Browsing Tag: USSR

    North Korea’s Tiny, Terrible Airline
    Articles, Blog

    North Korea’s Tiny, Terrible Airline

    August 24, 2019


    This video was made possible by CuriosityStream. Watch for free for 31-days by signing up at
    CuriosityStream.com/HAI and using the code, “HAI.” North Korea—it would be great as a reality
    show, but it’s less great as reality. As much as this country likes to pretend that
    the rest of the world is made up exclusively of brainwashed heathens living in hell-scape
    garbage fire countries, sometimes certain North Koreans, special enough to get a hall
    pass, need to get out, and sometimes other people go there to experience the dictator
    Disneyland. Now, there is a train to the DPRK from Russia
    and China, but honestly, what are trains good for… other than low-cost, long distance,
    time-efficient, economically stimulating, carbon minimal, socially egalitarian, death-reducing
    transport? Nothing, because they don’t have wings. That’s why North Korea has its own extra
    special, tiny, terrible, airline… and here’s some boring history, made possible by my declining
    audience retention statistics. Back in the 50’s, the USSR was North Korea’s
    sugar daddy, and so the airline was first established to fly to the eastern bit of the
    Soviet Union so that people could connect onto Aeroflot services to Moscow. In the early days, they flew exclusively Soviet
    planes, which sometimes didn’t crash, and mostly focused on flights to the USSR and
    later China. Eventually, though, they got some big boy
    Ilyushin Il-62 and Tupolev Tu-154’s, which, surprisingly, are not the names of toaster
    models but rather planes that could fly all the way to Eastern Europe. That meant they could finally fly the crucial
    non-stop route of Pyongyang to Moscow. They also eventually added some flights going
    all the way to some of the other Soviet united places like East Germany and Bulgaria. But then the USSR became USS not, North Korea
    and Russia’s relationship diminished, and Air Koryo started flying to some definitively
    non-Soviet places. As recently as 2010, they were flying to far
    flung destinations like Zurich, Budapest, and Prague, but then, the DPRK’s flag carrier
    ran into two major issues. One was that they were added to the prestigious,
    “Airlines Banned in the EU” list meaning that, for the most part, they could no longer
    fly through, to, or from most of Europe and two was that, especially in the past decade,
    a whole host of sanctions were imposed on North Korea by both individual nations and
    the United Nations. These sanctions, preventing all UN member
    states from conducting almost all types of trade with North Korea, mean that there’s
    barely any economic activity with the country so there’s little reason for people to travel
    there. Nowadays, Air Koryo is more modest in size
    compared to its former glory. They fly to just five destinations—Vladivostok,
    Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, and they just recently started a new route to Macau in August,
    2019 to allow the small number of North Korean elites to get to this gambling hub for some
    good old fashioned sinning. Since this longest flight is only three hours
    long, they don’t have to deal with some of the complications that would arise from
    their crew liking some of their layover cities a little too much since they don’t have
    to have any overnight layovers. They do, however, have plenty of complications
    arising from operating from one of the most sanctioned countries on earth. These sanctions have long prevented them from
    purchasing Boeing or Airbus planes so they bought Soviet or Russian built planes, but
    then North Korea accidentally pressed the big red, “sanction me more,” button. On November 28, 2017, North Korea launched
    a ballistic missile that landed uncomfortably close to Japan and, in response, the UN dropped
    the mother of all sanction packages outlined in this bad boy document—UN Resolution 2397. This resolution resolved, among other things,
    that all UN members states would, “prohibit the direct or indirect supply, sale or transfer
    to the DPRK, of all transportation vehicles.” It clarifies that this includes everything
    between HS codes 86 and 89, which are codes used by customs organizations, and if you
    pull up HS codes 86 through 89, you’ll see that that includes, among other things, locomotives,
    tractors, tanks, baby carriages, buoys, and aircraft. Therefore, since that’s a United Nations
    sanction, that means that North Korea can’t buy aircraft from, let me pull up my map,
    ummm, these countries. They could always buy from, like, Kosovo. They’re not a UN member. I wonder how their aircraft manufacturing
    industry is… not that Kosovo is a country… or not a country… or part of a country…
    or not part of a country… just forget I ever mentioned Kosovo. Anyway, what this all means is that Air Koryo
    can only operate aircraft it had pre-2017 and those were almost all old Russian, Ukrainian,
    or Soviet planes. UN Resolution 2397 specifically allows the
    DPRK to buy spare parts for their passenger planes, presumably to be sure they don’t
    fall out of the sky, so that’s not an issue, but many of their planes are old, and only
    getting older, that’s how time works, so their lack of plane buying ability certainly
    is becoming more and more of a problem. While plenty of countries regularly violate
    the sanctions in secret (*cough* Russia,) it would certainly raise some questions if
    North Korea just suddenly started flying around a shiny new Russian jet, I’d imagine. UN Resolution 2270 also bans all sales of
    aviation fuel to the DPRK, but it specifically includes an exemption for fuel used for passenger,
    commercial flights. It does, however, warn its members to only
    sell the exact amount an aircraft needs to get from, in the example of Russia, Vladivostok,
    to Pyongyang, and back to Vladivostok—no more that could sneakily make its way into
    a military jet, you know, somehow. Perhaps the craziest bit about Air Koryo,
    though, is that you can book a flight on their website, just like any other airline—it’s
    scarily easy. The reception when you get there—well, that
    might be less than warm. Of course, on their rickety Russian jets,
    Air Koryo lets you experience aviation’s past but, if you want to see what flying will
    be like in the future, you should watch, “Into the Skies”— a new episode of the Curiosity
    Stream original series, “Speed.” This covers how aircraft design will change
    to cope with a time not far off when 10 billion passengers will fly each year. This is just one of more than 2,400 titles
    that you can watch on Desktop, Smart TV, iOS, Android, Apple TV, Roku, Chromecast, and more
    platforms through Curiosity Stream. They’re the perfect site for anyone who
    likes being entertained and educated simultaneously. What’s best, for HAI viewers, you can watch
    any of these more than 2,400 titles for free for 31-days by signing up at CuriosityStream.com/HAI
    and using the code, “HAI.”

    What If There Were No Prices? The Railroad Thought Experiment
    Articles, Blog

    What If There Were No Prices? The Railroad Thought Experiment

    August 11, 2019


    To appreciate why market prices are essential to human well-being, consider what a fix we
    would be in without them. Suppose you were the commissar of
    railroads in the old Soviet Union. Markets and prices have been banished. You and your comrades. Passionate communists all. Now, directly plan how to
    use available resources. You want a railroad from city A to city B,
    but between the cities is a mountain range. Suppose somehow you know that
    the railroad once built. Will serve the nation equally well. Whether it goes through the mountains or
    around. If you build through the mountains,
    you’ll use much less steel for the tracks. Because that route is shorter. But you’ll use a great deal of
    engineering to design the trestles and tunnels needed to cross the rough terrain. That matters because engineering is also
    needed to design irrigation systems, mines, harbor installations and
    other structures. And you don’t want to tie up
    engineering on your railroad if it would be more valuable designing
    those other structures instead. You can save engineering for
    other projects. If you build around
    the mountains on level ground. But that way you’ll use much more steel
    rail to go the longer distance and steel is also needed for other purposes. For vehicles, girders, ships, pots and
    pans and thousands of other things. Which route should you choose for
    the good of the nation? To answer, you would need to
    determine which bundle of resources is less urgently needed for
    other purposes. The large amount of engineering and
    small amount of steel for the route through the mountains,
    where the small amount of engineering and large amount of steel for
    the roundabout route. But how could you find out the urgency
    of need for engineering and steel in other uses? Just one way engineering is used
    is to build irrigation systems. To assess the importance of a particular
    irrigation system, you would need to know what the farmers know about how irrigation
    would increase the yield of their fields. And to know the value of that increased
    yield, you’d need to know what grocers know about their customers eagerness for
    that produce. That in turn depends on what customers
    know about the better meals they could fix with that produce. How would you find all this out? Just one way to use steel
    is to build new trucks. To assess the importance of a particular
    new truck, you would need to know what the trucker knows about the capacity
    of his current truck, and how much more quickly he could make the deliveries his
    customers want with a new bigger truck. To know the importance of those
    deliveries, you would need to know what his customers know about the value
    of getting goods delivered. That in turn depends on what still others
    know about the uses of those goods at their destinations. To reason about where
    to route the railroad, you need this kind of information for all
    possible uses of engineering and steel. That’s a massive amount of knowledge, held
    by millions of people throughout society. How might you get it? You might try surveys, but think how
    many people you would need to survey. All those who prepare meals with produce,
    and all those who take delivery by truck for
    starters. The numbers would be staggering. And often people don’t even know what they
    prefer until they face an actual choice. So they might not be able to answer
    survey questions accurately. Even if they could,
    by the time the surveys were returned and processed, much of the information
    would be out of date. And even if you could get complete and
    timely information about what everyone knows, that’s relevant
    to every use of steel in engineering, you would still need to deduce from
    it where to build the railroad. How would you begin to make
    sense of that mountain of data? In the words of Ludwig von Mises,
    you would be groping in the dark. You would face what is known as
    the knowledge problem of central planning. The reason why comprehensive
    socialism inevitably fails. Central planners cannot get the knowledge
    they need in order to plan effectively. You, commissar, simply cannot know on what
    projects scarce resources should be used for the good of the nation. But now change the thought experiment. Imagine that somewhere in the market
    economy part of the world, you are the chief operating
    officer of a railroad company. You work not for the good of the nation,
    but to generate profits for your firm. You want to run a railroad
    line from city C to city D. Again, there’s a mountain
    range between them. Now, how do you decide on the route? You choose what’s cheapest. You would calculate the total
    cost of each route for each one, multiplying the amount of engineering
    required by the price of engineering, and adding that to the amount of steel
    required times the price of steel. Then, you would choose whichever
    cost your company less. You might give no thought at all to the
    good of the nation or society as a whole. But, and here’s the marvel,
    by choosing the route that is cheapest for your company you would thereby choose
    the route that’s best for society. You would use the bundle of resources
    that’s least urgently needed for other purposes. Why? Because those market prices you calculate
    with reflects the urgency of need for engineering and
    steel in all their alternative uses. For example, suppose customers wanting
    to taste your meals, would buy better, more expensive produce, if it were
    on the shelf of their local grocery. In effect,
    they’re offering grocers more for produce. So the grocers will offer farmers more for
    produce. So the farmers who feels would be
    sufficiently improved by irrigation will offer more for irrigation systems. And those who build irrigation systems
    will offer engineers more to design them. Now that designing irrigation
    systems pays engineers better, people who want to hire engineers for
    other projects, such as railroads, will have to offer them at least as
    much to make it worth their while. The higher price tells everyone who
    uses engineering that it’s become, for some reason, more valuable so
    maybe they should use less. In this way, the market prices of
    resources represent the particular knowledge and preferences of
    millions of people who directly or indirectly use those resources. And the prices communicate
    that knowledge and those preferences to everyone interested. Only with market prices to communicate
    this vast amount of human knowledge to us. Can we calculate the least costly
    ways of producing the things we want, coordinator activities with the activities
    of others, use resources where society values the most, and thereby satisfy
    as many human wants as possible?

    Abandoned Railroad From Cold War Opa Locka Airport
    Articles, Blog

    Abandoned Railroad From Cold War Opa Locka Airport

    August 9, 2019


    hello ladies and gentlemen I’m gonna
    show you guys something that not many people know that live in South Florida
    I’m gonna show you guys, first of all this facing east facing west and that
    there is the opa-locka Airport I’ll include a Google Maps into this location
    but at this very spot that I’m standing you see right there behind that there’s
    a gate, I’ll walk over there right now but let me show you what I mean
    first there used to be a spur here that used to go into opa-locka Airport I
    think this might have been built I’ve seen footage see you right there well you can still
    see the Y over there and be here the tri-rail in the background up in the
    pavement there in the asphalt you can see it there’s a Y and one rail one
    track one over here in those bushes there there’s a rail right and then to
    tri rail in the background there this was an old seaboard line
    so I’m guessing seaboard was the last well I don’t know because I drove by
    here as a kid in the in the 80s and I remember seeing a crossing
    I remember seeing but there was cross bucks here and over there in Lejeune
    they if they even had like a flashing red light indicating that there was a
    there was a railroad crossing there so The one that I remember, so that rail there right? if I were to continue a straight line on
    it they would come out somewhere like over here which makes sense because
    that’s where the gate is that I wanted to show you go ahead and this is a
    pretty busy road here I’m gonna go ahead and cross it whenever it is safe to right now and it went right in over here there’s
    our on historic aerials dot-com and on oldmapsonline.org you can see the
    old maps of this area and you will definitely see that the
    tracks went in there there was even a wye inside the airport so that’s this is
    where the grade crossing would have been and I’m gonna see if I can find at least
    like a very faded portion of the pavement marking if its still here let’s see yeah yeah I think we’re out of luck on this one
    because I remember like the last time I saw that spur was like 1990-1991
    perhaps yeah there is no pavement working here at all I’m guessing since
    1990 27 years ago they’ve repaved the road quite a few times all righty guys so I appreciate you all
    seeing this video please subscribe or like over and out