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    Almost Gone Historic Abandoned Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Almost Gone Historic Abandoned Railroad

    August 17, 2019


    you we’re over here ladies &
    gentlemen your humble your honor our colleges with you today so this is a
    stop West 85th Street in South West 17th Avenue I’m going to include a Google
    Maps links to this location this is a follow up video this was one of my first
    videos that I made when I when I created this channel a couple of years ago and
    this is actually my favorite railroad well it was my favorite railroad not my
    favorite abandoned although there is still part of it left
    luckily the rig about 98% of the rails have been pulled on this railroad and
    this is the only part that has not been pulled yet so I’m gonna show you that
    right now but first I’m gonna show you so right there are the rails and this is
    where it crossed this bridge this bridge was removed like you know 2000 here
    maybe 2000 the crossed going south and eventually over there is us one it went
    parallel see was one so yeah when I was kid in the 80s you could drive by here
    and see this track well I think the last train
    came by an 84 that’s when they put the motorway over there well so yeah I was
    oh that’s where I was standing already I began filming and then this here is
    door but the bridge once stood I’m going to show you guys right now part of
    history legend has it that at night you can still hear the rumble of chains
    through you so here it is oh actually this I’d never seen before
    holy moly is on a huge iguana there that just drove into the canal so here it’s
    actually part of whether the pilings for the trustfull was look at 1 2 3 I had
    not seen this before well I’m glad I decided to come here today look at that
    that is history right there the railroad archaeologist and that’s me touching
    history that tie this well this rail road was made circa 1928 because though over there where that material is
    the elevated rail that one was made in 1896 to go to the Florida Keys and then
    this branch line was made after to connect us one going north to Miami
    International Airport about ten miles or so so yeah I’m gonna see if I can find a
    history or a manufacturer on this rail so again this is facing south and this
    is facing north Beauty oh I was gonna say she’s not so
    beautiful anymore but she still is beautiful in my eyes because I’ve been
    seeing it since I was a kid she will always be beautiful at this this tree grew around the the
    rail look at the anchor is rating still firmly in place you got this going on
    over here sitting those rails with pretty modern I don’t fall I love it
    they have those wheels in 1928 honestly cuz I know the seaboard ones had that
    fin neck oh here we go there’s some information there right okay so 1945 is
    this one but this perhaps wasn’t all the original real it could have been a face
    it could irritate the original good saw so it’s still kind of jumbled a railroad
    here every tree here I’m guessing the ones that are cut was
    because of Hurricane Andrew but all the other ones Hurricane Andrew happen in 92
    so this tree and those two over there they’ve been growing after 1984 and
    there’s been nothing to deter their growth because I mean it’s not a trace
    come by so it is global at their own free will and the house look at how deep
    the grass is here it’s like me high but you’re not that’s why your railroad
    archaeologist is here he doesn’t care about new high grass goes in it forever
    and this time we’re completely track we have another date here we had another date there but it’s part
    suyo I wrote it so yeah this sadly month it’s almost gone I mean it’s been 1984
    was 35 years ago and this it’s still pretty intact for being abandoned 35
    years ago I really don’t know why they ripped you even still see the baddest I
    really don’t know why they uh they ripped all this this was ripped by the
    way that got in 2008 so in 2008 they ripped going north to here they ripped
    all over they began ripping all the rails and they began ripping or removing
    the railroad crossings like in 2012 ish sad but you okay I’m gonna walk some
    more down the line and you guys can come along with me if you like you said I’m
    gonna include a Google map in so you guys can follow along so yeah so when
    the overseas railway was going on when it was going to us it was all here you
    go typing hey it’s hot it’s like 82 h87 80 degrees right now so you guys know
    hot that things yeah so it was primarily a primarily know it was a passenger
    railroad up until 1935 when the Labor Day hurricane wiped it out Stacey noise facing south so yeah so
    well everything maybe the hair can wipe that out and then FBC thought it was too
    costly to replace the railroad so they ended up selling from Florida City South
    to Key West they ended up selling it back to the state
    and then from Florida City North Woods the railroad
    was still active up until in 1984 and then from 1935 to 1984 you may ask what
    did they go do all the way to Florida City and I’ll tell you they went over
    there to ha produce potatoes and such bring them back and eat for cards but
    then on the 80s is when trucking began taking it’s off its rise and rail began
    taking a decline so that’s what happened here sadly enough up until I think a few
    years ago there was still over could be used to see some concrete sides over
    here I’ll put a tough few years ago like you
    can still see this is where the great blossom would they still had that
    advanced warning rxr sign not anymore yeah this everything has gone here you
    would have never known it was a real rule in sports that’s highway a 78 so uh
    highway 878 so you guys remember how to track south sorry well yeah went south
    then Southwest then here there was a wife that branched out through here like
    this going east the north along us one and
    then Southwest like that I met up with the other one that’s where I was so that train to Florida City from 1935
    to 1984 I don’t know about the first years but I know like towards the end I
    ran once a week I think it had all just a few real cards wasn’t anything major however I always say that if I always
    say FEC lacked vision because if they would have kept this real estate here
    with with the rails on it going back that way south well so this way goes to
    Miami International Airport which was which is a central hub for
    transportation here man and this track connected Miami International Airport
    with homestead so pretty much covered all of the Greater South Florida and
    then if this was this the rails were in place today and this property still
    belongs to FEC this would have been prime real estate for a bright light it
    would have alleviated a whole lot of traffic and if they would have had even
    more vision back in 1935 they never would have sold it to the state they
    would have they would have replaced that line and still had passenger trains
    going out to the keys they would had a monopoly on it because no to this day
    nobody else has had a railroad to the keys you can imagine that’s a huge
    investment with a lot of capital a lot of resources not to mention other
    environmentalists like nobody would want to it’d be virtually impossible to
    create so do you have some cross ties this is Southwest 88th Street and yeah that’s where it goes right
    there there’s a fence that says no trespassing so I’m gonna come back this
    way and take you to the rails then I’m gonna take yourself again you

    Railroad Trespassing – Find a Different Way: Cody Paugel’s Story
    Articles, Blog

    Railroad Trespassing – Find a Different Way: Cody Paugel’s Story

    August 15, 2019


    It was October 12th, 2012. I was 16 years old. I was walking on the tracks. I had headphones in, music blaring, walking
    the same way I do every single day. I heard a noise in the background and I turned
    around and I saw the Amtrak train right behind me. All I could think of doing at that point was
    just jump, try to get away from it, and unfortunately it still got me. I remember seeing my shoe fly off and then
    hitting the ground. You know when I got to the hospital I was
    in pretty rough shape. The initial impact broke my pelvis, my hip,
    four cracked ribs. I remember waking up, my leg was in traction. All in all, I had 31 surgeries, a lot of physical
    therapy. I had to relearn how to walk, how to use the
    bathroom, but I did survive. I was lucky. It doesn’t always happen that way. All in all, I just wasn’t thinking about what
    I was doing. Don’t go on the train tracks. Don’t take that shortcut. There’s different ways to get to where you
    need to go.

    John Stonehouse and Dropped Trousers: Citation Needed 7×05
    Articles, Blog

    John Stonehouse and Dropped Trousers: Citation Needed 7×05

    August 15, 2019


    This is the Technical Difficulties,
    we’re playing Citation Needed. Joining me today: he reads books, y’know,
    it’s Chris Joel. “Hello!” Everybody’s favourite Gary Brannan,
    Gary Brannan. ♫ I-i-if women like that like men like those,
    then why don’t women like me? ♫ Singing(!) And the bounciest man on the internet,
    Matt Gray. Howdy, YouTube! – Oh!
    – Nice. Nice. In front of me I’ve got an article from Wikipedia
    and these folks can’t see it. Every fact they get right is
    a point and a ding and there’s a special prize for particularly
    good answers which is… And today we are talking about John Stonehouse. Did he live in a greenhouse? Completely against type. Now’s when you ding, Tom(!) No. I can’t give you that. Am I close? No… In any way? No. Was he… a bricklayer? Stone House? No. No he wasn’t. He did go to work in a House, and there’s
    a capital H in that. A House of something. Cards. Fun. Ill repute. I mean, you’re pretty close with
    House of Cards. Parliament. Yes, have a point. – Oh!
    – Yay. Born in Southampton, educated there and at
    the London School of Economics. So was he not a politiciser? And then he went into politics, as the
    Labour Cooperative Member of Parliament. So he owned some small supermarkets(?) Erm, sort of… Did you hear that? Clunk-clunk-clunk-clunk! “Archivist gear engaged. “Everybody else shut up, I know the answer.” I don’t! But you do still have
    Cooperative Labour MPs. In what sense? They don’t sit at the back going,
    “F*** no. “It’s bollocks, we’re not doing it.”. Pretty much. He worked very closely to the
    Foreign Office. There was the Foreign Office, the Home Office,
    the India Office and then another one. Commonwealth. Ooh, no… No, it’s pre-Commonwealth. Empire? Halfway between the two. Com-pire. Places We Stole Office. Yes, it’s the Colonial Office, so yes, I will
    give you the point for that, absolutely right. Yes, he became Minister for State for Technology
    and then took a role… Was he going around people’s houses trying
    to sell cable? You never had that? Not from the Colonies Office, no! He moved on from there, this was… You said technology, I don’t for… I know nothing about politics or other countries!
    I’ve got to go somewhere. I’ve just realised that… Would you like some Colonial Cable? I’ve just realised, we’ve not actually
    touched on telegraphs yet and we have to do that at least once or twice
    a seas… Oh, f*** off! Yes, he became Minister for State for Technology,
    but that meant he then transitioned into what? And this was in charge of telecommunications
    as well as telegraphy, everything like that. – Post Office.
    – Postmaster General. You’re both getting the point. He was the
    Postmaster General of the United Kingdom. Hell of a title, that. Yes. He was also the last Postmaster General
    of the United Kingdom. Oh God, what did he do? Nothing, they’ve just all been
    really specific since. (Yes!) Sorry, Matt! Specific… Oh… Anything that has General on the end
    sounds great, anyway. He oversaw the jamming of something. A marmalade factory. There’s this sort-of jam war going on where
    they just… He’s holding toast at the other end. That’s Wallace and Gromit, isn’t it, actually? We must stop this terrible conflict… to preserve life. Ohhh! Even the audience was
    half-hearted on that one. Wouldn’t want people to end up marmalised. 1970, he oversaw the jamming of something. ’70? 1970. – Is it pirate…
    – Pirate radio! Yes. I’ll give you the point there,
    specifically what, where’s it coming from? – Luxembourg?
    – North Sea? You’re thinking Radio Luxembourg but no,
    you’re absolutely right, it’s off in the North Sea. This was one of the Radio Carolines. – Oh!
    – Was it? You see I didn’t say that because
    I thought it was a leading question and it would be wrong. Yes, but this isn’t QI! You’re allowed
    to go for that answer here. Awooga! So he jammed Radio Caroline and part of the
    response to that was that Radio Caroline did what? Jammed them right back. No, that actually would be… not illegal,
    but it certainly would be, I think, a declaration of war if you do that to a country. And when it comes to boats we’ve probably
    got the bigger shooty ones in town. We might have slightly more. Because Caroline was on and off for a bit.
    So was it off for a bit? It was, they tried to overcome the jamming,
    obviously, what were they sending back over the airwaves? Swear words. Filthy streams of invective… They could have done, they were offshore. Don’t forget Radio Caroline wasn’t illegal, they just made it so that any British person
    associating with it was breaking the law. “Vote for the other ones.” Yes, absolutely right, they went political and they started broadcasting pro-Conservative
    propaganda back at them. Sorry! Pirate radio station broadcasting
    pro-Conservative messages? Let that sink in for a minute. “Vote Tory!” Yeah, you wouldn’t get that
    these days would you? Blimey. No, there’s no pirate radio stations! – There are.
    – Oh, there are. I was going to say, presumably you have deal
    with those, Matt. Yes, they interfere over the broadcasts that
    we are trying to make at work. And then we report them to OFCOM and then
    they find them and say no, you’re being naughty, please
    don’t do that. When you said deal with them, that suggested
    you somehow went round at night and dealt with them. With a baseball bat. Matt Gray does have a black ski-mask and an
    awful lot of black turtlenecks. A van just comes out of the OFCOM offices
    with you guys in. John Stonehouse, still in charge of post and
    telecommunications in the 1970s, introduced what? It’s not stamps or anything because they’re
    already there… Oh, it is. – Is it stamps?
    – Second-class…! Is it second-class stamps? Absolutely right, first and second-class stamps.
    These all seem… (You f***er!) …fairly normal. In 1970 he was setting up
    various companies, having things on the side. By 1974 most of these were in financial trouble. What did he decide to do? Print himself a whole book of stamps
    as legal tender and pay off his debts with
    a massive box full of stamps. That would have been a better plan than the
    one he actually had. Issue a single £150,000 stamp on the quiet
    to a collector. Also a better plan than what he did. Jesus Christ! Rob a bank. With stamps. Hang on, did he invent selfie stamps, where you could send in a selfie and you’d
    have your own stamp? He didn’t set up his pirate radio station
    did he, playing pro-Tory propaganda? He’s in deep financial trouble here, he’s doing creative accounting so he’s
    going to be going to jail. Did he disappear? Oh, a little bit more than that. Is he…? Did he fake his death? Yes, he did. He faked his… Is he one of these clothes on the beach guys
    and disappears? Spot on. Exactly right, he faked his death,
    November 1974, leaving a pile of clothes on a Miami beach. Whose clothes? His clothes. Where was he actually going? Cuba! Australia. That’s a long swim. You’re one better than me, I was going to
    say a long walk which would have been quite stupid. Well, swimming it naked,
    he’s going to get cold. He is. Maybe he slathered himself
    in goose fat beforehand. And, hell, he’s going the wrong way round,
    he should have gone from LA. Yeah, the man’s a fool. Goose fat is what you use,
    I’m right aren’t I? That’s what you use for cross-channel swimming. Yes, when you’re swimming from Miami to
    Australia, that’s what you use. Goose fat, yes. Most people use their arms and legs.
    Gary, goose fat. -“It’ll be fine!”
    – Just bobs around… “Gary, there’s a breaker.” “It’s fine, the goose fat’ll save me!” Ejecting it from behind,
    like propulsive goose fat. Hey, a goose gives out a lot of fat, you know. He’s just leaving this greasy trail on the
    ocean as he goes. “Gary Brannan’s greasy ocean trail.” Hell of a series. I once did a goose at Christmas
    and it put out… A single goose– now in all fairness I got
    it from a budget supermarket so it may not have been the very best of geese,
    let’s be honest. Budget supermarkets sell geese? For a tenner! Yes, they just get them from the local pond,
    and you know… Ask no questions, tell no lies.
    That’s the way I looked at it. But I did, and it pumped half a litre of fat. It didn’t even drip out, it literally just
    leaked fat. You know those things when you get oil wells
    and there’s a gusher… “Goose fat, we’re rich! Ah, I’m greasy…” “Quick take me to the Channel!
    This is my only chance!” “White gold!”, he cried. Did it deep fry itself? Half a litre? It just… you put it on an angle to let it
    all drain out and it just kept coming and coming and coming. It was a whole big mincemeat jar that big
    was nearly full of goose fat. No man in the world can eat that much
    roast potatoes, is what I’ve found. Sorry, can I just point out: mincemeat jar full of goose fat, that’s
    quite a northern thing to say… So yes, Stonehouse, meanwhile.
    Stonehouse was… I’m just trying to pull this back. It was in my fridge for months! I remember, you sent me a picture of it! You actually sound closer to
    tears than laughter, Gary. Because, just after we’d had this massive
    Christmas dinner where I’d done the goose. I got all this goose fat, the holy grail of
    Yorkshire puddings and roast potatoes… Went on a f***ing diet
    and I never touched the stuff. AUDIENCE: Aww. And in this jar was… John Stonehouse… Seamless(!) John Stonehouse was en-route to Australia setting up a new life with
    his mistress and secretary. Are they two separate people? Was he just being a real arse and taking his
    mistress and his secretary? Well, who was his new identity?
    Whose identity had he taken on? Did he nick a dead person’s? Yes, he did. Deceased husband of a constituent. So he deposited cash at one bank, picked it
    up at another and the teller was suspicious and reported him to local police. The police, when they interviewed him, asked him to drop his trousers. Why? Normal. Was the person he was pretending to be a eunuch? No, just his trousers, just his trousers. Well they’re looking for an identifying mark,
    are they not? So tattoo or birthmark. Yes… neither. This is 1974. Lord Lucan! Yes. They suspected that he was Lord Lucan
    who had very famously disappeared, there’s a whole separate story there. Someone suspiciously turning up
    with an English accent in Australia, depositing large sums of money. Who is obviously on the run… Lord Lucan had a large scar down his leg. So the police were going,
    well, drop your trousers, we want to see if you’re Lord Lucan.
    He wasn’t… Did he debag himself in aid of the… Because if he did, and he dropped his trousers
    and there’s no scar, he should surely be let go. Yes, and then they’re not going to be suspicious
    of him ever again. Yes, he was still arrested, they just knew
    he wasn’t Lord Lucan. Oh. “We know you’re somebody but we don’t
    know who. “Standard procedure, drop the trousers.” That was essentially… yeah, that would have
    been 1974. “What do we do second?”
    “I don’t know, it’s never failed.” “Every arse tells a story.” “All right, we’re going to need
    to get your arse print here, “please just sit in this ink for a little
    while, and then on this paper…” “Just reverse onto this paper.” “It’s thumbprint. Thumbprint!” He’s arrested, six months later he’s deported
    to the UK. He’s remanded in Brixton prison. What has
    he not done at any point during this? Pulled his trousers up. Walked really waddly all the way. “They haven’t said I could,” he said. Changed his name back? Bear in mind his job. As Postmaster General, ex… Sorry, what was that? Postmaster General, ex-Postmaster General. Was he still in the same job?
    Had he not been sacked? – Yes.
    – Oh, s***! He did not resign as an MP. Oh, boy! So did he come back to massive fines for not
    having done his job properly? – No, he was an MP.
    – You don’t get fined for not doing your job. – Oh!
    – Satire. He just kept being an MP and getting his salary. Were they still paying him throughout the
    entire time he buggered off? Well, at this point,
    he had to have his trousers down because of the sheer size of his balls. He was put on trial on 21 charges of fraud,
    theft, forgery, conspiracy to defraud, causing a false police investigation
    and wasting police time. He sounds right for an MP. Trial was 68 days long.
    He conducted his own defence. That’s brave. Yeah, it didn’t work all that well. Did he just drop his trousers when he could? And say repeatedly, “not Lord Lucan” because
    it worked the first time. After his release he worked as a fundraiser, joined what became the Liberal Democrats, wrote some novels, started a small business
    that sold hotel safes. I’m speeding through all this… – Hotel safes?
    – Hotel safes. Because he’s used to embezzling money… They had a funnel that went directly to his
    bank account. “Put money in my safe!” “No, f*** you!” – “You put money in your safe!”
    – “Invest in my company…” It hasn’t got a back on it! More than 20 years after his death,
    something was revealed about him. He was Lord Lucan? He just had a lot of bio-oil. I thought he was going for the button to say
    yes then! No, no, way, way back in his political career, he’d negotiated an
    agreement of technological cooperation between Britain and Czechoslovakia, as was. Uh oh. Is he a spy? Oh, he’s sp– in fact– The minute you say ‘information sharing’ and
    ‘Czechoslovakia’ which is in the former Soviet bloc, he’s not going to just be going and eating
    their fine pastries, is he? Yes, it turned out that he’d been an agent for the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
    military intelligence. S***, he’s Postmaster General! Yes. That’s why it takes so long for your post
    to arrive! I’m going to give you a point for twigging
    that before I made the connection there. It goes via Czechoslovakia! He was Minister in Charge of Post and Technology. And that includes things like the
    Post Office Tower and things like that, that are transmitting signals around the world. Yes. This is pretty bad s*** isn’t it, let’s
    face it. This is bad news bears. Somehow the embezzling
    and taking someone else’s identity is yet not the worst thing about this man. – No.
    – Because he’s used to it! That’s true, that. At the point where the government found out
    about this, Margaret Thatcher was in power.
    What did she decide to do? – Nothing?
    – Privatise him. Yes, he will work with more efficiency
    as a privately owned scumbag. British politics jokes there. Well, either nothing or something, is what
    I’m going for there. Chris, choose one of those options. I’m going with something. You’re wrong. It’s nothing. Oh… It was easier to cover it up and never let
    the public know that there had been a Czech spy in government. Because they’d obviously done no Czechs
    on him! Oh… Yes. At the end of the show… Congratulations, Matt, you win this one. How? Genuinely, you got a lot of dings in there. You win breakfast food prepared by the star
    of Sherlock. It’s Eggs Benedict Cumberbatch. F***ing… Do enjoy that. With that, we say thank you to Chris Joel. It’s over! To Gary Brannan. To Matt Gray. Bye-bye YouTube. I’ve been Tom Scott,
    we’ll see you next time.

    Toledo marks last stop for famous railroad dog
    Articles, Blog

    Toledo marks last stop for famous railroad dog

    August 15, 2019


    TRAVELED TRAVELED THE TRAVELED THE COUNTRY TRAVELED THE COUNTRY RIDING TRAVELED THE COUNTRY RIDING THE TRAVELED THE COUNTRY RIDING THE
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    name Toledo and ended here. Sort of.
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    name was Toledo and ended here. Sort of.
    His
    name was Owney…..a Toledo and ended here. Sort of.
    His
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    name was Owney…..a mongrel His
    name was Owney…..a mongrel
    terrier name was Owney…..a mongrel
    terrier name was Owney…..a mongrel
    terrier
    mutt..who name was Owney…..a mongrel
    terrier
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    terrier
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    terrier
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    terrier
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    mutt..who pedigree was a a big terrier
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    heart. He
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    them. A postal
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    mail and
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    mail and
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    one night
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    one night
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    one night
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    one night
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    he made a fateful trip to one night
    he made a fateful trip to
    Toledo. one night
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    Toledo. The old he made a fateful trip to
    Toledo. The old
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    happened. Owney
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    happened. Owney
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    happened. Owney
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    happened. Owney
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    happened. Owney
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    said happened. Owney
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    Postmaster
    reacted have bitten a postal clerk. The
    Postmaster
    reacted by have bitten a postal clerk. The
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    reacted by calling have bitten a postal clerk. The
    Postmaster
    reacted by calling police have bitten a postal clerk. The
    Postmaster
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    reacted by calling police and Postmaster
    reacted by calling police and
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    demanding
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    demanding
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    demanding
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    demanding
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    demanding
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    demanding
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    policeman came
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    Owney
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    Owney
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    Owney
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    called it
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    called it
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    answers
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    answers
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    demise answers
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    collection
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    was clean up again, and has become famous again.
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    display.
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    display.
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    for a postage stamp in his honor. A
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    Toledo. Sort of. Lou Hebert WTOL story…that ened in
    Toledo. Sort of. Lou Hebert WTOL
    -11 Toledo. Sort of. Lou Hebert WTOL
    -11 -11 The The weekend The weekend is The weekend is here The weekend is here and The weekend is here and we The weekend is here and we know The weekend is here and we know
    the the

    Family Of Man Found Dead Near Railroad Tracks In Pittsburgh Seek Answers
    Articles, Blog

    Family Of Man Found Dead Near Railroad Tracks In Pittsburgh Seek Answers

    August 15, 2019


    GET INSIDE AND COULD ONLY ATTACK FROM OUTSIDE. THEY SAY THE HOUSE WAS VACANT. A FAMILY IS SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS TONIGHT AFTER THEIR LOVED ONE WAS FOUND DEAD. STEVEN O’BRIEN’S BODY WAS DISCOVERED NEAR SOME RAILROAD TRACKS ON THE SOUTH SIDE LAST WEEK. RACHELE MONGIOVI REPORTS HIS FAMILY HADN’T HEARD FROM HIM IN MONTHS AND THEY WANT TO KNOW WHAT HAPPENED. Reporter: IT’S BEEN ONE WEEK SINCE 38-YEAR-OLD STEVEN O’BRIEN’S BODY WAS FOUND NEAR RAILROAD TRACKS OFF OF EAST CARSON STREET. HE WAS SPOTTED NEAR A FENCE AROUND 8 A.M. LAST FRIDAY. POLICE SAY THE DEATH, HOWEVER, WASN’T RECENT. O’BRIEN’S FAMILY LIVES IN BOSTON. TONIGHT THEY’RE SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS. THE LAST PERSON THAT SMOKE TO HIM WAS HIS WIFE. WE’RE TRYING TO WRAP OUR HEADS AROUND WHY SHE DIDN’T REPORT HIM MISSING. YOU KNOW, WE’VE BEEN LOOKING FOR HIM FOR TWO MONTHS. Reporter: DANIELLE BORDESANO IS O’BRIEN’S NIECE. SHE SAID THE FAMILY HAD BEEN CALLING AREA JAILS AND POLICE DEPARTMENTS LOOKING FOR O’BRIEN, BUT NOTHING LED TO HIM. THE LAST SHE KNEW O’BRIEN WAS LIVING IN TENT CITY AND WAS ON THE PATH TO STARTING A NEW LIFE. IT’S REALLY HARD THAT WE LOST A LOVED ONE, SOMEONE THAT WE CARE ABOUT. HE’S ALL THE WAY IN ANOTHER STATE AND LIKE NOBODY KNOWS HIM. SO WE KNOW THAT NOBODY IN PITTSBURGH IS, YOU KNOW, GOING TO CALL THE POLICE OR THE NEWS AND SAY HEY, I KNOW THIS MAN, LIKE I KNOW WHAT HAPPENED TO HIM. Reporter: DETECTIVES BELIEVE O’BRIEN MAY HAVE BEEN DEAD SINCE JANUARY. AUTOPSY RESULTS WILL TAKE BETWEEN 12 TO 20 WEEKS TO COME BACK. AS THE FAMILY TRIES TO PIECE TOGETHER WHAT HAPPENED FROM 600 MILES AWAY, THEY’RE HOPING FOR SOME TYPE OF CLOSURE. WE WANT EVERYBODY TO KNOW LIKE HE HAD A FAMILY. HE WAS A HUSBAND. HE HAS TWO KIDS. HE COMES FROM A REALLY BIG FAMILY. HE HAS A LOT OF FRIENDS. Reporter: RACHELE MONGIOVI, KDKA NEWS. A GOFUNDME PAGE WAS SET UP TO HELP THE FAMILY WITH FUNERAL EXPENSES. IF YOU HAVE ANY INFORMATION

    Use pedal power to explore a historic railroad track with the Vance Creek Railriders – KING 5 Evenin
    Articles, Blog

    Use pedal power to explore a historic railroad track with the Vance Creek Railriders – KING 5 Evenin

    August 14, 2019


    TO TO GET TO GET DOWN TO GET DOWN A TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK. TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR DECADES TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR DECADES THIS TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR DECADES THIS SECTION TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF TO GET DOWN A HISTORIC TRACK.
    FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF THE FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF THE FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF THE
    120-YEAR-OLD FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF THE
    120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON FOR DECADES THIS SECTION OF THE
    120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING
    COMPANY 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING
    COMPANY RAIL 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING
    COMPANY RAIL LINE 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING
    COMPANY RAIL LINE HAS 120-YEAR-OLD SIMPSON LOGGING
    COMPANY RAIL LINE HAS BEEN COMPANY RAIL LINE HAS BEEN COMPANY RAIL LINE HAS BEEN
    SILENT. SILENT. SILENT.
    NOT SILENT.
    NOT ANYMORE. NOT ANYMORE. NOT ANYMORE.
    NOT NOT ANYMORE.
    NOT SINCE NOT ANYMORE.
    NOT SINCE THESE NOT ANYMORE.
    NOT SINCE THESE PEDAL NOT ANYMORE.
    NOT SINCE THESE PEDAL POWERED NOT SINCE THESE PEDAL POWERED NOT SINCE THESE PEDAL POWERED
    RAILCARS NOT SINCE THESE PEDAL POWERED
    RAILCARS CAME. RAILCARS CAME. RAILCARS CAME.
    >>RAILCARS CAME.
    >>IT RAILCARS CAME.
    >>IT IS RAILCARS CAME.
    >>IT IS OFTEN.>>IT IS OFTEN.>>IT IS OFTEN.
    >>>>IT IS OFTEN.
    >>Reporter:>>IT IS OFTEN.
    >>Reporter: MY>>IT IS OFTEN.
    >>Reporter: MY SON>>IT IS OFTEN.
    >>Reporter: MY SON COOPER>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER
    PROVIDES>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER
    PROVIDES SOME>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER
    PROVIDES SOME OF>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER
    PROVIDES SOME OF THAT>>Reporter: MY SON COOPER
    PROVIDES SOME OF THAT PEDAL PROVIDES SOME OF THAT PEDAL PROVIDES SOME OF THAT PEDAL
    POWER. POWER. POWER.
    MY POWER.
    MY LONG POWER.
    MY LONG LEGS POWER.
    MY LONG LEGS HELP. MY LONG LEGS HELP. MY LONG LEGS HELP.
    DOUG MY LONG LEGS HELP.
    DOUG NEWMAN MY LONG LEGS HELP.
    DOUG NEWMAN IS MY LONG LEGS HELP.
    DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING MY LONG LEGS HELP.
    DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE
    PLACE DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE
    PLACE WITH DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE
    PLACE WITH HIS DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE
    PLACE WITH HIS WIFE DOUG NEWMAN IS MANAGING THE
    PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA. PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA. PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA.
    >>PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA.
    >>I PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA.
    >>I LIKE PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA.
    >>I LIKE GETTING PLACE WITH HIS WIFE CYNTHIA.
    >>I LIKE GETTING BACK>>I LIKE GETTING BACK>>I LIKE GETTING BACK
    OUTDOORS. OUTDOORS. OUTDOORS.
    I OUTDOORS.
    I WAS OUTDOORS.
    I WAS SITTING OUTDOORS.
    I WAS SITTING BEHIND OUTDOORS.
    I WAS SITTING BEHIND A OUTDOORS.
    I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK OUTDOORS.
    I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND
    THE I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND
    THE NATURE I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND
    THE NATURE ENTRIES I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND
    THE NATURE ENTRIES AND I WAS SITTING BEHIND A DESK AND
    THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER
    AUNT THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER
    AUNT WATCHING THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER
    AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER
    AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE THE NATURE ENTRIES AND FRESHER
    AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN
    IS AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN
    IS PROBABLY AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN
    IS PROBABLY MY AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN
    IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE AUNT WATCHING PEOPLE HAVE FUN
    IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE THING IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE THING IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE THING
    IN IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE THING
    IN THE IS PROBABLY MY FAVORITE THING
    IN THE WORLD. IN THE WORLD. IN THE WORLD.
    >>IN THE WORLD.
    >>Reporter: IN THE WORLD.
    >>Reporter: OUR IN THE WORLD.
    >>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY IN THE WORLD.
    >>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS
    OUTSIDE>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS
    OUTSIDE SHELTON>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS
    OUTSIDE SHELTON WITH>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS
    OUTSIDE SHELTON WITH A>>Reporter: OUR JOURNEY BEGINS
    OUTSIDE SHELTON WITH A FEW OUTSIDE SHELTON WITH A FEW OUTSIDE SHELTON WITH A FEW
    INSTRUCTIONS. INSTRUCTIONS. INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>IS INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>IS ANYBODY INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>IS ANYBODY HERE INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>IS ANYBODY HERE ALLERGIC INSTRUCTIONS.
    >>IS ANYBODY HERE ALLERGIC TO>>IS ANYBODY HERE ALLERGIC TO>>IS ANYBODY HERE ALLERGIC TO
    BEES? BEES? BEES?
    >>BEES?
    >>Reporter: BEES?
    >>Reporter: THE BEES?
    >>Reporter: THE ONLY BEES?
    >>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM BEES?
    >>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE
    SEE>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE
    SEE ARE>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE
    SEE ARE THESE>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE
    SEE ARE THESE EAGER>>Reporter: THE ONLY SWARM WE
    SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES. SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES. SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT IS SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT IS ABOUT SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT IS ABOUT 13 SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT IS ABOUT 13 MILES SEE ARE THESE EAGER FAMILIES.
    >>IT IS ABOUT 13 MILES BOTH>>IT IS ABOUT 13 MILES BOTH>>IT IS ABOUT 13 MILES BOTH
    WAYS. WAYS. WAYS.
    IT WAYS.
    IT TAKES WAYS.
    IT TAKES ABOUT WAYS.
    IT TAKES ABOUT TWO WAYS.
    IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS. IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS. IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS.
    >>IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS.
    >>Reporter: IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS.
    >>Reporter: THE IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS.
    >>Reporter: THE CARTS IT TAKES ABOUT TWO HOURS.
    >>Reporter: THE CARTS WAY>>Reporter: THE CARTS WAY>>Reporter: THE CARTS WAY
    ABOUT>>Reporter: THE CARTS WAY
    ABOUT 100>>Reporter: THE CARTS WAY
    ABOUT 100 POUNDS. ABOUT 100 POUNDS. ABOUT 100 POUNDS.
    THE ABOUT 100 POUNDS.
    THE POLYURETHANE ABOUT 100 POUNDS.
    THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ABOUT 100 POUNDS.
    THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE
    FORMED THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE
    FORMED AROUND THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE
    FORMED AROUND BMX THE POLYURETHANE WHEELS ARE
    FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES. FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES. FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE ROLE FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE ROLE SO FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE FORMED AROUND BMX TIRES.
    THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE HARDLY THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE HARDLY THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE HARDLY
    HAVE THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE HARDLY
    HAVE TO THE ROLE SO SMOOTHLY WE HARDLY
    HAVE TO PEDAL. HAVE TO PEDAL. HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT THEN HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT THEN AGAIN HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT THEN AGAIN WE HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT THEN AGAIN WE ARE HAVE TO PEDAL.
    BUT THEN AGAIN WE ARE GOING BUT THEN AGAIN WE ARE GOING BUT THEN AGAIN WE ARE GOING
    DOWNHILL. DOWNHILL. DOWNHILL.
    >>DOWNHILL.
    >>MOST DOWNHILL.
    >>MOST PEOPLE DOWNHILL.
    >>MOST PEOPLE WANT DOWNHILL.
    >>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO DOWNHILL.
    >>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO
    FASTER>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO
    FASTER THAN>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO
    FASTER THAN WE>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO
    FASTER THAN WE LET>>MOST PEOPLE WANT TO GO
    FASTER THAN WE LET THEM. FASTER THAN WE LET THEM. FASTER THAN WE LET THEM.
    ESPECIALLY FASTER THAN WE LET THEM.
    ESPECIALLY THE FASTER THAN WE LET THEM.
    ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS. ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS. ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS.
    THEY ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS.
    THEY WANT ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS.
    THEY WANT TO ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS.
    THEY WANT TO GO ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS.
    THEY WANT TO GO FAST. THEY WANT TO GO FAST. THEY WANT TO GO FAST.
    >>THEY WANT TO GO FAST.
    >>IT THEY WANT TO GO FAST.
    >>IT IS THEY WANT TO GO FAST.
    >>IT IS FUN.>>IT IS FUN.>>IT IS FUN.
    >>>>IT IS FUN.
    >>Reporter:>>IT IS FUN.
    >>Reporter: WE>>IT IS FUN.
    >>Reporter: WE RIDE>>IT IS FUN.
    >>Reporter: WE RIDE ACROSS>>IT IS FUN.
    >>Reporter: WE RIDE ACROSS A>>Reporter: WE RIDE ACROSS A>>Reporter: WE RIDE ACROSS A
    ROAD. ROAD. ROAD.
    WE ROAD.
    WE PEDAL ROAD.
    WE PEDAL ACROSS ROAD.
    WE PEDAL ACROSS THE ROAD.
    WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE
    SURROUNDED WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE
    SURROUNDED BY WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE
    SURROUNDED BY 360 WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE
    SURROUNDED BY 360 DEGREES WE PEDAL ACROSS THE BRIDGE
    SURROUNDED BY 360 DEGREES OF SURROUNDED BY 360 DEGREES OF SURROUNDED BY 360 DEGREES OF
    SCENERY. SCENERY. SCENERY.
    >>SCENERY.
    >>THERE SCENERY.
    >>THERE ARE SCENERY.
    >>THERE ARE A SCENERY.
    >>THERE ARE A LOT SCENERY.
    >>THERE ARE A LOT OF SCENERY.
    >>THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT>>THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT>>THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT
    KINDS>>THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT
    KINDS OF>>THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT
    KINDS OF TREES. KINDS OF TREES. KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S MAPLES KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S MAPLES WITH KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S MAPLES WITH A KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT KINDS OF TREES.
    THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT OF THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT OF THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT OF
    MOSS THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT OF
    MOSS ON THERE’S MAPLES WITH A LOT OF
    MOSS ON THEM. MOSS ON THEM. MOSS ON THEM.
    WE MOSS ON THEM.
    WE SEE MOSS ON THEM.
    WE SEE A MOSS ON THEM.
    WE SEE A LOT MOSS ON THEM.
    WE SEE A LOT OF MOSS ON THEM.
    WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE. WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE. WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE.
    >>WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE.
    >>Reporter: WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE.
    >>Reporter: AT WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE.
    >>Reporter: AT THE WE SEE A LOT OF WILDLIFE.
    >>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT THE>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT THE GUIDES>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT THE GUIDES TURN>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE>>Reporter: AT THE HALFWAY
    POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS
    AROUND POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS
    AROUND WHILE POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS
    AROUND WHILE THE POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS
    AROUND WHILE THE GROUP POINT THE GUIDES TURN THE CARTS
    AROUND WHILE THE GROUP CATCHES AROUND WHILE THE GROUP CATCHES AROUND WHILE THE GROUP CATCHES
    ITS AROUND WHILE THE GROUP CATCHES
    ITS BREATH. ITS BREATH. ITS BREATH.
    >>ITS BREATH.
    >>IT ITS BREATH.
    >>IT WAS ITS BREATH.
    >>IT WAS FABULOUS.>>IT WAS FABULOUS.>>IT WAS FABULOUS.
    IT>>IT WAS FABULOUS.
    IT WAS>>IT WAS FABULOUS.
    IT WAS SO>>IT WAS FABULOUS.
    IT WAS SO MUCH>>IT WAS FABULOUS.
    IT WAS SO MUCH FUN. IT WAS SO MUCH FUN. IT WAS SO MUCH FUN.
    >>IT WAS SO MUCH FUN.
    >>IT IT WAS SO MUCH FUN.
    >>IT WAS IT WAS SO MUCH FUN.
    >>IT WAS REALLY IT WAS SO MUCH FUN.
    >>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.
    >>>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.
    >>IT>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.
    >>IT WAS>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.
    >>IT WAS ALL>>IT WAS REALLY GREAT.
    >>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.>>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.>>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.
    UPHILL>>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.
    UPHILL WILL>>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.
    UPHILL WILL BE>>IT WAS ALL DOWNHILL.
    UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING. UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING. UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE A UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE A LITTLE UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE A LITTLE BIT UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE A LITTLE BIT OF UPHILL WILL BE INTERESTING.
    THERE WILL BE A LITTLE BIT OF A THERE WILL BE A LITTLE BIT OF A THERE WILL BE A LITTLE BIT OF A
    PUSH. PUSH. PUSH.
    >>PUSH.
    >>Reporter: PUSH.
    >>Reporter: FOR PUSH.
    >>Reporter: FOR THOSE PUSH.
    >>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO PUSH.
    >>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED
    A>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED
    A LITTLE>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED
    A LITTLE HELP>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED
    A LITTLE HELP THERE’S>>Reporter: FOR THOSE WHO NEED
    A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED CART A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED CART THAT A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL DO A LITTLE HELP THERE’S A
    MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL DO ALL MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL DO ALL MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL DO ALL
    THE MOTORIZED CART THAT WILL DO ALL
    THE PUSHING. THE PUSHING. THE PUSHING.
    >>THE PUSHING.
    >>IT THE PUSHING.
    >>IT WAS THE PUSHING.
    >>IT WAS HARD THE PUSHING.
    >>IT WAS HARD GOING THE PUSHING.
    >>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK THE PUSHING.
    >>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL BECAUSE>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL BECAUSE WE>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL BECAUSE WE GOT>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL BECAUSE WE GOT TIRED>>IT WAS HARD GOING BACK UP
    THE HILL BECAUSE WE GOT TIRED A THE HILL BECAUSE WE GOT TIRED A THE HILL BECAUSE WE GOT TIRED A
    LOT. LOT. LOT.
    >>LOT.
    >>Reporter: LOT.
    >>Reporter: IT LOT.
    >>Reporter: IT IS LOT.
    >>Reporter: IT IS A LOT.
    >>Reporter: IT IS A FUN LOT.
    >>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW
    WAY>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW
    WAY TO>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW
    WAY TO RIDE>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW
    WAY TO RIDE THE>>Reporter: IT IS A FUN NEW
    WAY TO RIDE THE OLD

    Death of the American Hobo (Documentary)
    Articles, Blog

    Death of the American Hobo (Documentary)

    August 14, 2019


    BEN: Your heart’s racing. Obviously, you’re hoping that
    we wouldn’t get caught. -There’s something about the
    hobo that has to be recorded in American history. BEN: The whole time we were
    asking ourselves, what is the story here? What is the story of the hobo? What is a hobo? EMPRESS VAGABOND HOBO LUMP: It’s
    not like people think. It’s hard, like, a hard life. -It’s speeding up! Go go go go go go! [APPLAUSE] AARON SMITH: This
    is Britt, Iowa. It’s a small town of about
    2,000 people out in the central Iowa cornfields. Over the last 112 years,
    Britt has become known for one thing– an annual event called The
    National Hobo Convention. There’s a hobo jungle, a hobo
    museum, and a hobo cemetery. In 1900, Britt was just a newly
    incorporated farming community in search of
    migrant workers. The town founders enticed the
    hobos to move their annual gathering from Chicago
    to Britt. A tradition was born that still
    brings self-described hobos to Britt every year
    for one August weekend. HOBO MIKE: I’ve been traveling
    trains since I was eight, and as a living since ’63. FROG: I started riding trains
    when I was 20 years old. I’m 62 years old now. WRONG WAY: [LAUGHING] I’m Wrong Way. My nephew gave me that name
    in the early ’70s. HOBO SPIKE: I started in 1952,
    and I used a train to go from one place to another
    to find work, and that’s how I survived. AARON SMITH: Most historians
    agree the hobo emerged after the Civil War. Young men from both sides set
    off across the country in search of work. By the turn of the century, the
    hobo had become part of the fabric of America. But today, what was once a
    substantial culture and way of life seems close
    to extinction. We wanted to see what was left
    of the hobo community, and we hoped we’d find it in Britt. In our minds, there was only one
    way to travel to the hobo convention– the
    freight train. We began our journey in Oakland,
    California, hoping to travel 1,900 miles on the
    rails in five days. AARON SMITH: These are the maps
    that show the different rail lines all over California,
    with like, special zoom-ins that show you all the
    little small towns that you can stop in, different crew
    changes, and this is something totally like, pre-iPhone. Now you can totally just
    GPS your location. But these maps were really
    helpful for a lot of people for a long time. Before a cohesive network of
    roads was laid across America, the train was the fastest way
    to get from place to place. Early hobos learned to ride by
    swapping information with other travelers they met along
    the way in hobo jungles. Chris is from Virginia and
    spends his time hopping freight trains around the
    country for pleasure. Our friend Ben lives in San
    Francisco and had a couple weeks off work and decided
    to join us. BEN: I wasn’t sure what
    to expect of the trip. I knew it was going to be an
    adventure, but I didn’t know exactly what the details
    and the minutiae of the trip would hold. We woke up that morning, hoping
    to catch a train. But we woke up, got ready,
    there was no train there. And as more time passed, we
    realized that the information we had gotten was probably
    incorrect. AARON SMITH: We decided to wait
    for another train, but a worker spotted us in the yard
    and called the bull. Bull is an old-time term
    for a railroad cop. It’s always been a cat and mouse
    game between the hobo and the bull. Back in the day, bulls had
    no problem killing hobos. Today, it’s a little
    bit different. -We don’t really have
    hobos anymore. -A transient, a hobo, vagrant,
    is a guy who participates on the rail property– trespass, hopping
    freights, yeah. -And a tramp, tramp’s in
    the middle, right? -What did they call it? Tramps. I like that. That was back in the day, man. That was back in the day. Tramps, hobos. -When have you seen somebody
    with a broomstick– -A tramp with a bag tied around
    his shoulder, right? All right, guys. You know how to get out
    of here, right? Don’t come back, all right? -Don’t come back. AARON SMITH: There seem
    to be very few people hopping trains anymore. The hobo seems like
    a museum piece. It’s like a joke, a word
    nobody uses anymore. We didn’t want to go to the
    Oakland jail, so we headed to Amtrak station with our tails
    between our legs. We got out to the next crew
    change stop on the line– Roseville, California. As soon as we got to Roseville,
    there was a train getting ready to take off. Bad decision. A conductor saw us and we got
    pulled off the train five miles outside of town. Uh, we just got pulled
    off this train here. -Again. AARON SMITH: Yeah, yeah, it
    was the second time today. Morale was low. Chris decided to set off on
    his own to Denver, and we hopped a gambling bus
    to Reno, Nevada. JACKSON FAGER: Now we’re in
    Reno, Nevada, feeling a little better about our situation, and
    hoping a train comes in the next couple hours. AARON SMITH: In the yard,
    avoiding bulls and workers is one concern. Finding a rideable
    car is another. Some of the wells on these
    double-stacked cars have a cubby hole you can
    ride in, but we weren’t seeing anything. The locomotive at the back of
    the train, called the rear unit, seemed like
    our best bet. But it’s risky. Workers periodically
    check the cars. Lucky for us, the train
    aired up, and we finally got on our way. We’re indoors, Amtrak style, and
    we’ve got these big plushy seats, continuing along. We’re in the middle
    of nowhere. For the first 100 miles,
    there were no roads, no highways, no nothing. It was just desert as far
    as the eye could see. It was beautiful. It was amazing to kind of get
    that, see what that was like, vast expanses of nature. MEDICINE MAN: Now, everybody
    thinks that the real hobo life is great, and it’s part of
    wanderlust, but it’s not. The hobo life is a very,
    very dangerous life. ADMAN: Sometimes painful, when
    everything is all fucked up. You’re looking around, and
    the bulls are out there. BEN: It felt like something out
    of a special operations combat mission. We spotted a grain train. We knew that this was our
    ticket out of Elko. Go go go go go! ADMAN: Riding on a flat car with
    a full moon, and watching the [CLICKING NOISE] It’s a game that gives you
    a fucking hard-on, I can tell you that. MINNESOTA JIM: Once you
    do it, it’s with you the rest your life. You want to keep on the move. ADMAN: We see the world
    in a different light. FROG: Always total, absolute
    freedom, every day of my life. HOBO SPIKE: I don’t think
    there’s any better way to see this great world of ours,
    especially our nation, than from a freight train. AARON SMITH: We were crossing
    the Great Salt Lake. The air was cool, and
    the smell of sulfur rose from the water. It was the most undisturbed
    stretch of natural beauty any of us had ever seen. The train forces you to slow
    down and take it all in. All the frustrations and
    anxieties of life back in civilization seemed
    to disappear. HOBO SPIKE: When you’re on the
    rails, if you don’t get caught, there’s no one to tell
    you what to do, when to go to bed, when to get up,
    what to eat. You’re on your own for 100%. AARON SMITH: Although we were
    loving the ride, we were running out of water fast. After close to 24 hours on the
    train, we were hungry, tired, dirty, and dehydrated. Well, our train stopped here
    in Green River, Wyoming. It’s just a little railroad town
    here in southern Wyoming. Just kind of roamed around and
    got the vibe of the town. HOBO SPIKE: Then when you get
    into a community, of course you have to fit into society,
    so you have to abide by laws at that time. But if you’re by yourself,
    you don’t have to pay attention to any law. AARON SMITH: So we walked over
    this bridge that we’re sitting under now, probably about
    110 degrees, dry heat. BEN: Just took a dip
    in the Green River. After four or five days not
    showering, it felt amazing. AARON SMITH: I’m gonna go
    get in there right now. BEN: Our days have
    been very full. We haven’t gotten
    a lot of sleep. It’s been a few hours here, a
    few hours there, trying to hop on trains successfully,
    which we sometimes have, sometimes haven’t. We’re always on the move trying
    to get to our end goal, which is Britt. AARON SMITH: No eastbound trains
    were coming through. The sun went down, and we
    enjoyed the solitude of the Wyoming landscape. Up to this point, we hadn’t seen
    any other travelers on the trains. At the turn of the century,
    there were around a million hobos on the rails. After the Depression,
    that number doubled. Hobos had organized their own
    union, and there were over 60 hobo colleges all across
    the country. Boxcars were crowded
    with riders. But something happened midway
    through the century. Maybe it was American
    prosperity. Where there were once millions
    on the road, today, there’s probably a couple thousand. In my experience, you hardly
    ever see anyone on the rails. The next morning, we decided to
    try our luck in the Green River yard. -Hey, man. -How about yourself? -We’re hitchhiking. -Sorry, man. -Oh, really? -All right, thank you. -OK, man. -Thank you. AARON SMITH: After getting
    warned by the cops to leave, we went back to our original
    spot under the bridge. MEDICINE MAN: Today, you don’t
    want to jump a train. It’s so dangerous, because the
    old steam locomotives, it was chug, chug, chug, and pretty
    soon, it was [ENGINE NOISE]. But today, in two minutes,
    they’re flying. AARON SMITH: Our train stopped
    in the middle of the yard, and we didn’t know why. AARON SMITH: An hour went by,
    and it felt like an eternity. Each time you get on
    the train, it’s a role of the die– a unique and unpredictable
    experience. Perhaps that’s one
    reason we do it– to gamble, to relinquish control
    completely, and give ourselves to fate and luck. That was one of the faster
    ones I’ve hopped on. You kind of had to run alongside
    and kind of throw yourself up. But we all made it. Really grateful for that. The train out of Green River
    had three units and looked like it would blaze across
    Wyoming, but it puttered along the entire time at
    35 miles an hour. It was time for a
    change of plans. We arrived in Laramie, Wyoming
    on Friday morning, with still 800 miles to go to
    get to Britt. We were behind schedule,
    and the convention had already started. We got off here in Laramie,
    Wyoming because the train was so damn slow. Rent a cars were too expensive,
    the Greyhound would take two days, so we ended
    up getting this U-Haul. 12-hour drive ahead of us, and
    we’ve gotta haul ass to Britt. In keeping with the spirit of
    our trip, we picked up all the hitchhikers we saw
    along the way. JOE YOUNG: Hey, what’s
    up, guys? I’m Joe Young. I’ve been on the road for about
    four or five years. The only way I get around
    is on bicycle. AARON SMITH: We picked
    up another guy. This is Alex. He’s coming from Colorado. ALEX: How’s it going? AARON SMITH: It didn’t take us
    long to fill up the back of the U-Haul. After six grueling days
    of traveling, we finally arrived in Brit. We were ready to hang out with
    hundreds of hobos and swap stories about our travels
    on the rails. -Hello! Happy Hobo Days! -Happy Hobo Days! -What we found instead was a
    family-friendly event with a bunch of tourists. BEN: Just a number of
    townspeople, big farm tractors, fancy or unusual cars,
    and homemade floats. People– not hobos. -All aboard! -The hobo convention has gone
    county fair mainstream. This wasn’t the wild, drunken,
    turn of the century event that brought 1,800 hobos
    here in the 1940s. -Well, we’re serving mulligan
    stew, and it is what the traditional hobo
    used to serve. Meat– we have pork in ours–
    and then it has beef flavoring, and pork flavoring,
    and then vegetables, barley, and rice in it, and
    then water. -Every year for the past 112
    years, the hobos have elected a hobo king and queen. -This year, our new
    queen is Angel. And your new king is
    Minnesota Jim. -It’s an important moment for
    them, especially now that most of the hobos are senior
    citizens. The hobo jungle in Britt is a
    well maintained park on the edge of town. It used to be a pretty
    wild place. EMPRESS VAGABOND HOBO LUMP:
    This is not the same. They bring in like a family
    affair, and a history thing, and people learning. Because the hobo, you wouldn’t
    be finding no children in an old camp, you know
    what I mean? People really was kind of
    sleeping out, and across the tracks or in the bush. It was more like a jungle. AARON SMITH: Today, there’s
    a lot of rules. No drinking, no drugs,
    no unleashed dogs. It’s become the kind of place
    that people used to become hobos to get away from. Most of the hobos we met were
    retired from riding trains. Living an itinerant life for
    decades takes its toll. MEDICINE MAN: A modern-day
    hobo, probably in my estimation, is getting to the
    point where it’s rubber tire hobos that come together
    and perpetuate history. AARON SMITH: The convention
    has become a shadow of its former self. The city’s turned it
    into a parody. There are still plenty young
    people out there riding the rails for adventure, but those
    who call themselves hobos and travel around looking for
    work are a dying breed. FROG: And it’s still there. Though I’m not riding freight
    trains, it’s still there. I still want to ride. AARON SMITH: Out on the rails,
    we slowed down and experienced an adventure that was
    once a way of life for a lot of people. The train tracks persist on,
    relics on the landscape, entry points into the hidden world. We felt a deep nostalgia for a
    time that’s passed and sadness for the American hobo, fast
    disappearing down the westbound track. FROG: I have one final ride, and
    it’s my westbound journey. -For the moments of happiness,
    for the love, for the moments of disappointments, for
    everything, hobo is thankful to the railroad.

    WESTINGHOUSE (Full Documentary) | The Powerhouse Struggle of Patents & Business with Nikola Tesla
    Articles, Blog

    WESTINGHOUSE (Full Documentary) | The Powerhouse Struggle of Patents & Business with Nikola Tesla

    August 14, 2019


    (xylophone tones, How Dry I Am) (old time big band music) Radio announcer: You can be
    sure if it’s Westinghouse. (jazz music) Voiceover: George Westinghouse
    changed the face of the world with his inventions, patents,
    business sense, and personality. Not a day goes by that
    we don’t use something pioneered by George
    Westinghouse. He is the forgotten role model
    that our country needs today to teach future
    generations of Americans that hard work and
    kindness pay off. George Westinghouse was
    one of the most successful
    men in the world; a respected engineer,
    inventor, and America’s
    greatest industrialist. He was a pioneer of the
    Industrial Revolution and played a leading role
    in turning the United States from a young agrarian society into a modern
    economic powerhouse. The name Westinghouse has been
    a household name the world over for more than 100 years
    because of one man, his love of machines,
    and his desire to make
    the world a better place. Edward Reis: The accomplishments
    that George Westinghouse had in his lifetime
    had a major impact on the way we live today. His work in the railroad
    industry with the
    Westinghouse air brake, the electrification of the
    world with Westinghouse
    alternating current, him being instrumental
    in developing natural
    gas as a fuel, and his impact on
    the shipping industry with the Westinghouse geared
    marine turbine engine. George Westinghouse was
    known as a good person. He always had a very good
    rapport with his workers. There was never a strike at any
    of the Westinghouse companies all the time he had
    control of them. That was not common
    back in those days. He certainly was not
    motivated by greed or money. He really thought that
    his accomplishments
    would benefit mankind, and that alone was a
    driving force for him. Jim Sutherland: The most
    important thing about
    George Westinghouse was the way he
    treated his employees. He was unique. Quentin Skrabec: Westinghouse
    really offers a role model. He was a passionate man and a lot of times he’s lost
    in history under Edison. William Terbo: Nikola
    Tesla had great regard for Thomas Edison of
    being a workaholic, and Thomas Edison had great
    regard for Nikola Tesla for his ability to
    be a workaholic. My father tells me
    specifically that of all
    the people that Tesla met, that he had the highest regard
    for George Westinghouse. (drum roll) Voiceover: George Westinghouse
    was born on October 6, 1846 in Central Bridge, New York to George and
    Emeline Westinghouse. Edward Reis: George was
    the 8th of 10 children. Interestingly, he was
    named George Westinghouse,
    Jr. after his father. He was never really a
    good student in school. He always had trouble
    applying himself to coursework that he didn’t think
    had immediate benefit. Later in life he was to
    say that the very best
    educational experience he had was the ability to work
    in his father’s shops. His father owned a
    company called the G.
    Westinghouse and Company, manufactured agricultural
    equipment and small
    steam engines. He loved to make things
    and build things. He built a working
    waterwheel one time, a model. He built a working
    steam motorboat that
    he was able to use. He even made a violin. He developed these
    early mechanical skills and later in life he was to say
    those early mechanical skills he learned as a young
    boy served him well
    throughout his lifetime. Quentin Skrabec: George
    Westinghouse, as a child, he’d probably be considered
    today a problem child. He seemed to be
    bored with school. He loved mechanics. He loved to come back and
    work in his dad’s shop. Voiceover: George spent
    most of his boyhood in
    Schenectady, New York. He would be known as
    George Westinghouse, Jr. for many years until
    his father died, at which time he dropped
    the Jr. from his name. Edward Reis: Interestingly,
    everything that is written indicates that George
    Westinghouse did not get a lot of encouragement
    from his father, but he did get quite a bit of
    encouragement from his mother, the local minister
    encouraged him quite a bit, and we know that one foreman
    in his father’s shops really provided George
    Westinghouse with a great
    bit of encouragement. He set aside an area in the
    factory for him to work. He showed him how to
    use the various machines and materials to make items. Obviously, this
    had a major impact on George Westinghouse
    throughout his lifetime. Voiceover: It was recorded
    that he always felt more comfortable in
    his father’s shops than he did at school. In 1860, at 13 years of age, George began to work
    there for 50 cents a day. Even as a boy it was
    clear that he posessed a unique talent for
    understanding and
    working with machines. Edward Reis: One story
    about George Westinghouse
    as a young boy was that he was in
    a scouting group that was planning to take
    a hike one afternoon. His father had given him
    a chore to cut some pipe, and that chore was
    certainly going to take
    longer than that day. However, George rigged up
    a machine with a saw blade. He was able to cut all
    that pipe in a half a day and he was able
    to go on the hike. From what was documented, it was said that George
    Westinghouse, Sr.
    was not at all happy even though George
    Westinghouse was able to accomplish the task in
    a very short period of time he wasn’t happy at what had
    motivated him to do that. (drum roll) Voiceover: The
    American Civil War broke out in April of
    1861 when George was 15. He desperately wanted
    to serve his country, but was prevented by
    his father to do so. He said that George would
    be allowed to enlist
    at the legal age of 17, but prayed the war would
    not last that long. The Civil War raged far longer
    than anyone had expected. By 1863, the carnage
    was staggering after battles like
    Antietam and Gettysburg. It was clear then
    that the war was not the romantic adventure it
    was once thought to be. Even though the
    casualties were mounting and the Union army
    was demoralized after
    years of defeat, George Westinghouse enlisted in
    the New York Volunteer Cavalry as a private shortly
    before his 17th birthday. The next year, he passed a
    special mechanical examination to become an offer
    in the U.S. Navy. His military service
    made a huge impact. Later in life he said, “My
    earliest greatest capital “was the experience
    and skill acquired “from the opportunity
    given me when I was young “to work with all
    kinds of machinery, “coupled later with
    lessons in the discipline “to which a soldier
    is required to submit, “and the acquirement of
    a spirit of readiness “to carry out the
    instructions of superiors.” George’s older brothers,
    John and Albert, serviced in the
    military as well. Albert was captured at
    the Battle of Gaines’ Mill and confined to Libby
    Prison for a short while. After being exchanged
    and released, he was killed in 1864
    leading a Cavalry charge. Edward Reis: I’m convinced
    that his father thought his brother was the one who was
    going to be successful in life and spent a lot of time
    with his older brother. Quite frankly, from
    everything I’ve read is I don’t think his
    father ever thought George Westinghouse was
    going to amount to anything. (gunfire) Voiceover: The
    war ended in 1865. Although more than 600,000
    American lives had been lost, life began to return to normal. The 18-year-old George
    Westinghouse, Jr. was
    mustered out of service and enrolled at Union
    College in New York. He quickly became bored. It was recorded that
    the President of the
    college said to him, “You’re wasting your time here. “A classical course
    is nothing for you. “You have a genius
    for invention. “Cultivate it and you will
    become a great engineer.” He left school after
    two months and returned
    to his father’s shop. At that time, the country was
    in a rapid state of change. For a man full of ideas,
    there was much to do. Quentin Skrabec: It was an
    excellent time for an inventor, for an industrialist
    like Westinghouse to
    come onto the scene. Lots of people came onto the
    scene at that time, obviously. Even the Carnegies and so forth, a lot of what we call
    today the robber barons, were just starting out
    in that time frame. We had an economic boom going
    that was a residual of the war. It was great time. Investment money was there. People were moving forward. Industries were cranked up. It was a time of expansion. (piano music) Voiceover: On October 31, 1965, the 19-year-old George
    Westinghouse, Jr. was awarded his first patent
    for a rotary steam engine. Edward Reis: He started working
    on that patent at the age of 15. It was granted to
    him at the age of 19. As we go through his
    life, we can see the role
    that rotating devices, the large rotating turbines
    and large rotating generators, the impact they had on
    the electrical industry. Then you look backwards and
    see that George Westinghouse had this interest
    in rotating engines from his very first
    patent as a young boy; started at that work
    at the age of 15. Voiceover: For the next 48
    years, he would, on average, take out one patent
    every month-and-a-half. Edward Reis: He had two
    other early patents, for a car replacer
    for getting cars back onto the tracks
    when they derailed, and an item called
    the railway frog was a device used
    between the tracks where two tracks intersected. These two patents here
    were very successful for George Westinghouse and
    provided him the money he needed to get started with the
    Westinghouse Air Brake Company. (slow band music) Voiceover: He planned
    to have his car replacer and railway frog
    manufactured in New Jersey, but instead looked west
    to the booming town of
    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Fortunes were being
    made in Pittsburgh. The city’s location at the
    joining of two major rivers made it the ideal spot for
    manufacturing and distribution. In the 1860s, the air
    was thick with smoke as the iron and
    steel industry grew, churning out metal
    for tracks, engines, and the myriad of machines,
    tools, and devices used to build the
    network of railroads crisscrossing the country. Legend has it that as George
    stepped off the train, he practically walked
    into one of Pittsburgh’s
    wealthiest investors. Edward Reis: The very
    first night he was here evidently he’d lost
    his way downtown. He saw this gentleman
    coming his way and stopped him and
    asked him for directions. That fellow’s name
    was Ralph Bagley. Ralph happened to be going
    in that direction he said, so he walked along with
    George Westinghouse to show him where he
    was going that evening. From that chance meeting,
    him and Ralph Bagley became great friends for
    the rest of their lives. Quentin Skrabec: There’s some
    mythology around the meeting. Within a week, he had
    somehow made a business
    connection there. That would have been typical. Westinghouse was the type of
    guy that went into a city, He was a salesman. He was probably looking for
    the industrialist in town. He had an invention. He needed some suppliers
    to make that part. Westinghouse, type of guy that still even all through
    his career would hustle. He’d be out there knocking on
    the door of industrialists. (crash sounds) Voiceover: In a time of
    relative peace and quiet, newspapers were once
    again full of carnage. Catastrophic train
    accidents were on the rise as the number of trains
    in the country grew
    in size and quantity, and with increasing speeed. As the body count escalated,
    a clear solution was needed. Westinghouse was said to
    have been personally effected by a terrible train
    crash in 1866, which motivated him
    to solve the problem. (train whistle) Nearly anyone could make
    trains bigger and faster, but nobody had devised a working
    solution to stop them quickly. (train whistle) At that time, stopping a train was a complicated,
    inefficient ordeal. Edward Reis: In those days, for
    example, on a freight train, the brakeman literally
    rode on top of the
    freight cars all day long. When the engineer gave
    a blast of the whistle
    to put down the brakes, they’d jump up, turn
    the wheel on that car, then run down that car,
    jump to the next car, run down the car to turn
    the brakes on the next car, and that, again, applied
    the brakes to the wheels. So stopping a train was a very
    long, jerky kind of a process. By the way, the brakeman had
    an extremely dangerous job. Many of them were
    killed and injured, as you can imagine, the
    conditions riding on top of those freight cars all day
    long, rain, snow, whatever. Voiceover: A speeding
    train could take up to two miles to come
    to a complete stop. Not only were the lives
    of brakemen at risk when jumping from car to
    car on a moving train, but anything getting in the
    way of a roaring locomotive was almost certainly destroyed. (breaking glass sounds) Westinghouse felt that
    if an immediate powerful application of
    breaks were available that these horrible
    accidents could be avoided. Men had been tinkering
    with train braking
    concepts for years. There were other patents
    dealing with brakes, but George Westinghouse
    was the only man to put old and
    new ideas together into a complete,
    workable combination. (jazz music) In fact, one key ingredient
    was discovered out of thin air. (jazz music) Edward Reis: George
    Westinghouse had been reading a new scientific magazine
    and there was an article that caught his attention
    on a French company building a tunnel through the
    Mont Cenis mountain in the Alps. It caught his attention. It was no ordinary
    tunnel, you see. It was 8.5 miles long. It says they were
    having great difficulty until two new
    inventions came along. An Englishman had invented what
    he called a hammer drill bit, and an Italian had invented
    what he called an air motor. It caught George’s
    attention because the
    article said at that time that the pipe going
    back into the mountain was 6 atmospheres of air to
    drive the hammer drill bit to drill the holes
    for the dynamite was
    over 3,000 feet long. At that point in time
    he thought surely if they can drive a hammer
    drill bit into solid rock 3,000 feet away using air,
    he could be able to use air to drive the breaks on a train. Voiceover: Many people
    thought he was crazy because who in their
    right mind would envision a roaring train being
    stopped by the wind? But that didn’t stop him. George Westinghouse, Jr.
    was issued his first patent for the air brake on April
    13, 1869 at 22 years of age. With the air brake, the
    engineer could control all of the brakes on
    a train from the cab. This would allow
    for longer trains carrying more people
    and more goods. Edward Reis: The United States
    was really moving westward. Industrialization
    was taking place. They had the need to move a
    lot more freight and people. With the Westinghouse
    air brakes, the trains could become
    longer and heavier. (upbeat music) Voiceover: At that time, George
    was traveling the country, soliciting orders for
    his railway devices and had many opportunities
    to present his thoughts on air brakes to
    railway officials. He said that none
    of those approached appeared to have
    faith in the idea. Edward Reis: George
    Westinghouse was so sure that he would be successful
    with the Westinghouse air brakes that he invested all his money, and also his good friend,
    Ralph Bagley, invested money, and he built a
    full set of brakes for a locomotive and four cars. Voiceover: The first
    air brake apparatus was shown in a Pittsburgh
    machine shop in 1868. It then came time to install
    it on a full size train to test it in a real
    world demonstration. Railroad officials were invited and the first air brake
    trial became legendary. Edward Reis: They all boarded
    the four passenger cars. George Westinghouse was riding
    in the locomotive that morning with the engineer, Dan Tate. This trial was to go
    to Steubenville, Ohio and return, a total of 80 miles. Voiceover: Upon emerging
    from the tunnel, they came face to face
    with two horses and a wagon standing on the tracks. Edward Reis: The horses
    kind of panicked. A wheel got stuck. The wagon overturned. The horses fell down. The drayman fell down. Dan Tate applied the
    Westinghouse air brakes for the very first time. They skidded up the track. George Westinghouse, they
    say, was very, very concerned as they skidded up the track. Fortunately, they
    stopped four feet short of running over that
    wagon, those two
    horses, and the drayman. They say everyone in the back got knocked to the floor. They got banged into each other. They got jostled quite a bit. The highest level superintendent of the Steubenville
    and Panhandle Railroad put his arms in the
    air and he said, “Gentlemen, we’ve just seen
    the greatest demonstration “of this Westinghouse air brake
    system we’re ever going to see. “I think we should
    just back her up “to Grants Hill
    and call it a day.” Voiceover: The future of
    railroading was set in motion over the next several months as more tests were conducted
    around the country. Railway officials were impressed resulting in immediate orders
    of air brake equipment. Westinghouse Air Brake
    suddenly began appearing on passenger trains
    around the country. Quentin Skrabec: A lot
    of people in those days, people like Charles
    Dickens and so forth, they had phobias about
    train travel in those days because the death
    rate was so high. The air brake took
    that phobia away. Voiceover: The Westinghouse
    Air Brake Company was chartered on
    September 28, 1869. The new company began
    churning out parts with an initial work
    force of about 100 men. Over the next decade
    George Westinghouse made numerous improvements
    to the air brake, and by 1877, most
    American railroads had their passenger trains
    outfitted with them. It was declared by one
    writer that no railroad claims to be first class
    that does not employ Westinghouse air brakes. Even with the success,
    another major hurdle remained: the freight train industry. It was said that
    the freight industry was the slowest to
    adopt the air brakes because railroad companies did
    not want to invest the money to protect the lives of
    their cheap labor force. Brakemen were paid $1.50 a day and received nothing if
    they were maimed or killed. It cost about $50 to install
    air brakes on a train car. Edward Reis: A piece of
    documentation I came across said that in one particular year there were 5,000 brakemen
    killed or injured in the United States that year. It was an extremely
    dangerous job, one of the most dangerous
    jobs there ever was. Voiceover: This was
    considered the age when railroad companies
    could buy senators. The railroad business
    was profitable, and they intended
    to keep it that way. Quentin Skrabec: The air
    brake offered nothing
    to them, profit-wise. The hand brake system
    seemed to be fine. You lose a few Irishmen. It didn’t seem to
    upset them at all. Edward Reis: Pennsylvania
    Railroad had a very
    good reputation, but some of them did not. It was documented
    that in those days, some of the railroads,
    if a brakeman got killed, they felt no more obligation than to move the body to
    the side of the track. Quentin Skrabec:
    They balked at it and just like a lot
    of companies do today they had to be dragged in
    there by the government. They did everything they could
    to slow that process down. Voiceover: Before any laws
    could be put in place, standards had to be set so
    that a car from California would couple with
    a car from Maine. The Burlington brake trials were
    organized to set those standards and would prove to be one
    of the most critical events in the history of the air brake and in the life of
    George Westinghouse. Quentin Skrabec: As
    Congress in this country got more interested in the
    problem of railroad safety and the pressure came on
    to do something about it, these famous trials out
    in Iowa came into being. They would test a number
    of different types of
    brakes at the time. Westinghouse air brake wasn’t
    the only brake out there. Edward Reis: The first
    Westinghouse air brakes were called straight brakes. As the air went back the
    line, it applied the brakes to the wheels of the
    train to stop the train. However, if the piping or
    the coupling let go or broke, you would lose your brakes. Voiceover: To improve
    upon his original design, he invented the automatic
    air brake in 1873. Edward Reis: Now the
    air was holding the
    brakes off the wheels. When you wanted to
    apply the brakes, you would simply reduce the
    pressure to stop the train. The other advantage to that was if the pipe separated
    or coupling separated
    or the pipe broke, the train would
    automatically come to a stop. It was referred to as
    the brakes that worked
    even when they failed. Voiceover: The automatic
    air brake was powerful,
    but not fast enough. Quentin Skrabec: Initially,
    as the trials started, Westinghouse had some
    problems with the air brake. Eventually came up
    with the triple valve. It allowed a buildup of
    pressure at the local car. You could release that
    pressure very quickly versus waiting for the
    pressure to come down
    the line from the engine. Fast response was what the
    triple valve was all about. Voiceover: The master
    car builders accepted the new Westinghouse air brake. The train, fitted with
    new quick action brakes, was sent on tour and
    a series of trials were made in a dozen cities. Sales exploded. But Westinghouse
    didn’t stop there. Edward Reis: George Westinghouse
    also had an invention called the friction draft gear, which allowed the trains, when they were starting
    out and stopping, to cushion the impact
    between the cars. This was considered to
    be a major improvement in the railroad industry. In fact, the president
    of the Pennsylvania
    Railroad at the time was quoted that the friction
    draft gear by Westinghouse was every bit as important
    as the Westinghouse air brake to the railroad industry. It basically still used
    to this very day the
    friction draft gear. Quentin Skrabec: In the
    1880s they finally enacted, late 1880s, they finally
    enacted several laws that required the
    use of the air brake. That certainly was a big
    boom for George Westinghouse and a success story for him. (train sounds) Voiceover: The booming
    industrial companies in the United States
    purchased these inventions as fast as he
    could produce them, yet George Westinghouse,
    Jr. remained a humble man. It was said that
    progress was always a great deal more interesting
    to him than profit. In fact, he would have said
    that progress is profit. Edward Reis: Some
    railroads were very slow in adopting the air brake. The New York Central,
    under Commodore Vanderbilt, one of the wealthiest men
    in the world at the time, was very slow in adopting
    the Westinghouse air brakes. In fact, the story goes
    that George Westinghouse was talking to a superintendent
    at New York Central one time about the air
    brakes, and he said, “George, as long as I’m
    living there’ll never “be Westinghouse air brakes
    on the New York Central.” Evidently, the story goes,
    George Westinghouse said to him, “Well, I’m a lot
    younger than you. “I guess I’ll just
    have to outlive you.” Now on the other hand, the New
    York Central had a great wreck and there were many people
    killed in that particular wreck. At that point in time, Commodore
    Vanderbilt backed down, got a hold of the
    Westinghouse Air Brake Company to install Westinghouse air
    brakes on the New York Central. Voiceover: A railroad
    superintendent once said, “If the men who worked
    the railroads ever
    chose a patron saint, “it would be Saint George in
    honor of George Westinghouse.” Westinghouse was not
    all work and no play. It was said that he
    loved the theater, music,
    and a good clean joke, although he claimed that solving
    mechanical problems relaxed him. When not working, he
    spent most of his time with his biggest supporter
    and closest friend, his wife, Marguerite. At the time of his very
    first patents in 1867, even before the air brake, George Westinghouse, Jr. met
    Marguerite Erskine Walker by chance on a railroad train. Edward Reis: George Westinghouse
    met his wife, Marguerite, on a train ride. He was on the Hudson
    River Railroad heading
    toward Schenectady. He was not a smoker, so he passed up some available
    seats in a smoking car and went on back to another car. There was an available
    seat beside a very
    attractive young woman. He struck up a
    conversation with her. He really liked this young lady. Just before he deboarded, since
    he was getting off before her, he wrote down the names
    and addresses of three
    friends of his family so that Marguerite could
    write to those folks so they could attest
    to the good character of George Westinghouse. When he returned home,
    he immediately went
    to the local minister and friend of the family
    and had him write a letter to Marguerite, again attesting
    to the good character of George Westinghouse. Today, we’ve kind of gotten
    away from that practice. He went home that night and
    told his mother and father that he had met the
    young lady that day that
    he was going to marry. Within a year, he and
    Marguerite were married and they had a very long
    and fruitful marriage. He always considered Marguerite
    to be his very best supporter. She supported his
    ideas no matter how
    wild they really were. Voiceover: The two
    honeymooned at Niagara Falls, a location that would prove
    to be an important one later in the career
    of Mr. Westinghouse. They had a happy relationship. It was said when they
    were on the same continent they talked every single
    day over the telephone, and when separated by
    the Atlantic Ocean, would send a daily
    cable message. It seems amazing that at
    first George could not afford to move Marguerite
    to Pittsburgh. In the early days
    of the air brake, before it really took off, she lived in Schenectady
    with his parents. When the money began to flow, he bought her a
    home in the affluent Homewood district of
    Pittsburgh in 1871. They added on to the
    old house, which became
    a luxurious dwelling, and dubbed it Solitude. A substantial lawn and
    gardens would grow, along with their
    substantial fortune. Edward Reis: The Westinghouses
    only had one child, George Westinghouse, III. He was born 16 years
    after they were married. When they were married,
    George Westinghouse was 20. His wife, Marguerite, was 24, which means then that when
    she had their only child she was 40 years old. Voiceover: As George
    Westinghouse, III grew up, he spent a lot of time
    at their summer home near
    Lenox, Massachusetts. It became a favorite
    of Mrs. Westinghouse. In the days before
    energy conservation, it boasted 1,500 light bulbs and the world’s first
    lighted tennis court. The massive estate even
    had the world’s first private alternating
    current power plant to supply the electricity. Solitude was
    equally interesting. When looking at pictures of it, one might notice an object
    that seems out of place with an opulent
    estate and gardens; a natural gas derrick. Westinghouse decided to prospect
    for gas in his own backyard. When Marguerite heard about
    this, she was thrilled. It was recorded that
    she said something like, “George, you travel so
    much it would be nice “to have you working
    at home for a while.” Edward Reis: In those days
    when they drilled a well, as they drilled the
    dirt and rock out, they’d strike a match to it. If it flamed up, they said
    they had a vein of gas. At 300 foot they told him
    they had a small vein of gas. At 900 feet they told him they
    had another small vein of gas. He told them to keep drilling. At 1,500 feet they hit
    a huge vein of gas. They immediately threw a
    match and set it afire. It was over 100 feet
    high, the flame. The roar could be
    heard for blocks. For a few days it became the
    great event in Pittsburgh. People came from everywhere. They came by street railway, they came by horse and buggy, they walked; throngs of
    people in the neighborhood to see this great fire that
    lit the sky for miles around. He was absolutely delighted, but his neighbors were not. Initially, neighbors like Henry
    Heinz and Henry Clay Frick were a bit upset by this. However, George shared
    his natural gas with them and with friends
    around the block. Westinghouse would always prove
    to be an interesting neighbor, at one point having 4
    gas wells at Solitude, an alternating
    current power plant, and a set of tracks to test
    street railway equipment. As Marguerite had predicted,
    George spent time at home with his new toys and
    his evenings at the well, designing new drilling tools and
    improvements in gas prospecting. In 1884, he went into
    the natural gas business. Edward Reis: From all
    this gas that he had, he decided he was going to
    start a natural gas company. All his existing charters
    wouldn’t allow him
    to start a utility, so he looked around and
    found an existing charter in the city of Philadelphia
    that would allow someone
    to start a utility. However, that charter
    was not being used at the
    time, so he acquired it. He brought that
    charter to Pittsburgh and started his
    natural gas company. He never, for whatever
    reason, changed the name on that charter, and ironically,
    the name of that company was the Philadelphia Company. He had this very successful
    company in Pittsburgh named the Philadelphia Company. Later his street railway
    company was added to the Philadelphia Company. When that company was
    broken up by the federal
    antitrust in 1951, it became Pittsburgh Railways, the largest streetcar company
    in the city at the time, and it also became Equitable
    Gas and Duquesne Light, both of those companies
    existing to this very day. Voiceover: Two years after
    he drilled his first well, Westinghouse had over 30 patents
    in the area of natural gas. Quentin Skrabec: He had
    seen in his trips to England the use of, what they had coal
    gas over there, not natural gas, but they were using coal gas
    to run a lot of their industry. He saw it as a cleaner,
    more efficient fuel. Industries adapted to the
    natural gas right away. It was cheaper, first of all. A lot of steel
    companies went to it. Then, the engineer that he was, and what he had learned from
    compressed air in air brakes was where he learned
    how to transmit gas. Voiceover: Natural gas was
    dangerous in the early days. Lines frequently broke and asphyxiation from gas leaks
    and explosions were common. It’s usage was not even metered. Westinghouse worked feverishly
    to solve these problems and developed escape
    pipes, meters, and the automatic
    cutoff regulator. (old time music) By the the 1880s and
    ’90s, George Westinghouse had founded dozens of companies. Even with those
    constant distractions, under his leadership the growth of the Westinghouse
    Air Brake Company moved full speed ahead. They quickly outgrew their
    original works in Pittsburgh and moved across the river
    to a larger building. Westinghouse could see
    that the need for trains
    was growing rapidly as the western states
    exploded in population. He knew that a much larger
    plant would be needed to keep up with the
    increasing demand. In 1889, the air brake works
    were moved to a massive site about 14 miles east
    of Pittsburgh in the
    Turtle Creek Valley. A building plan was made
    having in mind topography, water supply, and the
    disposal of sewage. Streets, homes, and a community
    were built around the new shops and the town of
    Wilmerding was created. In that day and age,
    many industrial companies kept their workers in barracks
    and cheap monotonous row houses, but Westinghouse Air
    Brake built good homes with gas, water,
    electricity, and baths. Many of them even had
    lawns and gardens. They went on to establish
    lawn and garden contests, and the little town
    became a place of taste in an otherwise dreary
    industrial region. (old time music) (train whistle) A trip through the
    Westinghouse valley in 1904 gives an up-close look at the
    air brake works and housing. (old time music) George Westinghouse
    always thought of safety and
    sanitation in his shops. They were well
    ventilated with the best heating and lighting
    available at the time. A century old blueprint
    shows the elaborate sprinkler systems
    which were installed
    at the air brake works, which was very uncommon
    and expensive at that time. A writer said that, “As one
    walks about the factory, “he often thinks
    that the men at work “are a good deal better off than
    they are in their own homes.” Included in the plant was
    a small emergency hospital with an operating
    room and pharmacy, complete with a
    surgeon and nurse. Both sick and accident
    benefits were paid to workers years before it was a
    common practice to do so. The cheapest way to take
    care of factory injuries was, of course, to prevent them. At his plants, serious
    accidents were rare. George Westinghouse felt
    that tired, miserable workers were not as safe and efficient
    as well-rested, happy ones. In the days of
    demanding physical labor in the sweltering heat and
    discomfort of factory shops, George Westinghouse
    invented the precursor to the modern-day weekend. Edward Reis: As a young
    man, George Westinghouse was working on a Saturday
    one time, and he was
    quoted as having said, “If I ever own my own company, “I’m going to give my workers
    a half holiday on Saturday.” Later in life, at the
    Westinghouse Air Brake Company, he was the first major
    employer in the country to grant his workers a
    half holiday on Saturday. This was a precedent that Henry
    Clay Frick and Andrew Carnegie were not at all happy
    that George Westinghouse had set this precedent of giving
    his workers a half holiday. He always treated
    his workers well. We know that the homes
    that Westinghouse built for the Westinghouse
    Air Brake people in Wilmerding, Pennsylvania
    and the homes he built for the East Pittsburgh works of
    Westinghouse Electric Company, those homes were rented
    or sold to the employees. If the employees chose
    to acquire the home, they could do it on
    a monthly deduction. We know that George Westinghouse
    had those homes insured so if something
    happened to the worker, his family would
    be taken care of, his wife and children would
    have a home that was paid off. That, again, is the only
    example that I could locate of someone, one of the great
    business owners at that time, doing something like
    that for his workers. (old time music) Voiceover: And his
    workers loved him. Some of the quotes from
    Westinghouse Air Brake employees give the closest look
    at George Westinghouse available to us today. One letter reads, “George
    Westinghouse stood
    well over 6 feet tall. “When he raised his
    great right hand, “palms towards you and
    fingers spread a little, “and said in a gentle voice
    with a hint of a smile, “‘But you don’t understand,’
    it was quite plain “to the dullest mind that
    the sooner he understood “the better for him.” His manner was the
    same with princes as
    it was with mechanics. It hurt him to hurt the
    feelings of another. (old time music) Westinghouse was known as
    having an amazing memory and it was said by company men, “Do not tell the
    Old Man anything “you do not wish him to
    remember 10 years from now.” It was written that
    Mr. Westinghouse was an
    incorrigible optimist. He experimented on
    a full-size scale and backed the faith that
    was in him to the limit. He never looked back, was never discouraged, and never had any regrets
    over past failures. Another said, “George
    Westinghouse is the embodiment “of imagination in
    britches, walking about
    the face of the earth “doing things that change
    society just as birds sing.” It was unheard of at the time
    for men of Westinghouse’s social standing to have
    anything to do with the
    common factory worker. But the former Cavalry private
    didn’t see it that way. In 1894, the Civil War
    veterans group of the north, called the Grand
    Army of the Republic, would hold their 28th national
    encampment in Pittsburgh. Edward Reis: George Westinhouse,
    upon finding that out, went to the committee and
    said, “Listen, I just finished “two big factory
    buildings at my new “East Pittsburgh works of
    Westinghouse Electric Company “and they’re completely done but
    no equipment has been moved in. “What I’d like you to
    do is bring out workers “and convert one of
    those factory buildings
    to a great dining hall. “I’d like it to be carpeted. “I’d like a great
    staircase to be built “and a stage to be
    built, all carpeted. “I’d like tables with linen
    tablecloths and napkins. “I would like to
    host one night during “Grand Army Week,”
    as it was called, “for the Civil War veterans from
    the Grand Army of the Republic.” He also told them,
    “And by the way, “you wouldn’t have to use any
    of your committee’s money. “You could send
    me all the bills. “I’d be willing
    to pay for that.” 6,500 Civil War veterans
    came to that great dinner at East Pittsburgh that evening. (exciting opening movie music) Voiceover: Many people
    know the name Westinghouse because they grew up in a house
    full of Westinghouse appliances like roasters, dishwashers,
    and refrigerators. Innovative industrial
    products and home appliances from the Westinghouse Electric
    and Manufacturing Company made Westingouse
    a household name. But well before their
    first dishwasher would ever roll off the assembly
    line, George Westinghouse had to first win the
    battle of the currents
    again Thomas Edison. (old time music) Thomas Alva Edison
    was born in 1847. He was a forceful,
    egotistic, eccentric creator who had difficulty
    working with others, all direct contrast
    to George Westinghouse who was a military
    trained engineer. Edison got his start
    in telegraphy and
    invented a stock ticker and other industrial
    products early in his career. Around the same time
    that Westinghouse was
    perfecting the air brake, Thomas Edison invented
    the phonograph. Whereas the air brake
    was largely ignored
    by the national press, the phonograph was hailed as the
    greatest invention of all time. The phonograph was fun. The phonograph made music. The phonograph was unlike
    anything 19th century people had seen before and the
    population was in awe. Edison became famous and
    the public loved him. And he loved that
    the public loved him. He was regarded as the most
    famous American in the world. He patented the electric
    distribution system, and soon after activated
    the Pearl Street electric
    generating station which provided direct current
    power to some streetlights and a couple dozen
    customers in Manhattan. In the early 1880s,
    America’s growing industries were crying for
    more and more power that was less costly
    and cumbersome than
    steam-generated power. The development of
    electricity was like the rapid development
    of the automobile,
    computers, or the internet. Everyone could see that
    it was useful and amazing, but nobody knew quite
    how to utilize it or what the standards would be. It could be said that Thomas
    Edison created the idea of the centrally
    located power station. The only problem was that
    the direct current power he was using did not
    transmit very far. Jim Sutherland: You could
    only transmit direct current a few thousand yards from a
    Edison generating station. William Terbo: It was quite
    obvious to George Westinghouse that direct current was never
    going to be a national model. It’s just a local model. Voiceover: That meant that
    in order to power a city, he would need power
    stations every mile or so that were small in practically
    in their customers’ back yards. These facts did not stop
    Edison from promoting DC power with the theatrics and
    flare that he was known for. (smashing sound) Edison lived in New York City,
    was politically connected, and loved to put on a good show. He leveraged his fame,
    his name, and his face to his advantage in business. Direct current
    power became popular and Thomas Edison became
    a leader in the field. Quentin Skrabec:
    Edison had the market and built the first
    power station in New York for transmission of lighting. J. P. Morgan actually had
    the first house that was lit. Voiceover: In contrast,
    George Westinghouse did not even like
    to be photographed. Yet the limitations of DC
    power were very clear to him. He felt that electric power
    should be generated in one place and be transmitted
    to users far away. In 1885, George Westinghouse
    became interested in the inventions of European
    inventors Gaulard and Gibbs, relating to the use of single
    phase alternating currents and distribution
    with transformers. Jim Sutherland: George
    Westinghouse was the first to recognize that you could use
    a transformer in a large system. With alternating current,
    you can transform the voltage up to a high voltage low current and send it hundreds
    and thousands of miles
    at the high voltage, then step it back down to the
    low voltage where you use it. It was the key to
    the entire system. Voiceover: He purchased the
    American rights to their patent and threw himself into
    the study and design of a
    new kind of transformer. It was said that he
    recalled his experiences in the gas industry
    with the reducing valve that allowed high
    pressure gas from the well to be transported
    over a great distance and then delivered at low
    pressure at the point of use. The transformer was his
    reducing valve for electricity. Quentin Skrabec: That’s
    exactly what he was doing with gas transmission. Voltage is pressure. It’s the exact same
    term in electricity as it is in hydraulics
    and gas fluid. He could step up the voltage to
    transmit it at a faster speed and then when he got
    to the houses he could
    step it back down again. Voiceover: Those who watched
    him work were stunned at his capacity to do
    extraordinary things quickly. Through long evenings he would
    work in his private railroad car and in his house, designing,
    sketching, and dictating. When at home, he often
    worked on his billiard table. It was said he
    never had a pencil, but just borrowed one
    from the nearest man. He never returned
    any of the pencils and nobody knows what
    happened to them. One writer said that his
    trail through the world was blazed with
    other men’s pencils. Jim Sutherland: He had a unique
    ability to look at prolems and come up with
    solutions of his own, but he was also willing to take
    other ideas from other people. If he had to buy ides
    or buy patents, he did. Voiceover: In a
    miraculous three weeks, Mr. Westinghouse and
    his staff redesigned the Gaulard and
    Gibbs transformer. Male: Gaulard and Gibbs
    certainly had the idea correct. It was the mechanical
    part of actually manufacturing and building
    these transformers that
    they came up short. It was a rather crude device
    when Westinghouse acquired it. Voiceover: The Westinghouse
    Electric Company was
    started on March 8, 1886 in the Garrison Alley
    works in Pittsburgh. Male: The Garrison
    Alley operation was really a research operation,
    a developmental operation. He was working on a
    number of projects there, including the transformer. Male: He was interested in
    developing ideas into products, and products into companies, and companies
    providing employment. Voiceover: In the beginning,
    Westinghouse Electric
    didn’t have it easy. Along with research into
    alternating current, it was about that
    time that Westinghouse began to seriously
    compete with Edison in the incandescent
    lamp business, with a full plant
    making single pin lamps, which were a slightly
    different design than the
    Edison screw-in bulbs. (cartoonish music) This was the beginning of
    the battle of the currents. The fierce competition between
    Westinghouse and Edison for domination in the
    electrical field would not
    end for another decade. Interestingly, it
    resulted in one of the
    earliest known format wars between which standard
    of light bulb and socket would be the dominant one. Customers who chose to go with
    Westinghouse single pin sockets could buy this clever adapter
    to use Edison’s screw-in bulbs. A few commercial
    alternating current plants were put into operation
    over the next few months but there were still problems. Even though AC power could
    be generated in large bulk and transmitted many miles
    away to light cities, there was still no
    practical AC motor, and thus no practical
    way to power machines
    with alternating current. (slow old time music) Nikola Tesla arrived in
    New York City in 1884 with a head full of ideas and
    barely a cent to his name. He was a brilliant
    Serbian-born inventor who spoke a dozen languages. William Terbo: He came to the
    United States at the age of 28 with a letter from the director
    of the Edison Company in Paris that was directed to
    Thomas Edison saying “I know of only two
    great geniuses in the
    electrical business. “You are one and the
    gentleman holding this
    letter is the other one.” Voiceover: Thomas Edison
    hired him and put him to work redesigning DC generators. The famous story is that
    Edison offered to pay him an outrageous sum of
    $50,000 for his work. William Terbo: Telsa came
    to him and said okay, now where is my $50,000? Supposedly Thomas Edison
    said, “Oh, my dear Nikola, “you don’t understand the
    American sense of humor.” It was the straw that
    broke Tesla’s back and almost immediately
    after that he left Edison. Voiceover: The brilliant
    inventor ended up digging ditches for a while,
    literally, to support himself while he was still creating. In 1887, he constructed
    the initial brushless alternating current
    induction motor. A year later, he saw
    patents issued to him on his motor and on
    the associated method of transmitting power
    by polyphase currents. William Terbo: When George
    Westinghouse heard about that, it was like a light went on, an electric light went
    on perhaps you might say. This was the possibility
    where he could see that technology overtaking
    everything else in the world, and he was right. Voiceover: Tesla’s
    ideas would enable steam or hydro-powered generators
    to generate polyphase currents that power induction motors
    in machines in factories. William Terbo: The group
    of patents that Tesla had, which essentially
    identified the entire path from beginning to end, from the motor to use
    alternating current to the method of
    distributing the current and everything in between. It was the answer
    to the question that
    George Westinghouse had. Tesla had the answer. Voiceover: Unlike Edison who
    was solely behind DC power, he listened to Tesla. He acquired the rights to
    Tesla’s induction motor
    and polyphase patents and Nikola Tesla came
    to Pittsburgh to work for the Westinghouse
    Electric Company. Quentin Skrabec: He
    was also able to back
    off, a guy like Tesla, who had tremendous intelligence, and Westinghouse
    realized, probably more
    intelligent than him, understood, certainly, the
    sophistication of AC current, which is not an easy thing. Today we describe it in
    differential equations; it’s a nightmare even
    for young engineers today trying to learn that. Voiceover: Tesla’s
    inventions combined Westinghouse’s
    manufacturing skills and his ability to assemble
    parts of a whole system brought practical alternating
    current power to existence. One writer said, “The invention
    of alternating current motors “and the system
    for operating them “was one of the greatest
    advances ever made “in the industrial
    application of electricity.” Not everyone agreed. There was serious
    opposition to AC power. (storm sounds) Assertions were made that
    the alternating current
    system was dangerous and that its use should not
    be permitted commercially. Numerous articles appeared
    throughout the country designed to prejudice public
    opinion against the system. (wind) One bitter article
    from a scientist read, “There is no plea which
    will justify the use of
    high alternating current “either in a scientific
    or commercial sense, “and my personal desire would be “to prohibit entirely the
    use of alternating current.” If anything was needed
    to urge Westinghouse to greater effort, this
    antagonism served the purpose. Edward Reis: If we
    look at a comparison of Thomas Edison and
    George Westinghouse, we find a number of
    major differeneces. They had quite a difference
    in personalities. An example, during the
    great battle of the currents is Thomas Edison backed
    the electric chair, not as a humane way to
    eliminate convicted criminals, but as a way to get a
    competitive advantage over his competitor,
    George Westinghouse’s
    alternating current. Thomas Edison was trying
    to discredit Westinghouse’s
    alternating current. He had a campaign to make
    it look much more dangerous than it really was,
    although it was dangerous, and obviously this very day
    we know it could kill people. But George Westinghouse
    believed electricity was there to benefit mankind and
    should not be started off by executing
    condemned criminals. Thomas Edison pushed that
    in the state of New York and recommended the electric
    chair as a humane way to execute condemned
    criminals, and by the way, said you’d have to
    use Westinghouse’s
    alternating current; direct current just
    wouldn’t do it. Now that wasn’t exactly
    true but that’s the
    position that he pushed. George Westinghouse was
    appalled that Thomas Edison would lower himself to
    that level of competition. When the electric chair
    was first proposed, there was no term
    “electrocution” in
    existence at the time. Thomas Edison even
    lowered himself to the
    point where he suggested that the term to be used would
    be called “Westinghoused,” so you Westinghoused
    a condemned criminal, later to be called electrocute
    a condemned criminal. He’d lowered himself pretty low at the point of how he
    was willing to compete. Voiceover: Edison’s
    connections with the media and politicians worked
    overtime for him, spinning the evils of
    alternating current power. It was said that Thomas
    Edison went so far as to work with a man who electrocuted
    dogs and cats on stage to give AC power a bad name. Moving footage
    exists of an elephant being electrocuted
    in front of a crowd. Although it is claimed
    to be Edison’s work, the film clip is generally
    accepted not to be part of the battle of the
    currents; however, it gives an idea of the gruesome
    inhumane acts that those men did in order to prove their
    point about the dangers
    of alternating current. Jim Sutherland: Westinghouse
    came in with a system of alternating current
    that immediately made the Edison direct current
    equipment obsolete. Since Edison had provided
    direct current equipment to a lot of small
    municipal power companies
    and light companies, they didn’t have money, they
    didn’t have any capital, so he had taken paper. He owned large shares in
    those municipal companies. He knew that if
    Westinghouse was successful in replacing all of his
    direct current equipment
    that was installed, he would be financially hurt. That’s why he was so anxious
    to do everything he could to make George Westinghouse’s
    alternating current
    system a bad word. (quiet chords) Voiceover: After years
    of costly research, Westinghouse’s big chance
    to show the complex polyphase system and
    AC power in action would come during the 1893
    World’s Fair in Chicago. But Thomas Edison would
    not make it easy for them. (crowd applause and cheers) The 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, known as the
    Columbian Exposition, was set to commemorate
    the 400th anniversary of Columbus discovering
    the New World. It was to be the
    biggest, grandest, most spectacular
    World’s Fair ever. It would be quite the party, and proved to be an
    interesting event in the life of
    George Westinghouse. It would also be ground zero
    for the battle of the currents. (crowd noises) On May 23, 1892, as
    the immense fairgrounds were being constructed on
    the shore of Lake Michigan, the Westinghouse
    Electric Company won the lighting contract
    for the World’s Fair. David Cope: You have to remember
    how people lived at the time. They lived in darkness. We don’t live in
    darkness at all. Even if you go outside
    at night, there’s light. Whoever wins this bid,
    if it’s going to Edison or if it’s going
    to be Westinghouse, it’s going to mean a great deal because people are going
    to come to the Fair, they’re going to
    see light at night. They’re going to be
    able to extend the day. Voiceover: The story is
    that the exposition company saved about a half a
    million dollars by going with Westinghouse Electric
    over General Electric. This loss to Westinghouse
    was unexpected. Thomas Edison had counted on
    his name and strong patents to guarantee the contract
    and planned to make
    a profit at the Fair. Westinghouse, on the other
    hand, would make a risky move by going into it expecting
    to lose money in order
    to gain promotion, a gamble that could
    sink the entire company because of the time and
    money that went into the
    polyphase development, leaving the Westinghouse
    Electric Company in a weakened state to survive
    the financial crisis of 1893. Quentin Skrabec: Edison
    at the time represented
    General Electric, but he had already
    been bought out. That battle was a vicious one. Westinghouse finally
    undercut and won it. Voiceover: George
    Westinghouse told his managers the work must be done
    right regardless of cost. He said that any loss could
    be charged to advertising, and that was the main objective. David Cope: Hundreds
    of thousands of people came at night just
    to see the lighting. What they do is they go
    back and they talk about it. Voiceover: The World’s Fair
    was a massive undertaking, but Westinghouse had the
    courage of his conviction that his men could do it. He closed the contract
    before even consulting them. Edison was well known
    for challenging people on patent infringement,
    and even though Westinghouse had won the
    World’s Fair contract, they were dangerously
    close to a patent dispute and a massive lawsuit. The Westinghouse
    alternating current system was going to power the
    lights of the Fair, but the light bulbs that
    were going to be used were too similar to a
    patent owned by Edison, the one piece
    incandescent light bulb. Some six months
    before the opening, with all of the Westinghouse
    work already installed, the patent on the Edison
    incandescent lamp was sustained and Westinghouse was not
    permitted to use the light bulbs that he had planned to use. George Westinghouse had a clever
    way around this problem, though. Years earlier, he
    had purchased rights to the Sawyer-Man lamp patent and chose to use
    those lamps instead. Thus, originated
    the famous two-piece
    Westinghouse stopper lamp, so called because a
    piece of ground glass held an iron filament fitted
    into the bulb like a cork. Edward Reis: Good
    business sense said he better have a backup
    and that turned out to be the two-piece all glass
    Westinghouse stopper lamp that was upheld in the court
    as an independent patent. Perhaps wasn’t as good
    an incandescent lamp as the Edison lamp at the
    time, but it was good enough to successfully illuminate
    the great Chicago
    World’s Fair in 1893. Voiceover: Westinghouse
    rushed through extensive new production facilities
    to finish the bulbs the moment the Fair
    was scheduled to open. Edward Reis: The Westinghouse
    Company at that time manufactured 250,000
    two-piece all glass Westinghouse stopper lamps. It was estimated at the
    time that it was 25% of all the incandescent lamps
    made up to that point in time anywhere in the world. Voiceover: It was a
    quick and dirty job, and the opening of the
    Fair on May 1, 1893 was not delayed an hour. In his tradition of surrounding
    himself with smart people, Westinghouse was well served by his patent lawyers
    and engineers. The World’s Fair lamps
    did not last long and had to be changed often, but Fair visitors never
    knew this at the time. All they saw was the
    beautiful lighting, and the name Westinghouse. The Fair was a huge success, attracting nearly 28 million
    visitors in its six month run. The Westinghouse exhibits
    had prime real estate. Just off the court of
    honor sat the massive
    electricity building, which was one of the
    most popular attractions. The Westinghouse Electric
    and Manufacturing Company occupied a huge
    chunk of floor space right alongside their
    rival, General Electric. In machinery hall, the
    Westinghouse Electric Company showed off their complete
    polyphase system. The generating plant for
    the World’s Fair lighting was the largest alternating
    current central station then in existence. To further amaze visitors, the complex switchboard used
    to control all of the machines required only one operator. George Westinghouse attended
    the Fair that summer, but left all the
    planning and construction of the exhibits to his managers. Mr. E. E. Keller, the
    Westinghouse manager of the World’s Fair
    contract, said, “Like most of his
    helpers, I felt ready “to march through fire for
    him, and was amply repaid. “Such was the man,
    Westinghouse.” In the end, they even
    turned a profit of $16,000, not including advertising. Jim Sutherland: I’d
    like to have been there. That would have been
    a great experience to
    walk through that place. But I understand no one person
    could see the entire Fair during the summer, there
    was so much to see. Voiceover: Many believe that
    the greatest single thing to come out of the
    Columbian Exposition was not Cracker Jack
    or the Ferris Wheel, but that it finally settled
    the AC versus DC battle of the currents
    once and for all. The World’s Fair
    helped Westinghouse win one of the most important
    contracts in history. (music and rushing water) The hope of harnessing
    the tremendous power of Niagara Falls
    had been a dream of scientists and
    engineers for decades. Top minds like Lord Kelvin and
    Thomas Edison were involved, but by the fall of 1893,
    the project remained
    stuck in the mud suffering from the bitter
    controversy over whether alternating current or direct
    current should be used. It was the impressive
    display of AC power at the World’s Fair
    that gave Westinghouse
    just the edge he needed, and even skeptics
    like Lord Kelvin, who was once on the
    DC side, gave in. Man: People came into the Fair
    remembering the name Edison. They came away
    thinking Westinghouse. William Terbo: It gave
    the publicity that
    George Westinghouse needed to really put in
    position his ultimate goal, which is also Tesla’s
    ultimate goal from childhood, to put the power system
    into Niagara Falls. Voiceover: Now all the
    power could be generated in one spot, and
    transmitted many miles away with the help of transformers. On October 24, 1893,
    Westinghouse Electric was awarded the contract
    for three 5,000 horsepower alternating current
    generators for Niagara Falls. The first hydroelectric
    generator unit was
    tested on April 16, 1895. A year later, three
    seconds after midnight on November 16, 1896, Buffalo,
    New York was receiving power from the mighty Niagara
    Cataract for the first time. The battle of the currents
    had been won by Westinghouse. William Terbo: It
    was such an event. Tesla was there and spoke,
    and he spoke at length. I understand from some
    newspaper comments, spoke
    at excessive length. Voiceover: Pieces of
    the original power line from the 1895 test were
    saved to honor the occasion. The Westinghouse
    Electric Company finally started seeing returns on
    their enormous investments into alternating current
    and the polyphase system. Orders began to flood in. The original Niagara Falls
    generators were joined by the addition of seven
    similar units a few years later. Today, newer plants
    and technology continue to harness
    the hydroelectric
    power of Niagara Falls. Edward Reis: Later
    in life Nikola Tesla
    was quoted as saying, “The only man in the world
    that could have pulled off “alternating current
    was George Westinghouse, “for he was the only
    man that would come up
    against Thomas Edison.” Voiceover: Even though
    the battle of the currents may have been over,
    the fierce competition between Westinghouse
    and Edison continued. Edward Reis: It’s well known
    today that Thomas Edison had 1,093 patents
    during his lifetime. History also records
    that George Westinghouse is credited with 361
    patents during his lifetime. But again, understanding
    the differences in
    their personalities has a major impact on how
    many patents each was granted. It is well known
    and well documented that if you were a worker
    that worked on an item that was patented and worked
    for Thomas Edison, the name on that patent
    was Thomas Edison. It’s also well known
    and well documented that if you were a
    worker that worked for George Westinghouse
    at the time and had worked an item
    that was patented, the name on the patent was that
    of the empoloyee or the worker. Benjamin Lamme, for
    example, one of the great
    Westinghouse engineers, perhaps best known
    for having designed the first three 5,000
    horsepower generators that went into Niagara Falls, Benjamin Lamme alone
    had 162 patents during his career
    at Westinghouse, Everyone of them recorded in
    the name of Benjamin Lamme. I always thought if we
    could get all these patents of all the great engineers
    and others that worked
    for Westinghouse, if he had the same
    practice as Edison of putting his name
    on those patents, he’d have well excess,
    also, of 1,000 patents
    during his lifetime. Voiceover: George Westinghouse
    always surrounded himself with the best and the brightest. Man: He had a real knack as
    a manager that Edison didn’t, in that he could bring
    a lot of very creative, very intelligent
    people together, and at least get them to
    work towards a project. These people are hard
    to bring together. They had big egos. He was able to manage that. He was a tremendous manager, something that Edison was not an most inventors were not. (old time big band music) Voiceover: By 1900, George
    Westinghouse had started or was associated with
    nearly 40 companies. By 1910, that number would
    rise close to 60 companies. He was worth many millions of
    dollars several times over, although some joked that
    Marguerite spent it faster than even he could make it. Man: Later in life George
    Westinghouse worked on some other ideas that
    perhaps he’s not as
    well known for today. Westinghouse Electric
    Company actually went into the production of
    full-size Westinghouse alternating current
    electric locomotives in the early part of the 1900s. This came about in part
    because the east coast of the United States, the New
    York City area, for example, considered steam
    locomotives too dirty, and also too unsafe. There had been a great
    wreck in New York when an engineer on
    a steam locomotive failed to see the signals
    because of the smoke
    from the locomotive, so the east coast
    of the United States electrified their railroads. Taking advantage of
    that opportunity, Westinghouse Electric
    manufactured full-size electric alternating
    current locomotives at the East Pittburgh works of
    Westinghouse Electric here in Pennsylvania. Voiceover: On May 16,
    1905, he made history by combining two
    of his passions; transportation and alternating
    current electricity, where his electric
    train was matched against a steam locomotive
    of similar size. As he stands front and center, his smile is no doubt covered
    by his trademark mustache. That day, his electric
    locomotive proved superiority in handling a train
    of 50 steel gondolas, opening up the future of new
    electric railroad innovations for the Westinghouse
    Electric Company. Westinghouse made tremendous
    advances in the areas of railroad signalling
    and interlocking. The Union Switch
    and Signal Company, regarded as one of
    his least glamorous but most important companies, was found in 1881. Quentin Skrabec: A lot of
    people remember the air brake; they don’t remember all the work that Westinghouse did with
    switching and signalling. You had trains on
    the same track. They had to pick up signals. They had to make switches. The tracks had to be manually
    switched a lot of times so the trains wouldn’t collide. Voicover: Signals tell a
    train when to reduce speed, when to stop, and when to start, when to proceed under control, and when to go
    ahead at full speed. Quentin Skrabec: The railroads
    weren’t too interested in it. It was a safety issue, and
    they weren’t really … Just like the brakes, they
    didn’t come on stream with that. Westinghouse sort
    of pushed that. He saw a need. Voiceover: Interlocking
    provided control and operation of
    switches and signals so that they moved
    in certain sequences. It was said that if a
    man were blindfolded and pulled levers at random,
    he could stop traffic, but he could not
    produce a collision. Edward Reis: They were
    using air to switch tracks
    was new at the time. They were also using electric
    current down the railroad tracks so they could tell
    where the trains were without having
    observer in a tower, which had a major impact
    on the ability to move lots of trains through
    heavy traffic areas. Those two items alone
    had a major impact on
    the railroad industry. Voiceover: Another of his
    lesser known inventions was the steam heater, which
    used steam from the locomotive to warm train cars in
    the dead of winter. Edward Reis: Later in
    life, George Westinghouse also worked on a marine
    turbine engine for
    the shipping industry. Quentin Scrabec: What you have
    in steam engines in shipping is steam engines turn
    a shaft very quickly. Reduction gear allowed
    that fast turning to move down to slow
    turning with a lot of torque so it could drive
    through the water. So the reduction gear
    allowed for very efficient steam power of ships. (old movie music) Voiceover: George
    Westinghouse was involved with industries related to
    the newest mechanical marvel of the 20th century:
    the automobile. He was influenced by
    a device a chauffeur in Lenox used to reduce
    road shocks in his car. Westinghouse noticed
    that it needs changing
    to make it successful, and a year later
    saw the first set of Westinghouse air
    springs installed on
    one of his vehicles. It was recorded that he said, “They make a wonderful
    difference in the riding
    qualities of the car.” Edward Reis: He came up
    with the idea of using air for shock absorbers on a car. So, for example, he
    owned automobiles and obviously the roads
    were kind of rough and the ride was kind of rough, so he, in effect, invented
    the shock absorber
    as we know it today. Voiceover: George Westinghouse
    was always working for ideals. He was always trying to
    produce a perfect product and commercial success
    was bound to follow, and so was the prosperity
    of his employees. But not everything that
    he touched turned to gold. Edward Reis: Like
    all great inventors, George Westinghouse
    did have some failures. I wouldn’t necessarily say
    they were major failures. His rotary steam engine,
    his very first patent, for example, he was never able
    to make it a commercial success, and yet that idea
    of a rotating engine stayed with him
    throughout his lifetime. He also worked for many, many
    years on a steam turbine, and eventually acquired
    the Parson steam turbine
    patents from England because it was a better
    steam turbine than the one
    he had been working on. Was he successful with
    the development of
    his own steam turbine? The answer is no. But long term, all the
    experience that he gained from having worked on his own
    Westinghouse steam turbine, they reduced the size
    of that engine by 2/3 and keeping the
    same power output. Quentin Skrabec: Also, you
    could set them up anywhere. You didn’t need a Niagara
    Falls in your backyard. This allowed for electrical
    generation across the country. This is where Westinghouse
    was brilliant. He could get in
    there on something that somebody else
    had started like that, and really bring it
    into commercialization. Edward Reis: They made
    major improvements to the Parsons steam turbine
    even though it was basically a very good design
    to begin with. (slow, sad piano music) Voiceover: George
    Westinghouse showed faith in his enterprises by investing
    his own money in them. Many of his new businesses
    were financed at the beginning by borrowing from his
    seasoned companies, which had already
    become successful, like Westinghouse Air Brake. Several times he imperiled
    his entire fortune and his credit by investing
    practically everything into his start-up companies
    when others lacked faith. This meant he had more at risk, but the payout was
    higher if they succeeded. The risks of this
    method of finance culminated in the
    disaster of 1907, which came to be the
    tragedy of his life. The Westinghouse enterprises
    had spread all over the world and their requirements for
    working capital were immense. When the widespread money
    crisis of 1907 arrived, his loans were called. Quentin Skrabec: Because he
    was fascinated in new projects, he borrowed a lot of
    money at the time, which was not his usual stop. He was sort of anti-banking. Not sort of; he was. He didn’t like to borrow money. He liked to generate investment
    out of his own profits. He had a dislike for
    bankers and that would
    hurt him in the long run. But in the case of a lot
    of electrical projects like the Niagara Fall
    generating plant at the time, he was overextended in
    his electrical company, no question about it. J. P. Morgan up in New
    York had wanted to bring Westinghouse in to
    an electrical trust with at the time
    General Electric. Westinghouse disliked
    trusts and refused. That put him at
    odds with Morgan. Edward Reis: The bankers
    were very tough individuals. They had taken Edison
    Electric Company away from Thomas Edison in 1888. He was not happy about
    that, by the way. There was a downturn
    in the economy, a depression, if you would,
    here in this country. George Westinghouse had just
    invested a huge amount of money in building the East
    Pittsburgh works of Westinghouse
    Electric Company. He had quite a number
    of outstanding loans. Loans were callable
    in those days. If he were here
    today, he’d tell you, he believed the bankers
    used that as a reason to force him out of
    control of the Westinghouse
    Electric Company, which they did. Quentin Skrabec:
    Newspapers, the Pittsburgh
    newspapers in particular, blamed it on Westinghouse,
    his poor management. So on top of everything
    else, he’s getting headlines that he’s a poor manager. Now Morgan didn’t take
    over Westinghouse. There were other bankers. It was really a
    crushing blow to him. Voiceover: It was written
    that this was the most considerable mercantile failure
    that America has ever witnessed. Control of the Westinghouse
    Electric Company passed
    out of his hands. Ironically, his name remained
    as their greatest asset. The writer of his biography said that as he was riding
    with him one night, when passing the great
    works at East Pittsburgh, George turned his face
    towards the bleak hills on the other side of the way with an expression so pathetic
    as to break one’s heart. Quentin Skrabec: He didn’t have
    enough cash to make the payment. It was a temporary situation. It just wouldn’t happen today
    for a big company like that. They would be able to get
    money on the open market. But because Morgan
    basically controlled the
    open market in those days, even for the government
    with no Federal Reserve, he could make that decision and
    block that type of cash inflow that Westinghouse would
    have easily gotten today. (soft piano music) That electrical
    company was the company he loved the most at the time. It was where he was doing
    all his progressive projects, all his scientific research. The air brake company,
    which he retained, was pretty much steady business, so he went after another
    group of inventions in a lot of different
    ways that he could utilize the resources and the money
    of his air brake company. Voiceover: The short
    years of his life that
    remained after the tragedy were filled with the
    same unceasing activity. A friend asked him if he would
    slow down, and he replied, “No, I do not feel that it would
    be right for me to stop now. “I feel that I have been
    given certain powers to create “and develop enterprises
    in which other men “can find useful and
    profitable employment, “and so long as I am able, “it is my duty to continue
    to exercise those powers.” Lifelong, he was temperate
    in everything but his work. In an era where everyone smoked, George Westinghouse did not. He rarely drank, and he
    never used profanity. One writer said of him
    that, “While Westinghouse’s “head was in the stars,
    his substantial feet
    were on the ground.” Late in 1913, his
    health began to fade. What was called an organic
    disease of the heart developed and he retired to his
    home in Lenox to rest. During the illness,
    his quizzical humor and inventive spirit lived on. But his body slowly faded away. On March 12, 1914 he died. It was said that drawings
    for an electric wheelchair that he was designing were
    nearby at the time of his death. Edward Reis: Upon his
    death, his eight pallbearers were all his oldest workers
    from the Westinghouse
    Air Brake Company, including the very first
    worker that he had ever hired. To have that honor
    to be a pallbearer at George Westinghouse’s
    funeral certainly showed the interaction
    he had with average
    workers in his plants. Voiceover: Marguerite
    died a few months later. George and Marguerite
    Westinghouse are buried in Arlington National Cemetery
    beneath a modest headstone. He had requested to be
    buried there in honor of
    his Civil War service. (old time music) The world and the
    Westinghouse companies
    continued on after his death. His brother became the President
    of Westinghouse Air Brake, which continued its
    operations and growth. His son, George III, who
    had passed an apprenticeship at the air brake works,
    carried on the legacy and managed the family finances. Man: Westinghouse Air Brake
    Company changed their name at one point in time to Wabco, but they’re still with us
    today with the name Wabtec. Voiceover: Westinghouse Electric
    and Manufacturing Company remained at the forefront
    of the modern era as the country rapidly
    embraced electric power and purchased new
    machines and appliances to aid in daily life. In 1920, Westinghouse
    made history by airing the first commercial
    radio broadcast in the country. Edward Reis: They started
    radio station KDKA. The first transmittal on
    that radio station was done in November 1920 from
    atop the K buidling at the East Pittsburgh
    works of Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing
    Company as it was
    called at the time. They broadcast the presidential
    election returns that year. That was the very
    successful first commercial radio broadcast in
    the United States. KDKA went on to become a
    very successful company. The very first year
    that they operated, they operated from a
    studio atop the K buidling at the East Pittsburgh works, and they actually had a tent. It was said you could
    hear the train whistles in the background because
    they were in a tent they had not way to
    keep that sound out of the radio programs
    at that point in time. (upbeat movie music) Voiceover: Say,
    what Fair’s this? Female: It’s the
    Westinghouse Freedom Fair. You’ll find it in every
    Westinghouse dealer’s store in every town in
    the United States. So go to the Fair
    at your dealer’s. See these seven great
    Westinghouse appliances and learn how they bring
    you hours of freedom from drudgery every day. For instance, here’s
    freedom from all the nuisance and
    mess of defrosting. (slow big band music) Voiceover: For decades,
    Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company
    appliances were considered to be the leaders in
    their field; well built, well engineered, and
    fashionably styled. Their ads ran everywhere
    and influenced American pop art and pop culture
    for generations. Female: Oh, and that reminds me, when you cook the
    Westinghouse Electric way, you’re free from an
    overheated kitchen, and you’re free, too, from
    all the grease and grime that forms on walls and curtains
    from other kinds of cooking. Voiceover: Westinghouse
    advertisements from the early 20th century showed just how
    happy the American housewife was with a kitchen full
    of Westinghouse
    Electric appliances. No longer did she have to
    slave over a hot oven all day. Now, she could set a
    clock, go out on the
    town with her friends, and come home to dinner
    waiting for her and her family. (big band music) For the fellows out there, tired
    of using a crank in the morning? Westinghouse gave them
    batteries to start their cars. In 1916, Westinghouse
    Electric introduced a revolutionary toaster
    that flipped bread slices, evenly toasting both sides. Things we take for granted
    now, were brand new back then. Electricity was used to
    power fans, curling irons, light bulbs, radios,
    coffee percolators, and a variety of
    Westinghouse Electric wares. In the early days before
    standardized AC wall outlets, these devices screwed right
    in to your light sockets. Smooth curves, sleek
    lines, and chrome accents are hallmark traits of
    their famous 1930s line
    of electric appliances. In the George
    Westinghouse tradition of surrounding himself with
    the best and the brightest, Westinghouse Electric
    filled its ranks with industrial designers
    like Ralph Kruck and created products with
    such style and originality that remain collectors’
    items today. These rare hand-drawn
    sketches by Kruck and rough drafts of
    refrigerators, washing machines, vacuums and other appliances show the amount of
    work and ingenuity that went into their
    manufactured goods for decades. In the 1950s, their
    advertisements and slogans heralded a new era of
    comfort and convenience. Female: And the
    Westinghouse Electric sink frees you forever
    from washing dishes. Here is freedom from
    cooking drudgery. Voiceover: “You can be
    sure if it’s Westinghouse” became a national
    catchphrase in 1954. Famous actors like Ronald
    Reagan, Betty Furness, and Edward G. Robinson appeared
    in Westinghouse advertisements. Cartoon characters like
    Blondie and Dagwood celebrated their electric
    life on board games. Female: And remember, you can
    be sure if it’s Westinghouse. (old movie music) Voiceover: The Westinghouse
    marketing machine
    knew no boundaries and had friends in
    the highest places. In the 1940s the Walt
    Disney Company produced
    a promotional film for the Westinghouse
    Electric Company, showing what advancements
    Westinghouse was making in the area of
    household appliances, electricity, and
    modern comforts. Radio announcer: 1910,
    however, brings into our lives what some people are
    calling a miracle. A new servant, not
    very well trained yet, but willing and
    cheerful: electricity. It lightens our homes, but not yet does it
    lighten our housework. David Cope: This is a
    Westinghouse turkey roaster. My grandmother had this, and she had it back in
    the late ’30s, early ’40s. We have used it every year
    for Thanksgiving since then. Radio announcer: By the
    1930s a new day at last. Our servant, electricity,
    has learned to cool and heat, wash and iron, roast and toast. We get a house, stuff
    it with furnishings, and then try to stuff
    ourselves in last. David Cope: Dependable. It’s what you think
    of Westinghouse. Old line, dependable, usable. You’re talking 60
    years of dependability. Industrial designers
    at the time knew that if they made something
    aesthetically nice, people would by it. Then aesthetically
    they could change it and people would have to
    have the newer models. Radio announcer: Let’s
    look inside that wall. You see, everything
    is going along fine with only 1,950 watts
    plugged into the circuit. The refrigerator, the iron, the coffee maker, and the radio. But, if we plug in
    that extra 1,150 watts, just see what happens when it
    hits and overloads the circuit. (cartoon sounds) Voiceover: Although some
    of their predictions of the future were
    a bit far fetched, much of what we see in the
    film was brought to reality by the Westinghouse Electric
    and Manufacturing Company. (smash) Voiceover: Oh,
    goodness, what was that? Radio announcer: That’s
    what happens when we try to load too many watts
    on poor electric circuit. Female: And here are America’s
    favorite laundry twins, the Westinghouse Laundromat
    and the Clothes Dryer. Radio announcer: This
    is the new Laundromat. It does everything but think. Quentin Skrabec: Industrial
    designers consider the Westinghouse Laundromat and
    the Westinghouse Clothes Dryer as excellent examples of early
    modern industrial design. Actually, Westinghouse
    created the name Laundromat for the washing machine, and they had the twin,
    as they called them, the Westinghouse twins,
    with the Clothes Dryer. Now one year and one year only, this Clothes Dryer
    Westinghouse had, had a built-in unit that
    when the Clothes Dryer finished the drying cycle, it would play the
    song, How Dry I Am. Now we have the unit
    mounted on top here so one can also see the
    device that was used to play that song, How Dry I Am. Radio Announcer: Put in
    the clothes, set the dials, add soap, and it washes,
    rinses and damp dry, ready for the electric dryer, where the clothes are
    tumbled about in heated air until they’re completely
    dry, soft and fluffy. (excited music) Jim Sutherland: I think
    Westinghouse Electric
    had its golden age during and soon after
    the Second World War. Now, of course this was 30 years
    after George Westinghouse died so you can’t credit
    that directly with
    George Westinghouse, but it’s the legacy that
    George Westinghouse, as a man, left that was
    developed into a company that could produce
    the many, many things that they made during the
    Second World War and afterward. They made gun control
    systems for tanks that allowed them to fire
    while the tank was moving. It stabilized the motion
    of the tank platform. They made torpedoes. They made DDT canisters. They made binoculars. They also made helmet liners. They fired chickens
    through windshields to test airplane windshields
    in East Pittsburgh. They had a compressed air cannon and they would fire dead
    chickens at the glass panels that they’d set up
    and see which panels could withstand a
    head-on collision with
    a chicken at 200 mph. (airplanes flying sounds) If you were a pilot,
    it was pretty important to know that your glass
    had been tested! (chuckle) (big band music) Voicover: In true
    Westinghouse tradition, throughout the 20th century many of their most spectacular
    marketing and advertising displays, innovations,
    and spectacles were featured at World’s Fairs. As one newspaper
    headline put it, “Everywhere Around the
    Fairs, it’s Westinghouse.” George had always
    like World’s Fairs because he believed that
    they made the public more conscious of the
    name Westinghouse. David Cope: World’s Fairs
    were used as a promotional. You have to remember, they
    didn’t have advertising, per se, that we have today where people
    could see how things worked. Voiceover: Westinghouse had
    been a constant presence at these massive events sine the
    Centennial Exhibition in 1876. At the St. Louis
    Exposition in 1904, Westinghouse occupied more
    than 70,000 square feet of Exhibition space with their
    growing empire of companies. In 1933, nearly 20 years
    after their founder’s death, Westinghouse made a
    memorable impression at the Century of
    Progress Fair in Chicago. The motto for the Fair was “Science finds, industry
    applies, man conforms.” It was once again held along
    the shore of Lake Michigan. Man: So people came
    away with the name … They knew that Westinghouse
    was a good, solid name. It meant security,
    it meant electricity that was going to
    come into their homes and be able to provide
    them a new way of life. Voiceover: In 1936,
    Westinghouse was there again with a strong,
    glamorous presence for the Great Lakes
    Exposition in Cleveland. The main attraction in
    the Westinghouse booth was the little theater
    with the revolving stage of five scenes called
    Leisure for Living. It was usually packed,
    for it was the only air-conditioned
    enclosure on the grounds. The Fair was deemed a
    success as Westinghouse reported a dramatic sales
    increase in the region following the event. Westinghouse Day was
    celebrated as trains from East Pittsburgh brought
    employees and their families to the Golden Jubilee,
    commemorating the
    50th anniversary of the Westinghouse Electric
    and Manufacturing Company. Male: She’s [consistently]
    diving into the bottom of the dark and greasy water
    to search for knives and forks, dishwater splashing
    around [unintelligible] all over Mrs. Drudge. The rubber apron
    isn’t much help now. She’s splashing so hard
    it’s getting all over me. Voiceover: The 1939 World’s
    Fair could have been the one show where
    Westinghouse really came close to outdoing its
    1893 performance. Their marketing department
    came out swinging with robots, singing
    fountains, time capsules, and the battle of the
    century’s dish washing contest. New York City hosted
    the 1939 World’s Fair in Flushing Meadows with its
    theme The World of Tomorrow. It was thought that the
    public had forgotten all about the battle
    of the currents and they were going to
    New York to dramatize Westinghouse’s mastery
    of electricity. David Cope: Almost every
    Fair building in 1939 had no exterior windows. Westinghouse differentiates
    themselves because their building is
    shaped like an omega with these two
    marvelous glass fronts that people looked into and
    saw what was going on inside. They showed
    absolutely every part of their production
    lines at the time without showing a great
    deal of their products. Elderly lady: That’s
    what I call smart, making time the theme
    of the home exhibits. No one who hasn’t
    cooked over a wood stove with the light of kerosene lamp can really appreciate
    what it all means. Voiceover: A fierce
    competition took place daily in the Westinghouse auditorium. The Battle of the Centuries
    pitted Mrs. Drudge armed with only a
    dishpan, soap, and towel, against Mrs. Modern, armed
    with a Westinghouse dishwasher, in a dramatic dual to
    see who could wash 50
    dishes the fastest. Male: 7 minutes and 58 seconds. In that time Mrs. Modern
    has washed 50 dishes and 40 pieces of silverware. It’s all over Mrs. Drudge. You may as well
    rest now. (laughter) Voiceover: Contestants
    were rated on the time they took to wash
    50 soiled dishes, the cleanliness of the dishes, and the condition of
    the contestants at the
    end of the contest. Male: Now, point number 3. The condition of
    the contestants. Mrs. Modern looks as
    fresh and neat as when
    she stepped into the ring, while Mrs. Drudge, well, I’ll
    have to leave that to you! (audience laughing) So, ladies and gentlemen, I give
    you the winner, Mrs. Modern. (audience applause) Voiceover: As if
    that wasn’t enough, one of the greatest
    publicity schemes of all time was created by Westinghouse when Elektro, the Moto-Man,
    appeared at the Fair. (suspense music) Man: And so, ladies
    and gentlemen, with a great deal of
    pride and pleasure, I present to you Elektro,
    the Westinghouse Moto-Man. Elektro, come here. And here he comes,
    ladies and gentlemen, walking up to greet you
    under his own power. David Cope: People have to
    have something to remember. You can show an electric
    iron and people say, oh,
    that’s pretty exciting. But you can have a robot
    that uses all the technology that Westinghouse had at
    the time, put it together, and it does these
    marvelous tricks. They’re not going to go home
    and say, “we saw an iron.” “We saw Elektro!” Again, they’re
    going home and say, “Where did you see Electro?” “Well, Westinghouse.” Voiceover: It was
    thought that thanks to
    Westinghouse engineering some day robots will do
    all our household chores, and even walk the dog,
    assuming that dog is Sparko, the robotic dog who
    appeared with him
    during part of the Fair. At 7 feet tall and 260
    pounds, Elektro did some
    pretty amazing things. Man: You see, all I need to do
    is to speak into this phone, and Elektro does exactly
    what I tell him to do. Voiceover: Elektro could
    differentiate between
    the colors red and green and would speak out
    “red” or “green.” Most importantly, he smoked
    cigarettes by the dozens, and not only puffed
    them in inhaled, but blew the smoke in great
    billows from his nostrils. (crowd noise) Male: And folks, he’s only two
    years old, too; just learning. Elderly lady: Why
    he’s almost human! Lady in gold hat:
    If he wasn’t so big I’d take him for an engineer. Man: Westinghouse would
    have loved Elektro. Westinghouse would have
    loved the whole exhibit. It showed first of
    all solid workmanship, and I think that’s what
    Westinghouse means. When you think of
    Westinghouse, you’re thinking of solid craftsmanship,
    dependability,
    and inventiveness. Electro: Who? Me? Male: Yes, you. Electro: Okay, toots. Voiceover: During a
    radio interview with KDKA on his way to the World’s
    Fair, Elektro said, “I’m so tough I’m the
    only guy in the world “that really shaves
    with a blow torch!” He was not so tough as to
    withstand water, though. Specific instructions were given
    not to take him out in the rain. Elektro was actually
    the third in a line of Westinghouse robots that
    started in 1927 with Televox. In 1932, Westinghouse
    created Willie Vocalite. One far-fetched idea
    for the 1939 Fair, which was mercifully scrapped, was to convert Willie
    Vocalite into Electro’s
    woman companion robot, and to have her do dishes
    and vacuum at the Fair. David Cope: People for centuries
    had put things into boxes. You’re building a building,
    you put a cornerstone, you put a box and you
    put some things in. Westinghouse comes
    up with an idea. We’re going to have this
    for 5,000 years later. People are going to open it
    up and see what 1939 was like. Voiceover: The time capsule
    was filled with artifacts of the day including a
    slide rule, hats, seeds, cigarettes, and letters from
    scientists like Albert Einstein. Made of cupaloy, it was meant
    to be a 5,000 year time capsule and to be opened
    in the year 6939. It remains buried
    today in the same spot. The letters from
    Einstein and other famous
    scientists of the time hinted at the dangers
    of atomic weapons and the possibility that mankind
    might not be around in 6939 to open the time capsule. (exciting music) At the 1964 World’s Fair,
    things began to change. Radio announcer: Near
    the Astral Fountain in the federal and states
    area of the World’s Fair is the time capsule
    exhibit of the Westinghouse
    Electric Corporation. Three tall towers poised
    against the Long Island sky mark the spot where
    Westinghouse buried the first time capsule in 1938. Man: I think 1893 and
    1939 changed culture. I think ’64 only reflected
    the change in the culture. I don’t know that Westinghouse
    was devoid of ideas, but it was a time period when
    they did repeat themselves. Not a very exciting exhibit. When you look at the
    Westinghouse exhibit, they simply seemed almost tired. Radio announcer: The
    Westinghouse time capsules; legacy for the people
    of the year 6939, proving that man not only
    endures, he also prevails. (music) (gentle big band music) Voiceover: Mirroring the
    changes seen at the 1964 Fair, corporate culture
    and consumerism were
    changing America. Anti-trust laws through
    the mid 20th century had been hard on the company,
    forcing them to break up. The once mighty Westinghouse
    manufacturing plants were regarded as outdated. Foreign competition was
    creeping in, and energy
    costs were rising. As times were changing
    and lower performing
    divisions had to be cut it was difficult to maintain
    the kind of relationship with its workers that the
    good old days permitted. Gone forever were company bands, the Westinghouse athletic teams, employee housing, and the
    lawn and garden contests. Jim Sutherland: Now,
    Westinghouse in 1955 had 55% of their refrigerator
    market in the United States. For any company to have
    55% of a market is amazing. Twenty years later they
    had to sell the division to get money to
    buy a cable system. Voiceover: Even
    though Westinghouse
    was widely thought of as having the best engineers,
    designers, and technology, they could no longer
    keep their costs down
    to remain competitive. Joseph Deley: He said at
    our display last night, all the products
    really looked great, but I heard this morning
    that all the products were stolen by a thief
    except the toaster. The bottom line of that
    was we had a lousy toaster
    in the field. (chuckles) Voiceover: The remainder
    of the 20th century and into the new millennium, the Westinghouse
    companies and divisions went through various changes,
    sell-offs, and mergers. In today’s global economy
    where companies like Toshiba, Siemens,
    Schindler Group, Philips,
    and Northrop Grumman own former divisions of
    the Westinghouse companies, it has been joked in articles, “Can you be sure if
    it’s Westinghouse?” Jim Sutherland: Today there’s
    only one company that’s called Westinghouse Electric
    Company and it’s the group that is designing and
    building nuclear power plants. All the other companies have
    been changed to other names as they were bought by
    Siemens and Emerson, Cutler-Hammer; large companies
    that are very successful today. It’s the same engineers doing
    the same development work, but the name Westinghouse
    does not appear
    outside over the door. Today, CBS manages
    and licenses the use of the Westinghouse Electric
    Corporation name and logo that appear on a variety
    of products that rely
    on the circle-bar “W” to market a familiar and
    trusted brand name to consumers. It was said years
    earlier by E. E. Keller, 1893 World’s Fair manager,
    that George Westinghouse was an exceedingly modest
    man, very unassuming, and almost retiring. He disliked self advertising, but strongly advocated
    the advertising of
    products and performance; therefore, the name Westinghouse had become synonymous
    with ingenuity, initiative, courage,
    and accomplishment, and was unquestionably the
    company’s most valuable asset. Paul Kravath, a
    friend and associate, said that he was the soul of
    the enterprises that he created. That soul is immortal. Because of this, it
    can be said today that Westinghouse is
    remembered primarily as the name of a company,
    while Thomas Edison is remembered as America’s
    greatest inventor. Edward Reis: Yeah, history has
    treated Thomas Edison quite well compared to George
    Westinghouse, considering that the world was
    electrified using Westinghouse
    alternating current. Today many people
    attribute all successes in electricity to Thomas Edison. It came about for a
    number of reasons; personality primarily. George Westinghouse was a
    very reserved individual. He did not seek the limelight. He did not seek media attention. In fact, he tried to avoid it. Thomas Edison, on the other
    hand, liked media attention. He very much like to
    be in the limelight, and he liked to talk about
    his successes to the media. He was also from the New
    Jersey/New York area, where the media provided
    a lot more coverage than they would here in the
    smokey city of Pittsburgh. The other advantage
    that Thomas Edison had is he outlived George
    Westinghouse by 17 years. Voiceover: In a twist of irony, the American Institute
    of Electrical Engineers honored George Westinghouse
    for his tenacious work in establishing the
    alternating current system by awarding him
    the Edison Medal. He was offered, and
    accepted, the presidency of the American Society of
    Mechanical Engineers in 1910. Westinghouse received
    many other honors, including a spot in the Hall
    of Fame for Great Americans. David Cope: Having been a
    teacher, Edison is played up in every major American
    history textbook. He is still that touchstone
    inventor that we think about. Westinghouse gets the
    mention but not the due
    course that he should. Quentin Skrabec: Westinghouse
    was a people person. He loved to have family picnics. He loved to have Christmas
    parties for his employees. He loved to walk through the
    plant and talk to his employees. He got involved with
    them personally when
    they needed help. Joseph Deley: One interesting
    story that I can tell you while I was on the
    trade was I was working with an older fellow
    in the lathe group. His name was Harry,
    who by the way, when he was in his
    teens or my age, he was doing the same
    thing, running a lathe, in East Pittsburgh. Poor Harry one day was having
    problems making a part. He kind of got upset
    and in his anxiety threw a hammer on
    the floor in disgust. Unfortunately, when he looked
    up, George Westinghouse was walking down the aisle and
    saw Harry with his problem. George come over
    to Harry and says, “How you doing? What’s
    up? What’s the problem?” Harry told him, showed
    him the blueprint that he was having
    trouble making a part, George looked at it and said, “Move over,” took off his jacket, rolled up his sleeves, put down his briefcase, and helped Harry make the part, then put his jacket
    back on, and said, “I’ll see you later,” and left. Harry told me that story
    when he was in his 60s and I was 17 and I’ll
    never forget that story
    as long as I live. William Terbo: Among
    the things that Tesla found most interesting
    in Westinghouse was his patents on air
    brake, the railroad business, because he recognized from
    his background in Europe in which the trains were
    doing the same as they
    were in this country, their trains were running
    together at all sorts of times and not stopping properly, that he saw that
    George Westinghouse was a consummate
    inventor himself. Quentin Skrabec: He had such a
    following of his own employees. Very rarely do you see that. When he was even
    in trouble in 1907 and he couldn’t get
    money from the bank, his employees tried to chip in. They didn’t have enough. Jim Sutherland: People are
    in Westinghouse Air Brake and Westinghouse
    Electric and Union Switch
    and Signal companies are very loyal to the spirit
    of George Westinghouse that filled their companies. That spirit was something
    that you could not purchase. It was a gift. Edward Reis: The
    Westinghouse Electric Company was getting ready to
    celebrate its 50th anniversay in the year 1936, so they wrote
    a letter and sent that letter to some older retirees
    in Westinghouse Electric, older workers from
    Westinghouse Air Brake, the Union Switch
    and Signal Company, the other Westinghouse
    companies. They also sent letters to
    people that they thought may have interacted
    with George Westinghouse at one time or another. For example, they sent letters
    to the various railroads. They asked these
    individuals to write back with personal remembrances
    of interactions with George Westinghouse. This large stack of
    letters came back and they’re very interesting
    letters; very personal. They’re a real insight
    into his personality. They’re a real insight into
    the various business practices that he had and his ability
    to get along with people. It’s most interesting
    and very fortunate that these letters exist today. Voiceover: Those who
    knew George Westinghouse and served with him in
    the army of industry considered him to be America’s
    greatest industrialist and held him in
    the highest regard. Personal letters from
    Westinghouse employees speak volumes about the
    character and personality of the man whom they
    refer to as Uncle George. E. E. Keller said that
    all of his employees who came in personal
    contact with him seemed to catch his enthusiasm and were glad to do the job
    in hand for Uncle George. Westinghouse had many nicknames. Former employees wrote letters
    about how the “Old Man” paid for their train fare
    and tickets to attend the 1876 Centennial
    Exposition in Philadelphia where Westinghouse Air
    Brake made their first World’s Fair appearance. The same employee said
    that when the “Chief” asked them to work all weekend
    to finish a job on time, they felt honored to do so. George Verity, former Director
    of Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company,
    said, “His industries “were so solidly and completely
    built around his personality “that the name
    Westinghouse was ingrained “in our national industrial
    structure for all time to come. “As I knew him, he was
    an outstanding man, “who not only created
    many new things, “but he also put old things
    together in a new way, “and then motivated
    both the new and the old “with an invisible,
    mystic and titanic power.” Paul Cravath said, “I
    am sure that none of us “has ever known a man
    who combine the qualities “of faith, imagination,
    and courage “as they are combined
    in George Westinghouse. “But he was never so engrossed
    in his great achievements “that he did not have time
    to help a friend in need. “I need not say that we shall
    never see his like again.” A former foreman said,
    “During the panic of 1893 “many men were laid off
    at the Electric Company, “but Mr. Westinghouse said,
    ‘Get those men back to work. “‘I am not hard up.'” It was recorded that
    he ordered his workers to do odd jobs around the
    shop rather than be laid off. Scientific American
    said, “He succeeded “because he believed in
    himself and in his invention. “An inventor who is a pessimist
    is doomed to failure.” Mr. Samuel Gompers,
    former President of the American
    Federation of Labor said, “I will say this for
    George Westinghouse. “If all employers of men
    treated their employees “with the same
    consideration as he does, “the American Federation
    of Labor would have to
    go out of existence.” Andrew Carnegie summed
    it up by saying, “George Westinghouse is a
    genius who can’t be downed.” In the modern era, when
    many billionaire CEOs are indicted for fraud,
    corruption, and theft, their former employees celebrate
    when they are sent to jail. In contrast, 16 years after the
    death of George Westinghouse, in 1930, former Westinghouse
    working class employees paid for the construction
    and dedication of a monument honoring him that remains standing in
    Pittsburgh’s Schenley Park. (music) It says, “George Westinghouse, “Union soldier,
    citizen of Pittsburgh, “founder of
    Westinghouse industries, “benefactor of humanity through
    his labors and inventions.” (music) Much has changed since his
    days as a Cavalry trooper. His companies have
    come and gone, expanded, contracted,
    and changed. Solitude was demolished in 1919 and the land donated
    for a city park. The George Westinghouse
    Memorial Bridge, built in 1932, remains standing. (music) Alternating current, air brakes, and many of his
    other innovations continue to shape the modern
    world that we live in today. (music) Man: George
    Westinghouse once said, “If some day they say
    of me that in my work “I have contributed
    something to the welfare “and happiness of my fellow
    man, I shall be satisfied.” (music) Jim Sutherland:
    Everybody was proud to work for Westinghouse
    in those days. If you asked a person
    who was a Marine, “Are you a Marine or
    were you a Marine?” they’ll say. ” I am a Marine,” even though it might
    have been 40 years ago that they were serving
    in the Marine Corps. As a Westinghouse engineer,
    I am a Westinghouse engineer. (gentle music)

    They Found a Frozen Girl But What Happened Next Shocked Everyone
    Articles, Blog

    They Found a Frozen Girl But What Happened Next Shocked Everyone

    August 14, 2019


    Have you ever heard a story and thought, “No
    way is that actually possible!” Well, some people have lived through the most
    impossible and extreme situations that it’s kinda hard to wrap your head around it! Take, for instance, the story of Jean Hilliard. This 19-year-old woman was found frozen solid,
    and (get this) she managed to survive! It all started when Hilliard lost control
    of her car while driving home late one night. The car wouldn’t start after the accident,
    so she decided to walk to the closest person she knew who lived about 2 miles away. But since it was the dead of winter in sub-zero
    Minnesota temperatures, she collapsed before she could reach his door. Actually, she only missed it by 15 feet! The homeowner found Hilliard frozen solid
    the next morning and rushed her to the hospital. Her skin was completely frozen, her eyes weren’t
    reacting to any light, but she was alive! Her pulse was only 12 beats per minute, and
    her body temperature was just 88°F. (Remember, 98.6 degrees is where it should be!) Since the doctors couldn’t put an IV through
    her frozen skin, they wrapped her up in an electric heating pad and waited anxiously
    for her to come to. The doctor who managed to revive her was stunned
    that the girl didn’t have any brain damage and was able to keep all her limbs, although
    she did lose a few toes to hypothermia. Hilliard’s recovery has been dubbed a medical
    miracle, which is probably pretty accurate! But still, it’s also proof that our bodies
    are built for survival. You see, in the extreme circumstance of sub-zero
    temperatures, the human body will slow down all internal activities like heart rate and
    breathing to stay alive. Well, that’s pretty helpful, indeed! But there are plenty of other situations when
    the body defies all odds and expectations, like the story of a construction worker in
    the 1840s named Phineas Gage. When explosives used to clear the way to build
    a railroad went off early, a huge iron rod was sent right through Gage’s head! Now here’s the weird bit: he didn’t even
    seem phased by the whole thing! He casually chatted with people who walked
    passed him while waiting for the doctor to arrive. Can you imagine? Like, “Oh, hey, Bill! Yeah, I got this minor inconvenience I gotta
    go take care of.” Anyway, Gage then developed a brain infection
    that had him close to death, but looks like he wasn’t ready to go. He made a full recovery and only lost use
    of his left eye and part of his brain. He could still live a normal life, go back
    to work, and do all the day-to-day activities he used to, even with a piece of his brain
    missing! Now, I know what you’re thinking, “How
    is it possible to lose part of your brain and not have anything wrong with you?” Well, here’s where it gets even more bizarre. Gage might’ve just kept going on with his
    life, but anyone who knew him before the accident said that he’d changed into a completely
    different person! Medical experts explain that this was likely
    due to the fact that the piece of his brain that was damaged is where our personalities
    are stored. Yeah, who would’ve thought?! Another man had an interesting story to tell
    after what should’ve been a typical mundane day at the office. He’d come in on a Saturday to catch up on
    some work. He later got into the elevator and rode down
    to the first floor. Again, nothing out of the ordinary! But when the elevator stopped on the first
    floor, the man heard a strange sound. He said it was like metal clanging way up
    above him. He then had to make a quick decision when
    the doors started to open: either stay where he was or jump out of the elevator. Good thing he decided to do the latter because
    at that moment, a large steel board came crashing down to the bottom of the shaft with a massive
    smash. The doors then simply closed as if nothing
    had happened! As for why this huge metal thing almost came
    crashing down on this poor guy just pulling some overtime, well, that was because the
    maintenance crew that had been repairing the old elevator that week had forgotten to fasten
    a panel, which caused it to come loose. Oops! The next story is about a few friends who
    were all relaxing in a hammock. Hey, that’s just usually how these things
    start: a typical day with nothing out of the ordinary! Anyway, while the friends were lying there
    making small talk, the weather took a turn, and it got pretty windy. They heard the branches crackling above and
    even joked about how crazy it’d be if one of them broke off and came crashing down on
    the hammock. (Now that’s some pretty disturbing humor…) A little while later, the wind got worse and
    the branches started to move a lot. They decided to call it a night and go inside. Only a few seconds after they went back in
    the house, a huge branch snapped and fell on the hammock in the exact spot where they
    would’ve been lying! Would they have lost their lives or just been
    seriously injured? It’s hard to say, but, luckily, they got
    out of there just in time to never find out the answer to that question! A man named Chris Gursky decided to do something
    new and adventurous while he was on vacation in Switzerland. Naturally, he thought hang-gliding sounded
    like a great idea! He was pretty excited for this adrenaline
    rush, and it was exactly that which probably ended up saving his life! You see, the pilot didn’t strap Gursky properly
    to the glider. The man did fall, but he grabbed onto the
    pole and the pilot’s shoulder just in time to catch himself. Gursky had to hold on to dear life with all
    his strength for a whole 3 minutes before the pilot could attempt to land safely. Three minutes might not sound like much, but
    it’s an eternity when your fingers are supporting all your body weight! Gursky walked away from this terrifying situation
    with just a broken wrist, a torn bicep, and, more importantly, his life! Ya know, everyone always says it’s good
    to be adventurous and try new things, but stories like these make me really appreciate
    the couch potato lifestyle… Have you ever heard the saying “lightning
    doesn’t strike the same place twice”? I guess it’s still true, but nobody said
    anything about it striking the same person twice…or even 7 times! Yep, that’s right, a man has been struck
    by lightning seven different times, and he lived to tell the tale. Roy Sullivan has even been placed in the Guinness
    Book of World Records for his strange attraction for lightning. Each time he was struck, he gained a different
    injury, from the most minor, like lost eyebrows, to pretty severe burns. Talk about being in the wrong place at the
    wrong time, seven times! Maybe he shouldn’t leave his house anymore… And if you’ve never seen the movie Touching
    the Void, then get ready for spoilers! Well, not really, because I’m not talking
    about the movie itself but the real event it was based on. A man named Joe Simpson and his friend Simon
    Yates were climbing in the Peruvian Andes. Something went horribly wrong and Simpson
    broke his leg. Yates tried to lower his buddy down from the
    mountain with a rope as far as he could, but he ended up having to cut the rope to save
    himself. Miraculously, Simpson landed on a ledge with
    only the one broken leg. He then thought for sure that this is the
    place where he’d take his last breath, but he then did something remarkable. He crawled 6 miles to get back to base camp. It took him four days to make the journey. He wrote a book about his experience, and
    that then became the 2003 movie. Come to think of it, all of these stories
    would make incredible films! Some of them might seem rather impossible,
    but I assure you that they’re all true and that there are millions of others out there
    that are probably even more bizarre than these! Actually, if you know any other incredible
    stories of survival, leave them down in the comments! And don’t forget to give this video a “like,”
    share it with your friends, and click that subscribe button to stay on the Bright Side
    of life!