanced warning rxr sign not anymore yeah this everything has gone here you
    would have never known it was a real rule in sports that’s highway a 78 so uh
    highway 878 so you guys remember how to track south sorry well yeah went south
    then Southwest then here there was a wife that branched out through here like
    this going east the north along us one and
    then Southwest like that I met up with the other one that’s where I was so that train to Florida City from 1935
    to 1984 I don’t know about the first years but I know like towards the end I
    ran once a week I think it had all just a few real cards wasn’t anything major however I always say that if I always
    say FEC lacked vision because if they would have kept this real estate here
    with with the rails on it going back that way south well so this way goes to
    Miami International Airport which was which is a central hub for
    transportation here man and this track connected Miami International Airport
    with homestead so pretty much covered all of the Greater South Florida and
    then if this was this the rails were in place today and this property still
    belongs to FEC this would have been prime real estate for a bright light it
    would have alleviated a whole lot of traffic and if they would have had even
    more vision back in 1935 they never would have sold it to the state they
    would have they would have replaced that line and still had passenger trains
    going out to the keys they would had a monopoly on it because no to this day
    nobody else has had a railroad to the keys you can imagine that’s a huge
    investment with a lot of capital a lot of resources not to mention other
    environmentalists like nobody would want to it’d be virtually impossible to
    create so do you have some cross ties this is Southwest 88th Street and yeah that’s where it goes right
    there there’s a fence that says no trespassing so I’m gonna come back this
    way and take you to the rails then I’m gonna take yourself again you

    Railroad Trespassing – Find a Different Way: Cody Paugel’s Story
    Articles, Blog

    Railroad Trespassing – Find a Different Way: Cody Paugel’s Story

    August 15, 2019


    It was October 12th, 2012. I was 16 years old. I was walking on the tracks. I had headphones in, music blaring, walking
    the same way I do every single day. I heard a noise in the background and I turned
    around and I saw the Amtrak train right behind me. All I could think of doing at that point was
    just jump, try to get away from it, and unfortunately it still got me. I remember seeing my shoe fly off and then
    hitting the ground. You know when I got to the hospital I was
    in pretty rough shape. The initial impact broke my pelvis, my hip,
    four cracked ribs. I remember waking up, my leg was in traction. All in all, I had 31 surgeries, a lot of physical
    therapy. I had to relearn how to walk, how to use the
    bathroom, but I did survive. I was lucky. It doesn’t always happen that way. All in all, I just wasn’t thinking about what
    I was doing. Don’t go on the train tracks. Don’t take that shortcut. There’s different ways to get to where you
    need to go.