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    Humanities Innovators in a Tech World | Thursday May 17th
    Articles, Blog

    Humanities Innovators in a Tech World | Thursday May 17th

    August 12, 2019


    test one to test one two it just it worked yeah all right good morning and welcome my
    name is Anna Phillip doin a PG run I’m the Dean of the College of Humanities at
    the University of Arizona and it’s my pleasure to welcome all of you for this
    very exciting event that we have for the next two days this morning and tomorrow
    morning same place so we look forward to to having you for this series humanities
    innovators in a tech world and just a few things
    about this series and I’ll say more throughout the morning in between the
    different the different speakers this is the idea about the raw the important all
    that the humanities being the College of Humanities we are asking this question
    on the important whole that the humanities are playing and are going to
    play increasingly in this new society of our tech and new technologies what is
    the role of the humanities in this context and this is a something that we
    are going to hear a lot about today and tomorrow morning I would like to thank
    the fantastic speakers that we have with us for that I think you really could
    enjoy that we have fantastic speakers and I really want to thank them again
    for taking the time to come to Tucson and to to be with us I also want to
    thank our team the external relations team and our IT team in the college this
    is a lot of work for the logistics we are live this event is being streamed
    and it will be recorded so if some of you are not able to stay for the entire
    morning or if you cannot be back tomorrow for instance you can still
    watch the streaming or catch the the speakers a little bit a little bit later
    so we are going to start what what we are going to be doing is that each
    speaker will present for about more or less 45 minutes and then we will get
    after each presentation an opportunity for you to ask any question we’d have a
    Q&A for about 15 minutes and then move on to the
    next to the next speaker so it’s my honor to introduce the first speaker of
    this morning Kevin nline is an enthusiastic
    astronomer and postdoctoral researcher working on the James Webb Space
    Telescope near cam science team at the University of Arizona’s tierod
    Observatory from 2012 to 2015 he was a postdoctoral researcher working with dr.
    Ryan Cox at the Dartmouth department of physics and astronomy
    his interests lie in the relationship between active galactic nuclei and stuff
    forming galaxies exploring how a central supermassive black hole grows and
    effects its aust galaxies he did his graduate research at UCLA the title of
    his presentation today is why we study the universe from the Big Bang to you let’s see is this working here we go ah
    there’s the talk title Thank You AP especially for thanking me and us for
    coming from so far I came from five minutes away on a bike where I live to
    my office two minutes north of here and then I
    walked here I knocked on my boss’s door and said I’m gonna go give this talk and
    she says Oh have a fun time so thank you for for inviting me to this
    the first dorrance lecture series as the first speaker I’m really honored to be
    here and to be able to talk with both the scholars and the community that’s
    here this is really exciting for me I absolutely love talking about what I do
    and I’m very lucky because I work on the coolest thing I work on astronomy I’m a
    black hole hunter I’m the galaxy finder and I’m going to talk to you about
    something that is very important which is how can we study and understand and
    think about astronomy as human beings like we are these these tiny humans in
    the face of the vast insane universe and so that’s what I’m gonna try and bridge
    today and I’ll tell you a little bit what I do throughout and so hopefully
    gets you excited about the thing that I do which is super awesome thing in
    conjunction with NASA and then at the end we if you have questions you should
    ask me I I love talking about this but I also love talking about the way that I
    got to my job and so if you find me in a hallway or if we are having some snacks
    later on or something like that please ask me about the weird journey that I
    took to get to where I am right now so this talk starts with this so so who
    especially if you’re in the front what is this probably community who know this
    and are being very smug just be quiet for a second what is this thing right
    here especially in the first couple rows it’s it’s a satellite of sorts I will
    give you a hint it’s the blank space telescope it rhymes with rubble
    I heard someone say it’s the hubble space telescope this is NASA’s most
    important Space Telescope the Hubble Space Telescope it was launched in 1990
    which means it’s probably older than some of the people in this audience
    which is insane it is it is a telescope that’s been up for almost 30 years
    orbiting our planet which is why you see our planet below and it is this
    incredible eye that NASA built and put up there that has been an amazing boon
    for us astronomers it is opened up a window to the universe a high-resolution
    imaging window to the universe that is changed astronomy entirely and for many
    people their interest astronomers or interaction with Hubble is through its
    it’s incredible data deep datasets on a variety of topics for many people the
    way that they know about Hubble is through the images these credibly
    beautiful images that like for for us astronomers give a huge amount of
    information about what’s going on so what you’re seeing here is you’re seeing
    baby stars being born in a in a little stellar nursery and Hubble took these
    images this is star birth here right this is also someone might look at this
    and go I think I have that on my yoga pants like this is a very pretty image
    that is strong and like that’s an important aspect of what we do as
    astronomers is produce pretty images because you would put this on there
    because this is gorgeous the colors and the shapes and like for an astronomer we
    might look at this in a very cold way but I want to argue through this talk
    and spoiler this is kind of my argument that we should be viewing astronomy
    through an aesthetics tense that we should view astronomy with our heart not
    just our rational cold brain because otherwise we’re losing a huge aspect of
    it Hubble also took images this is a zoom in of like baby stars are being
    born in these columns these you can see the light that’s coming from other stars
    blowing the gas away but this is essentially a stellar nursery what I
    said this astronomers can look at this and tell you about how stars are born
    all right also how stars die this is the remnants of an exploded star this is
    what happens when a star blows up in a big gas cloud it just blows a big hole
    in the middle right so this is this is another Hubble image or this incredible
    Hubble image of a galaxy a spiral galaxy and you can just see all this stuff so
    Hubble was and is this amazing thing that for maybe the first time really
    it took astronomy and put it into the eyes of the populace and there were
    other astronomy pictures and you know we had spacecraft that went to to other
    planets and took these pictures but I think that Hubble did it in a way that
    had never been done before and I think that it’s underappreciated
    how important that was both as a thing to inspire this thing was launched when
    I was young and I I looked at these images and felt something stir inside of
    me that drove me to astronomy and I think that that is something that we
    need to remember is vital for this field and for all of astronomy and for the
    sciences is how we present science to the public because sometimes as a
    scientist you can think about I’m only doing science for myself I or for my
    colleagues or for the people who read my papers but that is not how you should
    view science you should view science as a thing that you are doing as a gift and
    as a product for the world you’re pushing science forward even little ways
    and Hubble push it forward in incredible ways the amount of information held in
    this and the amount of beauty that like you know is is is like you can’t count
    it and the reason that I’m here at the University of Arizona is because Hubble
    30 years old and NASA for the last like 20 to 30 years since it launched has
    been planning a next generation of Space Telescope the next generation and and
    Hubble has been supplemented with a lot of other telescopes at other wavelengths
    in space that are doing a really amazing job but they wanted to make a next
    generation Space Telescope that was bigger and more robust and answered
    bigger questions and so here is a here’s here’s like what it look it’s about the
    size of a school bus Hubble here’s a person next to its mirror so in the
    mirror would just kind of sit right here I’m about to show you an image of the
    telescope that I work on and I want to prompt you because people don’t need to
    be prompted with this when a telescope is bigger it is better so the bigger
    this is the more of an Who I want you to give me okay so are you ready so this is
    the telescope I’m working on this is the James Webb Space Telescope the mirror
    would barely fit in this room right it’s 6.5 meters across like 25 to 30 feet
    across it’s enormous the telescope is the size of a tennis
    court the telescope itself would barely fit in this room altogether Hubble could
    just park right here James Webb would just barely fit in this room the mirror
    is gold-plated 18 hexagonal mirror segments sitting on this beautiful Sun
    shield like a flower sitting on a petal in some water this is a kind of zoom in
    CGI of it where you can see so for people who are unfamiliar with how
    telescopes work the light comes in from space bounces off this primary mirror
    bounces off a secondary mirror right there and into this tiny little hole
    here where it goes to the instruments that are back here and so those
    instruments are we’ll talk about in a second and I’ll talk about why there’s
    this big Sun shield as well but that’s the pathway of the light it’s not like a
    telescope you might know where it’s got a big tube like Hubble it’s open air so
    so that is because it’s so big it would be very hard to fit a tube in there in
    fact the way that it’s gonna launch into space is and I folded up in a rocket
    very I went and gave a talk on this at an origami art exhibit at the tucson
    botanical gardens last year but it like has to this beautiful unfolding process
    once it gets up to space which it’s very beautiful
    but also terrifying as a person who hopes that it all works when it goes to
    space when it goes to space it’s not going to do what Hubble does where
    Hubble just orbits our planet it’s actually going to go a million miles
    away to a spot beautifully labeled l/24 Lagrange’s point two and what that is to
    do a little dance for you guys again this is a humanities conference I’m
    gonna do a little dance for you guys imagine my head is the Sun imagine that
    this is the earth l2 is a spot that stays on the other side of the earth
    from the Sun okay and it’s actually going to kind of do this a little bit
    it’s gonna orbit around that spot but it just essentially keeps the earth between
    it in the Sun and this is spot where because of how it’s moving around and
    the gravity of the Sun and the earth together it’s a stable spot it’s a very
    simple physics idea but it’s gonna sit way way out there which means if it
    breaks we can’t do anything about it too far away when Hubble had some issues we
    could send space shuttles and space programs to it but when you’re a million
    miles away well beyond the orbit of the moon it has to work which is why it’s
    being thoroughly thoroughly tested including this is the Sun shield the Sun
    shield is being test north of Bremen right now just outside
    of LAX and the sunshield is essentially a giant parasol a giant like umbrella on
    the beach to prevent the telescope from getting very very hot the telescope
    operates in a wavelength range called the infrared which is longer wavelengths
    than our eyes could see are this telescope is gonna operate entirely in
    wavelengths of light we cannot see with our eyes and as a result it needs to be
    very cool because I’m right now you as well we all glow in the infrared just by
    virtue of the fact that we’re warm our bodies are warm and we are warm-blooded
    and we’ll warm we glow in the infrared that’s how like infrared goggles work
    night vision and the telescope cannot be warm as a result because if the
    telescope is warm it’s glowing in the same wavelength is trying to take a
    picture it’s like trying to take a picture with a camera that’s on fire you
    would not want that it’d be too bright so you want the
    telescope to be very cold and as you can see it’s 185 degrees Fahrenheit on one
    side which is hot even for Tucson and negative 388 degrees Fahrenheit which I
    call my time in Hanover New Hampshire I’m from Southern California so I’m from
    I guess like right in the middle perfectly all the time this is what the
    mirror looks like this is probably one of my favorite pictures in this whole
    talk this mirror is was beat was built and assembled at the Goddard Space
    Flight labs in Baltimore Maryland in this enormous cleanroom there’s like
    some windows over here that are like the the Visitor gallery windows and I was
    working from a room over over on the side with my my my colleagues at the
    University of Arizona just a couple feet away while this was being assembled each
    one of these mirror segments is about 50 60 pounds it’s like this big
    it’s gold-plated because gold reflects infrared light it was a simple
    painstakingly one mirror segment at a time and like put together and then they
    lifted it up and then hung it upside down terrifyingly just to make sure
    everything was working all right it was all you know like perfectly polished and
    perfectly smooth then they packaged it all up and they stuck the instruments on
    the back of it and they shipped it off to Houston actually I’ll talk about the
    instance here the instruments let me talk about instance for a second because
    is why I’m here so when you have a big telescope you you need cameras
    and there are four cameras essentially that are attached to the telescope the
    light from the mirrors gets balanced and focused onto these cameras like these
    are very fancy cameras this camera up here is my favorite one this is near cam
    I’ll show a better picture of this in a second this is near spec so near cam is
    a University of Arizona instrument the primary investigator is one of my
    personal heroes mark dr. Marsha Ricci I she was the person who door I knocked on
    she worked on Hubble on one of its main instruments she has an enormous amount
    of history working on space telescopes which is a crazy thing to say an
    enormous amount of history working on space telescope she’s incredible her
    office is just up in Stuart Observatory she’s one of the most warm wonderful
    people and she’s the primary investigator in this so she is my boss
    and she’s the one who for 20 30 years has put together this instrument and
    tested it and knows more about it than anyone she’s an like a national treasure
    and this right here is near spec so this is an American instrument it’s it’s the
    University of Arizona’s like and it’s the main camera meaning when you see
    images those beautiful images when they make inevitable like IMAX movies based
    on James Webb images the camera will be a University of Arizona camera so that’s
    pretty cool right it’s it’s very cool and then this is near spec near spec is
    the is the is a European instrument it’s the spectrograph it’s like a fancy prism
    so instead of taking images it spreads the light out over its component
    wavelengths and looks at that it’s it’s a it’s a European telescope the primary
    investigator is an is a European Space Agency and is a French gentleman who we
    work very closely because these are the two main instruments this is Miri up in
    the top right corner my laser is for freaking out right now the Miri up in
    the top right corner and Miri is is a european and american joint instrument
    and it’s a longer wavelength instrument one of the american scientists is
    Marcia’s husband George Ricci who’s also a national treasure in his offices just
    up the way George and Marcia Ricci have worked
    together George also worked on another Space Telescope instruments called myths
    and then down here is nearest which is the Canadian Space Agency instrument and
    it’s kind of like a prism but also like a camera so these all four will work in
    concert with each other to essentially look at the universe and I’ll talk about
    why that’s gonna be exciting for the to talk this is near cam zoomed in I
    want you to nose eagle-eyed viewers will notice that it looks like there’s like
    this black plastic thing and then it looks like what’s on the top is mirrored
    on the bottom can you guys see that that’s because near cams really fancy in
    that when they built it they built the two of the exact same instruments
    sandwiched on each other so when you get an image you don’t just get one image
    it’s like having two cameras right next to each other you get a big rectangular
    image so you can see here this is this is what one image will look like it will
    have this region here and the region next door even cooler is that inside of
    near cam is like a special piece of glass that separates light at two
    different wavelengths we call it a dichroic because it splits light based
    on its color into like the short wavelength color the long wavelength
    color so when you get an image you get two images of the same field and then
    two images of the other field at different wavelengths which is great if
    you want to use your time wisely and near cam compared with Hubble’s main
    imagers there like a little bit smaller than the size of one of these regions
    here so it’s very very exciting we have a whole bunch of cool stuff planned for
    it so I’m pretty jazzed about this this is one they took it and stuck it inside
    of a big chamber in an in Houston to do some testing they bounce light off the
    mirrors to make mirrors could wiggle independently each individual mirror
    segment I’m pretty excited about this it launches in 2020 on an Ariane 5 rocket
    from French Guiana it’s a world collaboration I’m very proud to be a
    part of this collaboration there’s a lot of great scientists just up north who
    are planning some of the early science is gonna be done with James Webb and it
    is an expensive thing now it’s like a billion dollars and Hubble is you know
    similarly very very expensive it’s a huge project that NASA is undertake and
    the question then is why why do we do this why do we build these telescopes
    and now for some of you in the audience you were like there’s no you don’t need
    to ask that question of course we should build telescopes this is you know it’s
    the progress of science but I think that that this question is I don’t thinking
    about in a bigger sense not just like why do we invest in in science but more
    like why as humans do we build telescopes and when I say telescopes I
    mean some broader humans astronomy is is is
    perhaps the most the oldest science there may be some scientists in this who
    might argue with that but I think that science that astronomy and the idea of
    looking up and wondering about the night sky is as old as humanity and and we
    know this because some of the earliest scientific sites in the world are
    Astronomy sites this is not the playa it’s an Egypt
    this is Egypt’s Stonehenge is a recreation but essentially these stones
    are oriented in a way where they are oriented with conjunction to various
    important celestial events sun rising star rising because astronomy is the
    foundation of both space and time astronomy gives us our time the motions
    of the Sun the rhythms of the sky at night and the motions of the Sun that
    astronomy right there that is the foundation of linear time for humans it
    gives us a change there’s a daytime and a nighttime the daytime gives us bright
    sunlight and warmth the nighttime gives us this incredible splendor of the sky
    things change over the seasons that tie into when we should plant and when the
    Nile might flood and and these are the things that touch and are our
    fundamental inside of our DNA like this this idea that the Sun rises and sets
    and gives life to plants right and we built these instruments to try to track
    them and understand them not the only one obviously the actual Stonehenge in
    in Britain so this is like you know from probably like 5000 years before the
    Common Era right and this is you know like a couple
    thousand years before the Common Era right this was a similar thing that
    there were important times in the year when the Sun was at a very important
    position and they thought that’s really it keeps coming back to that let’s mark
    that let’s celebrate that because that has incredible ramifications for our
    entire lives and the agrarian society that we live in in
    in in the Yucatan Peninsula the Mayans built this entire temple you know like
    you know thousand years ago to Venus just the motions of one planet this is
    El Caracol at Chichen itzá it’s a temple to Venus the the the the windows up
    there point towards important spots where Venus is and we’ve found Mayan
    codices before they were burned by the Spanish coming in we found these
    existing Mayan codices that are just big tables of when Venus rose and set
    because we cared about this we cared about this so much this was the
    foundation of like what what are the big questions the the fundamental source of
    these big questions what are we doing here what what’s going on well we have
    these patterns and these patterns are outside of human existence and we can
    write them down and try to analyze them and and try to put you know significance
    to them both religious and personal here’s in Wyoming Medicine Wheel which
    is the Native Americans doing a very similar thing horizon astronomy these
    lines line up and the rocks line up with important rising and setting right so
    we’re all grappling with this and so the reason we build telescopes is because
    this is big question that’s big big question that we’ve grappled with and
    astronomy is like the latest way to look at that the big question is why are you
    here this is the big question not just like why did you come to this lecture
    series because I had to because it was interesting because I loved 9:30 talks
    but the bigger the bigger version of this is the version that I think
    astronomy you have to grapple with when I give talks like this to actual
    astronomers they roll their eyes because they’re like you don’t don’t ask people
    this question that’s not why we’re here we’re here because we want to understand
    exactly the interstellar medium z– relationship to stellar birthing no no
    no III want to think about this question because I think that you do yourself a
    disservice if you approach science without thinking about a bigger picture
    question of the point of this and I think that for astronomy why are you
    here is the big question to ask because all that we’re trying to do is
    figure that out I think as people why are we here what’s going on what’s our
    purpose and to do that I want to share with you guys a story that starts 13.7
    billion years ago and you are a part of it so so so watch out so so 13.7 billion
    years ago this is a big big big thing about to do the the universe began and
    it began in this incredible explosion of light that we call the Big Bang the Big
    Bang was was a profound explosion of light and energy and that was it it was
    just light and energy streaming to the universe and you were there you don’t
    believe it but the stuff that makes you up you feel like oh I’m 20 years old and
    15 years old I’m 30 years old I’m 50 years old
    I’m only that old but no the stuff that you’re made of and the energy that you
    use that propels you that allows you to breathe was there in that miasma in that
    Big Bang it was there you were there just spread out and different and over
    like you know thousands of years millions of years you cooled down the
    energy of the universe cooled down and for a long time the universe was just
    light and then that light was turned into very simple gases hydrogen and
    helium again you were there just very simple and for a long time the universe
    was dark we call this the Dark Ages because it was a period of time when
    stars had not been born yet and slowly the gas clouds collapsed and coalesced
    and we heated up and they move faster and they started giving off a little bit
    of light and in the very dense cores of these gas clouds these pristine gas
    collapsed down and started to fuse this process of taking the simple gas and
    pushing it together and releasing enormous of analyte so you’re seeing
    here a simulation because the thing is is that we don’t exactly know how this
    process happened we have to simulate it because it’s very hard to observe in
    fact you might need a giant telescope that would barely fit in this room to
    analyze that and that’s one of the reasons why James Webb was designed it
    was designed to probe this early process the opening up of the universe the end
    of the Dark Ages when the universe experienced this run
    of like things happening that had never happened before in the universe baby
    stars being born for the first time and they don’t live very long because
    they’re enormous these first stars we think and they explode and not that gas
    goes into forming new baby stars and those explode you can see this here in
    the simulation a star has exploded and is releasing this shell of light that’s
    passing and lighting up the universe but this this process which we call
    Rihanna’s ation is fundamentally important for you if this didn’t happen
    you wouldn’t be here if this didn’t happen humanity would be a lot more
    boring because this right here the early stars were doing something that has
    ramifications and that we need to study as astronomers and that there are many a
    study astronomy was trying to study and James Webb is uniquely positioned to try
    to study because of its wavelength range and the size of its mirror because
    inside of those stars the thing that is happening is that stars are taking this
    simple hydrogen and they’re turning it into more complicated stuff they’re
    taking hydrogen and going hey now it’s helium oh cool look helium now it’s
    carbon this cannot happen anywhere else right now because fusion is very very
    very difficult to do requires incredible pressures and energies that only the
    core of a star can fuel and so we look at this process and we start to see this
    go together as hydrogen and helium and more and more these atoms start to being
    pushed together and what goes on is as these stars starts to push together
    these atoms those atoms get eventually spat out into the universe to form new
    generations of stars and so you’re seeing here that in the cores of some of
    these stars you have iron which means that the star cannot support itself and
    the star will eventually explode in a supernova an enormous explosion that is
    great for us because it means that all of the gas and stuff that was made in
    that star suddenly pushed outward into the universe and why is that important
    well because you guys are made out of carbon now where did that carbon come
    from a star had to die so you could be put together that is the thing I like to
    tell people that they do not believe your fingers are made of stuff that was
    put together inside of astonishingly the the reason that you
    are here right now is because stars live their lives and died before you were
    born to put the atoms together it gets crazier I’m wearing a ring that’s made
    out of silver maybe you’re wearing some gold heavy elements don’t just get made
    in dying stars they get made when you have two stars that are dead we
    just learned this last year two stars that are dead we learned this last year
    and I haven’t updated my video to show this two stars that are dead coalesce in
    some sort of crazy terrible death Tango to explode and in that process
    energetically all of the heaviest elements are created Gold was created
    when two stars had previously died and then crashed into each other this is
    mind-blowing because it is a thing that makes you realize that you are not just
    a you know like like this old in the history of the universe you are actually
    part of a series of things that stretched all the way back to when you
    were light energy floating around to the cosmos and the ways I like to think
    about it is that a long time ago if you could put a little tracers on all of
    your atoms in the universe then for like one brief second those atoms weren’t
    stars and they’re out and just a tiny bit there you and then after you’re gone
    they’ll be spread out in universe again so you are a collection of seven billion
    billion billion atoms that were created inside of stars as those stars lived and
    then died and then collected slowly to make what we know around us and what’s
    cool about about this is that the way we know this is from observations and the
    way that we’re gonna learn this better is through James Webb James Webb is
    designed in the infrared to look at galaxies that are farther than any
    galaxy who’s ever seen it will make Hubble look like like it like just it’s
    looking at the foreground James Webb and the worst of the work that I do just up
    north of here is trying to look at the light from one of these little fuzzy
    blobs and figure out exactly how far away it is which means I can tell you
    how far away we’re gonna see things and it’s almost peering back almost peering
    all the way back to those first stars and that first end of the dark ages
    gasps and over time over James Webb’s lifetime we will
    slowly and actually probably hint at getting at those stars and why is that
    important because that gives us a chance to look at the evolution of heavy
    elements in the universe to look at how the universe went from light to putting
    you together just this beautiful record as we slowly march forward because we
    can look at these because astronomers are very smart we can look at these
    fuzzy blobs and tell you how many stars are being born every year what’s the
    chemical makeup of those elements in the gas they’re like you know how big is it
    is it a spiral like we can tell a huge amount from this it’s harder what
    they’re really fun little fuzzy faraway ones mostly we’re just hoping to find
    those then you know that’s that’s the first step but for a lot of the stuff
    we’re gonna be able to really get in and understand exactly what’s going on and
    therefore make a like make a timeline of just the history of the universe’s heavy
    elements which is pretty profoundly important and so this is the image that
    I want to start with this is why we study why we build these telescopes this
    is an image of Congress Street here in Tucson back in like 1915 1920 ah and
    what’s cool is if I handed this to you you’re probably looking around and going
    like do I recognise that as Congress state what’s going on
    what site would you know I think that this is looking towards a mountain down
    the street right there right so this is looking towards the west and I think
    that what you do is what I do when you look at an image like this would you
    kind of like zoom in on a lot of stuff and go like oh man there’s like a shoe
    store on this street here I can zoom in on that thing there we’re like oh look
    what this kids wearing like we’ve got like a fun neckerchief and like this
    little cap on his bike right but you’re limited when it with an image like this
    you’re limited to the resolution of the image right like it’s hard to see I zoom
    this in it’s hard to see is that like a little red cross what’s going on on that
    right an astronomy is the same way but astronomy is kind of cool this image is
    one of the you know images that we have in the you know there’s a no museum of
    the universe of Arizona Museum to show historically what Old Tucson look like
    but we’re limited to whoever decided to stand out in the middle of street and
    take a picture right up by that but astronomy is cool because our telescopes
    can take images of the past and get better and better images of the past as
    we get better cameras right so when we say a telescope is a time machine
    it’s literally like looking but instead of looking at all these
    people looking at the zoom in we now can make better and better telescopes to
    look at the same thing this is an image of Congress Street billions of years ago
    now this is an image of galaxies stretching back this is that same image
    i zoom through but a much higher resolution every dot in this except for
    the ones with the spikes here and here there may be other ones but every image
    everything here that doesn’t have spikes is a galaxy every one of these so this
    little thing right there it’s a galaxy it’s a galaxy it’s a galaxy’s galaxy
    galaxies have about a hundred billion stars we live in one called the Milky
    Way so you’re looking at untold numbers of stars stellar systems potentially
    planets and you’re looking at an image that stretches back as far as we’ve ever
    seen so this is like looking at not just a baby picture but it’s like looking at
    one of those like family reunion pictures where you see all the
    generations together that is what you’re seeing here and James Webb will take an
    image of this that will just blow this out of the water not just from the fact
    that it’s gonna see far the little smudges but also like here’s a zoom in
    on one of these galaxies but you can see that it’s just it’s kind of like okay
    it’s blue and white it’s this one right here what’s going on but James Webb ran
    a simulation James will allow the resolution of individual groups of
    star-forming and also you can see there’s entire other galaxies that you
    wouldn’t be able to see begin with out there James Webb is going to
    revolutionize the field of galaxy evolution it’s going to do that thing I
    just described and understand it not just in a hand-wavy detail but like
    really do that that was why it was one of the main reasons why it was built and
    it’s very exciting it’s very very exciting because galaxies are incredibly
    diverse and the question of why does this diverse is like one of the
    foundational questions in my field right and the reason that we care about this
    and the reason why this is important is because this is like an like like the
    diversity is something that we get excited about when astronomers and when
    scientists see that there’s a type of object that is incredibly diverse we get
    very excited diversity is very cool for astronomy because it is a thing where we
    can go why why what’s going on there why like you’re probably looking at this and
    already picking out things that astronomers pick out like some of these
    are blue some of them are red yellow red right
    some of them are really pretty spirals some of them are I guess ball blobs
    right like these aren’t like some of them have these things in front of them
    right like this is this is what astronomers like look at and get excited
    about and James Webb will be able to have the resolution to trace the
    evolution to trace the evolution of properties these morphological
    properties why they look like this which is really very very exciting right and
    for closeby galaxies we can like use the telescope to look actually at them in a
    way we haven’t before this is a Hubble image of the Whirlpool Galaxy but notice
    there’s a bunch of this kind of red spirally stuff that’s in the middle of
    the arms that’s dust it’s kind of like soot and James Webb operates in the
    infrared which means we can like peer right
    through that soot because infrared light will pass through a lot of that dust and
    we can peer past the dust dust is a pain in the butt for astronomers because it
    blocks what we want to see but if we have the ability to peer through it we
    can start to see how stars are being born in and see individual groups of
    stars in distant galaxies which is near and never before been done and with this
    resolution and so when you start to do that you can take these images like I
    showed you at Hubble image here and peer inside of those little dusty cores here
    here’s here’s a summative star forming region and then the same region in the
    infrared down here and you can see ah what’s going on up there I don’t know ah
    there’s baby stars in there why why do we care about that well I’m not done
    with our journey yet the reason we care about the birth of baby stars is because
    and let’s flashback about 5 billion years ago we’re in a young version of
    the Milky Way and in this young version of the Milky Way there is a big gas
    cloud and you were there again not put together and slowly the gas cloud
    collapsed and that gas cloud has dust which blocked the way like a little
    cocoon and those little cores collapsed and eventually one of those got hot
    enough in the very center that it started to fuse and it turned on and
    around that there’s this enormous amount of there’s an enormous amount of like
    little rocks that like are left over from this process and those little rocks
    are coalescing as well those little rocks are
    laughing to form a group of little planets around this star and these
    planets are young and they they’re vastly different sizes and they are and
    some of them are very hot like the one of them third out is very hot and over
    time little rocks from space keep crashing into it delivering water on
    there and you’re starting to to build this and it’s violence it’s a very
    violent period of time because all little rocks are still spreading out
    through this little nascent system and the little rocks are crashing into all
    of the other planets and so we’re getting this this one rock that which
    we’ll call Earth I guess is getting bombarded with little rocks from space
    it’s bringing water but it’s also at one point something crashes into the earth
    and knocks a chunk off which starts to orbit around us and thank goodness this
    thing happens thank goodness this thing creates a moon because the moon delivers
    us the tides and the tides are really amazing for the young life that is
    starting to develop on this little blue ball this moon is mixing the tides up
    which might have an evolutionary help to like mix up and diversify and so the
    thing is is that starting from the Big Bang the universe took light and then
    slowly created life from light to life that’s what the universe did for you to
    be here and you have to value that that’s an amazing miracle that has
    happened right and the big question like and so so the life that step forward
    onto this like was underneath a sky that was filled with evidence of this
    possibly happening other places the night sky is a reckoning with what has
    happened right you see our own galaxy stretched out in our galaxy you see
    groups of star forming regions you can actually see a star forming region with
    your naked eye and Orion on on a dark night you can see these star forming
    groups you can see other stars it is a reckoning that it is a thing like you
    you can believe as many people did that we’re at the very center of things but
    the night sky is a reminder that we are not and I think that’s a terrifying
    thing for a lot of people we we build like in the last hundred years the
    Industrial Revolution has brought you know electrical street lights and all
    sorts of lights and so now we literally live in a world where we spend a lot of
    our times trying to ignore the fact that the sky
    is beautiful and above us especially at night by turning the light on our face
    and pointing it directly at our face at all times I know this I’ve lived on a
    college campus for many years college students really get excited
    about cellphone light in their face and like this is the thing that like we up
    until a couple hundred years ago up until hundred years ago this was every
    night we lived in a world where this was the reckoning we had to make every
    single night and why is that also important because we’re not the only
    solar system out there we’re actually finding evidence that there are our
    solar systems around pretty much every star it’s hard to find these book stars
    are very bright very very bright and you have to find these tiny things that
    don’t glow on their own that are just orbiting it barely studying planets is a
    very cool thing a lot of Sirah numbers do so my colleagues down the hall our
    our our planet people and they are very excited about this because we’re just
    now entering a time where it’s not just like collecting you know systems but
    understanding what’s going on there is fundamental right and so this is the big
    question that we as scientists like and as human beings are going to have to
    reckon with in the next 20 years which is this idea that like oK we’ve looked
    out of the night sky we’ve wondered where we are we can trace the history of
    our being put here but has this happened anywhere else I think the biggest
    discovery in all of science and this is very very self-centered but I think the
    biggest discovery knowledge science is going to be an astronomy discovery of
    the existence of life outside of our planet the fact that we did not walk
    this journey from the beginning to here alone and we’re just now entering
    because it’s very very hard to look at planets and so James Webb is designed in
    part to look at the atmospheres of planets in a very clever way sometimes
    planets will orbit right in front of their host stars and in that tiny bit of
    time light can pass just grazing through that tiny onion skin of an atmosphere
    just barely through that and we can see what like it’s scattered out from that
    and look at what’s left over light through the atmosphere and tell you a
    little about what’s going on atmosphere that is something that’s being done by
    my colleagues and it is very difficult I do not do this because it is very very
    difficult to do I work on galaxies because relatively it’s little easier
    than trying to suss out the goings-on of an atmosphere of a planet that is you
    know incredibly distant right and what they’re fine what we’re hoping to find
    is evidence that atmosphere has things in it that may be evidence that
    something’s going on there besides just oh it’s a it’s a you know it’s like a
    big Jupiter there’s nothing really we don’t see me life it’s big gas giant
    instead it’d be great if we could look at planet atmospheres and say ah oxygen
    ozone methane maybe there’s cows burping on that planet as well right like this
    is the thing about about atmosphere scientism our atmosphere tells a lot
    about what is using the atmosphere right and another very cool thing that James
    Webb will be able to do is that James Webb will be actually able to take
    images direct images of those planets which is so hard it’s like if I took one
    of those um big spotlights they used to advertise like car sales and just
    pointed it all of your face right now and you’re like oh this is too bright
    but then I put like a little Firefly on the edges you can you see the Firefly no
    you can see the Firefly there’s a giant bright light in your face right you can
    see just how bright this star is and we’ve blocked this is an example of
    simulation we’ve blocked a lot of the light from the star with this a Coulter
    and yet even then you have to do some very clever spinning and twisting to
    slowly get at the planet direct images of planets outside of our solar system
    this is a revolution because this allows us to see these planets that are growing
    and to see how they shape the young solar system that they’re growing into
    and how the young solar system shapes them because we are always asking
    ourselves why are we here an astronomy gives us a chance to see that happening
    see the process is happening that put us here in the universe mirrored back at us
    we have a time machine we have a time machine and we have an ability to look
    at the universe around us and actually piece together all of the sparts that
    put us together and that is one of the unique joys of being an astronomer is
    that I get a chopper tunity too instead of wondering right when I was a kid I
    could either study dinosaurs or space it was the only true things I could ever
    myself studying and at one point said I’ll never see a dinosaur in my life but
    I will see a galaxy and I will find a black hole and I will find pictures of
    them and I have and it’s been great I love paleontology it’s that’s very
    cool science but I just I wanted to be able to see the things that were the
    answers to my questions and astronomy gives us this so I’m gonna finish up
    with with the kind of roundabout thing which is and and and and humanities
    why’s that the kind of reason why this first off there’s this quote that I like
    from John Muir who says that when we contemplate the whole globe is one giant
    great dewdrop striped and dotted with continents and islands flying through
    space with other stars all singing shining together as one this is the
    important part here the whole universe appears as an infinite storm of beauty
    and I really like the words they’re infinite storm of beauty because he uses
    the word storm to describe this he’s looking this is from his travelogues and
    he’s going up to Alaska and he’s looking at clouds so he’s in a very stormy mind
    but he refers to the universe is infinite storm of beauty because we
    sometimes think of think of storms as dangerous and they can be but storms are
    creative forces right that’s reason we call a brain storm it’s a creative force
    and the universe was a creative force that put together so much beauty the
    universe as infinite storm of beauty I really like that thanks John but I I
    think that that when when people often talk about astronomy and when you when
    you go see astronomy videos and movies and stuff like oh go to IMAX you’ll hear
    like like some big booming voice you know the universe is vast and you are
    tiny compared because that otherwise is science like like you know 14 billion
    you’re like this it makes you feel like insignificant and people tell me they
    asked me they were Kevin I how do you do it I just sometimes I look out at night
    I feel so small and so nothing and I think that that that is the my central
    charge as a scientist is that you should stop authorizing science and start
    internalizing science because you should look at science as from the point of
    view of a human not from the point of view of some cold robot who’s
    trying to not use their emotions and use and understand the beauty of the
    universe and understand the beauty of the thing that you do because if you do
    that you will remember that 14 billion years ago the universe puts you together
    from light itself in varied and interesting ways it put people together
    in strange interesting ways and all of them were set under the same sky looking
    up with the same stars some of the stories were shared over time we can
    look at certain groups and patterns of stars and recognize that one culture
    that never talked to another culture looked at it and saw the same thing and
    this all is profoundly connecting you the Stars connect us they do not dwarf
    us they are a thing that exists and we exist alongside of it because of the
    actions of these stars you are this assemblage of seven billion billion
    billion atoms flying through the universe on this crazy spaceship that is
    one of the only places where we see liquid water which is good because it’s
    good to drink and we are the beneficiaries of an incredible amount of
    things that have happened to put us here so I’m going to finish with that idea
    that you should not feel small by the universe but you should instead look at
    the universe the way that you look at any art as an understanding and and and
    and and as an example of the human experience reflected back the universe
    puts you together and you need to put the universe together inside of your
    brain because it is the most incredible thing to have put you together to be
    here ok so if you have any questions my name is dr. Kevin Hamlin and I’d love to
    answer them right now thank you all right questions so I see one in the
    back over here this is my favorite part when a microphone is shuttled around
    I used there’s a microphone that people have that’s like in a big fuzzy thing
    that they throw around a room which is really very exciting yes I’d first just
    like to compliment you on a talk that was maximum and his clarity oh thank you
    and it’s enthusiasm thank you I I appreciate that thank you I have
    questions about the title why are we here and when I saw that I thought wait
    a second you know does this go to purpose and then you explained it as a
    concatenation of events over yes billions of years but you concluded that
    with the question what is our purpose so that’s a humanities question I’m asking
    you what is our purpose okay I’m going to talk about this from the point of
    view of a scientist in case there’s any of my colleagues in the room we’re gonna
    roll their eyes that is partially a religious question and I don’t know if I
    have it within me to answer that from the point of view of a scientist but
    from the point of view of a human being over here scientist day over there the
    point of view for you being I think that when you are the beneficiary of events
    that have happened I think that the only purpose that you must have inside of you
    is to relish that and find joy in that and use that as tool of I think that
    that like this is very touchy-feely and astronomers really hate when I get to
    the study feely but I think that like our primary purpose as human beings is
    to love and to like hold on to the fact that that we are all this crazy
    assemblage on this thing and not use that to like gain power over other like
    that’s like a silly thing like if things happen to put you together in your Adela
    could miracle why would you do anything else but celebrate the delicate miracles
    that are around you and so I think that that’s the primary purpose now
    scientifically that gets into religion and a bunch of stuff that I I don’t have
    any purpose over and maybe there’s some theologian in the room who like has a
    better explanation but like that is the big thing that humans have grappled with
    is what it really is our purpose and I think that like when you’re so like you
    know incredibly like vastly complicated and from nothing you have to share that
    and be enthusiastic about that and like hold on to that by loving as hard as you
    can so hopefully that’s the touchy-feely answer to your question yes in the blue
    behind and then I think there’s a question down here I guess deal yes
    thank you thank you for what you’ve told us so far Einstein yes imagination is
    more important than knowledge I think that that’s what separates us as in
    creature I’m aware that Kepler and Einstein and Newton had spiritual lives
    that were very very important to their work and Einstein made that very clear
    by the way he lived in the last half of his life especially mm-hmm I’m asking
    you in the imagination Department to share with us some of your ruminations
    that about the statistics and probability of the way that this kind of
    a situation here is distributed in the universe so and you know it’s like
    starting with our own Milky Way and going out to what you have shown us here
    with some of these images thank you so the problem with statistics is that it’s
    it’s very cold and it’s also reliant on us having other examples and this is the
    big problem with anyone trying to do statistics to look at the universe is
    that we have one example of life it’s here on the earth and when you just have
    one example you can’t do statistics you can do some but they’re very small
    number and they don’t they’re they’re mostly pull out of nowhere and so there
    are a lot of things that could have happened and didn’t and we exist but we
    would we would not have existed if they did not go right so we you know there’s
    this is principal that says like well we we feel special but also we wouldn’t be
    here to feel special if it didn’t go our way and so you know there’s this
    survivorship bias statistically a lot of things happened that are pretty profound
    to put us here and I’m very happy about that I don’t know if I can give you
    numbers to say that I I want to go back though to your statement about
    imagination from from Einstein I think imagination is really very
    underrated as the thing that makes us human beings like the thing that
    separates us from a lot of different creatures is the fact that we have this
    imagination born from many different possible reasons why we might have this
    you know maybe just evolutionarily like fight or flight well if we can imagine
    the possible scenarios it might help us but like the fact that we can’t imagine
    like that’s why we do a lot of the things we do that’s why we build
    telescopes is because we can imagine the things we might see and I’m very happy
    that you brought that up because III think that the more that you exercise
    that imagination as a muscle and as a thing that you use and the more that you
    don’t shut yourself off to the fact that you are a creative being human beings in
    this room like you know if you’re not doing something that requires some
    imagination because of many reasons we might shut that off you know there’s an
    embarrassment we’re like I can’t be imaginative that’s silly like let me
    tell you I am the silliest person you ever in your life I am the most
    enthusiastic imagine if I try to be so much and has never steered me wrong do
    not worry about other people criticizing you for being imaginative because it is
    the best muscle you can you can use and it’s something that will only make you
    happier so thank you for ringing that up I don’t know if I can help you super
    much about the statistics part because right now we just know one example and
    it’s a great one but until like talk to me once James Webb has started
    discovering once we’ve discovered that life may exist other places because then
    we have a couple other examples and then it’s really we’re off to the races I
    think there was a question down up front yes I think there were two yeah so I was really curious about your
    experiences with the public versus your colleagues in your ideas and personal
    viewpoints on this I I joke about this a little bit I think that science is is
    like thought of it like you go to you go to like a lot of school for science and
    it like weeds out a lot of people which is bad weeds amount for bad reasons
    because there’s a very competitive aspect to science and I think that
    science at his best is very collaborative and I’m very lucky I work
    with a lot of collaborative people but I I have a different background to like
    why I do a lot of this outreach stuff and I have a lot of experience doing it
    and speaking about these sorts of things which means that I have been able to
    speak in context where I have not gotten pushed back but a lot of astronomers
    most of their talking experience comes and was their outreach and sharing
    experience comes in a very formal lecture based or or colloquium research
    experience thing and so they just don’t have an opportunity to go out and say
    something that’s inside of their heart and say something that’s more exciting
    and more enthusiastic and not like in a judgment-free zone like I’m very happy
    that I’m in front of a group of people who like are not gonna you know be sassy
    but like there are astronomers who definitely like think that any amount of
    humor or any amount of like spirituality is is taking steps too far I’m very
    lucky because I think that we’re ensuring at a time when astronomy a lot
    of the young people coming to astronomy are coming from very diverse backgrounds
    and bringing their diverse points of view and it’s not nearly as diverse as
    it should be at all and by the way any of you want to be astronomers please –
    we would love to have more young astronomers but like these young
    astronomers are starting to bring more of the human element to astronomy and
    I’m very very blessed that like there are more astronomers who do art and who
    write poetry and who paint and who like you know dance than they’ve ever been in
    the history of astronomy and that’s very very exciting because it means that this
    thing where I get worried about what would my astronomer friends think if
    they saw my talk is gonna be less and less of an issue yes so yes my question was so like multiple times
    you referred to the Webb telescope it’s like a time machine yes I just curious
    like how is it like what makes it like a time so here’s here’s my example here’s
    my example imagine that you live in eighteen hundred’s and the only way that
    you get your mail is from New York is that someone gets on a horse and rides
    that to you right so you tell your friend hey write me a letter
    your friend writes you a letter and then gives that to you right and it takes a
    while so when you get that letter you’re not getting it from your friend as they
    just wrote it the other day maybe it’s like like you know I got a haircut today
    and you get the letter wow they got a haircut
    but they’re you’re not getting the information about what they got today
    you’re getting the information about what they got like you know a week ago
    right or maybe it’s even longer maybe it’s like a really slow Pony Express
    rider like a month ago like maybe it’s something more like you’re getting news
    from the continent right like some from Britain and like that news had to get on
    a ship and come across and get on a horse and come across as you’re getting
    this letter right so you’re not actually getting information as it is right now
    you’re getting it as it was you’re getting information and similarly
    because light travels in a finite speed the light that we see just in the Stars
    has taken you’re seeing that light as it left 10 15 years ago hundred years ago
    thousand years ago which is really cool by the way think about right now there’s
    light traveling to the universe traveling through the universe and in a
    couple nights you will look up at it and see it it’s been traveling for a
    thousand years it’s just 2 days away from seeing your eyes that’s like a
    pretty cool thing right but that means you’re seeing those stars as they were
    10 years ago because that’s ten year old light thousand years ago with James Webb
    we’re gonna see light that’s traveling to the universe for like thirteen
    thirteen point two billion years which means which means right now it’s at the
    traveling through the universe has been traveling Universal for the entire
    history the universe is light travel universe and we’re just a couple ways
    years away from putting a telescope up in space it’s gonna finally capture that
    light and when we see those things we’re not gonna see them as the galaxies are
    right now we’re seeing them as it was when the light left the galaxy just like
    you’re hearing about your friend as she was when she wrote that letter and so
    that is why when I show you that picture of Congress Boulevard we can take a
    picture like that of distant galaxies and see them as they were and if we want to
    find one sit a little bit older we look a little farther away where lights take
    a little longer so it’s a time machine like I mean it doesn’t take us there but
    it gives us pictures of that which is very cool is that answer your question
    cool all right I don’t know how many more questions I can answer
    someone should kick me off when I’m not because otherwise I will just continue
    asking punches so here in the white I think first of all thank you for the
    talk and my question actually comes in response to your response for the first
    question because you mentioned about religion disclaimer not a theologian but
    a religious studies scholar cool so I was actually struck through the entire
    talk how some of the the language that you use mirrored mythic language so one
    that I noted down was a star was born and died so that you can live which
    already has this logical understanding so and then we get to the end of the
    talk he was started talking about how the far-off Ness of science blocks
    something that’s humanistic and that we need to see it as part of us and I
    actually was thinking about at that point some theories of what how myth
    functions as a parallax which you know borrowing again it’s the same term your
    well but the a far off and and the nearby and that that’s important for
    Humanity to be able to reflect on the same question of why we are here that we
    are here but we recognize the far off and go moving back and forth between
    those two points of view makes us understand things differently so my
    question for you then is can you tell we reflect a little bit on how sort of the
    idea of science actually fulfilling the the same function as myth or mythic
    language I mean that that like what’s great is that if you just trace it all
    the way back like our understanding our reckoning with myths and story like
    branches off from astronomy like at the very beginning of time right like like
    we had stories and shared stories about the things that were happening and then
    applied those stories directly to the stars our stars stories are you know the
    Big Dipper Big Dipper is actually the Great Bear the Great
    Bear is you know seen by many multi cultures that we can trace back as a
    bear with ders or a bear with Cubs there is myth
    right there right so astronomy is the story of myth become more cold and
    rational right like it’s it’s as as we realize like okay well the stars are not
    painted on crystal spheres they’re actually these faraway things and I am
    saying that scientists want to just like push that aside and say like okay we
    can’t but you can’t reckon with with the universe without interpreting it through
    the stories that like you know because you know like the way that we can
    understand this is with with the stories like it’s this is this is a huge
    question that I don’t know if I’m really properly ready to answer after a big
    talk but like I think that like like we we have to because it is like inside of
    us like as storytelling creatures and that we have to because especially like
    it just as specific look all I do is write papers that’s what we do our
    languages academics is papers and let me tell you when you read a paper that is
    written by someone who’s trying to write in a very cold rational way it’s not
    nearly as exciting as when you write read a paper by someone who understands
    the metaphor and understands the story they’re weaving of the topic they’re
    looking at and I think that like like you have to bring that in just as an
    academic I have to bring that in to be a more warm person but also just as a
    person to exist in the universe to exist as a person I have to reckon with I have
    to think about the stories and the like oh like the way that I build stories in
    my brain with respect to the thing that I’m
    studying this is rambling I understand I’m sorry but like but I would love to
    talk with you afterwards a little bit more because I I don’t have a lot of
    opportunity to talk with with religious studies people and I think there’s a
    huge amount of that I think that maybe I have to finish up so thank you guys very
    much hi everyone I just want to make a quick
    announcement too because we’ve had a lot of questions if you pick up one of these
    flyers you have humanities Arizona edu forward slash tech there will be a link
    to all of these lectures on that page so if you want to see it if you’re not
    gonna be here tomorrow or you just want to go back and see it they’re gonna be
    on there and I’ll also be on our YouTube channel thank you all right thank you
    okay we’ll take a quick two minutes break for bathroom break and in about
    two minutes we’ll start with the next presentation bathroom how under this
    this side ok we will start again pretty soon okay thank you about to start again and
    I would I would like to take a few minutes just to say a little bit about
    this series and to to thank our alumni our Jackie and and Ben adorns for the
    support of this series through the door hands scholarship programs as well as G
    immensely with the director of the Doren scholarship program this is thank to him
    to them that we are able to to have this series here at the University through
    the College of Humanities so a little bit about the dawn scholarship programs
    it sponsors not only this new theory but he’s a longtime supporter of students
    awarding scholarships since 1999 to first-generation undergraduate college
    students in Arizona and in Hawaii mr. and mrs. Durance both on bachelor’s
    degrees in French at the University of Arizona and they were named the College
    of Humanities alumna of the year in in 2012 and as I told them when we when we
    first met back then I feel like there really are
    the perfect example for our current and future students to follow because they
    have put to good use the the skills that one acquires by studying the humanities
    skills like empathy social responsibility leadership communication
    collaboration critical thinking creative problem-solving all these important
    skills that our students are able to study in our disciplines in the in the
    College of Humanities and this vision that the dorans add for the for the
    students in the in the scholarship program of educating future leaders of
    the global economy is and having this connection between the humanities and
    the new technologies is something that we we definitely share in our College
    of the of the humanities Study Abroad is another important aspect of that vision
    and so we have been fortunate to work with the with the DOE and scholarship
    programs on a study abroad program that was designed for the for the students
    who study one semester in Italy to one of our location as part of the of the of
    the program and another thing that we are doing as part of this vision of
    combining the humanities with the science is that we have created a new
    degree that has been a proven that will start in the fall of 2018 in
    collaboration with several colleges on campus the era of college of management
    the college of public else the College of Architecture and the College of
    Agriculture and it’s going to be a BA in Applied humanities that is going to
    combine the humanities those skills that we teach and that we learn in the
    humanities with some of those other disciplines that are represented and and
    this is kind of the point to of this of this series again is to show the
    connection between the between those those different disciplines and how they
    complete each other because at first you know it may seem counterintuitive that
    the Doorn scholarship program and ng Mansley would have contacted us to do a
    series that that deal with with technology and the technology program
    but really as you will see with all the speakers and you already saw is the
    first one it makes total sense because one cannot go without the other
    okay this idea of how the humanities and the arts are already center to this new
    world of technology is something that is very important and that we are looking
    forward to continuing this discussing so I want to think again the program the
    door and subscribe program for for the help with this and it’s great to see the
    the students again into two of them with with us today so the next presenter for
    the series is a Kevin Shaw Kevin Choi CTO and
    founder of algorithmic intuition is a lifelong and homeowner with a deep love
    of technology here strong experience in start-up semiconductors business
    development product development and team building he has a PhD in electrical
    engineering micro electromechanical systems from Cornell University a
    master’s in management from Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business
    and 30 US patents in MEMS and algorithms he also might not in the humanities as
    an undergraduate student he is an adjunct faculty at thank you singularity
    universe University for MEMS sensors and IOT he was CTO of sensor platforms in
    from 2009 and she did sake acquisition by audience in 2014 before that he
    established the sensor algorithms team and run business development previously
    co-founded co founded his first company soon after college that was sold in 2004
    and worked at key onyx ink mm semiconductor foundry that was acquired
    in 2000 the title of his lecture today is exponential technology machine
    learning and their impact on the 21st century dr. Kevin Shaw as speakers work no oh there we go all
    right now we got some sound let me put on a timer here all right good
    um good morning to all I am in awe of our first speaker and I do not know how
    I’m going to be able to follow that what I am NOT an academic I am a technologist
    I can’t talk about things as grand as the Big Bang in black holes but I can
    tell you something about technology and what we’re able to do um today I want to
    talk about exponential technology which is sort of an odd topic but I think it
    describes some of the change that we’re feeling in the world today we know
    something shifting we know something great is happening but we can’t quite
    put our finger on it I want to try and give you some insight into that um we’ll
    start off by talking about what exponential thinking is why why I think
    something’s happening we’ll talk about machine learning and why is having such
    a powerful impact on our world and lastly how does that change how we see
    opportunities going forward at the jobs we knew of if the products we knew of
    growing up no longer exist where do we find opportunity for
    ourselves there was a time there was a time when all weather was local
    information was local everything I wanted to know I had to get myself and
    the time before the smart phone before the Weather Channel before Facebook
    before the telephone if I wanted to know the weather for my crops from my farm
    for my family I had only one option well I had to I could look outside or I could
    trust my gut felt like rain today that was my only
    option me the information I got I was fairly closed in say the problem is
    understanding what the weather was a days horse ride away I took a horse ride
    for a day to get there I couldn’t know that information now
    because I had to take time to go get it looks like we just heard in our first
    talk about the speed of light and the the weather we might get or the mail we
    might get via a horse back across the country I hope that’s not mine this was
    our mode of travel and it changed the way we view the world because the idea
    that that information could be had limited our ability to think that
    information mattered I mean if you don’t know about it how can it affect you so
    in this time ideas and information were limited our understanding of the broader
    world was limited until somebody had this fascinating idea they could take
    little strips of metal hang it on tree poles well that came up with some interesting
    ideas because people and here’s a map of England in the 1850s showing some of the
    the early telegraph lines and this guy had an interesting idea um he had a
    little bit of experience with sailing and I had an idea for why it might help
    sailors if you remember the name by the way who know your history he’d done some
    sailing aboard a ship called the HMS Beagle guy named guy the guy that wrote
    Origin of Species Darwin he was the captain for that ship and when he came
    back he convinced the British government to give him some money he trained some
    guys and sent them off to the corners of England trained him to mean read these
    newfangled machines called barometers and thermometers and their job was to
    watch the weather make measurements and hoof it down to the nearest telegraph
    office every couple hours and they’d send that information by telegraph to
    him in London and he was gathering information from all over it’s not so
    much that he was interested in having a better picnic on Sundays it was more
    interested in sailing and that time thousands of ships were lost
    not sailors ships were lost every year about whether they had no idea when
    going out to see whether the weather would be fair or foul tomorrow but he
    did he saved thousands of lives and in fact the predictions that he made were
    so new and so noteworthy there wasn’t even a word for him so he created one
    called it a forecast the world.we word we use today he had to create the change
    that this made going back to our view of the farmer in the valley was it hid
    farmer could now look at a newspaper and see weather reports not just for the
    next city but in advance for what would happen several days ago or in advance
    this was shocking the idea that you could know information a long ways away
    and the idea that you could anticipate it and that it mattered to you was
    shocking and this actually led to some other interesting exchanges because it
    was such a new idea that it actually grew and grew fast this tiny little idea
    sending copper wires across the country grew at a rapid clip you may note this
    shape of this curve or this curve about railroad growth starts off with a couple
    hundred miles they had put up two hundred thousand miles of railroad lines
    in 50 years these types of things start small these little ideas and they grow
    and they grow surprisingly so why do I start off talking about history on this
    fine morning because I wasn’t talking about a farmer
    in the 1850s talking about us we’re so proud of what we’ve got but we are just
    as ignorant and our world is wrenching forward as rapidly as that man we cannot
    see it it is starting off slowly and it is growing fast and it is very hard for
    us as humans let’s see this type of effect it’s now our turn to wonder
    because I does anybody here have a smartphone
    because I asked that semi humorously do you know when this device was invented
    the first iPhone came out No 2007 the iPhone was did not exist before 2000 M
    that was 11 years ago 11 years ago none of you would have had a smartphone in
    your hand now every single one of you does you expect information continuously
    always and at a fingertip this is the wrenching change there are 1.5 billion
    of these things sold a year going from our product that did not exist 11 years
    ago this is exponential change here’s a plot we’ll talk about it more another
    exponential curve what’s kind of interesting is this point right here
    it’s about seven billion people on the planet this is the point about five
    seven eight years ago we crossed over having one device for every man woman
    and child on the planet we now have two to three devices for every man woman and
    the child in the planet does this curve say we’re done oh no this curve is the
    plot of the number of transistors on a computer chip we’ll talk about this a
    little bit more you notice a sort of similar curve there these things start
    small but they grow very quickly and what’s so hard for us as humans to
    understand I mean our brains did really good at understanding whether there was
    a tiger around the corner that was going to eat us but it’s not very good at
    Exponential’s see if I asked you how far will I go if I walk five steps you’ll
    nail that okay I want you to double that okay I’ll probably be over there another
    three times that I’ll be over there I got that I’m good at linear now let me
    ask you about exponential if I square my distance of steps I’m not over there I’m
    outside the room if I square it again I’m on the other side of the campus
    these effects are hard anticipate and they make our ability to
    forecast at very limited and it has other attack impacts as well see when
    you start off here exponential curves are actually weaker they’re less
    impactful at the beginning and they’re very easy to ignore because they seem to
    be well it’ll just go away and then linear effects seem to dominate the
    problem is that part that’s where things take off and depending on who you are
    you either view this as a disruptive kick in the stomach or Eve you it as an
    opportunity it’s just a question of perspective see let me give you an
    example of a fairly well-to-do company I know the people in the front row never
    even probably heard of this but for the people in the back you remember these
    boxes that you carry around that had this plastic film and you took pictures
    they were catbird seat in the catbird seat in the mid-90s they rocked
    they had a cash cow that was coming in cash hand over fist then this guy had
    this idea can I make a box that doesn’t put it on plastic film but actually
    brings it in takes digital images well it turns out the pieces of film have
    about you know 10 to 50 billion pixels on them he had a hundred thousand pixels
    it’s pretty insignificant remember I said the the curve tends to be a little
    bit low in the beginning he presented this to the board of Kodak cuz he worked
    for Kodak the board laughed and they said you’ve got to be kidding we’re
    making money hand over fist don’t distract us that thing weighs 10 pounds they had the patents they had the
    initial idea they had the researchers they knew color they knew pixels and
    they died the same year these guys 13 people sold for a billion dollars
    a recurring theme in this talk is the fact that what you used to need you
    don’t need now because the resources that we have for these young people here
    are so phenomenal that you don’t need a hundred thousand people to change the
    world and now we have all these the technology that’s racing forward now is
    mind-blowing so what I owe part of what the point is
    it used to take a billion dollars to be able to influence a billion people now
    you don’t need a laptop the internet some free software and coffee never
    underestimate the importance of coffee and great achievement now a kid in
    Mumbai can teach themselves code can pull down the best neural net code
    tensorflow for example Google runs on tensorflow all the stuff we’re going to
    talk about today is tensorflow it is free every line of code is open
    source and public you can read every line you can copy it down from anywhere
    on the planet and have access to all the resources that Google has Wow so now
    somebody in Mumbai can pull that down get a laptop and build a startup and
    build great technology that they had the idea the tools are available to every
    one of you you just need the idea and the gumption to make it happen you don’t
    need the billion dollars all the best code libraries are free read github and
    the classic line I didn’t know I couldn’t do it so I just did and of
    course the courses will talk about that a little bit more you don’t need to go
    to a great university no disrespect to figure out how to do this all the infirm
    you need and large extent is available for free and the venture for investors
    are following so we find ourselves here are we any different than that farmer
    trying to anticipate the changes that are pulling out from under our feet
    let’s talk a little bit more about the technologies underpinnings that are
    changing all of this there’s a couple of technology revolutions that I think are
    really important that’ll help you understand why this is happening now for
    a silicon second sensing third the manufacturing revolution and lastly the
    algorithms first off silicon wafers now this is cool to me I did my doctoral
    work in designing computer chips they’re really cool they’re a lot of fun they
    started off with one transistor back in the 1950s it was big it was ugly here’s
    a cross-section of your iPhone microprocessor there’s a couple years
    old so it’s kind of big the line you see right there that’s a two micron scale
    bar which means the transistors are tiny human hair if you were to pull one from
    your head it’s about 50 microns so this is really tiny this shows you how
    Moore’s law which is not really a law but it happens to fit really nicely um
    obviously it started with Rend transistors somewhere down there and it
    actually keeps going way up there has continued exponential growth about
    doubling of the number of transistors on a chip about every 18 months every two
    years it just keeps marching along until you have this picture this is a
    cross-section of a transistor there’s a scale bar by there it’s no longer 2
    microns 5 nanometers can anybody tell me what those dots are Adams Adams we’re now making transistors
    that have a countable number of silicon atoms in them this is a 10 nanometer
    device so you silicon is about a half a nanometer lattice so you have about 20
    silicon atoms across in a transistor and this by the way is old this is a two
    year old image they’re now doing not ten nanometer but eight nanometer is going
    into production we now are manufacturing devices with a countable number of atoms
    in every part and it’s not just you’re making one of them you’ve got ten
    billion of these twenty thirty billion of these and every chip and every chip
    on that wafer is working at ninety ninety-five percent yield capacity and
    not just because of the side the amount of energy needed to switch those atoms
    from one state to another is insignificant which is why every
    generation of my smart phone works longer and does more takes less energy
    to make each switch and takes us back to this of why it’s marching along the
    computational capacity is driving this which is why we have this exponential
    curve because it started off with this idea of I could have an Apple 2 plus or
    an IBM PC it ended up with a smart phone that I hold in my hand with all the
    resources of a crazed supercomputer from a decade or two ago and we don’t even
    think about it what do we use it for it’s not computing
    the weather Facebook I send text messages and watch videos of cats the
    next revolution is the cloud revolution because it’s not just that I can put 50
    billion transistors into my hand Haggans I can spin up 10,000 of those
    boxes with a moment’s notice I have an app on my phone there we use Amazon Web
    Services for our company I have an app there I could spin up ten instances of
    high-end computing resources by touching a button on an app on my phone within
    two to three those resources will be online in doing
    whatever I want I pay maybe a penny an hour if I want something really powerful
    I’ll pay 50 cents an hour I don’t have to build a room or air-conditioning wait
    six weeks for Dell to show up the boxes install software
    I just press a button and I have the best computing resources in the planet
    for my hour and when I’m done I shut them off I don’t have them sitting
    around somebody else can use them I don’t care as a start-up as someone with
    a cool technology idea I have access to thousands of servers instantly and I’m
    done no cost by counting in pennies next of revolution is sensing sensing doesn’t
    sound very exciting because we do it so effortlessly we all have our senses I’m
    sensing the room and watching all of you I’m feeling the air I’m hearing my voice
    I’m speaking we do it all the time you don’t think much about it but truthfully
    most computers sit in warehouses like this they don’t have much to sense
    historically we’ve just run accounting numbers and videos through them they
    don’t do a whole lot of sensing of the world but that’s changing part of what
    we’re doing now is we’re carrying around the sensors for them do you realize that
    that smartphone you’re carrying has 25 sensors on it and you and everyone else
    that planet are scurrying all over the planet carrying those sensors everywhere
    it’s almost like this roving hive of ants with sensors marching all over for
    those computers they’re literally sensing the world for you and that’s not
    just you your cars they’ve got 150 sensors on them
    200 300 see what’s happening is the amount of devices and IOT is this
    Internet of Things is this really cool topic right now but I don’t to use
    really just another word for a little sensor that’s connected to a network
    whether it’s the nest thermostat in your house it’s measuring the temperature or
    it’s the phone that you’re holding that’s care measuring the light and the
    your location these devices are growing we’ve already said we’re at the point
    where it to 2 to 3 devices for every man woman and
    on the planet now we’re going to eight and ten devices I’m gonna ask you an
    interesting question I’ve got two hands I’ve got one phone if there’s gonna be
    10 of these devices for just me where are they going very good
    she says accessories yes they’re going in surprising places
    and I want to spend a few minutes because we get all excited about the
    better faster computer in the screen but that’s actually not where the real
    innovation is happening and I want to give you a flavor for that I’m gonna
    start here a doorknob really come on we didn’t show up this lecture to talk
    about doorknobs or maybe we did it’s worked very well as technology goes for
    the past couple of hundred years but I stayed in a hotel this morning that had
    a keycard and I swiped my electronic key card to get in why doesn’t the door in
    my house worth the same way you know what will you have a smartphone the door
    recognizes the Bluetooth signature when I walk in and says welcome home Kevin
    your wife’s home son’s home your daughter just left you don’t think
    that’s gonna happen every doorknob in the country soon will
    or better yet little plastic buckets seriously
    I’m talking about trash cans well some interesting things happened when they
    started putting sensors in trash cans turns out as quoted here they reduce the
    number of garbage collecting shifts from 17 down to 3 turns out most of the
    garbage they were collecting was empty and if they measured the garbage level
    in each trashcan they didn’t have to measure them as I pick him up as often
    and the ones that were already full early they got them early and they saved
    15 trips every week they saved a million dollars in terms of gas truck rolls smog
    carbon footprint and employees remember these are just little plastic buckets
    but we some sensors on them on a little
    connectivity and suddenly we dramatically change carbon footprint and
    the need for services or what about your house as ignominious as it is it’s a
    pile of sticks stucco a little concrete and maybe some paint dumb dead and
    simple until you add Alexa think about it for a moment you’ve just brought this
    massively intelligent copier and a conversational resource into your house
    and not just one of them I got three of them in my house well until yesterday
    the cat’s knocked one of them in the water bowl and I found Alexa floating in
    the water bowl I’m still hoping it’ll dry out but we watched John Luke Picard
    and Star Trek The Next Generation knew he’d say tea Earl Grey hot well we don’t
    have the food synthesizers down but your ability to just call out hey Alexa play
    some caravan palace I can ask it anything it’s a cut I have made my house
    intelligent my house becomes conversational and just with a $29
    hockey puck same thing goes with delivery services it’s no longer a
    question of just sending out a delivery service van the top of the van includes
    a quadrocopter think of driver hops out delivers
    package to you the quadrocopter hops out and delivers across the street you now
    play leapfrog back and forth down the street you’ve doubled your productivity
    with any extra trucks any extra any truck rolls or carbon footprint no or
    doctor’s this is having a huge effect and this is the field that I’m working
    in right now take for example the question for heartbeat you go in and you
    spend your three to four minutes with the doctor and the doctor says your
    heart’s fine then you has an idea there’s a problem you have a million
    heartbeats every week you can have a cardiac cardiologist look at all those
    no you are a small device measures all the heartbeats for the past week machine
    learning looks at him and says there there and there we saw five events those
    events again handed off to the cardiologist you
    then makes the determination that there’s a problem but you’ve now reduced
    196 hours worth of heart information into a quick summary this changes your
    ability to look for spurious and unusual events or utility meters no longer do
    you have to send truck rolls out now all that information has gotten wirelessly
    or lightbulbs this is actually a really fun one
    talk about a hundred your old piece of really mature technology what could you
    do for this well when you get rid of the thermal incandescent bulb and change it
    to LED LEDs work on five volts I don’t have to run hundred and twenty volt
    cable to it anymore I can run a fairly thin cable to it I’m
    anything run on 5 volts like Ethernet oh yeah
    I can put 60 watts down an Ethernet cable fact all of the wireless networks
    all over your data networks on this campus I’ll run on Ethernet every light
    bulb suddenly becomes a sensor and a point measuring occupancy temperature
    humidity ambient light so when the sunlight streams in the lights dim when
    the sunlight goes down behind a cloud the lights come back up so now your
    light bulbs this is called the Trojan horse of the commercial industrial world
    when every light bulb becomes a sensor endpoint it doesn’t have to just be
    sensing turns out these things when they’re LEDs you can switch them pretty
    fast what’s fiber optics work on please this
    laser is but very similar now every light bulb actually can emit data
    encoded on the light we can only see up to 30 Hertz so you switch the signals at
    megahertz you don’t actually see it but your phone does now every light bulb
    actually becomes a wireless transmission to life I said of Wi-Fi a wireless
    transmission mechanism so suddenly light bulbs actually become data transmission
    cars is this even worth me mentioning we all know what’s going on there with
    autonomous vehicles their sensor in points as well
    pharming does it seem very exciting but now every field is measuring hydration
    at two foot four foot and six foot down as well as salinity because a salinity
    encroachments salt comes up from the groundwater a pest encroachment amount
    of sunlight amount of herbicide and amount of insecticide fields become
    instrumented so back to my question I’ve only got one hand I’m gonna have one
    smartphone what is the other 50 billion coming from
    in fact the challenge before us is not enough to look at doorknobs and trash
    cans but for you to look at the things and I actually point to all of you look
    at the items around you and ask how would it be different we all grew up
    with lightbulbs and doorknobs always just being lightbulbs and doorknobs but
    who can look at a trash can who can look at a car a plant a hanger or a chair and
    visualize how that would be different I can’t I’m too and yourhd to having
    grown up with it you can look at it different and have an entire new
    industry follow after you let me read this quote because I think it makes that
    point so well this is Mark Weiser who CTO of Xerox PARC this is the opening
    lines of his scientific American article in the 1990s I was a visionary the most
    profound technologies are those that disappear they weave themselves into the
    fabric of everyday life until they’re indistinguishable from all those devices
    will disappear if they’ve done their job right you won’t even notice that little
    power outlet there it’s everywhere and power is free you don’t know water you
    can get water for free you get salt for free
    all these devices will soon just disappear into our lives I next want to talk about the
    manufacturing revolution doesn’t sound exciting in the slightest I’m sure but
    the common point is this although silicon wafers we talked about
    are actually made on silicon silicon is fairly expensive they’ve now developed
    techniques that allow you to do the same things not quite the same resolution but
    pretty close on paper and plastic I now can make my devices on roll-to-roll
    printing I can instead of having to use fancy electronics wafer fab there are
    now building these devices roll-to-roll hundreds of yards at a time you can
    actually print LEDs photo detectors on these so we now have product packaging
    that has images and video that move on them can you imagine boxing boxes
    packaging or coke cans this is one of my favorite coke cans at a coke cups that
    identify when there’s a liquid in it and the images on the side now start doing a
    happy dance because they have something in it while you’re drinking it this
    changes the way packaging is done the way signage is done the way the world
    around us does it’s no longer just cars with static paint on them it’s cars with
    moving images on them this is happening right now and it’s changing the way
    things are Donna which leads me to the fun part if we have all this information
    in ones and zeros coming up all these devices in every different direction
    it’s really just numbers I mentioned the heartbeats who’s gonna look at a million
    heartbeats well now we have fifty billion of these devices I’m not looking
    at all the data I’ll be clear about that our problem now is we’ve come up had to
    come up with new words we now have to talk about yottabytes and Bronto bytes
    worth of data how are we gonna handle this and this is where machine learning
    comes in machine learning is based on a simple concept the idea of something
    called a neural net the idea that the neurons in your brain can be modeled
    fairly effectively and you can have vicious religious arguments over whether
    or not this matches a neuron or not really doesn’t matter fact is this
    happens to look similar to it and its power is phenomenal because that little
    neuron their artificial neuron may look very simple until I stack them together
    just like a single neuron in your brain doesn’t do much but you put a billion of
    them together all connected well suddenly we can write poetry poetry well
    interesting things happen and I do want to compare against one thing traditional
    coding for the past 50 years we’ve done pretty good coming up with if-then
    statements if this then that else do that and there’s a nice little bit of a
    Python code there it’s worked really well for us but we’ve tried for 50 years
    to come up with a way to translate machines human language you can do that
    you could say this is a noun this is a verb and you put them together and you
    get this type of a sentence it’s failed failed miserably they started doing
    things like this this is an example of how you code a neural network in this
    case they took a neural network a blank unwritten tabula rasa a blank sheet and
    they introduced it to Tolstoy character by character 100 times and what you can
    see is pretty pathetic but you can model this on a human what does a one-year-old
    child do having heard the mothers and fathers language for a year you could
    gobbledygook and you’re pretty proud of it you love hearing them say mom or gap
    or look but after three hundred iterations this neural network starts
    getting one in two letter words well right you may not find it very exciting
    but it got on right it got period quotation mark it got the period and
    followed by a capital letter capitalized the I okay yeah you’re saying you’re so
    excited about this yeah I pity you but after 500 iterations
    it’s spelling two and three letter words right after 1200 iterations you’re
    getting noun verb matching you’re getting the paragraph mark the quotation
    marks are properly matched capitalization is right proper matching
    no quotation marks across long lengths of text but I would be done and that’s
    proper formation of English no one told it this we just give it examples of
    Tolstoy over and over again this start to look like humans at three-year-old
    five-year-old seven-year-old until you get this one at 2,000 iterations you
    actually start getting something in the style and tone of Tolstoy which is
    pretty impressive because it takes humans a while to get that what’s really
    interesting is if you do this more and more it actually starts to hallucinate
    and that’s the word that’s used in the field it actually starts to hallucinate
    proper Russian names make some new ones makes up new grammatical scenarios that
    work perfectly now obviously something’s missing here
    the higher-level meta understanding the sentences don’t
    go anywhere this doesn’t make sense like a thousand pages of high-level plotline
    and Tolstoy but the trend is clear one you can train something with just
    examples that’s how humans work and two you don’t have to code this in the same
    way this is why Google was so excited about getting all the voice information
    Amazon is collecting voice information they’re getting why did it add Google
    start off with Gmail they wanted all those examples of all your emails to be
    able to get proper sentence structure they didn’t explain how English worked
    can you bet a trillion emails and said you figure it out my point is this the
    way we train machine learning systems is completely different than the way we
    coded before and this is what a neural network looks like it
    who’s about trip inputs and they all go in this case this one is connected to a
    whole bunch of previous layers and whenever something lights up it fires up
    in a message and these things all cascade into this one and these Kasich
    and into that into that there’s no machine there’s no soul here it’s just
    mathematics the mathematics is shockingly powerful here’s part of the
    explanation of the change in the way we code and this is kind of important it
    used to say you take several hundred coders you give him a little bit of data
    put him away for a couple months and say come back when you figured out some code
    great and you change your data and they would come back and make changes and
    make the code bigger and bigger and bigger until it generally got
    unmanageable now you take one code or some Python and tensorflow source code
    you give it massive amounts of data and you get a model when you’re done when
    you change the data you just add more data coding teams are small the data
    sets are large and the results are phenomenal we’ll get rid some examples
    of that later all of this has come together to why now we have machine
    learning taking over the way it is we’ve got cheap computational resources we’ve
    got massive piles of computational resources the algorithms have gotten
    where they are and the amount of data we have is huge remember I talked about
    Bronto bytes we thought that was a problem a few minutes ago
    now we’re saying that’s not our problem that’s exactly what we want let me give
    you two examples the game of Go I’m not sure if anybody here has ever played the
    game um it’s kind of like chess if you view chess is sort of a single battle go
    was an entire war taking place in an eighteen by nineteen board it’s a fairly
    old game that’s one of the oldest so in fact I I read an interesting quote where
    somebody said the rules of go are so simple that if we ever meet alien life
    we’ll probably find that they’re playing a game similar the rules are so simple
    it’s probably relatively universal the board seems relatively small just 19 by
    19 there’s a lot of freedom in that board
    humans usually take 20 to 30 years to get good at it but we actually do get
    pretty good the problem is this their very first move
    I’ve got 361 possible moves okay once I’ve moved that I now have 360 possible
    moves and then 359 and 358 and this multiplies up a little bit not a little
    bit a lot the number of possible moves is ten to the hundred and seventy eighth
    power there’s only 10 to the 80 atoms in the universe if every atom in the
    universe had a universe of atoms inside it you still wouldn’t match the number
    of moves that are available clearly we can’t play this game oh we do humans
    somehow have an ability to process this game even though it’s massively too
    complicated for our brains to play what gives our brains seem to have an ability
    to handle very large spaces of information and still function
    surprisingly well computers on the other hand dead fail you can’t compute this
    it’s too deep too rich too long you can go a couple of levels into your toast
    humans don’t seem have a problem with that in the slightest in fact what was
    interesting is that you know as a human I can look at this a fairly complicated
    board I can look at this and just instantly have a pretty good idea where
    the next move should be computers can’t a couple years ago the greatest computer
    scientists were being asked what do you think computer computers are ever gonna
    match and understand go they said 10 years minimum even that we’re not sure
    if we’ll get it the next month Google I put the article out they nailed it the
    machine learning algorithms that I showed you for understanding Tolstoy
    were applied to the same idea here they took 30 million moves from several
    hundred thousand human games and they fed it into this over and over and over
    until it had a pretty rich understanding of what was going on they beat the rest
    by the way if you have net Lix if anybody has Netflix watch a show
    called alphago which is the name of this code
    beautifully done documentary that explains a process of going through this
    they play it against the best player in the world they beat him four out of five
    games what was really interesting is there’s a move on game 3 where the
    computer made a move and everybody all the experts in the room said wow that
    was wrong that was so wrong no human would ever play that that was he’s lost
    the game ah it was almost an alien move no one had ever seen it before
    I don’t won the game we’re starting to see imagination coming out of some of
    these ideas where we’re seeing new solutions and this is to our advantage
    if we can get new innovation and new ideas out of some of these we can
    actually take things further I see alphago not as a revolutionary
    breakthrough in itself but rather as a leading edge and extremely important
    development the ability to build systems that can capture intuition and learn to
    recognize patterns here’s my next one this came out on Monday I just put it in
    at one o’clock the morning on this slide I don’t think I have the ability did
    somebody else have or do I do this from the keyboard here okay so am i doing
    here I want someone to listen to this I want you to listen to this and tummy if
    something’s wrong here hi I’m calling to book a woman’s haircut for a client um
    I’m looking for something on May 3rd you are what time are you looking for around
    at 12:00 p.m. we do not have a 12 p.m. available the closest we have to that is
    a 1:15 do you have anything between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m. depending on
    what service she was like what service is she looking for just a woman’s
    haircut for now ok we have a 10 o’clock 10:00 a.m. is fine ok what’s her first
    name the first name is Lisa ok perfect so
    I will see Lisa at 10 o’clock on May 3rd okay great thank you have a great day
    bye which one was human the caller in this case was a computer-generated and
    computer algorithm from Google called Google duplex this wasn’t just a give me
    an appointment okay you got your appointment this is a appointment
    request with the problem they won a 12 o’clock but it wasn’t available she was
    offered 12:00 to 2:00 or 1:15 but was able to think back change the scenario
    come back what I really want is 10 to 12 sure
    what’s the service service I had to understand service understood what that
    really meant was a haircut and we just wanted a woman’s haircut
    we also dropped in – mm-hmm yeah mm-hmm and the tone on it it’s a little off I
    mean I’m sure you all heard it it’s a little off it’s damn close this is
    something and I was arguing with Andra or a little earlier about the Turing
    test the classic Turing test was you as a human could tell whether the person on
    the other side was a machine or a human or couldn’t tell we’re starting to go to
    the point where we’re passing the Turing test this is machine learning being
    applied at a much deeper richer level it’s not just playing a game that’s now
    starting to be able to handle simple you know three-year-old five-year-old type
    problems but the results are fascinating so where’s the opportunity this is
    terrifying is it not we’ve got machines that are taking over
    what we used to think was our domain their very least I should be able to
    take care of my own hair appointments so where are we lost I’m arguing that we
    are now in a world where we don’t really know what’s on the outside and just as
    we laughed at that 1850 farmer we’re no better off we’re in a world where connections are
    exponentiating our ability to bring in information I talked about the 1.5
    billion cell phones all over the planet well this connection is allowing us to
    reach out and communicate and use resources we never had available for
    example the other day I need to be able to render an image for a product
    placement for our product I didn’t have the software to do it so I put it out on
    up work I said here’s the CAD files I need someone to render this I had offers
    from all over the planet I ultimately hired someone in the Ukraine cost me a
    hundred bucks gave me a couple of renderings within a couple hours it was
    easy we now have the connection capability to use resources and to
    leverage resources from everywhere now this means we’re making use of the five
    billion phones the seven billion people the twenty billion devices the five to
    ten million selfi cell towers a hundred billion web clicks per day lots of
    transistors I don’t even try and say that and our connections which go on
    every day all the time forever we’re in a very different world people are now
    starting to argue that we have just created almost an organism a structure
    that wraps the world with connectivity and we are almost computational nodes on
    this a hive mind if you will we’re wrapping the intelligent of the entire
    human race together and one large structure connected structure we can
    find out a way to get along it’ll all work out fine but the leverage and the
    resources that we have available here is changing the way we work in it’s
    providing opportunity take for example music there was a time when if you were
    an artist you wanted to resell a song you had to go through the record labels
    if you wanted to buy a music you had to go to a record store I know you guys
    have never heard of albums you may have seen him in movies those of us have
    actually bought albums and CDs they’re little pieces of plastic
    have music on them before you headphones music was released rarely maybe once a
    year from your favorite artists maybe every a couple years does that even
    compute now when that happened people said music industry would die no one
    would make music anymore if it was going to be stolen the music industry was
    clearly on the verge of death really where do you get your music from I get
    mine from Spotify I have access to 7 billion are actually several million
    songs I just oh that sounds interesting I listen to that it’s distantly
    available I get music from YouTube whenever I want it I get music daily I
    don’t wait a year for a new artist they put out their releases as they’re
    editing them daily updates on songs as they’re being created now you get songs
    from artists weekly and this is supposed to be the death of the music industry my
    point is this what people thought was destroying the system of music turned
    out to be a revolution the music industry is more vibrant and stronger
    and richer than ever and yet a few minutes ago we thought we heard a
    computer that was going to just is this destroying our life when they take over
    some of our roles no this is opportunity for us we have to have the mindset to
    see it jobs are changing skills are changing opportunity is changing let me
    jump here I want to talk about a couple of factors here and then we’ll be done
    education the old model was you went to great universities oh sorry I’m careful
    there um I played the game too I’ve got five degrees three masters a PhD from
    the best universities if you can play that card do it but you don’t have to
    and we need to be aware of that for example I was handed a resume from my
    co-founder and CEO for a coder looked it up didn’t have the strongest skills but
    pretty good I asked him some questions he went and I said I want you to answer
    these questions for the interview he did came back and nailed him I was like
    really impressed it’s like yeah I want to hire you when
    did you finish University I haven’t I’m first I’m just starting my sophomore
    year in college I’m like really it’s like you nailed this tensorflow question
    well yeah I took the Coursera free course a little while ago I went through
    the tutorials and the tensorflow website I taught myself Python and did I do okay
    well yeah you didn’t he figured out he didn’t have to wait till junior year of
    college to learn Python he didn’t have to wait till a senior year class to
    learn how what machine learning was he didn’t know he had to wait he just did
    it so do you tell that kid in Mumbai that they have to go to an IIT Indian
    Institute of Technology in order to be able to do a great coding know all they
    need is a laptop some free code off github and some free courses off
    Coursera what is your limitation here it’s not get the great education I’m all
    for that but what I’m saying is the competition now is not limited whether
    it’s in Rio de Janeiro whether it’s in Moscow whether it’s in Shanghai or in
    Alabama they’re not limited by needing a great university in order to compete
    they just need gumption and stack overflow and Stack Overflow in case you
    haven’t never used it it’s phenomenal I needed to learn Python three years ago
    I hadn’t coded in Python before um I went to Stack Overflow I said how do you
    add to an array someone showed me some sample code for it I’m like okay I can
    do that how do I sort an array sample code how do I do this sample code I went
    there after 20 or 30 times I got the feeling for Python suddenly I taught
    myself and I could ask richer or more interest elegant questions I’m Stack
    Overflow I got all the answers I didn’t need a course I didn’t need a book I had
    sample code and the Google search questions were so good they always found
    me the answer code development
    this works for a lot of different industries right now where you used to
    need cube farms filled with thousands of people oh no you don’t you need a good
    coffee shop some friends some free software and the gumption to make stuff
    happen great startups where did all those apps
    start come from where they come from big companies no they came from somebody
    with a good idea the codes free the development platforms
    are better than anything became from Microsoft or Apple the free development
    platforms Rock because they’re made by people that use it day in and day out
    manufacturing we’ve touched on this a little bit used to need a billion
    dollars to set up a manufacturing line not anymore
    one thousand dollars you can get yourself a good 3d printer and start
    making new designs the design software for it any surprise it’s available for
    free up github new ideas remember I asked you who’s gonna come up with the
    next great idea for AI IOT Internet of Things it’s somebody like any of you
    looking a device you’ve had all of your life saying why doesn’t this talk I
    can’t look at it because I’ve spent 50 years staring at and they say of course
    it doesn’t talk it’s a lump of metal you’re looking at it’s like Oh that’d be
    cool and the bigger idea is the Internet of ideas the number of people that now
    can provide those ideas it’s not just the highly paid engineers at IBM who are
    doing product ideas it’s all of us and lastly machine learning I’ve said
    this over and over again the resources for all the stuff you need is free now
    you just need to real the gumption to go and get the courses and figure out how
    to do it the opportunities go to those who want to learn those who want to
    build those with we needed fast computer and coffee don’t forget the coffee and
    startups so here we are we started off laughing
    at this poor old farmer from the 1850s who just didn’t really know much we’re
    not much different we are just as we have a tidal wave
    coming at us just like he did I don’t know where it’s going but I can tell you
    if you’re open-minded there was more opportunity than ever are the jobs
    changing yes 20 years ago webmaster didn’t even exist as a job hundreds of
    thousands of people have that job now when it’s assistants and secretaries go
    away because they’re taken over by an AIS okay those jobs disappear but the
    new ones come into play I don’t even know what they are twenty years from now
    the job you have I don’t even know exists now but I can tell you in 20
    years there will be places there will be new work that needs to be done we just
    don’t have the name for it yet and I’m hoping that you guys are the ones that
    actually create those new jobs so where’s technology going I don’t know
    over at the front of a tidal wave all right Oh some people ask what books I
    like to read and where some of the ideas I get comes from these are some
    fascinating ones if anybody wants to know more about them we’d like to tell
    you and I thank you very much for your time which take a couple of questions I begin
    I’m old so that’s where I’m coming from and I also spent all my life in
    Washington DC so I’m a focus there a few weeks ago there was a very successful
    computer person who I think was called before Congress and talked about all the
    information he amassed I think it’s something called Facebook and in essence
    and I overstate there was some talk that said don’t you understand that yes you
    are technologically fantastic but that there are human elements that you seem
    to be missing and I would at least say and I met just asking for your comment
    this young man or young woman in Mumbai who learns computer code lots of us
    think that there would be some value if they learn more about humanity than
    merely ones and zeros and I understand you’re talking about technology but I do
    think that’s something too I asked for your comments on that I think a
    grounding I mean my my undergraduate minor was in humanities and I loved the
    stories I think invigorate us India for example has some of the richest oldest
    stories in the history of civilization and I think in that particular culture I
    think they are there is a deep understanding of the importance of
    narrative and history and epic obviously we cannot lose that and the machines
    will never displace that the networks and the machine learning that we have
    right now one of the things I didn’t touch on is necessarily backwards
    looking for training it on existing data that data is already old that’s not new
    so training its ability to actually anticipate and imagine
    going forward what we did a little bit with a Tolstoy example but it’s still
    relatively let’s say completely infantile and naive computers don’t
    write stories yet and it’s gonna be a long time before they do humans are
    still going to be the story writers now 20 to 30 years from now I don’t know but
    I absolutely believe we all have to have a routing a background a foundation and
    our own history or we lose something so earlier you talked about new packaging
    and things like that coming into play but they use a lot of plastic and
    chemicals and things like that and these things that you were speaking about it
    seemed fun but they seemed extremely trivial and how is this environmentally
    sustainable for us living on this planet can you speak on that unquestionably I
    think it’s a we I think you can argue for a cataclysm in terms of stupid
    stability I can’t address that because the the industries and the executives
    that drive that packaging is something that I don’t have the influence to
    change I’m merely identifying trends and opportunities of things that will likely
    happen I can argue for whether they’re sustainable or ethically good and that I
    think is an opportunity for young people such as yourselves to change to be able
    to go in there and say yeah this isn’t the way we want our world to work it’s
    interesting to see a lot of reusability a lot of people and what is it straws
    this is a humorous one why did it take 20 years for us to figure on the straws
    are probably not a good idea because they’re not recyclable well okay what’s
    how how many more decades will you before we start figuring out a few other
    things aren’t really necessary so I look at that as young people needing to
    change that world I’m just trying to identify the transit I see coming I will get you yes sir again coming from
    the older people’s perspective a little bit I love this split we got the front
    two rows and we got the back no guys back here
    the internet-of-things yes it’s it’s wonderful and it’s beautiful everybody
    can get every piece of coding information in the world how can I be
    secure in the knowledge that if I get one of those electronic doorknobs that
    somebody else will not be able to find the software to copy that and open my
    door instead of me I we live in a world of risk and I do not disagree with that
    the older offline world is far simpler and in many ways safer but we also
    delude ourselves into that respect as well I mean I love having a door with a
    nice big deadbolt on it but the wall next to it’s made of stucco and gypsum
    board and a good shoulder will go right through that with relatively limited
    effort but I’m very proud of my door no I don’t wanted to change your point
    because electronics allow someone in you know wherever Rio de Janeiro or Florida
    or whatever to reap through the network and access your door yes I don’t
    disagree with that point it’s a different type of crime but someone
    still has to walk through the door to in order to make use of it security is an
    ongoing problem it turns out that humans aren’t all that good at building secure
    systems some of the interesting work that’s been done are actually on
    adversarial networks with machine learning where you build a machine
    learning tool that says your job is to come up with a secure method of for this
    network then you take up another AI whose job it is to attack that network
    and you just let him run it for a while and they’ve come up with some shockingly
    good new security mechanisms that the humans hadn’t come up with yet I think
    my point on that one is we like to view ourselves as the only Intel
    on the planet and this may be upsetting to people I think we need to rightly
    understand that there are other intelligence other than human and that
    doesn’t mean they’re good or bad they’re different and I think if we recognize
    that there’s other answers to problems whether they come from a human or any
    alien intelligence I don’t really care what I do care about is finding better
    solutions towards your security problem I don’t think it has to be written by a
    human to make sure it’s secure even if we need to use a eyes and adversarial
    networks to come up with a strongest solution that does protect your door
    then I’m all for it but in answer to your question I just want to be flat out
    security is a major issue humans have not worked that one out yet yes I’m
    right here yes so what are your thoughts on the basically kind of the
    controversial side of AI intelligence so the mainly the people who make the
    algorithm for AI are white males and it’s been seen with deep learning
    because nobody understands what happens during the deep learning and the hidden
    networks between the input and output that it has been proven that the AI
    intelligence it’s a lot easier for it to recognize a white male face than any
    other demographic and police have actually used to a AI for predictive
    policing and it has profiled more lower-income areas in areas with more
    minority populations and how its kind of become like because it can only use the
    information that it has and because it’s planned or it’s made by a certain
    demographic like how to compact that with AI intelligence to move on so we
    don’t get stuck like going to steps back socially you have brought up a very
    important point and it has to do with bias in terms of how you train these
    systems ma’am we have two people up here that have been yeah yeah so it has to
    with bias and how we train it let me give you an example take a young child
    and bring them up in a small neighborhood with only white people that
    person will only identify people as being white as being comfortable that
    is a limited data set for that neural network inside that child that is their
    world and that is they’re biased world we then take them to the neighborhood
    across the town where people have a different ethnicity they’re gonna look
    at that as surprising and have difficulty in that world the same thing
    happens with machine learning it is absolutely true that most of the people
    that are building these datasets happen to be white they happen to me male and
    they’re pulling data that happens to be easily available I completely agree with
    that and it is a serious problem because we have networks that are just like that
    small child brought up in what’s isolated environments I don’t know how
    you answer that other than to be aware of your bias and to make sure that you
    have a balanced representation across data sets I think that’s true of humans
    as well though for children that grow up in an isolated neighborhood they don’t
    have a representation across the world so why we have universities we bring
    people together from all over so they are exposed to different cultures we
    have basically found that we have a same problem with machine learning as they’re
    isolated as well I don’t have a good answer other than that I think people in
    the world are becoming more aware of it with regard to the policing issues I
    think the answer there is any technology as a double-edged sword knives can be
    used to cut up peaches they can also be used to hurt humans you have tools that
    can be used for good and bad I think it’s up to us to have a set of ethics
    that surrounds how these tools should be used I don’t agree with how the police
    are being used in this scenario I’ve read some of those articles as well and
    I cringe I think there you have to train people to say I don’t think that’s a
    good idea that we as a culture have to make those decisions
    my answer to your question I don’t there’s no easy answer to that one but I
    think being aware of it helps us start to defend against it okay thank you if
    that’s okay since the students get to meet with the speakers this afternoon
    we’re all that for the for this afternoon if that’s okay with you
    because to stay on schedule we’re gonna have to stop here thank you very much all right where we are getting ready for
    the next speaker if you need to take a quick bathroom break it’s on this side
    we’ll start in no less than five minutes okay we are about to start may you
    please return to your seats okay it’s my pleasure to introduce our
    third and last speaker for this morning our name is Enrique she’s the managing
    director of Silicon Valley robotics non profit industry group supporting
    innovation and commercialization of robotics technologies miss Kay is also
    founder of the robot launch global startup competition and a mentor
    investor and advisor to startups accelerators and think tanks with a
    strong interest in commercializing socially positive robotics and
    artificial intelligence shared on the robot state site miss Kay co-founded
    Robo AB the global robotics research news site building on a background in
    film television and media production internet and computing technologies with
    degrees in interaction communication and human robot cultural studies she also
    co-founded robot garden robotics maka makerspace and teaches interaction
    design and theory Miska is a particular interest in understanding diversity and
    her presentation in robotics and artificial intelligence and started the
    women robot in sari the women in robotics community
    she speaks regularly to international audiences on robotics AI ethics
    innovation commercialization and interaction finally I was told that she
    used to play in early Australian punk rock bands so we may hear about that
    and she will present today on being an older woman in a room full of full of
    robots well thank you everybody and it is such
    a pleasure to be here we started off with such a big bang to use get jokes
    that it’s going to be a very hard job to follow and I’m only afraid that two
    quite TS Eliot which might be a slightly different paradigm that I might end with
    the whimper now there have been so many things said I wish that I had a lot more
    in the presentation but I already have too much in there I will just say some
    questions were raised and they’re questions that I am going to try to
    answer might not be perfect answers but I certainly believe that we can’t just
    say well we’re just building the technology or that the technology is
    neutral I think that for everything we build we must know how to let’s say
    design it appropriately I was gonna say find the on/off switch but that’s
    actually a pretty basic principle I was one of the ones that traveled far you
    know that lovely image of the Swiss village I think that was actually where
    I was yesterday and it was called wall Soho sir Tech and it looks exactly like
    the photo I have on my Instagram if you doubt me but what I was doing there just
    I was part of a multidisciplinary group of people trying to crack the neural
    code to develop human level artificial intelligence and why I joined that group
    is because from the outset they said it’s not enough for us to bring the best
    AI theorists or the best neuroscientists but we must try to bring a group that is
    going to somehow work together that includes evolutionary biologist and
    computer scientists and ethicists and anthropologists because you know there’s
    not a lot of difference between the behavior of single-cell organisms and
    the behavior of primate and humans at certain levels and you know
    perhaps if we were able to develop an understanding of intelligence at the
    level of say a worm or a mouse then we would have solved many of the
    fundamental problems of the last 50 years but I’ve heard a lot of people
    over the last 50 years saying we’re going to crack AI and I found it very
    disappointing in many ways it’s it’s a whole nother talk but I was actually
    going from Switzerland to Australia where I’m part of the International
    robotics and automation conference the first time one of the major research
    conferences has been held in Australia and it’s like how do I break the trip to
    just drop into Tucson for a day uh-huh because I’ve almost literally was flying
    overhead but I wanted to start in a slightly different fashion and talk
    about empathy which for me is a very active word okay I was made to think of
    a couple of examples so empathy is not just understanding and sharing feelings
    I think it’s also the ability to put that into action to use it to change our
    frameworks and we confuse that a lot with sympathy so we think that empathy
    is feeling sorrow or pity or fear that’s sympathy and it’s actually very
    selfish because that only relates to our feelings about a perceived situation and
    empathy is a vastly more active and more interesting word because it relates to
    us trying through some processes to develop a theory of mind do you
    understand what is happening for another person or being of any kind so let’s
    talk about alphago and Lisa Dahl for all that those were fantastic achievements
    do you think that perhaps Lisa Dahl had a cup of coffee
    during his games after all he did five matches
    and maybe he actually got up and went to the restroom because of all the coffee
    okay so do you think I’ll forego would do that at this point I would say never
    in a million years you know maybe only half a million because all of
    those things that a human does at the same time as playing go we can’t come
    anywhere near developing any whether it’s using recursive neural networks
    whether it’s using the latest quantum computing software we are nowhere near
    being able to develop that parallel ability to stand up to navigate to walk
    around to breathe to drink to have a conversation on the way to the restroom
    and back so right now we’re our artificial intelligence is at is for all
    that there were really exciting new developments so now if you are a how
    would you say an expert in the field of go you now look at the new moves that
    alphago developed and it completely changes how you think about that game
    but if you changed the size of the board from 19 squares to 18 squares do you
    think Lisa Dahl would still be the world’s best player yes and he would
    comprehensively beat alphago because that machine would not be able to play
    simply by reducing the number of squares on the board it would have to Rico all
    of the training that led it to there so there’s a transfer ability in human
    knowledge that no matter how good we’re doing some artificial intelligence we’re
    so far away from doing so for me this is the fascinating question because
    machines think in a vastly different way to the way that people think and yet
    people often think about machines as if they were people and that’s perhaps the
    key message of the talk but let’s take a little bit of a road trip to get there
    as came up in the introduction I grew up in
    kind of physics family I used to build the lab equipment the physics department
    my father was an astrophysicist my mother developed the first computer
    systems for the university libraries and did the first networking of them I was
    the classic geek girl when this photo was taken not only could I name all the
    dinosaurs that existed and I still relate to the first speaker saying I was
    either going to go into paleontology or astrophysics like what are the choices
    were there I could also identify every single plane that took off from
    Christchurch University because I don’t know what this means genetically
    speaking but my father was a bit of a plane spotter and he taught me that I
    can’t anymore but even at that age while I was identifying every plane that took
    off and every dinosaur that ever lived and all of those wonderful things I
    couldn’t help but wondering why I the older child the prettier and more
    intelligent child was the hostess and not the pilot I have never ever gotten over that the
    model rocket club the same story I was always the only girl in the room and my
    achievements were not measured on a scale of what a wonderful rocket she
    built but what a wonderful thing that a girl is building rockets now I was
    building the best rockets so again what I wanted to do was to be valentina
    Tereshkova the first female astronaut and often forgotten these days I applied
    to NASA and for those that have seen the recent history this was just after the
    13 mercury women had been ditched out of the program and at the tender age of 10
    or 9 I like Hillary Clinton received the I’m sorry but you know NASA will not
    accept you unless of course you happen to be an Air Force test pilot and they
    only take men which I thought was a kind of dodgy way to get out of saying I’m
    sorry we’ve changed we’re just not going to have women in the space program but
    nonetheless that was the case and it had such an impact on me it made me change
    what I was going to do which in hindsight was a bad decision because by
    1978 the first group of female astronauts was being employed and they
    were partially based on their scientific training and not on their Air Force Top
    Gun status but this with what I see whenever and I tell you if you ever
    search for women robotics engineers you’ll find the same thing you will find
    a lot of male engineers building female robots this is what we thought women and
    the space race was so another brief digression and this is really a good
    time for the road trip because I lived here for a year in 1971 while my father
    did a sabbatical at Steward Observatory here at University of Tucson and is
    there anybody here who remembers Frank Lowe scarily it’s it’s possible that some of
    you might and that would be absolutely wonderful he sadly passed away about
    nine years ago but and my father passed away two years ago
    and it makes me really really sad because I would have loved to go back to
    see him at Christmastime and say hey Dad if you google Steward Observatory and
    que guess who comes up yes but while my father was here he was involved in the
    first infrared mapping of Jupiter and so I spent a lot of time at kids peak and
    at a lot of the radio telescopes through my childhood and this was the paper that
    he published in 1973 or at least one of them I found it really really hard to
    find these records and it was visualized on the cover of one of the big magazines
    like nature or science as this we could use all of that data about the
    electromagnetic spectrum about the infrared radiation and we could convert
    it into a way that made sense to everybody
    in understanding what was happening in the solar system and this is the most
    recent picture of infrared mapping of Jupiter just had to throw that one in
    there but my life goals clearly my life goal was to be an astronaut why it
    wasn’t just the great fashion okay but you understand I did have a spacesuit
    and I had built myself a console for the replica console for the Gemini cabin and
    I did have a model lunar lander and somewhere under the house in Australia
    we do still have all of the NASA from the Apollo missions typewritten because
    my dad was able to be a correspondent there and we actually came over for one
    of the launches again probably 72 but it wasn’t just the technology it was the
    way we could use that technology to meet alien life and to attempt to communicate
    with and understand it slightly to her seeing
    as NASA didn’t want me I became a little bit anarchic rebellious and spent a few
    years acting and playing music and generally being a little bit Punk and
    then I decided to have a real career because you know certainly my parents
    never really expected me to get a real career after that and I became a
    technical trainee for the ABC in the fields of television film and radio and
    I spent three years learning how to operate everything from the satellite
    equipment down to the old school physical splices for the film and that
    was fantastic we were on the transition from analog to digital from film to not
    just from film to video but from using digital effects in the studio’s rather
    than analog kind of switching and this was not that long ago it was in the
    eighties but did you notice the similarity between that and Mission
    Control I’ve had so much trouble explaining how I went from doing film
    and television to doing robotics to people but when I look at the photos of
    what I was working on it becomes clear to me that what I did was I went for the
    most creative advanced technologies and the key thing was it was creative and it
    had global scope robots were only in the research labs this was equipment that
    had impact on the lives of millions and millions of people next digression so I
    was then I had children and I did a lot of work building computers computer
    networks and getting particularly nonprofit organizations onto the
    internet because it was clear that that was where you need to be in the future
    but I did realize that for all these years I was the alien because I was the
    only woman in the room and this is where the title of my talk was being the old
    woman in the room an age for me now is such a blessing because I have
    experienced several waves of Technology hysteria where we’ve promised all sorts
    of amazing things and then we’ve worried that it was going to destroy society and
    I’ve actually seen what happened and I look back I’ve been a real student of
    the history of technologies and we’ve had many revolutions and there are
    certain common threads in them but right now as people who thinks things are
    getting better okay let it’s kind of like who’s an optimist into who’s a
    pessimist but you know we’ve been talking about equality for how long
    since when you know anybody want to know which is the first country to give women
    the vote now actually I was born in New Zealand and it was New Zealand over a
    hundred years ago do you know what the last country in the world to give women
    to vote was Switzerland in the 60s you know and I think most of us go you’re
    kidding that’s not that long ago okay but around
    about then in the 70s we believed that there had been this wave of codifying
    gender equality that meant that all I had to do was study and apply for those
    jobs and then apply for those promotions and I would no longer be discriminated
    against well you know a strange thing has happened since then and we have the
    figures to prove it some fields continued to increase their diversity
    and some fields actually went backwards so your peak female computer scientist
    period was 1970 and since then the number has gotten less and you can drill
    down into that and say well there’s probably quite a few other factors but
    one of the factors is the status of the job the reason that there was peak women
    in that field was this was a period when the physical hardware was still
    considered harder part and that being involved in
    the programming was seen as a little bit of an extension of the secretarial pool
    you know women could do all the software men were doing the soldiering and as the
    status of those roles have changed it’s funny because in both law and biology
    women have continued to increase their representation but in computer science
    that’s gone backwards and in many areas of Finance as well
    so I do believe that these are cultural phenomenon this was 1967 this was 2012
    and for all that there are a lot of fantastic women in astronomy in computer
    science in robotics and in AI you just don’t see that many of them the
    statistical it’s about 5% so I am committed to changing that if I do
    nothing else with what I do I’m able to put into into play some initiatives that
    I can speak up about and try to make whatever changes that I can and if we
    want to talk more about this at another time it’s not just one thing that you
    have to do to change things you have to change the whole process from
    advertising through to promotion and assessment you have to change language
    you have to change a lot of underlying assumptions but you can do this it’s
    just you can’t just fix one thing and perhaps the key question to say here is
    that what makes us think that this is a woman’s problem okay
    this is a problem for all of us because we simply do not have enough intelligent
    people doing creative things with technology and we need that for the
    world to progress so this was my life goal
    it became building the alien not going into space to find it because I realized
    that a lien was a concept that we already had
    on earth and that we were now starting to be able to do technologically as you
    see Robonaut and real astronaut Robonaut is better equipped to work in space
    because space is a very dangerous environment and the radiation certainly
    among many other things II’s sudden death from decompression extreme cold
    but you know particularly the radiation means that even if you solve all the
    other things we haven’t really worked out how people can stay in space for
    very long but we’re building these robots and you say I don’t know that
    I’ve really seen them and why am i interested in robotics now because now
    we’ve had 50 years of robots in the factories and they’ve been behind fences
    they’ve been doing dirty dull and dangerous jobs and that’s over we now
    have collaborative robotics that through a combination of sensors and actuation
    are able to be things like back drivable joints things like smaller and lighter
    robots so that you simply don’t have to deal with the inertia in the inertial
    mass we have collaborative robots is what this new trend is called we also
    have affordable robots and we have social robots and the reason we have
    these is because they’re becoming affordable and I’m gonna go really
    quickly through this because we’ve already heard a little bit about this
    phenomenon of the democratization of Technology where you start with one
    point four billion dollars autonomous vehicle the Cassini spacecraft and then
    you have oh you know twelve million per Predator drone and then you get down to
    there at Costco everybody has them under the Christmas tree you get an autonomous
    drone for two three hundred dollars to the point where you get these tiny
    little drones which are still maybe remote operated right now in the mall
    but in the research labs are capable of autonomous operation down to the size of
    one centimeter so we go from this picture and this is an Australian robot
    a fully self-driving truck and Australia’s had these for the
    plus years maybe 22 these and this is a robot truck that you might see on the
    roads in states around you Utah Nevada definitely Florida just you know fYI if
    you’re saying hold on they’re testing self-driving vehicles
    everywhere where don’t I go for a holiday okay
    Florida’s not such a great place right now and it’s really interesting ethical
    decisions around this self-driving vehicle space because on the one hand
    these are really needed commercially speaking you say what about all those
    poor truck drivers do you know the greatest job vacancy right now is
    long-distance truck driving because it is such a dangerous dull job so every
    click on buy it now that we do on Amazon we kind of put one of these into play so
    maybe we need ways to save energy ways to make it a more efficient practice but
    then here’s the flip argument if something goes wrong with that do I want
    to be on the same road 80 miles an hour 80 tons no I like way mo a lot better
    but you know we’ve got these battles right now about do we create dedicated
    lanes on the highways how do we how do we slowly guide self-driving vehicles in
    in with human drivers because human drivers think very differently to
    self-driving cars and arguably some of the complex environments for these
    vehicles for city streets where everything is chaotic you know if you
    look at it as an engineer you’d say put them on the highways you can have
    dedicated lanes and we’re already pretty much doing that with kind of Lane Assist
    and cruise control but if you look about it in terms of well what’s the worst
    that would happen in a crash then you think maybe putting them into those
    can’t go faster than 25 miles an hour scenarios even if it’s far more chaotic
    environment makes more sense so one of the key things in this ethical
    battle is right now they’ve been to maybe a few more if you count China
    fatalities 3 in self-driving vehicles that I know of right now yet there have
    been two dozen fatalities in the last two years from carbon monoxide overdose
    from people with automatic door openers for their cars
    that’s an autonomous system killing us but it doesn’t strike the same level of
    fear or terror I don’t know why but that’s really at the heart of our ethics
    and all of those silly trolley problems which you know I think ethics is great
    that trolley problems don’t help anything where you have to weigh up what
    are the values of these technologies compared to what are the costs in
    general driving is getting safer and safer it’s the devil in the details so
    you may have seen this self-driving technology there are now so many of
    these in the Silicon Valley area that San Francisco has gone has gone for a
    ban on sidewalk delivery robots but the startups just said that’s fine we’ll go
    to Redwood City so talking about robots the first thing we think of when we talk
    about robots is that we think about humanoids and if you know the Gartner
    hype cycle to me they are the peak of the overinflated expectation where we
    are in general we’ve already got mass automation we’re starting to get
    teleoperation of manipulation and some mobility but these have to be quite
    simple systems because this is what the most sophisticated humanoids in the
    world look like and this is from the DARPA Robotics Challenge in 2015 and
    this is actually the most widely viewed video from any of the DARPA project
    so you know definitely compared to say the winning robot and it’s the best PR
    move they have made now have any of you seen the fantastic videos of Boston
    Dynamics robots doing backflips right that’s one of them okay so yeah it does
    amazing backflips in the video carefully curated and controlled this was in the
    wild now admittedly they have improved the robot since then but the Atlas from
    Boston Dynamics was the base robot platform for this challenge and the two
    winning teams did not use that platform they did not use that platform either
    that was a very disappointing Japanese robot but you know the whole reason for
    this challenge it wasn’t to build humanoids it was to build robots that
    would be capable of solving disaster situations this was modeled on the
    Fukushima nuclear reactor shutdown procedures 24 hours could have prevented
    the nuclear disaster but it was so dangerous that nobody could get in there
    and everybody said Japan where are the robots well they’re still not there okay
    where we are right now is what is called a Cambrian explosion of robotics but
    they’re far less sophisticated some of them are is kind of simple as snake
    robots or they’re robots with wheels or they’re robot arms but it’s very rare
    that they’re put together it’s really about specialization in one physical
    form or another so I did I mention that there are 50 self-driving companies
    testing in California right now okay one of them is doing a self-driving
    grocery cart some of the other examples there I’m just checking how I’m going
    for time because there’s so much I want to say and I can get really stuck on
    some of these examples that one is cute what I love is that for each of the
    photos that I show you there are a half a dozen others and I had to
    hold myself back from being repetitive so these are some of the earliest models
    of autonomous delivery they’re not good okay
    it was great advertising for Domino’s I’ll have to say but it’s a little bit
    the technology was not really there yet the technology is just a few years later
    rolling out and while delivery is not the right
    thing to do with drones of this size these drones can be really really good
    at conducting inventory and doing surveys particularly in a warehouse type
    environment where did you know 60% of all warehouses still use paper
    documentation for their inventory okay but we’re getting to the point now where
    we’re going to put codes in or on everything whether it’s a a barcode QR
    code or RFID tags Amazon has patented an idea of doing drone delivery with giant
    blimps in fact they’ve patented a lot of ideas like that and you go well it’s
    it’s speculative all of the big five are patenting a lot of very speculative moon
    shots but I’m not going to show it I’m working with two startups that are doing
    large-scale drone delivery right now and what I like
    is and this has just come out in the last year
    Kiwi robots were pretty poor feature until they got their funding this is a
    berkeley university start-up and after their last round of funding just a
    couple of months ago they’ve released this prototype they now have three
    different sorts of autonomous robots that are able in each case to work with
    a different situation and therefore together they have become far more
    economically feasible they’re starting to provide potentially a venue for a
    restaurant and it’s not simply a publicity exercise although that trike it’s gotten to the point now do you
    remember when robot vacuum cleaners and iRobot was pretty much they with the
    robot vacuum cleaner maker and then a few more companies started making them
    well robot vacuum cleaners are now twenty five percent of the global vacuum
    cleaner market which means that every major consumer electronics company has a
    line of robot vacuum cleaners that’s what’s important about this not the
    robot per se but the fact that this is what LG unveiled at CES this year every
    major consumer electronics manufacturer is now putting their bets on their line
    of service robots home robots and robots that we call them service robots because
    you might not own it but you will pay it for the services that it does you as its
    collecting your luggage or doing your grocery to the car delivery or all of
    the other tasks that these robots are being designed to do and indeed this is
    part of a line of robots that LG has which to my mind really quite center
    around the Smart Hub the social robot hub and
    to me I call Amazon Alexa and Google home robots they’re at the less featured
    end of the spectrum all the way up to mobile home robots with faces and more
    features so you see commercial delivery robots mainly doing inventory management
    mobile manipulators they’re not even over the peak of hype yet
    basically it’s like the old engineering jerk you know do you want fast cheap or
    good pick two I would even argue if you’re looking at robots pick one you
    know you can do mobility or you can do manipulation don’t combine those things
    so this could just be a mistake or it could be a video that’s not playing it’s
    probably a mistake what you’re seeing in the last three years
    is the development of a range of robots for logistics you might not see those
    directly but almost all warehouses now have them it’s taken about five years
    since Kela systems was bought by Amazon but now every major retailer is buying a
    company to do this kind of back-end logistics and you may have heard Walmart
    is rolling out 50 of these robots for their stores what you didn’t realize is
    that there are five or six other companies that are being rolled out in
    all of the other major retailers and these are robots that you will see as
    you go up and down the aisle doing your shopping they could work at night but
    they also work at day so that they don’t have to deal with getting in the way
    actually it’s not so much about understanding the images that they’re
    collecting for inventory you could design them to do that at night but at
    night you put the stock restocking on and that’s actually harder for a robot
    to navigate around and some people will say wow they’re just starting with
    inventories soon they’re going to be stocking the shelves but they’re not
    because robots do inventory 10 times better than people even people with RFID
    scanners and cameras going up and down the aisles people get bored and people
    get distracted the results here are 40 percent more accurate so you can imagine
    the amount of shrinkage and restocking this allows each retailer to do and
    they’re all fighting for low margin in work so you don’t say that the robot is
    taking a job you say that these robots are now allowing retailers to remain
    competitive in their pricing and to keep their stores open and you don’t put an
    arm on that robot so it can stock shelves because it’s going to do it at
    half the pace of a minimum-wage person and it’s not going to do it as well so I
    see this as an ongoing split between the robots taking tasks not jobs and we just
    have to work out here’s the task that the robot
    does well and then here are all the rest of the things that constitute the job
    that is still going to be there so voice interaction is really where robotics
    technology is at right now and that doesn’t necessarily mean voice
    interaction with a head attached to it it’s actually a voice interaction on the
    smartphone or the Alexa or some other comparatively dumb-looking device and it
    needs to be a dumb-looking device or we expect it to behave better so this is a
    kind of idea of the spectrum of social robots and it’s proven over and over
    again that if the robot looks like that and it can’t help you that’s fine
    if the robot looks like that and says something that’s garbage
    then it’s not good enough at all now that’s why that slides there so robots
    that look or act like humans the peak of hype over inflated expectations robots
    that look like prehistoric life like snakes and insects totally underrated
    for their utility value they are going to be awesome and where the
    sophistication is happening right now voice interaction and we are going to be
    rolling out voice interaction in all sorts of embodied robots yes someone is
    the issue of the encoded bias well to me this is the nightmare scenario because
    we’ve developed we have biased data we then encode that biased data into
    algorithm and it’s starting to come out in our voice assistance has anyone
    noticed I mean this is the image of Cortana the Microsoft voice assistant
    that Cortana was modeled on now we does anybody have a voice assistant that’s
    male where did you get it how did you tune it right
    customized okay no never by default not only that but here’s the scary part it
    isn’t just that we’re getting female voice assistants by default this is what
    they learn by machine learning because Amazon’s Alexa did not have a default
    female voice it went through a learning process to develop a voice and it
    developed a female voice okay so there is a feedback loop that’s happening here
    and when we embody this you take your female voice and of course it goes into
    a female body and psychologically we have a lot of evidence that we respond
    to a female voice in roles of assistants being helpful and we actually respond to
    a male voice in roles of authority or command so I was in London recently and
    it might not be like this all the time but I wish I had made a voice recording
    because there was a female voice saying we’re now approaching Hampstead Heath
    the next station is going to be something else that I can’t remember and
    then the male voice would say mind the gap so you understand that most of these
    commercial robots are being driven by commercial operations who understand
    these effects really well they’re not going to try anything tricky or new with
    us they are simply going to do what they
    know works in terms of design principles I love this because you know what we
    laugh at c-3po because it tries so hard to be human and it fails miserably all
    the time and that’s really really funny whereas r2d2 who beeps and twelves and
    has very few human features is very silly and yet always exceeds our
    expectations and we find that very humorous as well so animators have
    understood how we interact with artificial creatures for a very long
    time and in fact the Disney animators developed the key principles the 12
    principles of life that are used when you design robots which are a lot of fun
    if you go look for that so animators and artists are actually behind the design
    of the best robot systems so there’s another little film and television meets
    robots twist but these days it’s very simple to build robots and even a simple
    robot is going to trigger an emotional impact all you need to do is put two
    eyes on a rock or a cookie and it suddenly has an expression an emotion so
    my five laws of robotics to compete with our mob but I will say that these are
    actually design guidelines or ethical principles that have come from the EPSRC
    workshops over the last six years mainly in the UK but that’s a collection of
    some of the best minds in this or what I’ve done is I’ve kind of shortened the
    somewhat academic rules and tried to make them understandable to end
    years or investors so forgive me if they seem a little simple for everyone here
    rule number one yeah let’s not go there and indeed you know there are military
    systems that are being designed that have no other purpose but most robotic
    systems are multi purposed second law robots should obey the law well there
    were no traffic laws that could deal with the influx of automobiles in the
    20s and 30s I think it wasn’t until sometime in the 20s when the first
    traffic light intersection was developed so you did have to create a new set of
    interactions and rules and an entire class of jobs came out of this traffic
    police parking restrictions Street design not to mention mechanics and
    garages and fuel pump attendants and all of those kind of things but at the same
    time we exist already in a legal framework that is somewhat loose so that
    the judicial people people but just the judiciary can actually make interpretive
    decisions based on case law and various interpretations now it happens that
    there is a whole class of law that applies to devices and products tort law
    for example but there are also broader laws like privacy law maybe not so much
    in the US but definitely strongly in Europe and so we have a lot of cultural
    fears about all those eyes in the sky with drones but the reality is if
    they’re recording they’re breaking the law now I’ll tell you where this gets
    tricky and it isn’t so much the spread of drone technology it’s actually the
    fact that all of those voices systems they have to be on all the time to be
    able to respond to your voice and if you look at all ton
    of self-driving vehicles every sensor that they need fundamentally need for
    navigation he’s always on recording everything way back when I was still in
    Australia there was a bit of a fuss because we discovered that Google was
    what you call war driving when they were doing Street View
    they were driving around the streets and they were writing they were logging
    everybody’s Wi-Fi and whether it was secured or not and all of that kind of
    information which you think hold on that’s inside my property line you can’t
    do that well legally you couldn’t but they did it anyway because nobody could
    tell until somebody did ok but this is where I’m saying this is an overlooked
    law of robotics because there are laws and if your technology is by default
    going to be breaking them then I think you need to be working fairly hard on
    designing better and being transparent about it but that’s the next law this
    one again this worries me more than encoded algorithm bias because although
    I don’t believe necessarily that software is always easy to update it is
    a lot easier than a physical product recall so if your physical robots are
    doing the wrong thing and it might be as simple as wearing out quickly but maybe
    it’s a really critical part of the robot system that wears out and then it is
    dangerous there are all of these potential issues and I work with a lot
    of companies that are less than three years old they simply have not had time
    to do the level of quality testing that we’d like Oh crikey my time has stopped
    and I didn’t know we think of robots like that but really this is what they
    look like all this and it’s a lot harder to recall those physical devices finally
    this law robots must not mislead us with robot traffic increasing we’re going to
    get robots smog with robots salespeople with social robots we’re going to get
    robots spam and as I touched on before we’re
    going to get robots stereotypes finally this is perhaps the most important rule
    of all robots should be transparent and robots should be identifiable so that’s
    an extension of transparency not only should we be able to unpack what’s
    happening in the black box of the systems and all of those systems that
    are being off-the-shelf put together like well I was just using open CV so I
    guess it didn’t recognize women’s faces because it’s not that good yet but it
    wasn’t my problem I just bought it and used it etc those systems to the systems
    that we honestly don’t know what’s happening when they’re all working
    together to the fact that we don’t really have a law saying unlike cars or
    boats it must be identifiable there really are
    no labels on those robots which I think poses some rather interesting ethical
    questions and I think that this should be one of the fundamental rules that we
    ask for straight off robots should be identifiable and now I have lots of
    really exciting videos of new robots that I don’t have time to show you but
    you have heard probably of YouTube but I will finish with one in the background
    super cool that was Alison on camera this is space robotics new systems but I
    believe that you might even see this in person because this is Arizona
    University and I believe this is being tested somewhere not too far away from
    here but there are very novel models of
    construction happening now to allow robots like this to be built for about
    $70 they’re being they’re using a lot of simulation to do evolutionary design
    like biomimicry is a fascinating field of robotics not just simulation in
    computer or virtually but with sand pits to test to get some real kind of answers
    going against the evolutionary process to say what if these forms work now
    interestingly enough the closer to nature the shape you
    construct is the more likely it is to be successful so I think you’ll find that
    life is influencing the design of robots everywhere but we have to move past the
    electromechanical systems which are inherently different in how they’re
    designed and we’re starting to see soft robotics bendable robotics cheap
    robotics inflatable robotics you might have seen my favorite robot documentary
    big hero 6 okay this is modeled on real-life research robots which I can’t
    show you yet but and ruing says that a is the new electricity it isn’t because
    without those robots to become the data collection Derek’s the devices by which
    we develop the AI the devices by which we capture the data then I don’t believe
    we’re able to have the impact on the world that we want from something as
    fundamentally game-changing as what we’re doing in our eye so robots can
    change the world for the better and we need them to because we need to solve
    things like food security we need to solve things like aging population and
    we can make better environmental choices if we have more efficient processes that
    require less input and less output so ultimately I think we need to change our
    physical world infrastructure that has to involve robotic systems and just to
    finish off there where I came from the start is I believe that being an older
    these days woman in robotics gives me a perspective but I don’t really see that
    often in the room and I truthfully believe that if there were more
    diversity in the room then we would be designing these new and different
    systems of robots faster we need to maximize the innovation potential in our
    society not simply going down the same path that the
    homogeneous group says is the path to follow so we need people who are willing
    to challenge the stereotypes and I think if you come from a diverse perspective
    to start off with then you’re much much more advanced in terms of being able to
    create more interesting and more socially useful technologies thank you
    very much we are running a little behind with the program because the students
    have to go somewhere else after that so Burwell will still be able to take a
    couple of questions at least for the presentation can be made available I
    just want to say I’m currently sitting chemical engineering at ASU with a focus
    in K through 12 STEM education with the Grand Challenge Scholars Program I’ve
    got to ask this question to a lot of professors and engineers but I’ve never
    gotten to ask an actual woman engineer so so I wanted to ask what is the idea
    of diversity in stem mean to you and how can we get more students of diverse
    backgrounds to pursue stem ok pay them and promote them we fixed those two things we fix
    everything I think a lot of people think that because there are no women in
    engineering women need to get the message back in kindergarten that
    engineering as a good idea I will speak for the fact that I thought it was a
    fantastic idea until I discovered that I wasn’t welcome and that my contributions
    would perpetually be undervalued and that I would not be paid at the same
    rate and that I would not be promoted and I think what we see is not a lack of
    women going into stem but we want smart women in stem and smart women notice the
    fact that nobody else is in there you know we need to change that and I think
    we need to start at the top we need to have more heads of departments who are
    women we need to have more CEOs who are women we need to have more investors who
    are women and we need them to have the same pay scale as we’ve just seen in
    Hollywood where well that’s just the way it is women get paid less than a tenth
    of their males male partners hi I just want to bring in the second rule that
    you mentioned and you said that robot robots must obey laws and so I was
    wondering what does that mean for the legal responsibilities of companies and
    do you think changes have to be made to pre-existing legal systems or do you
    think that we should just interpret laws differently to apply to robotics yeah
    there is a nice amount of employment for legal scholars who are already
    discussing things like what are the nuances around self-driving trucks and
    cars for example that’s been going on for ten years yet some of the best legal
    scholars look at the work of Ryan kalo and Bryant Walker Smith and Kate darling
    and a couple of others whose names escape me right now but they’re saying
    the framework exists and where is the incentive to develop the applications of
    this actually in the insurance industry and you can guarantee that they are
    working on it okay thank you very much we’re gonna
    have to to stop here thank you so much again the the talk will resume tomorrow
    morning right here for the second part we have three additional speakers you
    have the Flyers out there if you would like to grab one nine nine o’clock
    tomorrow morning we’ll resume over here and for the students is somebody taking
    them for an show her who okay so you go with Jim he’s gonna and then for the for
    the speakers and others will be look and follow me thank you again

    The Great Gildersleeve: The Circus / The Haunted House / The Burglar
    Articles, Blog

    The Great Gildersleeve: The Circus / The Haunted House / The Burglar

    August 12, 2019


    regrettable probably for the quickly for
    it lolol with regular political upheaval but the
    craft will probably make a good part gary workers group of women all over america where parted because it
    pays rulebook and well in many states you can buy it
    at the list of parquet margarine and yellow quarter pulpit you have to fill with webpage floorboard
    now comes in handy quarterfinal picked already colored only gold and yellow and
    red even further that party p a arcade a y party about your neighbor claire mud lor rodeo brought the records of them in the
    blood revealed it’ll be a great day for the kids and they’re quite big here we’re going
    to warmer picnic important will be a little bit the huge annie oakley yelp ridiculously rego and good afternoon but right now you the
    city water commissioner yeah that’s right but what may be guilty email my
    name is crap about you popped my regulars have about a gigantic sec vin weber me to get by always got to keep the discovered that
    they are happy to be here basically here we’d like you have to get more about the
    status quo picture would be well i guess we can look like what they have had good
    good argument to make a pledge that they can pull both movement and i get to the
    pay quite a lot of what are called wild animals identity gotten sick whaling ship about
    a gigantic shaker heritage identify nakedly including page i get togethers
    speech he gave me a while awaiting a pony club to target the holidays school havoc and will help i think it’ll
    quell thank you thank you for your cooperation
    with the commissioning but i think that they could find any time to do give
    greater every it would take that you put my compliments could believe or don’t
    have about a guy can’t expect thank you colorado i’ve got a quote that the other
    but you know i thank you thank you both lol i will be the guy i think you know they
    can anymore him app leave me alone well we were all we want to go a period of complete the project you haven’t yet is one puberty power stagnant european would they had four convicted he did it that nobody would booked but don’t baghdad to belgrade
    you’re powerful you little burned over this afternoon yesterday that if you did
    it deal with people that they could do that modmyi what are you doing peeking
    through that not all i want to backing that they can’t get the runway
    loop muck were treated within the comfortable i
    read that you have a worldwide it will that would be radio wife code rate burned watson but my dream home just normal elmo haha maturity people people who typical well thank you dwyer you that might be landmark pato california company you will how can you tell me what what twenty-two critical blowing will win million something spring-like couple that morning would repeat relieved if this works problems with britain but look probably coming over the bottom line reagan ability group that wants to get out yesterday highlighted by pregnant it if you didn’t know that you don’t have to be congratulated but i could have been found guilty and a
    big basketball like usual i think the the making the uh… leroy what the runaway enjoyed won’t be able to get some time that
    everybody green joining technical remorse making plans to leave already packed
    them things in little boy scout them down you talk to the bronco but i’m going to i’ve got to take a trip for him but i’m
    not care about you get away with a certain level of
    movement guilty how many total if you have to be
    reminded that the quickest way to make a point one didn’t work but if if they’re
    going to do it the pocketbook quite rapidly now mind you know if you get your advice
    is always simple beyond a if i were you are taking to you
    i don’t look for a couple getting a job blood do you want your money metroliner let anyone tell you what current picture
    who want to check it isn’t on canada announcement if it would be one hundred
    including no that god will not be a bit leroy each word but i do a judge who once i think you
    using your head to something besides attracted that they do you get that combat you get that to be here which we
    know it portal railroad you’ll go down manual may i can be we’ll look at this world last with circus posters sometimes leroy how could you sweep of all these
    wild animals leary what’s this work simple brothers circumstances beatrice the beauty and the beast and it video i’d like to have a little talk
    with you workflow u_n_ playing surfaces after which you don’t forget do to help totally wanted to thank the warning me leveling how’d you like to join a real
    sick like all the final option is a job
    waiting for you elected leader i think a lot of the law firm bill where
    you at all tomorrow morning at seven o’clock
    literally talk about that during my lifetime
    c_i_a_ getting along banks aren’t at that time i and i know
    you don’t like beatles book boom they are more hectic yes colchester landed back in time starting
    with a rough idea waiting in line is that we’ve got a potential problem how
    another one when i get out of the cake i think we picked the eleven week david
    copperfield that they can take elevator where you
    are the business managers local into it it’s not your check not you mean we get
    the may have to be guest wing method i thought about the development of well
    it might be found videos that you would like to play pick ax or even think that what that meant the
    market you’ve got to get down to work this morning and you may need the local uh… water
    commissioner gary for these private coolidge it often say things that we
    couldn’t get him no maybe i won’t take any on let me know if he comes around again it pardon me if you were a little more
    reclamation right no in the man w celebrated i cannot see how you are getting along
    captain with people need to have someplace came we were just talking
    about you meticulously beat me to be our first sample all upset
    about a guy getting sick party at the end of value to it sample use anything the with your sample
    to sample brothers are going good make it a lot of the all the show which
    he pissed off the actress looking at the end of the so
    yes i’ve seen you kicked in factor and wall of uh… you do if you go but we play it really would like to
    compile an arab on one of its important to be a fake movement and we’d like you to be get ringmaster
    tonight move guest ringmaster biet said they could be good for us and good
    publicity for you as a city officials you don’t mind your picture in the paper and uh… you shouldn’t that i’ve never been interested in
    publicity a bigger picture would be great i mean perhaps i couldn’t pass it up it’d mean something city ko good do it
    without a man of the make-up application volvo you boom boom they you know everybody wanted to find a
    unified he’ll meet together clean beautiful hammer away for a vote and the stamp let’s not rush communities that was uh… get remastered epudu we
    have agreed to make a grand entrance in your garden uniform and you get up there
    on the platform in your own rob hall he’ll i didn’t who have come over here with a bad day
    for everything and thank you my cover the probably baghdad and i’ve only been
    a little dot microphone wall no making melody
    habitat in wanted your input sound wonderful worldwide to try it out well actually death welcome the people to the
    thirteenth know that ladies and gentlemen step i think i think the fanfare authentically did you get it that speak when they have a home loan some pretty big day you like them you know and my dad what was that operate all my big lie in the level of
    leo likes me banking and other miss temple leroy my
    little nephew how do you like working for the second
    lead line cook well malpractice when you have to have to date pic okay flood company i’ll be right let’s not be too critical
    of the sample scripts i really liked why not in fact tonight i’m going to be getting
    ringmaster acted now let where where we’d miss sample if we were saying birdie no doubt about it all kinds of issues
    taste better with party merger nephew also i think it would be no idea what it
    does talking if they have a delicate park a flavor
    that makes the difference wonderful on pancakes or fifty but do we like it will be like that to work for you to put a word turned
    over to wonderful liberated it’s made from the selected product of
    american farms affective it’s made like a luxury blood are less favorable thirty
    but mister walcott and what you’re thinking but i think that’s it and that jeff all right now your kind of
    being killed more mobile vegetable they can’t make independent waited we’ve got all that yellow party okay bernie you think your way what for
    doing what he would pack a punch cookies that cooking if you have fell one point one think
    improve that certainly right pretty and park it costs only about half as much as
    the most expensive place you learn from you here’s what i would
    say into our friend jump drive p a r k_a_d_y_ the merger and with the latest wonderful
    waiver margarine made by craft that case so good well unbearable brother curtis david
    done little leroy maiden voyage planned joined in prepared the idea of a great deal to
    regarding the job watering elephant briefing they we work with little but guests who were great master while
    their children somerfield yes alkalinity t_v_ write about it anytime between the actually guys anyway although the romancing listening the how can i give relief and a_t_t_
    i’ll have a half a dozen these two guys and and yes what happened to me when i went down
    to the circus clown new get waited cannot compete mill cd that factory yes i have money to think
    back to managing pedido hoti lawman coming let me get
    over it if you get speculative bt what you listen to me for a minute they wanted important official to be
    guest ringmaster not though do you suppose they kill and they chose me t_v_ nineteen though directly have a little bit want to give
    you a and taking off of thirty dollars committee room here less vocal work wasn’t quite as big
    official client that depicts take a look at his feet of wearing the tight so can’t these white writing bridges athletic boots and the red coat with gold braid boom of doing it but we would be consistent would continue and then you go take me back at it and i wanted to go
    undetected you evening he working and you go do you do you wouldn’t have liked circus life no no we want to be good for the
    community report andrew unlike bob dole’s at
    little working month and no play that would be best good thing to do analytical index to take every summer
    often traveled with the fact is an undertaker would you do devika deeper he makes more money in if you if you
    need a good to hear him dexter must be a very healthy thalmann thank you thank you hampton-el interesting people do he could me beauty and would be no dvd you know i’d never become interested in
    the circus woman you know it would be a all the house deal with the sort of pete va attitude and be pretty as that goals
    expressed i’d do it as we mentioned you move on
    that day with cord trousers make clinton
    impressive noise appeal excuse will be available if they are still around at six we look good kita thank you my dear attractions outfit like that you couldn’t be a belly to an element of
    where white pants relatedness when you talk about your internal
    conflict how do you ever complained he will be
    rewarded willmar marlboro proposal passed before confirming to me a copy of
    one of the anything to do with margarine the sample asked me to the city
    officials like incident like civic duty the fact that she’s a beautiful blood
    out of nothing whatever to do it leroy will be no kidding about the search the real little progress and profitable to majors take away a lot of the summer during my
    vacation without baghdad european pure luck etiquette activity i’ve been very important to alive not strong catholic with sort no brady just
    arriving crop don’t like that did primary the beginning but you’ll notice the
    booster to be in the back at that moment yesterday why do you hold one in while i will
    myself it i’ll have to go dole duplication capital they could peptide hehe dialogue i mean the program okay dole uh… regular people they are planning going the more i think it is well i’m convinced played then i take it welcome and that would make believe
    they’ve done meant that we’ve been ever invented will look good in indian
    government because it may have regular sampled you look gorgeous in your school
    just like a good on the jury they had to pay the lines was going to
    need uh… crawford at that deal with the with the current
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    but let me let me presenting about diabetics reduce who the laws of the
    interest are deductible every symbol dot blot bigpond pal well i think in the open political
    knowing k_t_l_a_ wilke hope that you don’t get
    it back at home yellow highlight your wonderful that you
    got a great people and now i’m going to leah and i’ll let you know what you want me
    will sensational death if i i i the wind damage problem who critical begging begging lady in the meantime glad markedly and i’m not going to be to the battery with ending violent the iraq began to be at the beach the phone with the actual knowledge
    indicate with local demanding lines anti-gay consolidate around the world the all deal wouldn’t that be fighting
    within the police cabinet with locate leveled will will
    probably more profitable u willem behind the rest of them holding the perfectly appropriate
    nightline yet on the battle now we’ll nothing personal and we’ll
    myself born in august with automatic would it be why do people who are malted don’t dump
    logo with them will complete all wrong haha collegue on i wondered wondered why he would be not
    that out of accumulated will render the like
    had world war yet and i did that did not join united
    will automatically believe that something there the good made a good remanded them they
    love them the time to ask about being reminded
    doing summer vacation i play my cards right i think i could briefly completely dot org completely different though the sample commented together late and i think it the time mother appropriately you play well well it helped me relax
    after mike had a him relieve the tension i want to go to prove that i think if i
    want you know i think you were terrific tonight uh… thanks again about them because i want to serious talk remember educa bag cardinal only anyway like black people by the manifested in
    the back this day would you answer that he did
    meet and greet i_d_ follow i can tell you like me to cancel will be
    a u you peel to everybody about you had a rematch we wouldn’t be
    polite things on the google with everyone show there lulu who didn’t have enough they have in
    mind forward liz redeemed holding the for a little he little forward little within really loading the welcome all the and to be more on what you bet the warm you agree with everytime landlords within minutes do you lol forward with it one really moaning the hole the hooyou hand from you on me warm you like them unrestricted obviously but
    i loved it thing that makes it easier for me to ask
    my question you don’t have to end on marion but da directly logo but the actors sample
    however monday night but perhaps during my vacation or wait for your vacation
    not do it right how what mean everything hamas entering your plane carried tucker
    at fifty eight what after selling tag twenty-five
    designation summerfield account everybody would be a
    younger nadia decked out in favor of the road here do you you cannot get yellow parquet in all
    states where laws permit yes party same delicious bread with a
    wonderful flavor now comes in handy quarterfinals pics already colored a
    rich golden yellow you’ll find your parking across a little more largely
    because of the federal coloring pack but it’s a real saving for u_n_ time and
    trouble tribal yellow parquet importer prompted
    remember where state laws permit you can get this delicious bread golden yellow
    ready to serve of course you can still buy a white parking at the lowest common
    reply that p_r_k_ a y park a larger and made by a crash the soldiers are becoming new york times
    soon don’t miss it is wonderful entertainment for all ages circuses just about everything you’ll see all kinds of wild animals animal trainers acrobats bareback riders
    clowns yesterday you see everybody everybody except me did you get it usually leave ignite world playful democrat double or triple the craft or company makers because we have a big regularly without
    water without one of the night playfully president of the thing about it i don’t
    know lol uh… for like people completely of making
    leftover mobility don’t they have a little crap prepared
    mustard and you have a lot of pain didn’t wavered in boiled handcrafted
    mostly possible at all everybody eight that now you can get to kind of crap much dialup mustard delicately by little
    repro milder labor and breath mustard with method or credit card both guy and in europe and then with pelagreeny this crop or cold
    does have a little mustard and you had a lot of pain prepared mustard word misleading bc national broadcasting
    company the growth would probably present carol
    perry as the great bill that ladies the great guilty plea that brought to
    you by the crab boat company maker of the park a larger and millions of women all over america fair park aid because it tastes all good and now in many states to provide
    installation of parquet margarine and yellow quarter pound six yet this famous presentation sell good
    now comes in handy quarter postfix already color the rich golden yellow
    andretti the players that part case the a_a_r_p_ a y parquet margarine made by a
    crash well everyone going on in the great
    builders will probably find bring morning the great man in his little family a
    definition for when they hear the familiar tone of the mailman little villeda all oklahoma good to talk and one small
    boy make so much noise like death comes now actual totally wrong leroy it is necessary to one package believe it is that the next thirty
    minutes that we have a fibroid public funky
    you’ll see it’s something i’ve been away for well the leroy portion up deceptively lytle okay it’s sort of a surprise huh but do you think of that we’re on yes city track thank you discount deflection that uh… it’s amigo y detective institute delighted my boy i cannot i go out and did what i believe will the this isn’t the leroy to meet hong kong wealth effect since i caught that bank robber a few
    weeks ago i saw them get interested mysore thing thought i might take up crime detection
    as a hobby profile clients well i have to see this detective course
    advertised in a magazine about the white read it can you get television verdict
    ridiculous at all on learning about these things you never know might come in handy house well lol someday the police department like
    calling me to do it helps on some dictates play i might be from no one has been a
    great deal to salute the halloween event day see i thought that shuttle in front of
    the firmly the looks of lonely life you can be a little detective to you can be my sister’s high-tech
    volunteer but the case comes up solid together cabinet our that weekend monster well that’s not right click my boy your children that are along the school
    now ok by reminded by my dad detected hahaha predictive value life cvd louisville and they’ll have a lot of fun deficit certainly looks fascinating i wonderful people gardeners like these that’s enough fingerprint card sprinkle problem sir fully and fingerprints will be disclose the vvs outside of the people we’ll be right was
    sitting should be plenty of fingerprints there sees it shake it up works without cleaning up it is great till next year kind of looking at these
    fingerprints on the people here c l_ plane they arent the access nipping at least asking other people get
    a difficult thing that he did not bring it back and forth military knock back a
    little pieces of paper and photography kept it clear that if you think it would
    be really i was looking for a finger prick but if you’re not talking about it
    but i keep attacking attacking do you don’t understand this is the way we investigate crimes
    laid-off take a break go crap keeping track of him back library and just being a detective
    envelop that you know if it’s worth it fingerprint them and yet i’ve got my
    laptop attached decide that it pick up my fingerprint
    potter envelope etc and a m it was a pretty in the news long-acting young clean me have you any crimes you want sab you ever heard about it yet but i’m
    picking up the study of scientific crime detection reminded him of the air huh got myself a lot of defective equipment
    and i’m already forbid nancy you might be interested in continue to
    have a new removal but that p everyday they hold up down to kind of
    technical holder st patty’s pantry held up their patients
    to engage china over evidence handed out by it k hispanic getting yet peavey you may think this is funny but
    someday you might need my services to support your drugstore was rough for suppose somebody kidnapped mrs p you can see the yes do you know which anybody want to take
    on a me lol of course not digestible somebody to take away you’ve looked for a detective wouldn’t
    you no undercurrent creative d the p_b_s_ i am a detective i could
    follow the clues matthew five including unfunded p until after the eighty one degrees side that the f_b_i_ would be crazy to
    have an effective like me unit featured in the world marjorie you’ve come from what what it
    is now in this book on crime detection is certainly interesting yes i know you’ve been telling me that everything’s
    been i’m trying to do my homework though but the carcinoma admitted it yes satellite write something on a pc but a sample of your handwriting like
    fun then there’s a chance to get on
    analyzing personalities who handwriting culprit and status by the navy uni alag that’s easier small letters crowded together slipped to the list according to this year fifty years old a
    pickpocket we have a black mustache thank you very much but you got something wrong and i hope
    to help aguiar got to get the public dot i’m
    going up magnificats picketed goodnight miss miller with a don the this leroy get back to that nero select it
    right is out of him instead of this is i get a break abit evening get mailto jacket make a deal debit medi-cal anymore superscript i’m asking that dressing down you can
    look like a famous detective both at that sherlock holmes to know the fact that
    you have me very funny you’ll go to that not get it what he has always been answer is no
    nonsense i’m taking up the body of scientific
    crime detection that’s all well i know what keeps you could work on
    right now don’t get paid to do but that was a murder committed in an
    automobile this morning right except in the many brutal automobile bsa
    philanthropic stalin killed is not the judge with those old jokes he wouldn’t
    peavey are going to television well maybe we should will happen right you know you are not only that about my boy spotlight com my boy you probably just imagine program here or there is no such thing
    as on the top plus one attacks upon him you know what the actual u_s_ yeah private rostock and everything door ocarina forecasting leone maybe somebody’s living there guildhall nobody has lived in that house
    for twenty years not simtk radio and we will be back hamam lomo subgroups sex silly leroy well to have a lot of
    stories about that possibility some people clean eighteen or will it be
    schools rolled into the patient if he didn’t see how it might frighten
    some people but wouldn’t fight me handcuffed detect ever concert schedule course icon
    now profile delphi absolutely iconic well it might be better leroy define
    what up in the daytime you can’t even today also ki and little unit care about you getting at safety cases
    like you know i of course not and let you go alright book or i will life that you know that you’re afraid to
    go out there and why should i be after looking at you all these years of
    ghost would look good the it but it does in the old old did it capital of the line house duncan gibbins thank you how we get out over here dot com nine here of skills with little to compete and his logo loom closer he hadn’t heard withheld documents about him there’s really nothing could be scared let knew you would look good screech alag though because of eclipses earlier squeaky ac they close to by are probably pretty frightened will have to go through this week electrical crews clearing his throat we’re going to go we were spending like we are spending
    might have happened like were uncertain here are some of the whole thing unheard of needed well do you like high schools and
    there’s no such thing groups you just imagine the whole thing lighthearted anything like it its all time the don’t laugh don’t leave everything i
    take a look at what hit the wall that the fed block we gave him how they’re pretty well practically everyone in this block
    is a good too during this period normal basketball think that uh… and
    defroster uh… that’d be about doing it capital of the things like date rape is
    what did you get a bit yet that way it is up dr from the as every one hundred patsy margin fred as wilco in few let’s not
    surprising thirty parties so nutritious and i felt what does it even ad block at
    the pocketbook is called park so this economical through cost only about
    half of much of the most expensive spread that flag naked as economy does axes and what that party might you does if the likud why schiller park is made from
    the selected product of american foreign so i think that more and more women in
    every town in america are going to use parquet margarine they’ll like it
    because it’s new pressures because it’s economical but most of this law because
    it tastes so good right you are birdie that’s the plain truth about five days
    that delicious margarine made by crack and remember in many states you cannot
    buy parquet margarine in yellow quarter pound six last night the great deal doesn’t mean
    that i have approved leave a lot of laws i think it will cause a problem while he was out of the mysterious will
    be played a strange thing happens first more often then were hopeful stepped and then you know where you’re gross
    tution for disagrees him do wealthy ran away good morning now revive him telling marjorie falwell i tell you my jury i heard those so i’ll
    just as plain as agricultural collided in luongo did too alexa marquai answer with no docking scary out there conducting also i did not continue
    referal might be a great detective well
    margarine markup yesterday where do you believe me
    don’t you with nothing idea to get something out there last night something going on that house the effort i wouldn’t get scared about nothing know
    it d the work used i tell you a judge’s something peculiar
    about that house all-star the limits standing then i put this train stop
    strange things which probably hearing he’s not going to
    get was not i know another place for total gilday
    was that your after story has been nobody home every year keel i at a picture of it below flood politica okay out by eleven a chair the uh… of finished any strange noises lately expected locate flight take a minute lawyer just cut my hair okay floor alley given to me you know i don’t blame you for another
    way last night at a run-through did you believe me later you think i did hear something out there you don’t think there’s a post about
    steve some westmeath a dangerous criminal a criminal probably counterfeiter well that’s what i’ve got it all with
    you take at some place i go home house in a way of coming out of sure uh… but this bill is out there right
    now grinding out handoff bills live the way i would put the heat sure that your big chance for marriage everybody’s laughing at you now the deal with the catch this guy you’d
    be they’d pick trachea stoma field how big a big reward to thirty-five other approx five hundred do
    you think silver how do i go out and investigate tonight
    behind george what i’ll do it com so the judge in everybody’s looking
    for a tabloid kamesh i’ll be home rooting for you me and commissions capital forty mcmillan that rewards and i will keep a lid i’ll catch that considers it killed me what a blessing ability to chief of police the malcolm missionary who don’t know
    there’s a counterfeiter out mentality there’s somebody out there what about those footsteps nitric now
    mister gilder sleeve those footsteps were probably just a rapper running
    around looking for the rat he was wearing shoes uh… to bury paul may hold for for news well i’m going out after this for the
    night she are you coming with me or not well commissioner guess i shouldn’t let you
    know nine o’clock this what might be a dangerous territory mcafee probably
    fewer well i can let you take your without any
    protection then you’re going out with me no all i’m going to give you a permit to
    carry a gun yet they keep their emotions about it all
    commissioner dying right here was chief of police profitable or all for that house week he found susan that we can family from life do ankle and possibly with the cost and is in the post office legally sits
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    David Holt: The stories and song of Appalachia
    Articles, Blog

    David Holt: The stories and song of Appalachia

    August 12, 2019


    This is Aunt Zip from Sodom, North Carolina. She was 105 years old when I took this picture. She was always saying things that made me stop and think, like, “Time may be a great healer, but it ain’t no beauty specialist.” (Laughter) She said, “Be good to your friends. Why, without them, you’d be a total stranger.” (Laughter) This is one of her songs. Let’s see if we can get into the flow here and all do this one together. And I’m going to have Michael Manring play bass with me. Give him a big old hand. (Applause) One, two, three, four. (Music) Well, my true love’s a black-eyed daisy; if I don’t see her, I go crazy. My true love lives up the river; a few more jumps and I’ll be with her. Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey black-eyed Susie, hey. Now you’ve got to picture Aunt Zip at 105 years old in Sodom, North Carolina. I’d go up and learn these old songs from her. She couldn’t sing much, couldn’t play anymore. And I’d pull her out on the front porch. Down below, there was her grandson plowing the tobacco field with a mule. A double outhouse over here on the side. And we’d sing this old song. She didn’t have a whole lot of energy, so I’d sing, “Hey, hey!” and she’d just answer back with, “Black-eyed Susie.” Oh, hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie, hey. Well, she and I went blackberry picking. She got mad; I took a licking. Ducks on the millpond, geese in the ocean, Devil in the pretty girl when she takes a notion. Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey black-eyed Susie, hey. Let’s have the banjo. Well, we’ll get married next Thanksgiving. I’ll lay around; she’ll make a living. She’ll cook blackjacks, I’ll cook gravy; we’ll have chicken someday, maybe. Hey, hey, hey, hey. Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie, hey! One more time now. Oh, hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie! Hey, hey, black-eyed Susie, hey. (Applause) Thank you, Michael. This is Ralph Stanley. When I was going to college at University of California at Santa Barbara in the College of Creative Studies, taking majors in biology and art, he came to the campus. This was in 1968, I guess it was. And he played his bluegrass style of music, but near the end of the concert, he played the old timing style of banjo picking that came from Africa, along with the banjo. It’s called claw-hammer style, that he had learned from his mother and grandmother. I fell in love with that. I went up to him and said, how can I learn that? He said, well, you can go back to Clinch Mountain, where I’m from, or Asheville or Mount Airy, North Carolina — some place that has a lot of music. Because there’s a lot of old people still living that play that old style. So I went back that very summer. I just fell in love with the culture and the people. And you know, I came back to school, I finished my degrees and told my parents I wanted to be a banjo player. You can imagine how excited they were. So I thought I would just like to show you some of the pictures I’ve taken of some of my mentors. Just a few of them, but maybe you’ll get just a little hint of some of these folks. And play a little banjo. Let’s do a little medley. (Music) (Applause) Those last few pictures were of Ray Hicks, who just passed away last year. He was one of the great American folk tale-tellers. The Old Jack tales that he had learned — he talked like this, you could hardly understand him. But it was really wonderful. And he lived in that house that his great-grandfather had built. No running water, no electricity. A wonderful, wonderful guy. And you can look at more pictures. I’ve actually got a website that’s got a bunch of photos that I’ve done of some of the other folks I didn’t get a chance to show you. This instrument came up in those pictures. It’s called the mouth bow. It is definitely the first stringed instrument ever in the world, and still played in the Southern mountains. Now, the old timers didn’t take a fancy guitar string and make anything like this. They would just take a stick and a catgut and string it up. It was hard on the cats, but it made a great little instrument. It sounds something like this. (Music) Well, have you heard the many stories told by young and old with joy about the many deeds of daring that were done by the Johnson boys? You take Kate, I’ll take Sal; we’ll both have a Johnson gal. You take Kate, I’ll take Sal; we’ll both have a Johnson gal. Now, they were scouts in the rebels’ army, they were known both far and wide. When the Yankees saw them coming, they’d lay down their guns and hide. You take Kate, I’ll take Sal; we’ll both have a Johnson gal. You take Kate, I’ll take Sal; we’ll both have a Johnson gal. Ain’t that a sound? (Applause) Well, it was 1954, I guess it was. We were driving in the car outside of Gatesville, Texas, where I grew up in the early part of my life. Outside of Gatesville we were coming back from the grocery store. My mom was driving; my brother and I were in the back seat. We were really mad at my mom. We looked out the window. We were surrounded by thousands of acres of cotton fields. You see, we’d just been to the grocery store, and my mom refused to buy us the jar of Ovaltine that had the coupon for the Captain Midnight decoder ring in it. And, buddy, that made us mad. Well, my mom didn’t put up with much either, and she was driving, and she said, “You boys! You think you can have anything you want. You don’t know how hard it is to earn money. Your dad works so hard. You think money grows on trees. You’ve never worked a day in your lives. You boys make me so mad. You’re going to get a job this summer.” She pulled the car over; she said, “Get out of the car.” My brother and I stepped out of the car. We were standing on the edge of thousands of acres of cotton. There were about a hundred black folks out there picking. My mom grabbed us by the shoulders. She marched us out in the field. She went up to the foreman; she said, “I’ve got these two little boys never worked a day in their lives.” Of course, we were just eight and 10. (Laughter) She said, “Would you put them to work?” Well, that must have seemed like a funny idea to that foreman: put these two middle-class little white boys out in a cotton field in August in Texas — it’s hot. So he gave us each a cotton sack, about 10 feet long, about that big around, and we started picking. Now, cotton is soft but the outside of the plant is just full of stickers. And if you don’t know what you’re doing, your hands are bleeding in no time. And my brother and I started to pick it, and our hands were startin’ to bleed, and then — “Mom!” And Mom was just sitting by the car like this. She wasn’t going to give up. Well, the foreman could see he was in over his head, I guess. He kind of just snuck up behind us and he sang out in a low voice. He just sang: “Well, there’s a long white robe in heaven, I know. Don’t want it to leave me behind. Well, there’s a long white robe in heaven, I know. Don’t want it to leave me behind.” And from all around as people started singing and answering back, he sang: “Good news, good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. And I don’t want it to leave me behind.” Now, my brother and I had never heard anything like that in our whole lives. It was so beautiful. We sat there all day picking cotton, without complaining, without crying, while they sang things like: “Oh, Mary, don’t you weep, don’t you moan” and “Wade in the water,” and “I done done,” “This little light of mine.” Finally, by the end of the day, we’d each picked about a quarter of a bag of cotton. But the foreman was kind enough to give us each a check for a dollar, but my mother would never let us cash it. I’m 57; still have the check. Now, my mother hoped that we learned from that the value of hard work. But if you have children, you know it doesn’t often work that way. No, we learned something else. The first thing I learned that day was that I never ever wanted to work that hard again. (Laughter) And pretty much never did. But I also learned that some people in this world do have to work that hard every day, and that was an eye-opener. And I also learned that a great song can make hard work go a little easier. And it also can bring the group together in a way that nothing else can. Now, I was just a little eight-year-old boy that day when my mama put me out of the car in that hot Texas cotton field. I wasn’t even aware of music — not even aware of it. But that day in the cotton field out there picking, when those people started singing, I realized I was in the very heart of real music, and that’s where I’ve wanted to be ever since. Try this old song with me. I sing: Well, there’s a long white robe in heaven, I know. You sing: Don’t want it to leave me behind. Well, there’s a long white robe in heaven, I know. Don’t want it to leave me behind. Good news, good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. And I don’t want it to leave me — It’s been a while since you guys have been picking your last bale of cotton, isn’t it? Let’s try it one more time. There’s a starry crown in heaven, I know. Don’t want it to leave me behind. There’s a starry crown in heaven, I know. Don’t want it to leave me behind. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. And I don’t want it to leave me behind. It was a few years ago, but I sort of remembered this story, and I told it at a concert. My mom was in the audience. After the — she was glad to have a story about herself, of course, but after the concert she came up and she said, “David, I’ve got to tell you something. I set that whole thing up. I set it up with the foreman. I set it up with the owner of the land. I just wanted you boys to learn the value of hard work. I didn’t know it was going to make you fall in love with music though.” Let’s try. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. Good news: Chariot’s coming. And I don’t want it to leave me behind. (Applause) Well, this is the steel guitar. It’s an American-made instrument. It was originally made by the Dopyera Brothers, who later on made the Dobro, which is a wood-bodied instrument with a metal cone for — where the sound comes from. It’s usually played flat on your lap. It was made to play Hawaiian music back in the 1920s, before they had electric guitars, trying to make a loud guitar. And then African-American folks figured out you could take a broken bottle neck, just like that — a nice Merlot works very well. That wine we had yesterday would have been perfect. Break it off, put it on your finger, and slide into the notes. This instrument pretty much saved my life. Fifteen years ago, 14 years ago, I guess, this year, my wife and I lost our daughter, Sarah Jane, in a car accident, and it was the most — it almost took me out — it almost took me out of this world. And I think I learned a lot about what happiness was by going through such unbelievable grief, just standing on the edge of that abyss and just wanting to jump in. I had to make lists of reasons to stay alive. I had to sit down and make lists, because I was ready to go; I was ready to check out of this world. And you know, at the top of the list, of course, were Jenny, and my son, Zeb, my parents — I didn’t want to hurt them. But then, when I thought about it beyond that, it was very simple things. I didn’t care about — I had a radio show, I have a radio show on public radio, “Riverwalk,” I didn’t care about that. I didn’t care about awards or money or anything. Nothing. Nothing. On the list it would be stuff like, seeing the daffodils bloom in the spring, the smell of new-mown hay, catching a wave and bodysurfing, the touch of a baby’s hand, the sound of Doc Watson playing the guitar, listening to old records of Muddy Waters and Uncle Dave Macon. And for me, the sound of a steel guitar, because one of my parents’ neighbors just gave me one of these things. And I would sit around with it, and I didn’t know how to play it, but I would just play stuff as sad as I could play. And it was the only instrument that, of all the ones that I play, that would really make that connection. This is a song that came out of that. (Music) Well, I hear you’re having trouble. Lord, I hate to hear that news. If you want to talk about it, you know, I will listen to you through. Words no longer say it; let me tell you what I always do. I just break off another bottleneck and play these steel guitar blues. People say, “Oh, snap out of it!” Oh yeah, that’s easier said than done. While you can hardly move, they’re running around having all kinds of fun. Sometimes I think it’s better just to sink way down in your funky mood ’til you can rise up humming these steel guitar blues. Now, you can try to keep it all inside with drink and drugs and cigarettes, but you know that’s not going to get you where you want to get. But I got some medicine here that just might shake things loose. Call me in the morning after a dose of these steel guitar blues. Open up now. (Applause) Oh, I think I’ve got time to tell you about this. My dad was an inventor. We moved to California when Sputnik went up, in 1957. And he was working on gyroscopes; he has a number of patents for that kind of thing. And we moved across the street from Michael and John Whitney. They were about my age. John went on, and Michael did too, to become some of the inventors of computer animation. Michael’s dad was working on something called the computer. This was 1957, I was a little 10-year-old kid; I didn’t know what that was. But he took me down to see one, you know, what they were making. It was like a library, just full of vacuum tubes as far as you could see, just floors and floors of these things, and one of the engineers said, some day you’re going to be able to put this thing in your pocket. I thought, damn, those are going to be some big pants! (Laughter) So that Christmas — maybe I’ve got time for this — that Christmas I got the Mister Wizard Fun-o-Rama chemistry set. Well, I wanted to be an inventor just like my dad; so did Michael. His great-granddad had been Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton gin. So we looked in that — this was a commercial chemistry set. It had three chemicals we were really surprised to see: sulfur, potassium nitrate and charcoal. Man, we were only 10, but we knew that made gunpowder. We made up a little batch and we put it on the driveway and we threw a match and phew, it flared up. Ah, it was great. Well, obviously the next thing to do was build a cannon. So we went over into Michael’s garage — his dad had all kinds of stuff, and we put a pipe in the vice there, and screwed a cap on the end of the pipe, drilled a hole in the back of the pipe, took some of our firecrackers, pulled out the fuses, tied them together, put them in the back there, and — down in that hole — and then stuffed some of our gunpowder down that pipe and put three ball bearings on the top, in the garage. (Laughter) We weren’t stupid: we put up a sheet of plywood about five feet in front of it. We stood back, we lit that thing, and they flew out of there — they went through that plywood like it was paper. Through the garage. Two of them landed in the side door of his new Citroen. (Laughter) We tore everything down and buried it in his backyard. That was Pacific Palisades; it probably is still there, back there. Well, my brother heard that we had made gunpowder. He and his buddies, they were older, and they were pretty mean. They said they were going to beat us up if we didn’t make some gunpowder for them. We said, well, what are you going to do with it? They said, we’re going to melt it down and make rocket fuel. (Laughter) Sure. We’ll make you a big batch. (Laughter) So we made them a big batch, and it was in my — now, we’d just moved here. We’d just moved to California. Mom had redone the kitchen; Mom was gone that day. We had a pie tin. It became Chris Berquist’s job to do the melting down. Michael and I were standing way at the side of the kitchen. He said, “Yeah, hey, it’s melting. Yeah, the sulfur’s melting. No problem. Yeah, you know.” It just flared up, and he turned around, and he looked like this. No hair, no eyelashes, no nothing. There were big welts all over my mom’s kitchen cabinet; the air was the just full of black smoke. She came home, she took that chemistry set away, and we never saw it again. But we thought of it often, because every time she’d cook tuna surprise it made — tasted faintly of gunpowder. So I like to invent things too, and I think I’ll close out my set with something I invented a good while back. When drum machines were new, I got to thinking, why couldn’t you take the oldest form of music, the hambone rhythms, and combine it with the newest technology? I call this Thunderwear. At that time, drum triggers were new. And so I put them all together and sewed 12 of them in this suit. I showed you some of the hambone rhythms yesterday; I’m going to be doing some of the same ones. I have a trigger here, trigger here, here, here. Right there. It’s going to really hurt if I don’t take that off. Okay. Now, the drum triggers go out my tail here, into the drum machine, and they can make various sounds, like drums. So let me put them all together. And also, I can change the sounds by stepping on this pedal right here, and — let me just close out here by doing you a little hambone solo or something like this. Thank you, folks. (Applause)

    Working in the Theatre: Playwriting
    Articles, Blog

    Working in the Theatre: Playwriting

    August 12, 2019


    [opening music] [music] [onstage dialogue] I came
    here today to talk to you about thievery. No, I don’t have an ordinance
    or a proposal for how to handle this but I want to tell you what I see, which is a kind of fear that’s
    making people act in ways… In ways afterwards that I think they might regret. But the damage has already been done. [overlapping dialogue] I don’t care what’s been going on with him at home, he cannot say things like that and he cannot act like that! [overlapping] I’m thinking of picking up the violin again, I want people to stop telling me that I’m wrong I want liberty, and I want justice. I want–I want– I want my music back. Scene. [applause] So is the whole play as good as that? [Laughter] We’re still playing with how it frays. We’ve moved it several times and we’ve experimented and we’re just looking to you guys to help us. [David Henry Hwang] I basically rewrite until someone makes me stop. I’m always aware of the things in the play that
    still aren’t working as well as they could be. There’s a saying that “art is
    never finished, it’s abandoned.” At a certain point, you just have to say, “okay, it’s done.” But it’s then hard for me to watch. [Anne Bogart] I hope that even though it’s
    not all piled on top of each other like it is here that all of the rest of it is as clearly calibrated as this is, that in other words, the way this, you broke in to speak, the way the scene starts over here… [Hwang] This is a new class
    that we’ve just started this semester, and it’s called Collaboration 2. We’ve brought together the second-year playwrights, the second-year dramaturgs, and the second-year directors, and the class is co-taught by the heads of those three concentrations: myself, Anne Bogart from Directing
    and Christian Parker from Dramaturgy. [Student] I really felt like I knew where to
    look at every moment, which surprised me. If that is continuous throughout… [Student] I kind of had a different experience, or maybe the same of at a certain
    point the work of trying to look was less interesting than
    the experience of just listening, but I found that just listening was incredibly satisfying. [Ed Wasserman] We presented
    a piece today called Town Hall. We actually took the opportunity a couple weeks ago to sort of seize on the specific current political moment and sort of respond directly to that. So, we’ve had sort of an expedited process. [Student] I felt like you have successfully
    created a really strong character I don’t know much about him, but
    I feel like he’s a fully fleshed character, all of them at all times, and what they’re saying feels like it’s
    part of a really complicated, real story, and I would say when they started
    saying the “I want, I want, I want,” it felt slightly just like a kind of chorus of voices, I guess. [Hwang] Are you saying that it feels like… It feels like it’s working a little hard to earn the ending and to sort of have a choral moment at the end? [Student] Yeah, maybe, yeah. [Bogart] But if the voices are individuated more, it will be better, because you’re playing it as a chorus rather than each of you has something to say [Hwang] Trying to figure out what’s
    working and what’s not working in a play is a very intuitive process. One of the things that I do is
    I try not to look at the text itself because I don’t want to get distracted by the words. What I want to watch is the actors interacting. And if I get bored, if I feel this seems fake, if
    I feel like I don’t understand the story anymore, then I go back to the text. And then certainly once you
    put it in front of an audience, the audience tells you what’s working and what’s not. If you think something’s funny
    and the audience isn’t laughing it’s not the audience’s fault! It’s either my fault, or it’s the
    director’s fault, it’s the actor’s fault, it’s somebody, it’s us on the production side. [Music] [Actress onstage] You know,
    I never thought I’d make it to 25. Isn’t that a positively morbid thing to say? [Actor onstage] No, I understand completely. In fact I’m quite sure I won’t live past 40. [Actress onstage] Frank, what an awful notion. You’re already 38. Why would
    you say something like that? [Actor onstage] I just feel it’s one of the few
    things I’m absolutely sure of about myself. [Actress onstage] I’m tired of talking about me. Let’s talk about you. Tell these artists something about you. [Actor onstage] What do you mean? [Actress onstage] Anything. Something I don’t know. [Actor onstage] Uhh, I’m funny. [Actress onstage] I know that. [Actor onstage] I’m handsome. [Gina Stevenson] I wrote a first draft
    of this play in August of this year and mostly it’s been pretty set in
    terms of the writing, at least for now. My focus mainly with this class in
    terms of the changes in the feedback has been making a lot of notes about
    what I might want to change for the future in this play. [Hwang] Gina, I’m a little interested in
    this issue of is Frank funny or is Frank not funny? I mean, an easy thing to do is when he says he’s funny she instead of saying “I know that,” she’s really
    she kind of, “well, you think you’re funny.” Or, he is funny! I just don’t… what do you think? [Stevenson] I have heard everybody like,
    “he was so funny!” like my actual grandfather. But I have no idea what
    kind of joke he would make So I feel like that was part of it,
    like, yeah I know he’s funny, but I don’t know how…which way he is funny. [Hwang] I think teaching is a lot
    like psychotherapy in some sense. In that at this level, what I’m trying to do as a teacher is understand what the students play is trying to do. If we can figure that out, then it becomes a question of “okay, how can this play do this thing better?” What I’ve learned about writing and
    about my own writing from teaching is a greater appreciation for the
    world of possibilities that exist whenever I sit down to write a play. It makes me more brave, I think, to try new approaches because I’m exposed to and get
    some sort of intimate collaboration with a range of writers who are trying to do things that are different than the things that I do. [Actress onstage] Did I ever tell you about Edney? Edney Whiteside Edney? Edney, come out here! I need to see you. [Actor onstage] You okay? What is it? [Naka Adodoadji] For me, this class has
    very much been about development. This isn’t the end goal, this is the beginning. This is the first stage of discovering what this play is. [Actor onstage] You’ll see! The
    next few years will flyby and… [Actress onstage] …soon enough, it’ll be you and me, and we’ll be married… [Actor onstage] …we’ll buy your home, we’ll have some kids, we’ll grow old together. That’s the way it’ll be. [Adodoadji] It’s been really, really
    helpful to present something that has maybe been problematic for us or giving us issues with regards
    to the world of this play. This world is very nonlinear, time is compressed, you’re seeing many decades pressed into one moment and trying to understand “how
    do I relate that to an audience?” [Bogart] There’s there’s a really fantastic
    series of repetitions in this scene that Nako has built. What it starts with names. You say “Edney” and then you say “Edney” again, and then you hear Eunice, and then
    you hear “Anna Mae, Anna Mae,” and then you come back to Edney,
    and then you come back to Eunice. Each one of those is a build
    towards where the scene is going. I also think that in life and on
    stage, you never say a name neutrally. You always say- Christian, you know what I’m talking about. [laughter] “Philip!” You always have
    an intention behind a name You never just say, “Philip,” ever. [Adodoadji] I want to present good work on stage, but I also am very aware of letting
    the audience in on the process, that this is… it’s a work in progress, and if they were to come back a year from now, it’s going to be different and they are a part of that because how they react to what
    they see is going to help me understand what needs to be fine-tuned
    within this play, what do I need to edit, and how do I sculpt it. [Hwang] And in terms of this issue of
    playing the ending before the ending actually comes… Whenever somebody goes, “did I ever tell you the story about…”, it takes a certain amount of energy off of the stakes because then we as the audience are like, “okay, so now we’re gonna hear a story.
    We’re going to have a flashback.” [Adodoadji] Right, well, it’s indicating something. [Christian Parker] It feels right now
    because it’s sort of slow and elided, it feels like the wavy TV screen a little bit. Like, now we’re going into memory land, and what that says to me is that
    it doesn’t matter as much actually. And I wonder if there’s something to explore in trying to pop the memory forward so that we actually go faster and we go louder. Not louder, but bolder, somehow so that there’s–so that we’re not in sort of like, “ooh, now we’re in kind of slightly-
    heightened-memory-talk land,” that the language is the language, but the urgency in the telling of the memory is driven by the need to share it in the first place When I hear somebody say
    “did I ever tell you about this?” and then kind of slowly go into it, it actually pulls the stakes right
    out of it immediately for me. [Hwang] A play is over, at least the first draft, because I feel that I’ve arrived at the
    destination that the play was meant to send me to. however, having written the first draft, that’s just that really the very beginning of the process because so much of playwriting is about rewriting. So then I want to hear the play out loud and I learned a lot from that. I’ve made the play as good as I can without hearing it, but then as soon as I hear it I
    realized I’ve made X, Y, and Z mistakes. [Bogart] There’s something that Stanislavsky said that’s so terrifying for actors, it’s really scary No, this is deep! [laughter] “Every gesture should contain the whole play.” [Laughter] So I mean in terms
    of what [name] is saying that everything that happens to
    you is your whole relationship. It’s really cute. [Hwang] So, take that on! [chatter] [Nana Dakin] I think that where
    you move in this scene is actually about like, your distance is you being pushed away from Kelly. So, the only time that you can actually run into the scene is when she calls your name and says “Meg.” Right? Because I think that’s the way the words
    and the blocking have been working anyways. Like, she walks over there, so you
    can observe her this whole time and you can move in different places, you can be here, you can stop, you can react, you can do this, but you can’t get close because Kelly’s distance has actually pushed you away. [Hwang] My relationship as a
    playwright with actors is that I feel that everything that I want to tell
    them should go through the director. She controls the production. She’s in charge of what’s going on on that stage and I feel like that’s the kind of chain
    of command and I respect that. [dialogue] [Nora Sørena Casey] The director that
    I’m working with, Nana Dakin, actually comes from like a physical theatre background and so we knew going into this that
    she was really physically oriented and that I’m actually like really language oriented so we were like “cool, how can we make a
    collaboration that plays to both of those strengths? When I originally wrote the script, because
    it doesn’t move forward in time linearly, I grounded it in a way that there’s a main character who goes everywhere and then all of the other characters in
    her life are like rooted in a specific space and what Nana did is when we got that, she was thinking about it and then she said to me, “I think it’s actually going to be really
    boring if we can see all of those spaces. We’re going to know where
    we’re going before we get there.” So, she came up with this idea of having no scenery, but actually what we’re always
    using movement and space for is to talk about relationships. [Actor onstage] You could’ve invited me to the funeral. Face it. You’ve been avoiding me. [Actress onstage] Just because I won’t do your dishes? [Actor onstage] No, I don’t need you to do my dishes. [Actress onstage] Yes, you do. Look at you, you’re worse off than I am. [Actor onstage] No, I’m equally bad. That’s why we fit together. You look beautiful. [Actress onstage] You are stressing me out. And this place is a mess and now, now I have to stress-clean… [Sørena Casey] I was really interested in
    moving through time and space really fluidly and so the way that I wound up approaching that was by writing really associatively, sort of free writing from intuition
    and trying not to censor myself a lot and just let images or characters
    take me wherever they wanted to go. [onstage dialogue] The nurse asked about you. I told her you were a doctor. Dad! There’s still time for you to become a doctor. Don’t be surprised if she asks for your advice, say something good. You cannot do that! You’re– I’m what? You’re what? You’re projecting. Last week, we’ve talked a lot about
    how as playwrights and as artists, we often hide in plain sight. David actually gave an example
    where one time he was like, “Oh, I’m really struggling with a character in this play, I’m just going to name that character David. And now once I’ve identified that character as me,” that somehow opened up his ability to get creative with it. And for me, I realized that it’s really deeply
    personal to me in a way that I didn’t know. And actually, if I had set out to do that, I probably would have stopped. [Max] So we got to like read this in David’s class, and what’s so interesting is
    that on the page when reading it it’s so clear like where Kelly’s focus, like how it turns, and how if this is like a traditional play these would be these like two-
    person scenes one after the other. But actually, it’s like a bunch of two-
    person scenes all on top of each other. [Hwang] Yeah Max, I think it’s a really good
    example of the difference between text and theater I mean, this is a play that’s a little hard to understand on the page until you get it up on its feet and, you know, and it’s very clearly directed. And then all of a sudden, everything, you understand
    all the sort of complexities in these relationships which are implied by the page, but aren’t necessarily… you kind of have to direct it in your own head, if you can. [Bogart] I saw a Caryl Churchill play in London, I forgot the name of it, it’s her newest, and it was mind-blowing. I mean, mind-blowing! And
    I bought the text afterwards because it’s The Royal Court
    where you could buy the text, and I read it and I realized that it
    was completely insane on the page and that if she had been a young playwright, she never would have gotten produced. Like, people would have said “what is that?!” And it’s such a lesson, you know,
    nobody would have bought it, but because it was Caryl Churchill,
    people trusted that it made sense and it was crystal clear on the stage. [Hwang] I didn’t grow up really going to the theatre. My freshman year in college, I
    saw some plays in San Francisco and I started to think to myself,
    “Oh, maybe I can do that!” I found a professor who was willing to take
    a look at some plays I wrote in my spare time and he told me they were really bad, which they were, and that my problem was that I wanted to write plays but I didn’t actually know anything about the theater. But, that same professor then guided me in creating
    an independent study, a major in playwriting. and I essentially saw as many plays and read
    as many plays as I could over the next few years and that became my education. [to an audience] The summer
    before my senior year in college, I was home in LA and I saw an ad
    in the LA Times calendar section which said, “Study playwriting with Sam Shepard!” And at Padua, Sam and the wonderful
    playwright Maria Irene Fornes, they began teaching us and working with each
    other to cultivate writing from the subconscious. So, what does that mean? We have our conscious minds, of course,
    and we have our subconscious minds and it is most likely that our conscious
    mind is the part that says to us “well, you’re not really good enough to do this,” or, “who would be interested in what you’re writing?” and that trick becomes to find a way to
    try to get beneath that conscious mind and instead finding someplace that
    you don’t completely understand. So, what I want to do now is do this little exercise which was one of the ones that Maria Irene Fornes
    gave me and the rest of our group in Padua the summer of 1978, when I feel like I first began
    understanding what it means to write. The first part is finding your… setting up your scene. If you want, you can flip through a magazine and
    you can write about the two characters in the pictures. Then the second part, I’m going to give you about
    10 minutes just to start writing. And then, I’m going to stop you and we’re going to do something
    with what you’ve just written. [Hwang] I like to have three things
    before I start writing a play. One is there’s the question, there’s
    something I don’t understand, and so I write the play to find out how I
    really feel about a particular issue or question. The second thing is I like to have a big idea where I’m beginning and where I’m ending. And the third thing is I usually have some other
    formal model that I’m taking as my inspiration, some other play, which gives me a sense
    of the type of play that I’m trying to write. [to the audience] So, now I’m
    going to pull out a random word or phrase and what I want you to do is to continue
    writing the scene that you’ve been writing, but now it’s your job to incorporate the
    random word or phrase into the dialogue. I’m going to start with “basement studio.” “Basement studio.” “Supermoon.” [Hwang] A lot of times, the most
    exciting moments as a writer are when my characters do things I don’t agree with because A) it means they have their own
    opinions and they’ve started to come to life and B) because then I’m learning
    things, I’m discovering things. I become like the audience member who is being surprised by what’s happening in the play. The late Nobel prize-winning
    British playwright Harold Pinter used to talk about the fact you make a deal with your characters. Sometimes you do what your characters want and sometimes your characters do what you want. So, that suggests that the characters themselves
    have to take a kind of life that’s out of your control and the tension between what you control
    as an author and what is out of your hands I think is the question of how to make art. [to an audience] This exercise
    simulates the process that a writer goes through, when you’re in control to some extent and then all of a sudden this
    impulse pops into your head and a character does something you don’t understand or says something whose
    meaning you’re not clear about. And often times when as a
    writer, you follow that impulse, if you feel it very strongly, that’s when
    your characters start to come to life. [Hwang] I wrote a play once
    called The Dance in the Railroad, which was my second play to be done in New York, and it was about two Chinese railroad workers building the American Transcontinental
    Railroad in the 19th century and at about the middle of the third scene I had an impulse that one of them should turn into a duck. And so, that’s the sort of thing that
    you don’t necessarily understand but if you feel a strong impulse,
    sometimes you go with it and it ends up defining the play, which in that case it did. [to an audience] We can
    look at plays and watch a play and feel that it was too dry, that it was too
    deliberate, that you felt the author’s hand. When you feel those impulses, perhaps it means that the
    author was too much in control, that there was too much of the
    conscious mind being brought to bear on this particular work, and not enough of the sort of
    anarchy of the subconscious, which, at least as far as I’m concerned, helps to bring works to life. [Hwang] There’s no formula
    for how to write a good play. Nobody knows what’s going to be successful, even if you define success
    commercially, artistically. So, you therefore have to fall back on
    writing what you’re really interested in, what you really believe in, and that makes the plays unique and idiosyncratic. And paradoxically, if you don’t
    think about trying to be successful, your play is more likely to be a success. If a play of mine is doing what I dream it can, it allows the audience to see the world in a
    slightly different way by the time they leave, if I can get an audience to ask questions
    that they haven’t asked before and see the city they live in, the country they live in, the people who are their neighbors
    a little bit differently than before, then I think that’s a pretty good achievement.

    Articles

    Ideas 01 – WHAT DID I FEEL IN SPACE

    August 12, 2019


    One interesting thing that happens during the final preparation for a space flight is that since we stay in quarantine, we have no idea about what is happening in the rest of the world. Therefore, I didn’t know what was happening in Brazil. If anyone was watching, or not. However, I did know one thing: there was a huge Brazilian flag painted on that rocket! And that was great! I also knew that there was a Brazilian flag attached to the left arm of my flight suit . Also, there was another flag folded under the flight panel. And I looked at them every 5 or 10 seconds, as if they were something to give me strength. Specially, during the last 3 minutes of the final preparation before takeoff. After takeoff, climb, and insertion, you see Earth for the first time from space You see all that, and you think about life and about the “old vision” that now you can really see for the first time. And many things come into your mind. Since the moment you are waiting for takeoff you’ll remember of your family, your friends… It is like a flash back of your entire life. It is very interesting. It is like if you had to rewind your life to be able to “change the frequency” from now on. And so, when I got into space and saw our beautiful blue planet Earth I remembered my Mother’s eyes. They were beautiful blue eyes. And she used to tell me… she was one of few people to tell me that, a long time ago… when I was just an apprentice electrician, working at the railroad company She used to tell me: If you really believe, you can do anything you want in life. And I didn’t raise you, from here, to be limited in anything! You have no limits on what you can do! It is interesting to observe how many people we know that always try to limit our capabilities. And my mother was the kind of person who would try to take those limits out. So, when I saw that blue Earth, I remembered her eyes telling me exactly that And that was a really wonderful emotion for me at that moment.

    Columbus Neighborhoods: Columbus’ Railroad History
    Articles, Blog

    Columbus Neighborhoods: Columbus’ Railroad History

    August 12, 2019


    [email protected][email protected]!>>>WE’VE BEEN WORKING ON THE RAILROAD, NEXT ON “COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS.” [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]!>>Announcer: SUPPORT FOR “COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS” IS PROVIDED BY –>>AT AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER, WE’VE BEEN PROUD SPONSORS OF WOSU PUBLIC MEDIA FOR MANY YEARS. AND STRONG SUPPORTS OF OUR HEADQUARTERS CITY HERE IN COLUMBUS. BOTH DOWNTOWN AND IN NEIGHBORHOODS LIKE YOURS.>>Announcer: STATE AUTO INSURANCE COMPANIES. TRANSFORMING TO BECOME A DIGITAL PROVIDER OF AUTO, HOME AND BUSINESS INSURANCE. AND FOR NEARLY 100 YEARS, COMMITTED TO THE PEOPLE AND NEIGHBORHOODS OF CENTRALOHIO. STATE AUTO. THE COLUMBUS FOUNDATION. SMART PHILANTHROPY FOR A SMART CITY. COLUMBUSFOUNDATION.ORG. BAILEY CAVALIERI. YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR LAW FIRM DOESN’T NEED TO BE COMPLICATED. IT JUST NEEDS TO BE RIGHT. COTA. KEEPS OUR COMMUNITY MOVING FORWARD. FAHLGREN MORTINE MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS. THINK WIDER. OHIOHEALTH FOCUSES ON YOU AND YOUR FAMILY WITH A MISSION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF OUR COMMUNITIES. WOMEN AND PHILANTHROPY AT OHIO STATE. CHANGING LIVES BY GIVING TOGETHER. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THESE AND OTHER COLUMBUS AREA FAMILIES WHO SUPPORT WOSU. THANK YOU.>>>COLUMBUS’S RAILROADS ARE PART OF A VAST NETWORK CONNECTING COUNTLESS DESTINATIONS. IN THE LATE 1800S, THOUSANDS OF CARLOADS OF COAL AND TILE CAME TO COLUMBUS FROM HAYDENVILLE WHICH TODAY IS CALLED THE LAST COMPANY TOWN IN OHIO. HERE’S THE STORY OF PETER HAYDEN AND THE EMPIRE HE BUILT WITH COAL AND CLAY.>>PETER HAYDEN WAS THIS RATHER REMARKABLE INDIVIDUAL FROM NEW YORK. HE STARTED OUT WHEN HE WAS ABOUT 19 YEARS OLD AND SIGNED A CONTRACT WITH THE AUBURN PENITENTIARY FOR INMATE LABOR. WHAT HE DID IS HE CREATED A SADDLERY WITHIN THE WALLS OF THE PRISON USING THE INMATES TO CREATE THE HARDWARE FOR THE SADDLES. HE ALSO MADE HAND TOOLS. HE DID THAT FOR ABOUT NINE YEARS OR SO AND FOR SOME REASON HE DECIDED TO COME TO COLUMBUS. HE STRUCK A DEAL WITH THE OHIO PENITENTIARY TO USE INMATE LABOR TO CREATE ANOTHER SADDLERY AND ANOTHER COMPANY MAKING HAND TOOLS. AT SOME POINT HE DECIDED HE NEEDED COAL AND HE WAS DRAWN TO THIS AREA.>>WE HAD THE IRON ORE. WE HAD COAL. THERE WAS SALT DOWN HERE. SANDSTONE. ALL THIS THAT THEY NEEDED ELSEWHERE.>>HAYDEN WAS FORTUNATE IN THAT HE ARRIVED JUST AS THE CANAL SYSTEM WAS UNFOLDING ACROSS OHIO. THE FEEDER CANAL TO COLUMBUS WAS COMPLETED IN 1831 AND STARTED EXTENDING THIS WAY REACHING DOWN THROUGH NELSONVILLE TO ATHENS.>>I’M AMAZED AT HOW SQUARE THEY ARE. THIS CANAL RAN FROM ABOUT 1836. THERE WAS ABOUT 30 YEARS THAT THEY GOT OUT OF THE CANALS. THEN IT WAS REPLACED BY THE TRAINS. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]!>>HAYDENVILLE IS ONE OF THE LITTLE CITIES OF BLACK DIAMONDS. THEY WERE CALLED THAT BECAUSE THEY WERE DEVELOPED AROUND COAL MINING. COAL WAS DISCOVERED IN THE HOCKING VALLEY IN AS EARLY AS 1755.>>THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT WHEN HE CAME HERE AND FOUND THE COAL WAS HE ALSO FOUND REALLY RICH DEPOSITS OF CLAY.>>IT WAS IN 1883 THAT PETER HAYDEN FOUNDED THE HAYDENVILLE MINING AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE CLAY THAT WAS HERE. THEY USED TO CLAY FOR BRICKS, FOR SILO TILE, FOR CONDUIT. ANYTHING THAT YOU COULD MAKE OUT OF CLAY, THEY MADE HERE. THEY EVEN MADE UMBRELLA STANDS.>>WORK IN A TILE FACTORY WOULD BE VERY HARD, VERY HOT LABOR. IT WOULD BE SWEATY. YOU WOULD BE ON A TEAM WITH A LOT OF PEOPLE DOING VERY VERY MANUAL WORK.>>THE PLANT HAD UP T0 360 PEOPLE AT ONE TIME WORKING FOR THEM. SOME WORKED IN COAL MINES, SOME WORKED IN THE CLAY MINES, SOME WORKED ON THE RAILROADS AND IN THE FACTORY, IN THE KILNS. AND THERE WOULD BE SOMEBODY STANDING THERE SHOVELING COAL IN THAT THING ALL DAY. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]!>>THE THING ABOUT HAVING THIS MANUFACTURING OPERATION HERE IS YOU NEEDED HOUSING FOR YOUR PEOPLE AND HE HAD THIS IDEA OF CREATING A MODEL COMMUNITY. HE ENDED UP BUILDING ALL THESE HOUSES OUT OF PRODUCTS THAT CAME OUT OF HIS PLANT. THEY’RE BUILT OUT OF BRICK, TILE, SEWER PIPES.>>BEING IN A COMPANY TOWN MEANS EVERYTHING IS OWNED BY THE COMPANY. THE COMMUNITY, THE HOMES, ALL YOUR NEEDS ARE MET BY THE COMPANY.>>SO IN A COMPANY TOWN, SINCE THE COMPANY OWNS THE LANDS AND OWNS THE HOUSES, FOR THE MOST PART THEY’RE GOING TO BE VERY SIMILAR. LIKELY BY THE COMPANY SO DIFFERENT FAMILIES OF DIFFERENT SIZES MIGHT BE ABLE TO SORT OF ARGUE THEIR WAY INTO SOMETHING MORE UNIQUE. SOMETHING A LITTLE BIT BIGGER IF THEY NEEDED IT. ALSO SUPERVISORS MIGHT BE ENTITLED TO A LARGER HOUSE, MORE SPACE, MORE OF A YARD.>>YEAH I PARTICULARLY LIKE THESE BECAUSE THEY HAVE MORE DECORATIVE FEATURES THAN STRAIGHT ROW HOUSES DO. YOU SEE THEY’RE GOT ARCHED WINDOWS AND ARCHED DOORS WHEREAS THE ROW HOUSES DON’T. BUT THE SEWER PIPE, OR THE SEWER GOTHIC AS IT WAS CALLED, MAKES IT REALLY STAND OUT. I ASSUME THAT THESE WERE FOR SOME OF THE HIGHER PEOPLE IN THE COMPANY. SO THERE’S JUST A GROUP OF THEM ALONG HERE.>>THERE USED TO BE FIVE OF THEM.>>BEHIND ME IS A REALLY UNIQUE CHURCH. IT’S THE HAYDENVILLE CHURCH BUILT OUT OF THE HAYDENVILLE TILE. SO THAT’S GOING TO BE ALL LOCAL CLAY THAT YOU SEE THERE MAKING THE REALLY BEAUTIFUL DESIGNS.>>I FOUND THIS FASCINATING BUT THE TOWN BASICALLY WAS SALESMAN SAMPLES. THEY WOULD BRING CUSTOMERS TO HAYDENVILLE TO SEE HOW THEIR TILE AND BRICK AND EVERYTHING THEY MANUFACTURED, ALL THEIR CERAMICS COULD BE USED. THIS HOUSE BEHIND US IS BUILT OF SILO TILE. SO IF YOU WANTED TO SEE WHAT A SILO TILE BUILDING WOULD LOOK LIKE, THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF IT.>>THERE WERE 17 OR SO BUILT IN ABOUT 1917. WE HAD A COUPLE OVER BY THE HOCKING RIVER AND WE HAD THIS ONE. THE REST WERE CLEAR OVER AT THE MINES.>>SO ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WITH A COMPANY TOWN IS WHEN THE COMPANY LEAVES, WHEN THE COMPANY FOLDS, WHEN THERE’S MASSIVE LAYOFFS, THERE’S NO LONGER A TOWN TO BE SUPPORTED. THERE’S NO MORE COMPANY STORE. THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE EITHER DON’T HAVE THEIR HOMES ANYMORE BECAUSE THEY’RE NOT WORKING FOR THE COMPANY ANYMORE OR IF THE LANDS HAS BEEN SOLD OFF TO INDIVIDUALS, THERE’S NO REAL REASON TO STICK AROUND. UNFORTUNATELY, THAT’S PART OF WHAT HAPPENED IN THIS AREA. THIS IS PARTIALLY DUE TO THE RISE OF MECHANIZATION.>>HAYDENVILLE WAS CONSIDERED THE LAST OF THE COMPANY TOWNS. THE NATCO COMPANY SOLD OFF THE HOUSES IN 1964. AT THAT TIME THERE WERE 112 HOUSES, EIGHT OF WHICH WERE DOUBLES. FROM AN INDUSTRIAL STANDPOINT, PETE HAYDEN WAS DEFINITELY ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF COLUMBUS. HE HAD HIS FINGERS IN EVERYTHING AND HE HAD BUSINESSES IN CHICAGO, DETROUT, SAN FRANCISCO, NEW JERSEY. HE WAS IN BANKING. HE WAS INVOLVED WITH STREET CARS. HE MADE CANON BALLS DURING THE CIVIL WAR. HIS BANK, THE HAYDEN CLINTON BANK IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON CAPITOL SQUARE IN DOWNTOWN COLUMBUS AND YET WE DON’T REALLY RECOGNIZE HIS NAME ANYMORE.>>HE WAS ALSO WELL LOVED HERE. HE WAS VERY GOOD TO HIS PEOPLE. FOR A GOOD, HARD DAY’S WORK, HE GAVE THEM A GOOD LIVING. THE INSCRIPTION ON THIS BEAUTIFUL WINDOW WHICH WAS DEDICATED TO PETER HAYDEN READS “SO HE FED THEM ACCORDING TO THE INTEGRITY OF HIS HEART AND GUIDED THEM BY THE SKILLFULNESS OF HIS HANDS.” I THINK THAT THAT REALLY IS KIND OF A TESTAMENT TO THE LEGACY OF PETER HAYDEN IN THIS COMMUNITY. [email protected][email protected]!>>SO I THINK THE LEGACY OF PETER HAYDEN IS ALIVE AND WELL IN THE PEOPLE WHO ARE STILL IN THESE TOWNS. AS WE WERE RESEARCHING THE BOOK, WE MET A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO ARE REALLY DEVOTED TO THIS AREA. MAYBE THEIR GRANDFATHERS OR GREAT GRANDFATHERS WORKED HERE. THEIR FAMILY’S FROM HERE. THEY LOVE IT HERE.>>NATIONAL REGISTER PLAQUE. [email protected][email protected]!>>TOWNS LIKE THIS REALLY NEED SOMETHING NEW TO COME IN. TOURISM, I THINK, COULD BE WONDERFUL IN THIS AREA. IT’S A GORGEOUS AREA. SO WHAT HAYDENVILLE REALLY NEEDS IS ANOTHER WOMAN OR MAN LIKE PETER HAYDEN. SOMEONE WHO SEES THE POTENTIAL VALUE, SEES WHAT COULD REALLY HAPPEN HERE AND THEN REALLY MAKES IT HAPPEN. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]!>>>RAILROADS COME AND GO. SOME HAVE BEEN BUSY FOR DECADES AND OTHERS WERE USED FOR A WHILE AND THEN FELL INTO NEGLECT. THE SAME IS TRUE OF MANY OF THE DEPOTS THAT USED TO SERVE THE COLUMBUS AREA. MANY HAVE DISAPPEARED BUT AS WE SEE IN THIS EDITION OF “DRIVING WITH DARBEE,” SOME WONDERFUL RAILROAD STATIONS HAVE SURVIVED. [email protected][email protected]!>>WE’RE GOING TO CANAL WINCHESTER TODAY. THE TOWN SETTLED IN 1828 AND WE ARE PULLING UP TO THE FORMER HOCKING VALLEY RAILWAY STATION. IT’S NOW THE CANAL WINCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY’S PROPERTY. THE CANAL WINCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY HAS DONE A GOOD JOB PRESERVING LOCAL HISTORY. WE’RE GOING TO GO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE STORY. [email protected][email protected]! OH YEAH, THIS IS GREAT. THIS IS MY KIND OF PLACE. A HISTORIC BRICK SCHOOL, A HISTORIC WOOD GRAIN ELEVATOR, HISTORIC CABOOSES. MY KIND OF PLACE. [email protected][email protected]!>>JEFF, HOW ARE YOU?>>GOOD TO SEE YOU. GOOD TO SEE YOU, HOW ARE YOU? THANKS SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME OVER TODAY.>>WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THE COMPOUND?>>THIS IS JUST GREAT. I’VE KNOWN FOR A LONG TIME THAT THE CANAL WINCHESTER HISTORICAL SOCIETY HAS BEEN WORKING ON THIS BUT THINGS ARE LOOKING REALLY GOOD. YOU’VE DONE A REALLY GREAT JOB HERE.>>THANK YOU, THANK YOU.>>I GUESS THE GEM OF THE COLLECTION IS THE OLD HOCKING VALLEY DEPOT.>>THE DEPOT.>>LET’S GO TAKE A LOOK AT IT.>>OKAY.>>OH THIS IS A GREAT OLD BUILDING. NOW THIS WAS BUILT BY THE HOCKING VALLEY.>>YEAH, IN FACT THE FIRST TRAIN THAT CAME THROUGH HERE WAS ON JANUARY 13th, 1869. THE ORIGINAL DEPOT WAS BUILT THAT SAME HERE. OCTOBER OF 1894 IS WHEN IT BURNT DOWN. A SPARK FROM ONE OF THE ENGINES.>>THAT’LL DO IT.>>LESS THAN TWO MONTHS LATER, IT WAS REOPENED. DECEMBER 3rd. IT WAS COMPLETELY REBUILT AND THIS IS THE ORIGINAL ONE SINCE 1984.>>AND YOU CAN SEE IT’S FROM A LATER PERIOD. IT’S GOD THOSE LATE VICTORIAN, QUEEN ANNE KIND OF STYLISTIC FEATURES. THE DIFFERENT SIDING, THE DIAGONAL, THE VERTICAL SIDING. THE BRACKETS SUPPORTING THE ROOF. OF COURSE IT’S GOT A BAY WINDOW. THAT’S WHERE THE AGENT, THE OPERATOR WOULD SIT.>>HE COULD SEE THE TRAINS COMING.>>WATCH THEM COMING AND GOING BECAUSE THE AGENT SOLD TICKERS BUT HE ALSO WAS AN OPERATOR WHO CONTROLLED TRAIN MOVEMENTS.>>HE WAS THE STATION MASTER.>>YES, YES, RIGHT.>>HE CONTROLLED THE FRIGHT, THE BAGGAGE AND EVERYTHING.>>RIGHT BECAUSE THIS WAS WHAT’S CALLED A COMBINATION STATION.>>THREE ROOMS. THERE WAS A PASSENGER AREA, HIS OFFICE, AND THEN THE BAGGAGE OR FREIGHT AREA.>>OKAY AND THEY WOULD HANDLE MAIL AS WELL.>>RIGHT.>>AND ALSO EXPRESS. I MEAN THE RAILWAY EXPRESS WAS — IT WAS THE FED EX OF THE DAY.>>RIGHT. ADAMS EXPRESS WAS ONE OF THEM.>>RIGHT AND THEY ALL COMBINED LATER ON. AND THE COLORS, THESE ARE THE HOCKING VALLEY COLORS, AREN’T THEY? THE TWO TONES OF GREEN.>>RIGHT, THE ORIGINAL COLORS. THERE IS THREE. THERE’S THREE OLIVE GREENS AND A CHINESE RED.>>OKAY. BOY, IT IS BEAUTIFUL. AND DID YOU FIND THESE COLORS UNDERNEATH WHEN YOU DID RESEARCH?>>WHEN THEY DID THE RESEARCH ON IT, YES WE DID FIND IT. AND AS YOU CAN SEE THE ORNATE VICTORIAN EAVES.>>RIGHT, YES WITH THE BRACKETS. AND HERE YOU CAN SEE WHERE THE CONTROL MECHANISM WAS SO IT WAS ALL MANUAL. I MEAN, HE HAD TO PULL A LEVER.>>RIGHT, THERE’S TWO LEVERS IN THERE.>>TO RAISE AND LOWER THE ARMS. AND THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN A LANTERN OF SOME SORT TO LIGHT THE LENSES AT NIGHT. IT REALLY IS VERY COMPLETE. I’M A FAIRLY FERVENT RAIL FAN SO THIS IS ALL OF GREAT INTEREST TO ME.>>WELL THIS IS ONE OF OUR PRIDE AND JOYS.>>OH YEAH. SHALL WE TAKE A LOOK INSIDE AND SEE SOME OF THOSE DETAILS?>>YEAH, LET’S GO IN. ALL RIGHT, LET’S DO IT. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]! COME ON IN, JEFF.>>AH, THE WAITING ROOM.>>YES.>>AND IT REALLY DIDN’T CONNECT TO ANY OTHER PART OF THE BUILDING EXCEPT THE AGENT OPERATOR.>>IF YOU NOTICE IT’S UNIQUE BECAUSE IT’S AN OCTAGON SHAPE.>>IT IS AND WAS THAT UNIQUE TO THE HOCKING VALLEY? IT WASN’T TYPICAL.>>IT WAS THE ONLY ONE. THAT’S WHY IT WAS REFERRED TO AS “THE QUEEN OF THE LINE.” IF YOU NOTICE THE STAINED GLASS. THAT’S THE ORIGINAL STAINED GLASS FROM 1894.>>NEVER GOTTEN BROKEN. ISN’T THAT AMAZING? SO THIS IS SORT OF TYPICAL VICTORIAN TREATMENT TOO. YOU’VE GOT THE PLASTER UPPER WALLS. YOU’VE GOT THE WAINSCOTING ON THE LOWER WALLS. THE ARCHED WINDOWS. IT REALLY IS A PRODUCT OF IT’S TIME, THAT LATE 19th CENTURY. THE RAILROADS PURPOSELY WENT TO A LOT OF TROUBLE BECAUSE THIS WAS SORT OF THE POINT OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE RAILROAD COMPANY AND THE PUBLIC.>>IT’S A GEM.>>IT REALLY IS.>>IT’S UNIQUE.>>SO THEN THE RAILROAD CAME THROUGH, WHAT, 1869 YOU SAID. THAT WAS THE HOCKING VALLEY AND OF COURSE THAT TAPPED THE COAL FIELDS OF SOUTHEAST OHIO. THAT’S WHAT OPENED THEM UP.>>THIS USED TO BE A DOUBLE LINE OUT HERE.>>DOUBLE TRACK, OKAY.>>THE TRAINS USED TO RUN THROUGH HERE ABOUT EVERY 15 MINUTES.>>SO IT WAS KIND OF A CONVEYER BELT FOR COAL.>>RIGHT, IN FACT RIGHT ACROSS THE TRACKS HERE USED TO BE A COAL –>>MHMM, IT WAS A RETAIL YARD BECAUSE PEOPLE WOULD USE IT FOR HEATING NOT JUST FOR INDUSTRY OR FOR LOCOMOTIVES, THAT SORT OF THING. WELL THERE ARE OTHER PARTS OF THE BUILDING TO SEE.>>YEAH THIS WOULD BE THE STATION MASTER’S OFFICE. THIS IS WHERE THEY WOULD SELL TICKETS. ONCE AGAIN THIS IS THE ORIGINAL.>>SO IT’S A COMBINATION DOOR AND WINDOW, THAT’S PRETTY COOL.>>TO GET IN, YOU FLIP THIS UP AND WATCH YOUR HEAD.>>THAT’S PRETTY GOOD. OH YEAH, I HAVE NO SEEN THAT IN OTHER STATIONS. THIS IS UNUSUAL.>>THIS WOULD BE THE STATION MASTER’S AREA.>>SO HE DID ALL THIS BUSINESS HERE.>>ALL HIS BUSINESS.>>TRAIN CONTROL, TICKET SELLING, KEEPING THE RECORD. AND YOU HAVE SOME GREAT MODELS HERE.>>YEAH, I BELONG TO COLUMBUS AREA END SCALARS. IT’S A TRAIN GROUP HERE IN TOWN AND WE BUILT THE LAYOUT IN THE BAGGAGE ROOM.>>OH WE BETTER HAVE A LOOK AT THAT. THAT’S ONE OF MY INTERESTS. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]! OH WOW, LOOK AT THIS. THIS IS SEVERAL HUNDRED SQUARE FEET OF REALLY GOOD MODELING.>>WELL IF YOU LOOK AT THE MIDDLE AREA THERE, THAT DEPICTS CANAL WINCHESTER.>>THAT LOOKS FAMILIAR. I THINK I’VE SEEN THIS BEFORE.>>IF YOU LOOK THERE, THERE’S THE OP CHANEY AND SONS ELEVATOR.>>THERE’S THE SPUR WHERE THE CABOOSES ARE.>>YEAH, THERE’S THE PEOPLE.>>AND IT HAS THE DOUBLE TRACK.>>AND THERE’S THE CANAL.>>THERE’S THE CANAL, RIGHT.>>AND THERE’S THE TOWPATH.>>OH THE INTERURBAN, OF COURSE.>>IF YOU LOOK, THERE’S A THIRD RAIL ON THAT.>>OH SURE ENOUGH THE CIDER VALLEY RAN FROM A THIRD RAIL LIKE THE SUBWAYS DO IN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.>>AND THERE’S THE DEPOT THAT WAS UP THERE. PEOPLE ARE AMAZED ABOUT THIS. THE DAY WE PUT THE WATER TOWER HERE ON THE LAYOUT IS THE DAY THEY CUT THIS DOWN. I WAS STANDING HERE AND I HEARD THIS BIG CRASH.>>THEY KNOCKED IT OVER. THAT’S TOO BAD.>>EVERYTHING HERE IS MADE FROM SCRATCH. THIS THING HERE IS PRESCRIPTION BOTTLES, THREADS, STRAWS.>>THAT’S WHAT THE MODEL BUILDERS DO. THEY USE WHAT THEY’RE GOT AND THEY USE SOME IMAGINATION AND THEY CAN REALLY TURN OUT WONDERFUL STUFF. THAT’S A GREAT WATER TOWER. WELL THANKS SO MUCH. IT’S BEEN GREAT GETTING TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE PLACE. AND I’VE ALWAYS LOVED THIS DEPOT AND YOU PEOPLE ARE DOING JUST A WONDERFUL JOB WITH IT. BEST LUCK FOR THE FUTURE.>>THANK YOU.>>THANKS SO MUCH.,>>>COLUMBUS’S LAST PASSENGER TRAIN DEPARTED UNION STATION IN 1977 BUT IT’S ENTIRELY ACCURATE TO SAY WE NO LONGER HAVE A RAILROAD. THE CAMP CHASE RAILROAD ISN’T LOCALLY OWNED AND IT DOESN’T HALL PASSENGERS BUT IT SERVES LOCAL CUSTOMERS NEAR ITS RAIL YARD NEAR THE HOLLYWOOD CASINO. HERE’S THE STORY OF THE LITTLE COLUMBUS RAILROAD THAT COULD. [email protected][email protected]! [email protected][email protected]!>>ORIGINALLY THIS LINE WAS BUILT BETWEEN 1872 AND 1873 BY WHAT WAS THEN A SMALL COMPANY CALLED THE COLUMBUS AND SPRINGFIELD RAILROAD. THAT WAS, IN TIME, ABSORBED INTO A LARGE RAILROAD COMPANY CALLED THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. THEY OPERATED IT THROUGHOUT WORLD WAR II AND SO FORTH. IT ENDED UP IN WHAT’S CALLED “CONRAIL.” CONRAIL OWNED IT UNTIL 1994 WHEN IT BECAUSE THE CAMP CHASE RAILROAD, AN INDEPENDENT OPERATION. NOW WE’VE CHANGED OWNERSHIP, WE’RE THE CAMP CHASE RAILWAY. THE CAMP CHASE RAILWAY IS OWNED BY A CORPORATION THAT EITHER OWNS OR OPERATES FOUR DIFFERENT SHORT LINE RAILROADS SUCH AS THIS. RIGHT HERE IN COLUMBUS WE HAVE 15 MILES OF TRACKS THAT WE OWN AND OPERATE. ULTIMATELY, WE DO TIE INTO A NATIONWIDE RAIL SYSTEM THAT INCLUDES OVER A HUNDRED THOUSAND — WELL OVER A HUNDRED THOUSAND MILES OF RAILWAY COAST TO COAST AND CONNECTS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES AND SO FORTH. THIS IS A FREIGHT RAILROAD SO WE HANDLE JUST BULK COMMODITIES. OUR MAJOR CUSTOMERS HERE ARE THE FLOUR MILL THAT’S RIGHT OFF OF SULLIVANT AVENUE. THEY RECEIVE WHEAT FROM OUT WEST. WE ALSO SERVE A MAJOR NEWSPAPER PRINTING FACILITY SO MUCH OF THE PAPER THAT YOU FIND ON THE NEWSSTANDS PROBABLY CAME IN ON OUR TRAIN. AND WHAT’S CALLED A TRANSLOAD FACILITY WHICH IS WHERE CUSTOMERS WHO DON’T HAVE RAIL TO THEIR SIGHT CAN BRING IN ANY KIND OF BULK MATERIAL ON THE TRAIN AND OFFLOAD OR TRANSLOAD IT ONTO A TRUCK FOR THAT LAST MILE DELIVERY. A CAR HERE THAT’S LOADED ON OUR RAILROAD MAY BE AT THE DOCK OF A WAREHOUSE OR SOMETHING ALONG THOSE LINES. ONCE LOADING’S COMPLETE THE CUSTOMER CONTACTS US AND CONTACTS OUR LARGER RAILROAD PARTNERS, NORFOLK SOUTHERN AND CSX AND SUBMITS BILLING ON THE CAR TO ITS FINAL DESTINATION. WE BRING IT OUT TO THE RAIL YARD AND THE LARGER RAILROADS SHIP IT CROSS COUNTRY. [ TRAIN WHISTLE BLOWS ] WE RUN FIRST FOR A FEW MILES ON OUR OWN TRACK AND THEN WE ASK FOR PERMISSION FROM NORFOLK SOUTHERN’S DISPATCHERS TO RUN ON THEIR MAIN LINE TO BUCKEYE YARD IN HILLYARD AND THE IS THE LOCATION WHERE WE INTERCHANGE OR EXCHANGE CARS WITH NORFOLK SOUTHERN. TYPICALLY WE’LL RUN OUT WITH CARS TO HANDOFF TO NORFOLK SOUTHERN AND CSX. WE’LL SET THOSE CARS IN ONE TRACK OF THE YARD AND WE’LL HOP OVER TO A DIFFERENT TRACK AND THERE’S SOME CARS FOR US TO BRING BACK FOR OUR OWN CUSTOMERS ONLINE. THE TANKER CARS THAT YOU MAY SEE WEST OF COLUMBUS ARE KIND OF IN TEMPORARY STAGING SO MAYBE THE PLANT THAT THEY’RE USED TO DELIVERING MATERIALS FOR IS DOWN FOR MAINTENANCE OR SOME KIND OF SEASONAL DEMAND OR LACK-THERE-OF CAUSES THEM TO NEED A SPOT TO STAY TEMPORARILY AND WE’LL DO THAT. STORAGE HELPS US OUT ON SECTIONS OF THE TRACK WHERE WE DON’T HAVE ACTIVE CUSTOMERS. WE CAN STORE THESE CARS AND MAKE ENOUGH MONEY TO CONTINUE TO MAINTAIN THAT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FUTURE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS. [email protected][email protected]! ON A SHORT LINE RAILROAD SUCH AS THIS, WE TRY TO HAVE A LEAN STAFF AND THAT MEANS THAT EACH ONE OF US DOES A LITTLE BIT OF SO ONE DAY I MAY BE IN THE OFFICE DOING PAPERWORK, PUSHING NUMBERS AND SO FORTH. THE NEXT DAY I COULD BE OUT WITH THESE GUYS RUNNING TRAIN OR MAYBE POUNDING SPIKES ON THE TRACK, DOING SOME MAINTENANCE WORK. A LOT OF THESE TRACKS THAT WE OPERATE ON WOULD NOT BE PROFITABLE IF RAN BY THE LARGER RAILROADS. IT’S LARGELY A PRODUCT OF DEREGULATION AROUND 1980 OR SO. THE STAGGERS ACT, AS THEY CALL IT, FROM CONGRESS ALLOWED THE LARGER RAILROADS TO HANDOFF PARTS OF THEIR SYSTEM THAT WERE WEIGHING DOWN THEIR OPERATION AND MAKING IT HARD TO MAINTAIN SUCH AS THESE BRANCH LINES THAT DON’T REALLY CONNECT ON A MAJOR ROUTE AND THAT’S WHERE THESE SHORT LINES RAILROADS OR REGIONAL RAILROADS, SO TO SPEAK, CAME INTO PLAY. THE CUSTOMERS THAT WE SERVE RELY ON RAIL SHIPMENT TO STAY COMPETITIVE AND KEEP THEIR EMPLOYEES AT WORK SO IF WE WEREN’T HERE THEN THERE WOULD BE A LOT OF PEOPLE LOOKING FOR OTHER JOBS JUST FROM THE LACK OF LOGISTICAL ADVANTAGE. [ TRAIN WHISTLE BLOWS ] [email protected][email protected]!>>>RAILROADS OWE A LOT TO A COLUMBUS INVENTOR WHO BECAME KNOWN AS THE BLACK EDISON. HE INVENTED THE VICES THAT IMPROVED ELECTRIC RAILWAY CARS. ANOTHER INVENTION HELPED ENGINEERS KNOW HOW CLOSE THEY WERE TO THE OTHER TRAINS. HERE’S MORE ON THE AMAZING GRANVILLE T. WOODS.>>GRANVILLE T. WOODS WAS ONE OF THE MOST PROLIFIC INVENTORS OF THE 19th CENTURY AND INTO THE EARLY 20th CENTURY. HE’S BORN IN COLUMBUS IN 1856 TO FREE BLACK PARENTS. HE WAS A VERY ADEPT AND VERY SMART GUY AND IN 1872 HE GOT A JOB WORKING FOR A LOCAL RAILROAD. HE MANAGED TO WORK IN AN UNDERSTANDING OF BOTH MECHANICAL AS WELL THE RUDIMENTS OF WHAT WOULD LATER BECOME ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. BY THE EARLY 1880s HE’S LEFT THE RAILROADS AND HE’S GOING OFF TO BECOME AN INDEPENDENT INVENTOR. WOODS IS GOING TO HAVE A VARIETY OF PATENTS FOR A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF THINGS. HIS MOST FAMOUS SINGLE INVENTION IS THE MULTIPLEX TELEGRAPH. THE PROBLEM THAT RAILROADS HAD IN THOSE DAYS WAS THAT THEY DIDN’T HAVE A WAY TO EASILY COMMUNICATE ONE WITH ANOTHER. SO IF YOU WERE DRIVING A TRAIN ALONG AT 50 MPH, YOU HAD NO WAY OF KNOWING IF THERE WAS A STOPPED TRAIN RIGHT AROUND THAT BEND. WHAT THIS MEANT WAS THAT THERE WERE A LOT OF TRAIN ACCIDENTS. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WOODS COMES UP WITH IS A TELEGRAPH SYSTEM THAT PERMITS MESSAGES ON A MOVING TRAIN TO BASICALLY BE TRANSMITTED WIRELESSLY TO A TELEGRAPH LINE RUNNING ALONG THE SIDE OF THE TRAIN TRACKS. WHAT THIS MEANS IS THE TRAINS CAN TALK TO EACH OTHER. SO A LOT OF TRAINS AND LIVES ARE SAVES BECAUSE OF THAT PARTICULAR INVENTION. WOODS BY THIS TIME HAD MOVED TO NEW YORK CITY WITH FRIENDS AND RELATIVES. HE HAD SET UP THE WOODS ELECTRIC COMPANY AND THAT COMPANY WAS QUITE SUCCESSFUL ALL THE WAY UP UNTIL THE TIME OF WOODS’ DEATH. WOODS SUFFERED A STROKE IN 1910. BY THE TIME HE DIES HE HAS MORE THAN 60 PATENTS. HE IS STILL CONSIDERED TODAY BY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS TO BE ONE OF THE MOST CREATIVE AND PROLIFIC INVENTORS IN AMERICA, REGARDLESS OF RACE.>>>THANKS FOR BEING WITH US AND REMEMBER YOU CAN CATCH ALL OUR EPISODES ON COLUMBUSNEIGHBORHOODS.ORG. PLUS SEE OUR STORIES ON THE WOSU MOBILE APP AND YOU CAN FOLLOW US ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER AND INSTAGRAM. WE’LL SEE YOU BACK HERE NEXT WEEK ON “COLUMBUS NEIGHBORHOODS.” [email protected]! WELL I WAS BORN DOWN IN THE HEART OF OHIO [email protected]! [email protected]! DONE MY MOMMA PROUD SO I SIT ON DOWN THE ROAD [email protected]! [email protected]! HEADED DOWN SOUTH WHERE THE PEACHES GROW [email protected]! [email protected]! MY LOVE IS COMING DOWN THE LINE [email protected]! [email protected]! MY LOVE IS COMING DOWN THE LINE [email protected]! [email protected]! MY LOVE IS COMING DOWN THE LINE [email protected]! [email protected]! 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    Glensheen & the Congdon Legacy – Full Documentary
    Articles, Blog

    Glensheen & the Congdon Legacy – Full Documentary

    August 12, 2019


    MALE VOICEOVER: Funding for
    Glensheen and the Congdon Legacy is provided by
    the Citizens of Minnesota through the Minnesota Arts
    and Cultural Heritage Fund. NARRATOR: A gentle slope
    leads to the water’s edge. The broad expanse
    of Lake Superior reaches far beyond the eye. The nearby cliffs are a reminder
    of the big lake’s power, yet on this stretch,
    access to the shoreline is across a pebbly beach. It’s here that Chester
    and Clara Congdon decided to put down roots, to
    build their home place, modeled after an English country estate. The Jacobean style
    mansion, Glensheen, built more than a
    century ago, stands today as a timeless tribute
    to the American dream, a dream built on hard
    work, fortunate timing, and a relentless
    pursuit of knowledge. TONY DIERCKINS:
    Basically, Chester Congdon spent his life becoming an
    expert at what he wanted to do. When he didn’t want to
    be a school principal, he became an expert lawyer. When he got into Oliver Mining,
    he became an expert in mines. NARRATOR: Glensheen Mansion
    is more than a structure of concrete and steel. It’s a connection to a city’s
    history and development. Through every season and
    the passing of years, Glensheen stands
    the test of time, a fitting tribute
    to a family that gave so much to the region. FEMALE SPEAKER: So he provided
    the money to get the land. He provided the
    landscape design for it, and so in 1908, the city named
    the park after Mr. Congdon. That’s why we have
    Congdon Park now. NARRATOR: Today thousands
    visit the house and its grounds every year, making Glensheen
    the number one house museum in Minnesota. The understated grace
    and beauty of the estate impresses as much today
    as it did 100 years ago. Well, you have a lot of
    grand homes in Minnesota, but there are a few
    that really showcase the talents of our state better
    than this grand mansion here. NARRATOR: More than a
    century after it was built, visitors continue to marvel at
    this true Minnesota original, and they want to learn
    more about the people who lived here, the staff
    who served them, and the continuing legacy
    of Glensheen and the Congdon family. In 1853, the Lake
    Superior region was the Western frontier,
    and Duluth, nothing more than a small settlement. That same year,
    Chester Adgate Congdon was born in this house
    in Rochester, New York. On the other side
    of the continent, Clara Bannister, Chester
    Congdon’s future wife, was born and spent
    her formative years in San Francisco, California. MARY VAN EVERA: Her
    father went west at the time of the gold
    rush, and he was a minister, a Methodist minister. His job out there was
    to be a clergyman, and he had a parish
    in San Francisco. NARRATOR: Chester
    Congdon’s father was also a Methodist minister,
    preaching at various New York parishes when scarlet
    fever struck the family. TONY DIERCKINS: Two of his
    siblings and his father died when he was
    about 14 years old, and he went to work
    in a local lumber yard where they lived in
    upstate New York. NARRATOR: Chester worked
    at the lumber yard to support his widowed
    mother and surviving siblings until 1871 when he enrolled
    in newly founded Syracuse University. Although he would have
    preferred going to Yale, tuition was too expensive. As the son of a minister,
    he could attend Syracuse at half tuition, a sum
    of just $10 per term. The first class
    at the university consisted of 41
    students, four of them women, including
    Clara Bannister. TONY DIERCKINS: They became
    sweethearts at school and both graduated in
    Syracuse’s first class together. She went on to become a
    school teacher in Ontario, and he tried his luck after
    sitting for the bar in New York as a principal, a high
    school principal in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. NARRATOR: The job in Chippewa
    Falls paid $900 a year, and it allowed
    Chester the chance to see what opportunities
    existed in the Upper Midwest. He moves out west
    like a lot of Americans do in hope of a better life. And at the time,
    Minnesota was kind of one of those further
    west territories. NARRATOR: Clara, meanwhile,
    followed her love of art to a teaching
    position in Ontario. MARY VAN EVERA:
    Taught in a school in Canada, a girls
    school, I believe, and also in Pennsylvania. And Grandfather wrote to
    her and knew her then, but didn’t feel that he
    could marry her until he could afford to support her. NARRATOR: Looking to
    further his law career, Chester left his position
    in Chippewa Falls for Saint Paul, Minnesota, where
    he passed the Minnesota bar exam and landed a job with
    an established law firm. While gaining experience
    in his chosen profession, Chester was still frustrated
    with his inability to earn enough money to
    afford to marry Clara. He outlined his financial
    position to her in a letter. MALE SPEAKER: “$9.67 in cash,
    $5 receivable from my law firm, amongst prepaid rent at $8,
    a meal ticket worth $5.75, two pounds of crackers,
    two pounds of canned meat, and one half pound of coffee.” Chester’s fortunes
    would soon change thanks to a
    professional friendship with William Billson,
    the US Attorney for the state of Minnesota. Billson was impressed
    with Congdon’s work and offered him a job as
    assistant US attorney. His spirits buoyed by the new
    position and a slight increase in pay, Chester sent word to
    Clara to set a wedding date. Chester Adgate Congdon and
    Clara Hesperia Bannister were married in Syracuse, New
    York on September 29, 1881, and boarded a train back to
    Saint Paul that same afternoon. The Congdons made to
    the best of their life in Minnesota’s capital city,
    and they began a family. Between 1882 and 1891, Clara
    gave birth to five children– Walter, Edward, Marjorie,
    Helen, and John. During this period,
    Congdon’s mentor, Billson, left the US Attorney’s Office
    and went into private practice in Duluth. TONY DIERCKINS: A lot of
    Congdon’s professional business took him to and from
    Duluth, and there, he would visit with his old boss
    and mentor, William Billson. Billson, in the meantime, had
    developed a lucrative practice in Duluth. He was considered one of the
    Zenith City’s top attorneys. NARRATOR: Congdon’s
    practice prospered, buoyed by the experience he
    had gained in the US Attorney’s Office. He also invested in
    Western mining stock and made some significant land
    deals in the Pacific Northwest. Just as it seemed
    he was building a practice for the long
    term in Saint Paul, Congdon received
    an enticing offer. TONY DIERCKINS: In 1892, Billson
    offered Congdon a partnership. He said, why don’t
    you come on up? Bring the family to Duluth. It was growing by then. And relocate here, and
    become Billson’s partner. NARRATOR: It was a
    difficult decision, but Billson’s offer was
    too good to let pass. Moving a family of seven
    was a daunting task, so Chester moved first to
    establish himself in Duluth, with Clara and the children
    following a few months later. The Congdons found
    a home to rent on East 1st Street in
    Duluth, and two more children were born to the couple–
    Elizabeth and Robert. Tragedy struck when their son,
    John, died at the age of two from scarlet fever. With six other children to care
    for, the Congdons needed space. TONY DIERCKINS: When the
    Congdons first moved to Duluth, they settled in Duluth’s
    Endion neighborhood, and they had a modest house
    they were renting then, and in 1895, Duluth’s premier
    architect, Oliver Traphagen, announced that he was
    closing up shop in Duluth and moving to Hawaii. And the Congdons bought
    the home that Traphagen had designed and built for himself. NARRATOR: The
    redstone building was one of Duluth’s most elegant
    and fashionable residences, and it was home to the
    Congdons for the next 13 years. The biggest break of
    Chester Congdon’s career came because his law partner
    was away from the office. Henry Oliver owned
    a steel company in Pittsburgh, which was
    second only to Carnegie Steel in its level of production. In 1892, Oliver came
    to northern Minnesota to see firsthand the discovery
    of iron ore on the Iron Range. He was so impressed with
    the Mesabi properties of Duluth’s Merritt
    Brothers, he struck a deal to mine their ore. On his return trip
    from the range, Oliver came through Duluth
    seeking a local attorney to represent him in future
    Minnesota business deals. He was told that William
    Billson had the sharpest legal mind in Duluth, and he
    went to visit Billson one day, and Billson was out. And he wouldn’t return before
    Oliver had to leave town, so his junior attorney, Chester
    Congdon, took the meeting. The two Republicans hit
    it off almost immediately, and it is said they
    became lifelong friends after that meeting. Before it ended, they decided to
    form the Oliver Mining Company with Chester Congdon as
    its chief legal counsel. NARRATOR: The formation of the
    Oliver Mining Company in 1892 started a chain of
    events that would result in a financial
    windfall for Congdon. There’s a financial
    panic the next year, and Oliver merges
    with Carnegie Steel. Carnegie takes over 50% of that. Meanwhile, JD Rockefeller
    takes over the Merritt Brothers holdings on the Iron Range. NARRATOR: The panic of
    1893 put Rockefeller in control of the railroad
    that Oliver Mining needed to transfer its ore. Rockefeller quickly
    increased his rail rates, forcing Oliver and
    Congdon to consider building their own railroad. Then Rockefeller
    increased the rates on his fleet of
    Great Lakes ships. The high stakes game put
    America’s very economy in peril, and got the attention
    of another 19th century business tycoon. TONY DIERCKINS: Then JP
    Morgan, who owns and runs most of the nation’s banks,
    it’s fair uncomfortable. So he forms US Steel, buying
    out Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Oliver, and this increases
    Congdon’s stock by 550%. NARRATOR: Chester Congdon’s
    partnership with Oliver continued as the two formed
    other mining companies, developed new mining
    techniques, and succeeded where others had failed. He was just in that frontier
    period of opening up the iron range, and that was
    very exciting to him, getting business going, and
    the development of the steel industry. NARRATOR: Chester traveled
    extensively through the years, looking for attractive
    investment opportunities in Minnesota and beyond. TONY DIERCKINS:
    Basically, Chester Congdon dealt in mining properties
    for the rest of his life. They not only had the iron
    mines in the Mesabi range, but they invested in copper
    mines in Arizona and mines elsewhere. NARRATOR: Chester’s
    successful mining ventures made the Congdons one of
    Minnesota’s wealthiest families, and soon, he and
    Clara turned their attention to building a family home. While wealthier
    Duluthians had begun moving further east at the
    turn of the 20th century, few were building near the
    shore of Lake Superior. But the idea of a lake home
    intrigued the Congdons. TONY DIERCKINS: Clara’s diary
    as early as 1900 or 1901 mentions looking for
    a site and finding a site along Tischer Creek. He was very interested in the
    north shore of Lake Superior. NARRATOR: Chester began to
    purchase the land in 1903, soon acquiring just over
    21 acres bordering the lake and reaching a quarter
    mile up the hillside. The Congdons hired noted
    Minnesota architect, Clarence Johnston, to design their home. Clarence Johnston in 1901
    had become the Minnesota state architect. He had done many buildings
    for the state, including many for the University of
    Minnesota over the years, considered Minnesota’s
    premier architect, one of the premier architects
    in the nation really. NARRATOR: The Congdons
    asked Johnston to design a manor that resembles
    an English country estate. They chose a name that reflected
    the mansion’s location. You can see it right here. It’s called Glensheen
    because of this glen that you see here, and then
    the shine off of Lake Superior, or the sheen, Glensheen. NARRATOR: In June
    of 1905, excavation began for the house
    foundation– 42 by 140 feet with the long side
    paralleling Lake Superior. Construction would
    continue that first year until winter closed in, then
    resume the following spring. Bricklayers were back on
    the job in April of 1906, and by that fall, all
    three floors and the attic had been finished. At the same time the manor
    house was being built, workmen also constructed
    a carriage house, gardener’s cottage with four
    greenhouses, and a boat house with an attached pier. All were constructed from
    the sturdiest materials under the Congdons’
    watchful eyes. DAN HARTMAN: Not only is this
    mansion built almost entirely on a steel beam and concrete,
    so was the carriage house, and so was even the
    little gardener’s cottage. Chester and Clara
    were both intimately involved with the
    design of the building, with the siting of it, with
    the landscape approval, with the implementation. NARRATOR: By 1907,
    work had begun on Glensheen’s interior
    mechanical systems and the pilasters, bricklayers,
    and interior wood finishers busied themselves completing
    the structure of the home. By February of 1908, the
    mansion was turned over to the company that
    would be responsible for interior decoration. Glensheen’s graceful
    restrained exterior design is a hallmark of
    Clarence Johnston’s work. Yet for all its classic beauty,
    the mansion’s Jacobethan revival facade only hints of
    the rich details found inside. Chester awarded the
    interior design contract to the William A French
    company of Minneapolis, a major commission that required
    the full attention of French. DAN HARTMAN: The interior
    designer, William A French, he was here constantly. He actually is repetitively
    showing up inside of Clara’s diary, and
    so they’re having tea. He’s showing things. They’re just making
    decisions, and it’s ongoing. William French was
    concerned that he didn’t have sufficient
    financial resources in order to manufacture all
    of the furniture in order to stockpile
    it to get it ready, because the order had to
    be placed a year and a half in advance. Chester actually became
    the vice president and one of the largest investors
    annoying in the William French company in order
    to ease that cash flow situation for William French. The vast, vast majority
    of the furniture you see throughout this
    house is all actually custom made for Glensheen. A lot of it is
    actually hand-sketched. The sketches are actually then
    brought to you, usually Clara, and then Clara would
    say up or down. NARRATOR: Elements of Clarence
    Johnston’s interior design mingle throughout the house
    with ideas from William French, making for a truly
    unique living space. DAN HARTMAN: You’ll
    see a lot of oddities through the house, where
    typically, the architect would have a little bit more leeway. But the designers clearly
    changed the design. And frankly, I
    think that’s partly why this house looks
    as great as it does, and you can definitely
    tell the Johnston elements, and then also the immediate
    interior designer elements. The very kind of
    classical Johnston element is our staircase with
    the leather strapwork design going up. That is Clarence Johnston. DENNIS LAMKIN: It wasn’t
    at all uncommon for when a mansion of this
    caliber and scale was being built to employ
    different decorators to do different areas so that
    you had some variety in your interior design. William French did the majority
    of the work in the house. He decorated– this
    is Chester’s room. He decorated this
    room, for example. But other rooms in the
    house were subcontracted by William French
    to John Bradstreet, and Bradstreet was
    probably in many regards a bigger name
    than William French was as far as an interior designer. NARRATOR: Bradstreet design the
    famous Green Room at Glensheen, a longtime favorite of visitors. It’s where the Congdons
    took their breakfast. Bradstreet was heavily
    influenced by his many visits to Japan, as evidenced by his
    craft house in Minneapolis. Here, his clients could see
    his latest inspired designs, and here, he developed
    a process of treating wood that gives Chester’s
    smoking room a unique look. DAN HARTMAN: I love
    John Bradstreet’s jin-di-sugi process, where he
    actually physically torches the wood. He burns off the lighter
    grains, so you can really see– the cypress with the
    red and the wood just really pops out. NARRATOR: The
    jin-di-sugi method, developed by
    Bradstreet, accelerated the Japanese technique, which
    required the wood be buried for years to allow rock and
    decay to dissolve the softer pulp. Also in the smoking room,
    hand-hammered copper lighting shows off Minnesota
    craftsmanship, a point of emphasis for Congdon. DAN HARTMAN: The overall
    purpose of Glensheen is to show the talents that
    we have here in Minnesota. When Glensheen was being
    built, a lot of people out east didn’t know
    what we had over here. They didn’t know we
    had an outdoor element. They didn’t know that
    we had a craftsman who could to do anything. NARRATOR: Of all the
    rooms in Glensheen, the third floor bedroom
    of Walter Congdon holds a special place in
    American design history. DAN HARTMAN: And this room
    here is a John Bradstreet room. This is one of the
    very few– I think it’s the only set completely
    of arts and crafts that John Bradstreet left. I love that you have the
    desk, the chair, and notice that they all match together. But also, even the
    wastebasket matches. And I just love that all
    this stuff fits in together. It’s clearly a set. But I also love the inlay
    in the wood in this room, and it’s kind of hard to
    see, but right over here, there’s just this little
    decorative design of Bradstreet that is just so– that is
    one of his signature styles that you’ll see on his pieces,
    only his arts and crafts. This is one of our
    greatest things here is we can still show this
    time frame of American history, and I’d say, really,
    this is a moment in interior design
    in our country that is best showcased
    here at Glensheen. NARRATOR: Since
    his death in 1914, Bradstreet’s name
    has been mentioned with Tiffany, Stickley,
    and even Frank Lloyd Wright in the pantheon of
    American designers. His work, along with that
    of French and Johnston, make Glensheen a unique fusion
    of American design history. DAN HARTMAN: Usually, when you
    have a house of this nature, you’ll have one
    general style that’ll dominate the whole house. That’s not the case here. You have this third floor,
    which is very heavy on the arts and crafts. On this side, it’s
    done by Bradstreet. The other side is done
    by William A French. Well, the floor below us
    and the floor below that are Beaux-Arts style, which is
    a very different style, almost a little post-Gilded Age. You also have Helen’s
    room, which is actually an art nouveau style, and so
    you have these very differing elements that make up Glensheen. NARRATOR: Chester and Clara
    Congdon accented the design elements with fine
    carpets, objects collected on their many travels,
    and an extensive collection of art. DAN HARTMAN: One of the
    things I love about Glensheen from an art
    perspective is you go into a lot of these grand
    homes in the country, and it’s just filled with really
    famous international artists. And what I love
    about Glensheen is you have that, but
    immediately next to it is a regional artist, because
    Chester and Clara weren’t buying art just
    as an investment. They were buying art because
    they actually enjoyed it. DENNIS LAMKIN: They, together,
    would look at catalogs of art, and both would have
    comments in the Notes section of the artwork
    which pieces they liked. DAN HARTMAN: Chester, in
    particular, went on this trip through the Pacific,
    and there’s a lot of pieces throughout the
    home that are from that trip. You’ll see a lot of pieces
    from Australia, Japan. It’s kind of fun to see
    them throughout the house. NARRATOR: Even with its art
    work, fine craftsmanship, and highest quality
    materials, Glensheen was meant to be a
    respite, a place to get away from the
    worries of the world and relax with
    family and friends. [music playing] NARRATOR: With the house
    as its centerpiece, the landscape at Glensheen
    is patterned in the style of an English country estate. In a departure, the Congdon’s
    looked outside of Minnesota for their landscape architect,
    hiring Charles W. Leavitt from New York City. So you have Clarence
    Johnson, who’s a great architect
    here in Minnesota. You have the two interior
    designers– great Minnesotan. But for the landscape
    designer, he chose Charles Leavitt
    out of New York. Definitely, this is a little
    guy of national landscape fame. And you can really see
    that in the estate. NARRATOR: Leavitt’s plan
    for the estate’s 22 acres included formal garden areas, a
    large paddock for the Congdon’s livestock, and extensive use
    of the natural landscape. Sustainability was a
    major goal of the plan. But the formal garden is
    the focus of the grounds. DAN HARTMAN: This is
    something that visitors have enjoyed I think since
    the day we’ve opened. But really, it’s
    just a beautiful spot to showcase the beautiful
    gardens that we can have here in northern Minnesota. And this has been that constant
    photograph of Glensheen that we’ve seen in everyone’s
    photographs for 30 years. NARRATOR: At its center, a cool
    and beautiful marble fountain grace the formal garden. Glensheen’s original fountain
    featured four jets that shot an arching spray of water. That configuration
    was changed in 1913 when the current
    fountain was installed. DAN HARTMAN: And
    then, eventually, they decided with what see here,
    which is Italian marble. And it’s made by George Thrana,
    actually carved here in Duluth. He’s one of Duluth’s
    master stone carvers. And this is not George
    Thrana’s first design. He actually gave them
    a different design of a young woman
    riding an alligator. And the Congdon family
    said, ah, maybe not so much. And this is the second
    design which they did choose. NARRATOR: In the Northeastern
    portion of the landscape plan, a clay surface tennis court was
    built next to a bowling green. A beautiful flower garden is
    just below the tennis court. And vegetable gardens tear
    down toward the waterfront. The Gardener’s cottage
    stands in the lowest corner of the vegetable gardens. Adjacent to the cottage,
    four adjoining greenhouses marched up the hillside, an
    important part of the estate’s sustainable design. Some of the greenhouses
    were used to start flowers, including annuals and perennials
    for the estates formal gardens. And at the top of the
    hill, the Palm House contained a real treat for
    the Congdon grandchildren. We used to come down on
    my brother’s birthday, this would be in
    the ’30s and ’20s, to pick a banana
    from the banana tree down there, because they
    seemed to ripen right in April. So that’s part I remember most. NARRATOR: Sadly, the
    greenhouses no longer exist. They were dismantled in 1970
    after their coal burning heating plant failed. Just below the quaint
    gardener’s cottage stands a much larger
    building– the carriage house. DAN HARTMAN: This is kind of
    that overlapping period where carriages were still
    very heavily used here in the city of Duluth,
    while at the same time, the automobile is really
    starting to come on the scene. So here in this
    carriage house, you’ll have the horses that are
    carrying their carriages while immediately in
    the same building, we’ll have a garage for
    their new automobiles. NARRATOR: Along with space
    for the cars and carriages, some of the Congdon’s
    male servants lived in the carriage house. DAN HARTMAN: They
    had their own kitchen here– their own set
    of bathrooms here. This is where they lived. This is kind of their house. And you actually had a
    full-time staff member named a stableman
    who actually would be living in that quarter. You’d have the
    chauffeur– the coachman. NARRATOR: The carriage
    house had stalls for the estate’s
    award-winning Morgan horses along with space for
    a few Guernsey cows kept for their milk and butter. To the east of the gardens
    and carriage house, several acres of
    paddocks were set aside for the estate’s livestock. was a large boat house
    with a protective pier and breakwater extending
    well out into Lake Superior. The structure provided shelter
    for the Congdon’s yacht, the Hesperia. DAN HARTMAN: And a lot of the
    commercial maps for captains, you’d actually see the
    Glensheen pier on the map because it was just such
    a significant structure. NARRATOR: The boat
    house itself is made of rough cut stone
    similar to the stone bridge over Tischer Creek. More than 500
    loads of black soil were brought in to sculpt
    Glensheen’s landscape. And over 200 varieties
    of trees and vegetation were planted on the grounds. Today, the Congdon
    Estate’s 22 acres is a living testament to
    Charles Leavitt’s master plan and ongoing efforts to
    maintain his original intent from more than a century ago. DAN HARTMAN: We have
    the original 1907 map of where things are
    supposed to be planted. And it corresponds to a list
    of the plant that was planted. And so it was just kind of fun
    to be able to still go back in time and be able to point
    out this is the heritage tree or this is a new one. And it’s fun that we have
    so much of that history still available. So we can restore it to what
    it was meant to look like. [music playing] NARRATOR: On a
    beautiful summer day, Glensheen director
    Dan Hartman walks a neglected trail along the
    western edge of Tischer Creek. All but forgotten
    over the years, these trails are
    an original part of landscape architect Charles
    Leavitt’s ambitious plan for the property. DAN HARTMAN: One of the unknown
    parts of the trail system is this beautiful
    outlook of Lake Superior. And notice that the original
    stone staircase leading down to the outlook is still here. Oral history has it that
    this is where Chester came for his morning cup of coffee. NARRATOR: From the
    rock outcropping And visitors to the grounds
    came away impressed. DAN HARTMAN: And when this was
    completed in 1910 when guests came here, they didn’t
    walk away necessarily talking about the house. They mostly walked away talking
    about how beautiful this trail system was. And how it almost felt
    like mini North Shore here on the property. NARRATOR: The centerpiece
    of the trail system is the beautiful stone arch
    bridge over Tischer Creek. Its timeless design has made
    it one of Glensheen’s most iconic locations. DAN HARTMAN: On the
    family’s postcards, the picture wasn’t
    the house over here, it was actually the bridge and
    then the side of the house. That’s how important this
    landscape was to the family. So you think Chester had
    his own private hiking trail here on the property. And that beautiful stone bridge
    is that it actually connected you to that hiking trail. So many have referred to
    it as the bridge to nowhere in the past. But clearly, it is a
    bridge to something and is one of the more
    beautiful parts of the estate. NARRATOR: The
    extensive trail system wraps around the estate grounds
    on both sides of Tischer Creek. Getting up and down
    this steep creek banks required the construction
    of stone steps which were artfully
    carved into the slopes. So this is one of the
    completely unknown staircases here at Glensheen that
    we hope to bring back and that are not actually
    even available at all to the public today. But it’s the other
    side of the trail, kind of that eastern
    portion, which still has that great view
    of the stone bridge. And you can really
    see now how the trail system wraps around both
    sides of Tischer Creek. NARRATOR: Stepping stones
    that once led across the creek have been washed away. But the trail continues
    through an impressive tunnel to the Congdon property
    located above London Road. DAN HARTMAN: You have this
    beto Duluth’s Congdon Parkteny on land that Chester
    had donated to the city. It was a seamless
    transition to a park that complemented Glensheen’s
    Lake Superior location. DAN HARTMAN: What I think
    is really unique about going on the other side of London
    Road is you can really see that continuity of design. in merging land and building
    towas ahead of its time.l Visitors to Glensheen
    today once again see the mansion and grounds much
    as they were first imagined more than 100 years ago. We cleaCongdon’s visionw shed.
    NARRATOR: Chester for a trail system
    along Tischer Creek didn’t end at his property line. He had something
    more in mind that would benefit his adopted city. NANCY NELSON: He
    owned the property from the lake shore all
    the up to Graceland Road along Tischer Creek. So he proposed that the city
    acquire the land from Graceland Road all the way up to Vermilion
    Road along Tischer Creek and make that a city park. NARRATOR: The creek plunges and
    winds down the Duluth hillside, carving out impressive valleys
    and peaceful pools on its way to Lake Superior. A scenic canvas–
    it seemed perfect for an extension of the trail
    work planned for Glensheen. But it was also badly polluted. At the time, the
    people who lived up at the top of the hill
    in the Woodland area were using Tischer
    Creek as a sewer. So it was fairly contaminated. NARRATOR: Congdon made his
    donation of land and money contingent on the city
    redirecting the sewage into a holding tank. The park board accepted
    Congdon’s offer in 1905 and completed
    acquisition of another 30 acres of land for the
    park by the end of 1907. But Congdon’s generosity
    didn’t end there. He offered the services
    of his landscaping team to come up with a
    plan for the park. He had hired Charles
    Leavitt from New York to help design the
    landscaping for Glensheen. And Anthony Morrell and Arthur
    Nichols worked with Leavitt. And so then Congdon
    offered the services of Mr. Morrell and Mr.
    Leavitt to help develop a plan for the rest of the park once
    the city to acquired the land. NARRATOR: Leavitt
    and Morrell’s work in the park included stone steps
    and a series of wooden bridges that crossed Tischer Creek
    at various locations. Other elaborate plans for
    the park were never built. But the city honored Congdon for
    preserving the natural beauty of Tischer Creek. NANCY NELSON: So he provided
    the money to get the land. He provided the
    landscape design for it. And so in 1908, the city named
    the park after Mr. Congdon. That’s why we have
    Congdon Park now. NARRATOR: A 1909 article in
    the Duluth Herald newspaper called the new park, “the
    leading outdoor beauty spot of the city,”
    and went on to exclaim that, Tischer Creek lends
    an atmosphere of wildness such as is seldom met
    within a city park.” The park today still boasts
    its original stone steps and beautiful
    vistas of the creek much as it did 100 years ago. The wooden bridges have been
    replaced by modern versions. And the park remains
    a taste of wilderness in the midst of the city. Brought to Duluth by Leavitt to
    work on Glensheen’s landscape, Morrell and Nichols went on to
    make their mark on the Zenith City. NANCY NELSON: They made
    a plan for Lester Park. They designed all the stone
    bridges on Seven Bridges Road. They designed the bridge
    over the Lester River on London Road. Any place in Duluth you see that
    kind of nice stone arch bridge probably is something
    that was designed by a Morrell and Nichols. NARRATOR: The
    automobile was beginning to change the way Americans
    traveled in the early years of the 20th century. Chester Congdon saw the need
    to improve the region’s system of roads and once again was
    willing to help foot the bill. MALE SPEAKER: He had a vision
    in fact for the Lake Superior International Highway that
    was stretched all the way up to the Pigeon River. And he purchased and
    donated all the land that is now the scenic
    Highway 61 from 60th Avenue east all the way
    up to Two Harbors. NANCY NELSON: I think
    he did a lot of his very quietly like purchasing some
    of the land for the Congdon Boulevard. He tried to do as much of
    that on his own as he could. And there’s a
    newspaper article that says that he was trying
    to do it quietly. And the newspaper was
    cooperating and not publishing anything
    about it until he finally came to the
    city council and asked for help getting land. NARRATOR: As they would
    have it, Chester Congdon did not live to see the dream of
    his Lake Superior International Highway completed. But the Congdon name was forever
    linked with the North Shore highway development. Later after his death,
    Clara and the Congdon estate paid for the Lester River
    Bridge, the historic bridge, that crosses the Lester
    River on this stretch. NANCY NELSON: So
    Congdon Boulevard became part of
    Highway Number 1 that went from Duluth up the shore. Now we know it pretty
    much as Scenic Highway 61. He really was a
    visionary in that sense, realizing that it was going to
    be an important transportation corridor to get
    people up the shore. [music playing] NARRATOR: The Congdons moved
    into their spacious new home in late November of 1908,
    though a small amount of finishing work remained. While the family
    settled in, workers completed the final details
    and the supervisor of the work declared end of
    house construction on February 1st, 1909. The final cost of building
    and equipping the estate was $854,000. The majority of that money
    was spent on the interior and furnishings. DENNIS LAMKIN: And it took
    33 train car loads, boxcars, of furniture to
    furnish the house, and that took about a
    month long period of time to install the
    furniture in the house and to get it placed properly. NARRATOR: In those first
    years, the Congdons employed about 30
    people at Glensheen in a variety of positions. DAN HARTMAN: The domestic
    service was the number one occupation in the
    country, and so to work at the number one
    house in the state at the time was kind of a big deal. SPEAKER 1: They did have
    a chauffeur at one time, then you had your houseman. The chauffeur lived
    upstairs and the houseman lived downstairs there. Well, they had a
    cook and I think they had a cook helper at one time. And then they have
    a housekeeper, she was in charge of the
    house and all the people that worked there. Then they’d have an upstairs
    girl, downstairs girl. NARRATOR: Permanent
    staff members had excellent living facilities,
    and the jobs at Glensheen were coveted. DAN HARTMAN: Imagine you’ve
    just come over from the seas, you come from terrible
    working conditions, and now you’re living on
    this beautiful property in a heated building with some
    really good food generally every meal, and frankly,
    you’re paid pretty good. NARRATOR: Even before
    it was completed, the Congdon engine
    was drawing attention as one of the finest
    homes in Minnesota. DAN HARTMAN: Glensheen
    is a sought after house. The architect, the
    interior designers, people want this job because
    they know it’s going to help show off what they do. NARRATOR: A year
    after the family moved in, a national magazine
    came to Duluth to do a feature story on the residence. DAN HARTMAN: Western
    Digest comes and does photo spreads of
    almost every room in the house, the
    landscape, they write up this great story of it and
    it goes into this national NARRATOR: The photos taken for
    The Western Architect in 1910 are a remarkable document,
    a curator’s dream, that illustrates how little
    the furnishings, artwork, and family mementos have
    changed in over a century. DAN HARTMAN: We just redid
    Robert’s room last year and it was the
    only reason we were able to identify
    the furniture that was meant to be in that room. NARRATOR: Though most
    of the Congdon children were already off to boarding
    school and college when the family moved
    in to Glensheen, each had their own
    bedroom in the mansion. And there were another
    half dozen guest bedrooms on the second and third
    floors of the Congdon home. Guests from far and near
    were welcomed at Glensheen, and the house hummed with
    activity in those early years. Summer was an
    especially busy time with the children
    home from school and friends and family visiting. And the estate took full
    advantage of its Lake Superior location with its fine
    peer and boathouse. TONY DIERCKINS: When
    they built the house, they imagined people arriving
    by coach in the front and by yacht in the back. In fact, they had their
    own yacht, the Hesperia. Alfred Bannister,
    Clara’s orphaned nephew, actually came to live with
    the Congdons in the 1890s, and in 1911, he and a
    friend piloted the Hesperia from Maine all the way through
    the Great Lakes to Duluth. It was the longest such
    journey by a motorized vessel of that size at its time. NARRATOR: Even with all the
    activity of a large family and staff at the estate,
    Glensheen still functioned as an oasis for Chester Congdon
    between his frequent business trips. TONY DIERCKINS: Chester in
    particularly enjoyed the west porch, where we have photos
    of him relaxing and sitting. They say that’s where he
    spent most of his time while at Glensheen. Of course, during those
    years from 1909 to 1916, while Glensheen
    was his residence, he didn’t spend much time here. NARRATOR: Chester Congdon’s
    foray into politics came relatively late in his
    life although he had long supported Republican
    candidates and causes. DAN HARTMAN: Chester was
    an extremely influential Republican in this region. He was the leader
    of the Republicans in northeast Minnesota. NARRATOR: Content to advocate
    for his beliefs of the party level, Congdon had never
    run for elected office, but that changed when
    he ran for and won a seat in the House of
    Representatives in 1908. TONY DIERCKINS: He
    represented Duluth in two different legislative sessions. He really entered politics
    because of a tonnage tax issue, a tax that was going
    to be put on iron ore. DAN HARTMAN: He was
    only in two sessions, and in one of the sessions, he’s
    the chair of the committee that actually decides the
    districts of the state for the next election. You don’t get that typically
    as a freshman represent. Chester got that. NARRATOR: Disillusioned by
    the legislative process, Chester left the state house
    when his second term ended. In 1914, he embarked on
    several month-long voyage through the Pacific
    Rim and continued to pursue his orchard
    interests in Washington State, building a large castle-like
    residence there known as Westhome. Congdon’s political advice was
    often sought by Republicans, and in 1916, he was elected the
    Republican National Committee man for the state of Minnesota. The party’s endorsement went
    to Charles Evans Hughes, and Congdon was confident
    the nation would oust President Wilson from office. TONY DIERCKINS: Chester Congdon
    did not like Woodrow Wilson. He thought his
    policies of staying out of what we now call
    the First World War made America look weak. He was so confident that
    Wilson would lose the election that he had the estate’s cook
    prepare a special celebratory dinner the night
    of the election. NARRATOR: To Congdon’s
    great disappointment, Wilson won reelection. 3 days later, while on
    business in St. Paul, he messaged Clara to tell
    her he wasn’t feeling well. DAN HARTMAN: He was in St. Paul. He was at the St. Paul
    Hotel, he sent a note that he was feeling sick. People thought he
    was getting better, and then it had a
    turn for the worse, but it all happened very quick. NARRATOR: The
    sudden heart attack that killed Chester
    Congdon at the age of 63 shocked the region and
    left a void in Duluth that would not easily be filled. TONY DIERCKINS: By all
    newspaper accounts, the community loved and
    appreciated Chester Congdon. His Duluth News Tribune
    obituary is gushing, really, over the wonderful things
    he did for this community, and they considered him
    fairly irreplaceable. DAN HARTMAN: And he
    was so heavily involved in so many things of
    Duluth at the time that there is this moment
    of what are we going to do? I mean, this is the
    guy who has been a major donor and the vision
    for so many different ideas in Duluth. NARRATOR: The untimely death
    of Chester Adgate Congdon was a blow not only
    for his family, but for the region has a whole. At the time of his
    death, Chester Congdon was reportedly the
    richest man in Minnesota. He was well able to
    afford frequent travels at home and abroad, and to
    keep the large staff that tended to the Congdon estate. But change was coming to
    Glensheen and its staff of domestic servants. DAN HARTMAN: Now,
    after World War I, that number gets cut
    in half immediately, and then after World
    War II, it drops down to around five or so,
    and frankly that’s really common nationally, as well. NARRATOR: One by one, the
    Congdons’ adult children married and moved
    out of Glensheen. Clara Congdon went about
    her business living in a much different style
    than her well-known husband. DAN HARTMAN: Here’s Chester who
    was this very proactive, very public person. He runs for state
    legislature, he builds a mansion on London Road. Clara, not so much. Clara believes really intensely
    in supporting her family and being more private, and
    that was her way of thinking. She was still a huge
    supporter of the community but she didn’t want to do
    it in such very public ways. NARRATOR: Clara was a firm
    but caring mother, encouraging the family trade of generosity
    and life-long commitment to the community. TONY DIERCKINS:
    The children were raised with what at
    the time was called a sense of noblesse oblige. It’s a French term, and those of
    us who are blessed with wealth are obliged to share it. NARRATOR: Clara was 62 years old
    when Chester died and burdened with a difficult hearing loss. As seen in this vintage
    Congdon family film, she tried a number of
    cumbersome hearing aids to keep up with conversation. Even though she
    didn’t hear well, she was always there
    for her grandchildren, often with gentle encouragement. MARY VAN EVERA: She had
    her own advice for us as if she were our
    mother, and we always came to see her before we went
    away to school or college. NARRATOR: Clara’s
    preference for privacy led to some subtle changes
    on the Congdon estate. It seemed like she
    asked the guard staff to plant pine trees and cedar
    trees throughout the property, kind of close up some
    of these viewing lanes so that this would be
    more of a private home. TONY DIERCKINS: She let the
    grounds grow wild a bit, and let things develop. And by 1930, the photograph
    shows this much more lush, full look to the grounds. NARRATOR: Throughout
    her long life, Clara Congdon
    never lost her love of art, a passion she practiced
    often and supported in others. DAN HARTMAN: David
    Erickson, who I’d say is easily one of the
    more popular painters around the turn of the
    century here in Duluth– it was her who actually paid for
    him to go overseas and actually study the arts. VERA DUNBAR: The
    one oil that she did was Reuben’s David
    that is in the library, and that, I think she did
    that when she was teaching art before she was married. NARRATOR: As the years
    went by, one constant with Clara at Glensheen was her
    youngest daughter Elisabeth, who was 14 years old when
    the Congdons moved in. Elisabeth dropped out of
    college when her father died and returned home
    to help her mother manage the estate while brothers
    Walter and Edward took over the varied
    business interests. By 1930, all of the Congdon
    children except Elisabeth were married and had moved
    out, but for many years, returning to the home
    place for Christmas remained a treasured
    family tradition. MARY VAN EVERA: My
    very earliest memories are I think around
    Christmas, riding in the sleigh,
    the Troika sleigh, on London Road with a horse in
    front of us pulling us along. There was lots of snow, and I
    was under a big buffalo robe, and there was a hot brick
    to keep our feet warm, and I thought that
    was very exciting. NARRATOR: In the 1930s,
    Elisabeth Congdon, still unmarried and in her late
    30s, adopted two daughters. She and the girls continued
    to live at Glensheen with her mother, who enjoyed
    good health for many more years. In July of 1950, Clara
    Bannister Congdon passed away at the age of 96. In the ensuing years
    with her children grown, Elisabeth Congdon split
    her time between Glensheen and other family homes. DAN HARTMAN: And
    after Clara dies, then Elisabeth really
    is here sparingly throughout the year,
    not nearly as much as her mother nor Chester. And so there’s stories of
    this entire floor just covered in sheets for weeks on end. And so it’s a very
    different era. NARRATOR: In 1964,
    a massive stroke left Miss Congdon disabled
    and in need of nursing care, but she continued to
    handle her own affairs with the aid of her personal
    manager, Vera Dunbar. VERA DUNBAR: Elisabeth
    had had this bad stroke and was partially paralyzed
    and in a wheelchair, and had difficulty
    talking sometimes. NARRATOR: In 1968,
    the family decided to donate Glensheen to the
    University of Minnesota with the stipulation that
    Elisabeth Congdon could stay until the end of her life. That life tragically ended
    the night of June 26th, 1977 when Elisabeth and her
    night nurse, Velma Pietila, were murdered. The story of that dreadful
    night and its connection to Miss Congdon’s adopted
    daughter Marjorie has been told many
    times, and it’s a story that is not
    ignored at Glensheen, but neither is it emphasized. DAN HARTMAN: That
    murder has overshadowed this much greater legacy of
    what the Congdon family has done for northeast
    Minnesota, and so part of what I feel like
    my mission here is to have everyone hear that
    broader story so they know that there’s more to
    what this family did than just this one day event. Several months after
    wayElizabeth’s death, the University of Minnesota
    took full ownership of the Congdon estate. In 1979, the mansion and
    grounds were open to the public. And today, Glensheen is one of
    the most visited house museums in the state of Minnesota. It provides a glimpse into
    an era and a lifestyle that can’t be found anywhere else. TONY DIERCKINS: The Congdons
    weren’t the only wealthy family to build a grand estate at the
    early part of the last century, but because it stayed in
    one family all these years, it’s filled with almost
    all original furnishings, and the same pictures
    are hanging on the wall. NARRATOR: When Chester
    Congdon built Glensheen on the shores of
    Lake Superior, he sent a message to his
    business colleagues in cities around America. DAN HARTMAN: I think he did
    a remarkable job of showing people in the eastern
    part of our country that there was more to
    Minnesota than the bitter cold. DENNIS LAMKIN: It also said
    the people of Duluth, I think, that it’s here to stay. That the wealth is not
    going to be a flash and it’s not going to
    disappear, that there’s going to be a sustainable
    future for the city. NARRATOR: From the mansion
    to the formal garden, to the impressive carriage house
    holding the Congdon’s original sleighs and carriages, Glensheen
    offers the visitor a rich experience that
    cannot be duplicated. DAN HARTMAN: The craftsmanship
    of this house you can’t beat, and the local element
    of it, especially, is just astonishing. You’ll go to some beautiful
    homes out in the east coast, but none of those
    homes will show the identity of their state or
    the region like Glensheen will.

    Private Railroad Crossing
    Articles, Blog

    Private Railroad Crossing

    August 12, 2019


    Hello ladies and gentlemen RailROL82
    here I’m gonna show you guys a private railroad crossing over here before I do
    that I’m gonna show you guys this one this is an update video I remember I
    shot over here when somebody broke this crossing gate they ran into it this
    is flaghole Road in Hendry County The relay case over there says Flaghole Road, so if you guys remember somebody hit that crossing gate there
    well not that one specifically but one like it and when they hit it, it came
    over here right and I give you a tour of this crossing so everything is back up
    and ready to go so what I wanted to show you today was this crossing over here this here is a, this is a canal
    and then this here is a orange plantation these are orange trees over
    there so this here is a private railroad
    crossing, this spur is the SCFE but this spur actually goes into, there’s an
    orange juice plant back there so the track goes that way curves that way and it goes back that way in that way so it’s over there somewhere
    by highway 833 I’ll include a link for it in the bottom if you guys want so
    yeah so then this crossing all we got is the emergency contact info crossing number 966 172C, a stop sign and a
    cross buck that’s all that we got here no lights bells whistles nothing of that
    nature this is the grade crossing wood wood wooden ties, same difference
    on the same thing on this side except we got we got no crossing number or
    emergency contact info just that stop sign and cross bucks if you guys notice
    on the Google Maps Street View for flaghole Road
    prior to like 2011 2012 the track ended right just shy of flaghole Road they built
    this spur sometime after 2011 2012 so yeah and then this is the canal
    again you can see I’m going to try to zoom in
    over there that there’s where they load sugar cane that’s how they load sugar cane
    onto the to the trains Alright guys, please subscribe or like thank you very
    much for viewing over and out

    Not In Our Hood: How People’s Power Beat Amazon (Part 1)
    Articles, Blog

    Not In Our Hood: How People’s Power Beat Amazon (Part 1)

    August 12, 2019


    Amazon – the tech giant which started off as an online bookstore that steamrolled high street retailers out of business, today sells three billion products across eleven markets. It’s made its boss Jeff Bezos the world’s richest man who makes on average nine million dollars every single hour. The man seemed unstoppable, especially when he secured 2.8 billion dollars of taxpayer cash in exchange for choosing New York City as the site for Amazon’s second headquarters, dubbed HQ2. But then, this happened. When we fight, we win! Whose city? Our city! Shira first of all, what’s your reaction on Amazon officially pulling out? I mean, it’s interesting that they decided to throw in the towel rather than keep fighting, but I think from the very beginning Amazon miscalculated. Thank you. Have a good day. In fact, almost from the second HQ2 in New York was announced, the backlash began as the dirty details of the secret deal between New York’s Governor, Mayor and Amazon emerged. And the backlash just grew and grew, into a story of how people’s power can take on powerful forces and win, and in this case become the first major defeat for Bezos’ expanding empire. While Amazon claims most New Yorkers supported HQ2’s arrival and it’s decision to pull out of New York was due to opposition from local politicians, we were on the ground in Queens during the climax of the battle against the tech giant. You can consider Amazon a neutron bomb of gentrification. I went through three months working at Amazon; the way they treated the workers as if they’re robots and not human beings. And that’s not something that we want in this community, that’s not something that we want for Queens. We want to empower our own community so that they don’t have to work for these fucking huge ass corporations. To someone like Jeff Bezos, it’s just increasing and further amassing the power of himself and his corporation. This fight is bigger than just Amazon itself. It’s about the future of work. I have a lot of faith in our ability and our smarts to be able to navigate the system and get Amazon out. The rent’s getting higher. Nobody’s getting hired. While big brother’s filming this real life survivor. We’ll be meeting Dannelly, Rashad, Cathy, David, Stuart, Tania, and So Soon as they take us through the issues that made them join the frontline against Amazon. Controversy number one: three billion dollars of taxpayer money offered up to one of the world’s most valuable companies, without consulting the taxpayer. Meanwhile, Mayor Bill de Blasio and Governor Andrew Cuomo who offered the cash in order to win the HQ2 deal over more than 200 other cities, have for years been claiming that there just isn’t enough money for vital public welfare and services. A few blocks down from the land that was being offered to Amazon is the western hemisphere’s biggest public housing complex, Queensbridge Houses, which falls under NYCHA, the New York City Housing Authority. It’s long faced a funding crisis. Thousands of residents have struggled through the winter without heating and sometimes live in deadly conditions, including being exposed to lead in their water. You go into NYCHA buildings, they have mold infestation, asbestos, rodents, all of these things, like literally we’re speaking to residents that are like “yo, my fridge doesn’t work” you know. And they ask for a new fridge, and they’re like no, you know. And you know they could be using this money to create quality housing, public housing, affordable housing, but they’re not doing that. Soon enough, we’re not going to have public housing unless we fight for it. Unless the people unite! Come out! Sign our petition! Come to our rally! Get involved. We could say goodbye to New York City as we know it. I’m a teacher in Corona. Two in ten of my students are homeless. That’s higher than… That’s twice as high as the New York City average. So it’s like, I don’t got to fight only for me but I’ve got to fight for my students because we’ve got to keep Queens affordable. It’s not just soaring rents burdening this community. Almost the entire public infrastructure of New York is crumbling. New York’s expensive and often late trains ride through subways that are literally falling apart. We’re basically paying into the government giving Amazon our money when we still need money for schools here, we still need money for fixing the roads here. These communities, government hasn’t paid attention to all these communities for a long time. We’ve been able to sustain these communities ourselves. But now when we hear that, it really enrages people. While Amazon was offered huge amounts of taxpayer cash, the company itself, which is valued at 800 billion dollars, is set to pay… wait for it… No federal taxes on it’s profits last year. So why weren’t the hardworking people of New York consulted about how their money would be spent? It’s not exactly like they’re hard to find. Meetings like this community assembly in Queensbridge Houses happen on an almost weekly basis, where local people’s views, needs and diverse opinions are openly discussed. I’m sure everybody’s aware that Amazon is coming to Long Island City. May be coming. A lot of so-called leaders are coming out and speaking for you, and saying that those in Queensbridge want Amazon to come. Ok, let’s stop with this Amazon, ok… cause I’m gonna make sure my kids and grandchildren are first in line. That’s right. You’re talking jobs. That’s all I’m concerned about, and high rent. I appreciate your concern. So, I want to speak to that. We’re gonna give two billion dollars worth of tax incentives to Amazon, and we’re just gonna ignore the working-class, people of colour, immigrant communities, that’s what’s gonna happen. We can’t be shortsighted with this plan. Bezos’ ability to bag such a huge sum of taxpayer money without public approval is illustrative of the growing power being concentrated in his hands. Over the past five years, Amazon’s spend on lobbying in Washington has increased fivefold, and last year surpassed the spend of finance giants Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase and Wells Fargo combined. In return, Amazon is steadily gaining more and more government contracts and the U.S. government is well on its way to becoming its single biggest customer. But injustice still exists, corruption still exists, the government’s suspicious, affordable housing’s just a myth, my people ain’t tryna resist cos they can’t afford the risk, ain’t no silver spoons for the working class we grinding for all this shit. So Amazon started off the year with a big public relations push. They sent around flyers to residents of Queens talking about how the company was going to deliver 25,000 new jobs to the borough. What do we want to build? Amazon! When do we want to build it? Now! What do we want? Jobs! What do we want? Jobs! What do we want? Jobs! Two unions representing service and construction workers were strongly in favour of Amazon setting up HQ2 in Long Island City. Lots of jobs, we’re expecting about 7,000 jobs from that. Amazon has made a commitment to make sure that those jobs are good union jobs. We appreciate that and we support them coming to Long Island City because they’ve made those commitments, but we also know like our labour partners that are against Amazon, that New York is a union town. This is going to be a massive job generator, with 25 to 40,000 permanent jobs, high paying jobs, that will be career-oriented jobs. The construction of this project will be built by union construction workers. But when I took these two to task about Amazon’s record, which has landed Jeff Bezos with the award of one of the world’s worst bosses by the International Trade Union Confederation, they seemed confident that New Yorkers would be protected by the city’s status as being part of the second most unionised state in the country, after Hawaii. New York City is a union town! New York, this is a union town. You say that New York City is a union town. It certainly is. New York may be a union town but Amazon will only work with unionised workers for jobs which they outsource, who are represented by these two pro-Amazon unions. That same morning, other unions and activists rallied against the Amazon deal. Good morning everybody. It may be cold outside today, but not as cold as Jeff Bezos’ heart. Everywhere Amazon operates, it dehumanises and mistreats its workers. None of Amazon’s employees are union. Inside the City Hall, Amazon reps were confronted on this very question of neutrality, i.e. whether or not Amazon would stand against its workers organising in a union. Mr. Huseman, you mentioned that there are 5,000 employees who are currently working here in New York City for Amazon. Is that correct? Yes. How many of those employees are unionised? None, sir. None? Are any of your workers unionised? No, sir. Since you’re getting potentially over three billion dollars in some level of incentive or direct subsidy from the city and the state indirect or direct, would you agree to neutrality if workers at Amazon wanted to unionise? What we emphasised to them is that union rights are critical to us, and we have very strong laws in the city and the Department of Consumer Affairs, and worker protections. Did you ask for neutrality or not ask for neutrality? We discussed our expectations that they would work with unions. Did you ask for neutrality or not ask for neutrality? It sounds like you didn’t. We asked for union deals. That’s not neutrality, ok. Thank you for answering the question. They’re against unionising the damn facility. Oh my God! You’re against unionising the motherfuckin’ facility. Come on, we can’t take this, Johnson! We can’t take this. Would somebody escort this gentleman out? So basically, you have these devices that track where you are. If you’re in the bathroom for over five minutes, then they’ll penalise you and put points on your record, and if you get over six points then they’ll fire you. They have complete control of you like the time you clock in to the time you come out. Almost everyday, I talked to people there who wanted a union. While employees in the U.S. try to organise to improve pay and conditions in Amazon warehouses, those who even think of unionising risk harsh penalties, as we know from the company’s infamous union busting management training video that was leaked in 2018. Some signs are less obvious than finding the actual union flyer, but they can still indicate associate disengagement, which is itself a warning sign for potential organising. The box scan rate that you’re supposed to have is about three boxes per minute. Now this sounds really easy, but there’s in the facility on each line, there’s about 50 palettes for different zip codes. It’s almost impossible. If your scan rate was below that, they would be liable to terminate you. A British journalist who went undercover in an Amazon warehouse was shocked by what she found. Our reporter was injured twice. Once after rummaging through a box looking for an item her hand was cut by an unsheathed knife. It shouldn’t have been in the box in the first place. Amazon says workplace safety is a top priority, but it’s global notoriety for the dangerous working conditions in its warehouses was even satirised over two South Park episodes. Whenever there’s a workplace accident, you need to fill out a 1081 form. Ok, so the working conditions are horrible, but many of the HQ2 jobs came with a promise of $150,000 dollar salaries – ten times the average income of most Queensbridge residents. Sounds good, right? There’s no guarantee that they have to hire from this community. Two, top tier tech jobs, like, you can ask anybody in Queens, how many top tier tech workers you know, they’re gonna be like, none, and if they do give out these warehouse jobs or whatever, like those we know for a fact that they are not good jobs because Amazon has a long history of union busting and a long history of like, literally, like almost killing people at work because of overworking them. Wow, this shit is huge. I’d be shocked if many, any, of my friends or family that still live in Queens could live here. Amazon is just helping them with technology that we won’t be able to get away with, or away from… That’s a huge concern for us, and we’re not going to accept that. Look, I’m just going to say it. Today was the happiest Valentine’s Day of my life. You know, we broke up with Jeff Bezos. First comes the Starbucks then the stars come now you’re star struck, til you realise rents on the rise, can’t empathise with stardom…

    February 23, 2011 Governor’s Update : Chattanooga Manufacturing Visits & Roundtable
    Articles, Blog

    February 23, 2011 Governor’s Update : Chattanooga Manufacturing Visits & Roundtable

    August 12, 2019


    Governor Haslam: Unfortunately we continue
    to see signs of the recession. Most recently in the announcement of the closing of the
    Goodyear plant in Union City. That closure will cause hundreds of people to lose their
    jobs, but we’re committed to working with regional leaders to bring economic vitality
    back to Northwest Tennessee. Some regions have experienced recent success in this area.
    To learn more about what makes the volunteer state attractive to businesses, we travelled
    to Chattanooga. A big economic victory for Tennessee is the Volkswagen plant that will
    begin production this spring. More than 900 people have already been hired to work at
    the Chattanooga facility. But their work force is expected to eventually grow to more than
    2,000. Volkswagen Group of America has also promised to invest one billion dollars into
    the state’s economy in more than five million dollars over five years to area schools and
    universities. Volkswagen estimates that when the plant is fully functional and all the
    suppliers are in place, the jobs from this multinational company will generate 12 billion
    dollars in income growth and 1.4 billion dollars in tax revenues. In June 2010 Alstom Chattanooga
    expanded their facility to build steam and gas turbines as well as large turbo generators.
    Alstom took an old vacant building and renovated it to make it energy efficient with the capacity
    to build the largest turbines in the world. The plant will not only help to generate green
    energy, but will also fuel 350 high quality jobs. Chattanooga’s excellent roads, railroad
    resources and waterways make it a logical choice to transport Alstom’s large and heavy
    products. Commissioner Hagerty: Well there’s a spillover
    effect from large cutting edge industries like this that is going to affect the entire
    region. What I can’t wait to do is figure out how that knock-on effect gets leveraged
    in our region. And as the governor said, it’s going to be a lot about workforce training,
    getting the right job skills to our populace, and making sure that we have educational programs
    that support all this. Governor Haslam: To learn more from Chattanooga
    success, and hear how the state can support this cities momentum, we sat down with some
    community leaders at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga for a roundtable discussion
    about jobs. Our goal is to eventually travel to every region in the state to examine what
    communities are facing and to help them on how they can efficiently use their resources
    to create the economic development needed to bring high quality jobs to each region
    of the state. On February the 14th I had the great pleasure to help make the announcement
    that Mitsubishi Electric will build a 200 million dollar transformer manufacturing facility
    in Memphis that will eventually bring 275 new jobs to West Tennessee. We also introduced
    our legislative package last week. It was a busy week, with our key emphasis on bringing
    more high quality jobs to the state. We’ll continue to keep you updated on the direction
    for your Tennessee government.