Browsing Tag: railway transport modeling

    How To Use A  Breadboard For Your Model Railroad Lighting
    Articles, Blog

    How To Use A Breadboard For Your Model Railroad Lighting

    August 30, 2019

    if you want to light up your model
    railroad and want to see how to get this breadboard assembled so you could do it
    easily you’re gonna want to watch this video right now I’m Tom Kvichak and this
    is Toms Trains and Things this channel was created to help other modelers who
    are in need of guidance in pursuing their dream of building a model railroad
    and we’re going to take this breadboard that I showed you the other day I’m going
    to disassemble everything on here and rearrange it and show you how to do it I
    figured out a different way of doing it when you’re doing a breadboard you’re
    putting the components on there just to test it out and to see how it would work
    and experiment with it but since I have the design of a correct I figured out a
    way to rearrange it on there a little bit better so we have the LED on one
    side of the breadboard and everything else on the other side of the breadboard
    and I also made one for the mini breadboard that doesn’t have a power bus
    along the side on each side of them so I put a little connector on there
    transferring this to a circuit board is a next step after I show you how to put
    it on these little bread boards here now that’ll be another video after this
    showing you how to put it on a circuit board something similar to this where
    you have to put jumpers on the back of it this has holes similar to what’s on
    the breadboard now you can buy circuit boards in different sizes I have I
    bought a pack of circuit boards that have I think one two three four five
    assorted sizes you can also get circuit boards that have the traces that are
    similar to the bands that are on the breadboard now on the breadboard you
    have the power buses on either end you can see how the power bus works and then
    the working area everything is common in that direction
    right there here’s the schematic diagram of what we’re working with I’m going to
    show this battery here as our power source with the plus and the minus right
    here now we have the first resistor here R 1 which is the 680 ohm resistor this
    one right here is the 150 K ohm resistor and this is the the trim pot this is our
    variable resistor this is our q1 it’s a SS 8:05 oh and this is our LED we
    could use any LED we want right there now we’ll go over to what it looks like
    on the breadboard and we’ll see the same thing over here this is r1 which is the
    680 ohm resistor this is the R 2 which is the 150 K ohm resistor and you’ll see
    that they are both connected to the positive terminal there okay now this
    680 as you can see goes all the way up to the anode of the LED which is right
    here okay this resistor right here 150 k ohm
    goes on to one leg of the potentiometer right here right there the center post
    of this one goes up to the transistor the base of the transistor which is
    right here the other leg of the trim pot goes down
    to your negative and it also goes to the emitter of your transistor now on the on
    the actual breadboard that I’m working on I moved it down to these terminals
    right here I’m just showing it right here because
    it’s it’s a little bit clearer like this but I put these two leads the base in
    the emitter right here in here and I put the collector in this one I just bend it
    up to fit over on this one right here but it’s the same thing as coming down
    like this okay and then moving this up to there but anyway that’s what that is
    right there that’s the emitter which comes on to the other side of the
    variable resistor and goes to your negative terminal on your power source
    and then the other side of the transistor which is right here goes up
    to the cathode of your LED right there so that’s the entire wiring diagram in
    there you have two fixed resistors a variable resistor a transistor and an
    LED and that’s what it looks like here I’m going to I’m just showing you one
    instance of it but when we do it we’ll put a couple of them on here and the
    video after this one we’re going to show you how to put all of this on your PC
    board we’re going to start off on his breadboard on this side we’re going to
    do a couple of them and the first thing we’re going to use on here is the 680
    ohm resistor and how we’re going to do this is we’re going to connect it to the
    positive rail and we turn this around this way so it’ll
    make it a little bit easier and we’ll just take it for the positive rail and
    then come up here like that and then we’ll take 150 K now we’re gonna not
    going to trim a lot off of here and we’ll stick it in the next slot down on
    both the positive and the working part of it now we’re going to put a jumper in
    here and this jumper is going to go on the want the opposite leg of the
    potentiometer but it’s going to go from the negative terminal so we’re going to
    put it like right here okay so now we got that you can see our potentiometer
    here and they have some slots in there to set it and it’ll set it back just in
    case there you have some wires in there and the way and we’re gonna put it in
    there is like this we’re gonna put it up as close as we can to the front maybe
    that’s a little bit too close I’ll try this one right here okay right there and
    that gives us enough in the back for our transistor we’re going to do on this one
    here we’re going to bridge the gap in there
    and move it over some but before I do that let me put this other jumper in
    here I’ll put this one right here and we’ll put that jumper right there okay
    and that’ll connect this resistor all the way up and put it on this side all
    right now with this transistor right here like I showed you
    in the diagram before we have the emitter on the side where the side of
    the potentiometer that goes to the negative this is the base and then this
    is the collector so we’re just going to put it over here we’re going to try to
    bridge this over and I might have to get this a little bit further out and so as you can see right here and let
    me use my exacto this is the emitter in this pin right here on the base of this
    one is the base of the transistor and the collector is on this side over here
    now we’re going to put our LED we’re going to take our long one and put it
    where the jumper is and we’ll just stick it right up here I’m going to stick the
    power supply on here there we go you know on these longer ones there’s no
    connection between this side and this side here so you can see that that one
    works and let me get my screwdriver these always have slots in them and if I
    would have cut these resistors down they would bend down lower but just for the
    sake of doing this we’ll show you how that increases so we’re testing it out
    right away okay so we’ll take the power off of it
    that’s our first one now we’ll go over to the next one and we’ll do the same
    thing we’ll go from here to right there here we go got it in there and get my
    other resistor put that in the next one let me get my needlenose and I’ll just
    shove that in there with that okay there we go okay so we got those two resistors we’ll
    skip one and put in a jumper and put it on the negative let’s turn this in just
    a little bit it is no there we go I think it there we go okay we’ll take
    this potentiometer I put it right here and I think what we’re gonna do here
    we’re going to put a couple of okay when we take yes see if I could find if I got
    the right length jumpers here let me put another white one over here for the one
    end of our LED Esther bend it down a little bit more I’m going to speed this up a little bit
    while I put the transistor in there and what I’m gonna do is place the
    transistor like I showed in the diagram across from the center gap so just just
    to show you that it works just like I had it in the diagram on here the
    emitter is on the left the base is in the center and the collector is on the
    right and we’ll put the LED in there so we could apply power and watch this
    thing light up again and we’ll apply the power and adjust it so we can see the
    difference in the brightness of the two LEDs and there we go the brightness and
    the dim on both of them okay there it is all the way up to the
    brightness on there let me turn the lights on here I’ll show it that way and
    then we’ll bring it down let me put it to about right there so
    you could see them so even that not quite halfway there still pretty bright
    and we’ve spent so much time on this one here that I’m not going to have enough
    time I mean we’re already at about 16 minutes going on 16 minutes and this one
    here I’m gonna do on the next one show you how to do this I’m gonna do the same
    thing you show you the diagram well the diagram is going to be the same but I’m
    going to show you how to put it on the on the mini breadboard and then after
    that we’re going to put it on the PC board like one of these right here we
    might do this one here or we might do one I think we’ll do this
    one right here we’ll see on this breadboard here you could run as many as
    10 circuits on here as far as this one goes like here I only did the two we ran
    out of time with these two on the next video I’m going to show you how to do
    this and I may show you how these transistors work to increase the
    brightness on here while we operate the potentiometers on there so take a look
    for that coming up in the future episodes and we’ll see ya

    What Connectors Should You Use For DCC On Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    What Connectors Should You Use For DCC On Your Model Railroad

    August 27, 2019

    we’re gonna talk about electrical
    problems on your model railroad and what causes it and how to fix those problems
    so let’s get going with this right now I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms
    Trains and Things this channel was created to help other modelers like you
    who are in need of guidance in pursuing their dream of building a model railroad
    and a lot of people have been writing to me in the past two months about their
    problems with conductivity and their wiring on their layout I’ve determined
    that most of the problems that everybody was haven’t was through their connectors
    it could be that they are not using their connectors the way they should be
    so I’m going to show you the connectors that I have here some of the ones that I
    use that I have some that I won’t use anymore and I’ll tell you why and
    basically it’s this kind right here and I think this is the kind that
    everybody’s having the problem with the suitcase connectors and I’m going to
    show you other connectors like wire nuts and these little deals right here I’m
    not exactly sure what they’re called but they were originally made for
    fluorescent fixtures where you could use on your layout also and these ones right
    here they come in two three or four conductors terminal strips the screw
    type and where you tighten the screw down on the wire terminals that you use
    on the screw type terminals this is a little red Spade connector 18 to 22
    gauge what I think it is and if you have any circuit boards or bread boards that
    you want to use on air you see me use these on another project you have a
    screw on the top that tightens down on the wire inside so we’re going to talk
    about those and I’m going to show you how to use those properly so let’s get
    going with this right now since most of the issues have been
    coming from these suitcase connectors I’m going to cover these first and the
    reason I don’t like these is as you could see down into the hole you have a
    large hole in here and if you’re using two different wire sizes say you’re
    using a 14 gauge for your bus wire and you’re using maybe a 22 gauge or 18
    gauge for your feeder wires those are have two different diameters in there
    and when you press down on this blade that’s on here to make contact with your
    14 gauge wire it may not always hit that 18 or 20 or even 22 gauge wire these
    were originally used in the automotive industry to splice in on your cables
    using the same size wires now that is why these aren’t that good using two
    different wire sizes now I don’t have a tool for it but they do make a tool for
    crimping this but I use my channel locks and as you could see now I’ll put it on
    this side where you can see that and I’ll crimp down on that all right now
    even though there’s a little slot inside there for the wire you don’t always hit
    that and your wire may be smaller than that little slot in there and not
    penetrate the insulation on your wire all the way so when that happens you
    don’t have conductivity and once you quote once you close this up and you
    forget about it and go on to the next one and the next one as you’re running
    your feeder wires down your layout and then you try starting it up and you
    don’t have any DCC signal going to your tracks or
    you have bad DCC signals this is the reason why because in that little slot
    right there and let me see if I can get any closer
    with that right in here and this one right here it’s slotted but that may not
    penetrate the insulation or it may just barely penetrate the insulation on there
    and not make good contact on your feeder wire now they make these in different
    sizes now this one the red one right here and this is 18 to 22 gauge wire now
    as you can see this is a lot smaller then the blue one now the blue one is
    probably 14 and 16 gauge wire if it uses the same color standards as everything
    else like I said if you use a 14 gauge wire and you’re using a lot smaller wire
    on your feeder wires it may not penetrate the insulation I’m gonna take
    a picture of this and pull out one of these blades on here so you can see it
    better and I’ll put the picture right up here so you can see the slot in there
    compared to the wires and that’s why you’ll have bad conductivity on your
    layout the next connector I’m going to show you is originally made for
    fluorescent fixtures and I wish I had these when I had to change the ballast
    on many many light fixtures but what they didn’t didn’t come out with these
    until later on but what I use it for is for my bus wires if I have a section of
    my layout that I know that I’m going to be taking apart I’ll use this as the
    connection between it and you could only put this in one way because it’s slotted
    and it has a ridge on the one side and you put your wires in there and
    you’re good to go and what if you ever have to move it this would be good on a
    modular layout where you’re taking the part you could use these on here and
    just put it in there for your bus wire now there’s another type that I use
    similar principle where you push it in on a contact and that art that is these
    right here now I also use this hooking up my bus wire to my feeder wires and if
    I am using stranded feeder wires I solder maybe three or four of them
    together I only use these where I have multiple wires that I need to put
    together like near a turnout or in a yard where I have multiple tracks
    together now these will go in just as easily on your bus wire it just pushes
    right in and you’re good to go now they say on this type right here that they’re
    reusable all you have to do is twist them like this and it may take some
    doing but you could take it right back out and use it over again now the only
    problem with that is if you do that more than a couple of times you might lose
    the spring action in there it’s just a little piece of metal that’s down there
    on an angle and as you put your wire in it catches it now when you’re twisting
    it around your pull and pulling it out you may Bend that back up and you may
    cause it to be wider than what it originally was so I would I mean these
    are pretty cheap and I would recommend only using them once but you could use
    them in multiple size wires like I said this is made for salt this is made for
    solid wire either one of them and it’ll take a large wire and it’ll take small
    wires the only thing with the smaller wires you have to be careful with it
    what I do is on the smaller wires if it’s not
    if it’s not solid wire and if it’s too small now a 20 gauge and I don’t have
    any 20 gauge right here but what I would recommend is on a smaller wire
    especially on a stranded wire is to is to tin the end of it and stick it in
    like that and like I said when I use it on the stranded wire I usually put maybe
    two or three together and I’ll show you a picture of what I have over here for
    this type of connector but these are good connectors for running your bus
    wire and feeder wires you have a real good connection in there and they work
    excellent wire nuts come in all different sizes here’s orange in the
    yellow and depending on the manufacturer if you have if you stick with one
    manufacturer and you know the color codes on them but you could use this in
    solid wire and stranded wire solid wire works better but you could also use it
    on stranded wire so whoever you talk to they’re either going to tell you that
    you can leave them straight like that or start out twisting it make sure your
    insulation on each one of the wire is cut close to what the other wires are at
    the same length and put the wire nut on there and twist
    now some manufacturers put wings on it to make it a little bit easier like on
    this yellow one here and you’ll see why whenever your tighty tightening down on
    some of the wires and you’ll actually need these little wings on there to get
    them tight but just from tightening tightening them like this would be
    enough to have a good connection on there they’re not gonna go anywhere on
    this type of terminal strip right here where you tighten down the screw on your
    wire now you put one on each you can put one on each side or you could tip if you
    if your wires are small enough you could put a couple of them say like if you
    want to jumper from one to another you could put multiple wires on there
    but all you do is you strip it down as far enough what I you normally do is
    measure the distance to the center of it strip it that far and then just put it
    in and all you do is tighten down on them and you’re good to go on there now
    these come in different sizes this is a smaller one it’s a European size and the
    the ones that are made in North America they’re a little bit bigger and I’ll
    show you a comparison right here you could hook up your bus wires on here you
    could even hook up your wires going to your which machines or anything else on
    your layout on here as far as the feeder wires go you can take them and cut these
    down and use these on your for your feeder wires too you could run your your
    bus wires through here and then put your feeder wire on the terminal on one side
    or on both sides now another kind of terminal strip is the screw type now and
    I put a a terminal on there already and I’ll show you how to crimp the wire on
    that terminal here in a second and all you have to do is just take your needle
    nose pliers and then just bring it around into a circle just like that you
    want to put this in the direction that you’re tightening the screw you just put
    it underneath there and then bring it around and once you tighten the screw
    it’s going to tighten your wire up also but you can see right there how it turns
    around in there you could also do that with stranded wire but it is much more
    difficult with stranded wire because the stranded wire will come apart as you’re
    doing it if you’re going you stranded wire I would suggest tinted
    so you could manipulate it just like solid wire this little connector right
    here that has the screws in it and it’s similar to this terminal strip but it’s
    made for circuit boards and if you have small circuit boards or breakout boards
    with holes in them you could use this in there and actually solder them on there
    and these connectors have a little Ridge on there so you could slide more than
    just the two together if you’ve been working with servo motors or hobby
    motors then you may be familiar with this type of connector right here this
    is what you normally get on a servo motor and on the Hobby motor you have
    the little two pins on there similar to the jumper wires that you use on a
    breadboard now these are very simple you just plug it in and they are really good
    connectors I don’t have to show you too much about them but it’s usually on more
    delicate stuff and just a regular jumper wires or the standoffs that I showed you
    in another video and I’ll show it to you on here but say you have a board now
    this is a relay board but I’ll just show you that these fit right on the pins
    just like that on if you’re using a dort Arduino board or anything like that
    they’ll have them on top now we’re going to talk about this kind of connector
    right here now this is the kind of crimping tool that I have they’re made
    in many different styles this is one of the styles that I have right here when
    you’re stripping your wire you want to make sure that you strip it shorter than
    what the insulation is right here so when you put it in there you don’t have
    any bare wires showing out the back and if you do you can push your wire in
    just a little bit so it shows through it’s not going to hurt and what I do is
    if you could see on there there is a slot where the metal is folded over I
    take my crimpers and I put the slot in the side that has the notch in it and
    just crimp them down on it like that it’s not going to go anywhere and then
    you could put this on your terminal strip right there like that I hope with
    this demonstration you come out with a better understanding of the connectors
    that are available for use on your model railroad and how to use them that’s my
    intention to show you how to make things better on your model railroad so if you
    like what you see here and would like to contribute go ahead and take a look at
    my patreon account slash Tom Kvichak or PayPal me slash Toms
    trains and things where you can contribute to this channel where I could
    give you better videos so you could make a better model railroad thank you very
    much those that you have contributed so far I’m going to try to do a live show
    at least two of them a month either on Friday or Sunday so I’ll let you know
    ahead of time but on this Friday it’ll be coming up there
    so take a look for that and we’ll see ya

    Easy Resistance Substitution Box For Your Model Railroad Projects
    Articles, Blog

    Easy Resistance Substitution Box For Your Model Railroad Projects

    August 26, 2019

    if you do any DIY projects on your model
    railroad or in fact anywhere else this resistance substitution box will come in
    handy when determining what size resistor you’re going to need for that
    project so let’s watch this and see how to use this and see how to assemble it
    because this is a kit you have to put it together hi I’m Tom Kvichak and this
    is Toms Trains and Things this channel was created to help other modelers who
    are in need of guidance in pursuing their dream of building a model railroad
    you know that I do a lot of electrical work on my channel and I came across
    this thing right here it was a kit now I’m going to show you how to assemble
    this and then how to use this for your projects but this one is mostly about
    assembling this because it comes in a lot of pieces I do have another one if
    you don’t like to solder where it already comes assembled it’s a smaller
    version of it it has surface mount resistors on the
    back of it and you have jumpers on it and you have seven decades going from
    one ohm all the way up to one meg this is more precise because you could put
    jumpers on there and get values in between what you have on here so let’s
    get started with it right after this if you would like to see more videos like
    this about model railroading and about electrical projects go ahead and hit
    that subscribe button and while you’re at it ding that bell and that’ll notify
    you whenever I have a new video coming out so let’s get started with it right
    now and see how I assembled this little box right here we have a bag full of
    resistors here and we’re going to spread these out and we’re going to have to
    sort these up by value because we’re going to have to solder them all on here
    like that what I did on here was I took some painters tape and rolled it over so
    be sticky on both sides and I went by this chart right here and put every
    resistor in order so when I go to solder this side here I’ll have every resistor
    that I have and what I’ll do when I do it I’ll just double check it before I
    put it in there this kit comes with its own solder I had to experiment with it I
    used this little board here and I tried a couple of different tips on there to
    see and to see which one would be the best one and did some of these pads
    right here and the better temperature to do this one is a 750 degrees we’ll try
    to add on at 750 degrees with this tip right here I don’t have it on right now
    now even though they give you some free solder on here I experimented with it
    and I found it a lot easier to solder with the lead-based solder now if you’re
    you know worried about lead-free this is lead-free this is LED base this is six
    hundred fifty degrees this is seven hundred and fifty degrees it’s harder to
    solder with this even though you have it up to seven hundred and fifty degree and
    it doesn’t look as pretty I decided after soldering a few resistors to quit
    using this and I went back to using the six hundred and fifty degrees solder the
    lead-based solder and let me get my visor on so I could see this real good
    y’all on violet red and gold okay so what I’ll do is just pin this down a
    little bit here and Bend that down there and see how close that is put this in
    here and that was pretty close and whenever you push it in it’ll it’ll
    conform to wherever you want so what I do is just tip it over to the side like
    that so it’ll hold it in there I’m taking the resistors off the tape one by
    one and placing them on the board as you can see here and then I test them
    just a double check and bend the things down bend the leads down and just try to
    get them in there straight and then bend the leads over okay now we’re down to
    our four which is your our four we’re gonna do our five that’s the next in
    line so I just pick it up in our five is 220 ohm and I got my meter right over
    here and I just check it and as you’ll see there’s a tolerance on these so like
    on the 220 ohm it shows up as two hundred and sixteen point four because
    there’s a on these these are five percent tolerance so you have a little
    leeway in there and you don’t have to but I line them up all the same way with
    the the gold band all to the right you don’t have to do that because there’s no
    polarity on these but it just it looks a little nicer okay now you can see the
    backside you have although the wires on there and you you put them you bend them
    over to the side so it’ll hold the resistor in place and so he’s seen there
    night all in place nice and tight up against the board and we could even you
    know press down on it like this they do make a holder for circuit boards but I
    don’t have one yet we’re working on the the resistor board the resistance
    substitution board and I have all the resistors on the one side in place and
    I’m getting ready to solder them all I have to do now is put the flux on there
    and get my soldering iron heat it up and start soldering
    since I do so many soldering tutorials I’m not gonna make you sit through 50
    plus soldering pads on here so just showing you a few on here now and after
    doing about six resistors on here on both sides is when I decided to go back
    to the my original solder lead-based solder 60/40 rosin core I was not
    satisfied at all with the solder joints and how they looked and how hard they
    were just to solder them in place now I did the same thing for the high
    side as I did for the low side I put them in order as they are on this sheet
    right here so I could easily put them on the board I’ll put all of these on the
    board on the other side now and we’ll proceed to solder those on once I get
    them in place okay that side is much much better the next part comes to
    switch the selector switch from one side to the other and what I did was I
    soldered the two outside posts which have no electrical connection that’s
    just to hold it into place and so now I’m going to solder the three terminals
    on there the holes for the switch were so large that I just have to drag the
    solder over top of it just to fill up the hole okay now those these traces are
    really close together on there so you’ve got to be real careful check to make
    sure that there’s no solder in between the traces on the board this is where I’m soldering one of the
    test leads onto the board as you can see all it takes is a little
    bit of solder on there for it to bond so I’m going to have to try to get a knot
    all the way down as close as I can so it won’t pull out both why oh here we go I
    got it through okay but what we have to do here is have to bend I have to bend
    this tab down this is a index tab on it normally you would have a hole in there
    so this wouldn’t turn but they don’t have it they have an extra pin and it’ll
    stay on here like this don’t put this here but what we want to do is make sure
    that these things will Center on the faceplate when we solder this in so
    we’re going to take this put this faceplate on here and just tighten
    tighten it hand tight so we have them positioned in the right place on the
    front panel all right now I have to solder all these
    pins on here and then on here there will be a jumper one will go when they told
    you to cut off a inch and a half but that’s kind of long one jumper will go
    that way across this hole right here and this pin and the other one the same way
    this way right there and into that hole right there
    so that’s what we have so far but what I’m going to do is before I start
    soldering the rest of this stuff on here I’m going to take my meter and then go
    down on each one of these resistors to make sure that they are correct and they
    have continuity through them there’s a two wire jumper wires that go from the
    switch either end of the switch to the wiper on each one of the rotary switches
    here so what we’re doing is we’re taking a wire from here and bringing it over to
    here on both sides and then so we could select and then the wiper on there
    selects what resistance there is now let me clean this up a little bit on the
    back and then we’ll put the alligator clips on and we’ll test it before we
    close up the box but that’s what it looks like right there
    it’s kind of hard to do on camera so you can see it but we just take the little
    tabs and bend them over the insulation like that just to hold them in place okay let’s see the wire hanging out the
    bottom air will solder that on let’s get the Blackwell out here all right there
    we go there trim the excess wait for this
    thing to cool down and then we’ll put the insulators on it and test it now
    here’s the test I got the my probes on the leads of the substitution box and
    we’ll turn this on ohms okay so it comes up at three point two five so that’s
    three point three K ohms there’s what’s on here three point three K ohm the
    three point three K ohms is this one here to 3300 ohms so what we’re gonna do
    is just take this right here and put it there
    and we’ll turn it that way four point seven that’s gonna be 10 20 247 102 okay
    so this is a five percent tolerance so to 2334 7680 see it’s a six point six 80
    km so and one 1k ohm 2.2 K on okay well switch it off to the other side to the
    higher end okay so it says point six eight Meg so that’s six hundred and
    eighty k so we’ll get the other knob put it on right here to the 680 push it
    down that one’s just a little bit off okay there should be 1 Meg okay 6.8 K 10
    K 22 K 33 K 47 K 68k 100 k – 20 K 330k 470 K so back to – 680 so you see we got
    everyone on there everything looks good on there
    overall this was a pretty simple project of soldering all the resistors on there
    now even though there was about 20 resistors on there that you had to
    solder on there I didn’t after determining I didn’t like
    this solder here it was a breeze going back to this solder and soldering
    everything on there including the rotary switches I mean it’s it took me all
    together now it took a little bit longer setting up the camera and everything
    like that and setting up everything for the video but all in all probably a
    little bit over an hour to put this thing together so that’s not too bad so
    I got more videos coming out I’m going to show you how to use this for the LEDs
    and there’s one more type of LED that I forgot to show you about and that’s
    gonna be coming up this month also but watch for the demonstration on
    this and also I have this one here which is if you don’t like to solder you could
    use this one and this one has more precise and I also have one for
    capacitors if you want to get into really not really complex circuits but
    more than just putting your LEDs in a building the Arduino we’re gonna do a
    few videos on the Arduino so look for them in coming up this month we’ll start
    off real small and they’ll get a little bit more complex so we’ll see ya

    Easiest Way To Run DCC Buss Wires On Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Easiest Way To Run DCC Buss Wires On Your Model Railroad

    August 25, 2019

    we’re going to continue on the DCC
    discussion about wiring your layout and I’m gonna use romex
    and that’s what I’ve used throughout my entire layout so let’s get started with
    this right now I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms
    Trains and Things this channel was created to help other modelers who are
    in need of guidance in pursuing their dream of building a model railroad and
    if you’re going to do DCC then it is a good idea to run your buss wires with a
    good sized wire and what I did on mine was I used some romex I had some romex
    leftover from a project and I and did my entire layout with that romex I’m going
    to show you how to strip it and how to set it up throughout your layout now it
    doesn’t have to be romex could be any wire that is suitable for DCC that is
    large enough to handle the amperage through your system so you won’t have
    any loss of signal throughout okay I got my stripper I hope it’s sharp enough
    because this thing is over 30 years old all right here’s the room that’s right
    here it’s a black and white wire with a ground wire and it has a covering over
    top of it now this is usually used in house wiring run this up on your on your
    wire and see this little little blade in there like that that just sits down on
    there and you just squeeze it down the center of it like that
    and you just pull and what it does is it strips the coating off of the outside
    like that so you have your black and you have your
    white wire and then you have a crown wire in there and you could use your
    ground wire for a lot of different things on your model railroad just
    showed it to you right here now I’ll measure this and give you the dimension
    of it so you could see what it is you could use it for pipes you could use it
    for downspouts you could use it for anything on there so save the ground
    wire also now I have it stripped all the way through and I have approximately 15
    foot of black and white wire and 15 foot of bare copper wire all 14 gauge now the
    way you want to run your bust wires I’m gonna give you example of my layout here
    as you can see behind me I have a loop right here but it’s on two levels I have
    a high grade and I have a low grade and then as I move over here the low grade
    continues right underneath here actually my layout is shaped like an M okay I
    have a circle on this side on two levels and I go across the back and then I have
    a circle going across the back end alright so I have my command station
    right here in the middle and what I did because I have different levels and I
    was in different phases of construction on building my model railroad what I did
    was I put in a PM 42 so I could have four districts in there and what I did
    is I have high grade which is this whole area up on this level here I have low
    grade which starts right over here as it goes down to this level right here and
    it comes around underneath the camera right here and then it terminates
    then I have my Mountain which goes along the back end of my layout and goes up
    the Rockwood and I’ll show I’ll turn the camera around and show you that in a
    little bit and then I have this area right here it’s not finished yet it’s
    not connected yet but this area where I have my computer and everything right
    here and where I do all my work is big rock and that’s my fourth district what
    I did was I run a bus wire for each district so I actually have two bus
    wires going that way one for the high grade going that way and one for the
    mountain route going that way going back this way I have a bus wire going for the
    high grade come along the back and then for the low grade coming along the back
    here on the lower level so and then the fourth one is going to for Big Rock
    which is right here it’ll be coming up this way
    I already haven’t run underneath this table right here and I have some of
    it’ll run over here so that’s the four districts that I have now you don’t have
    to have run a termination on it it could it could go out and just stop it you
    know if you want to you can put a wire nut or any kind of terminal on the end
    of it so you know there’s no bare wires showing on it you just want to run your
    feeders along where your track is underneath your track and make your
    feeders as short as possible my feeders on there are no longer than
    six inches now you can make your feet or wires long you can make them a foot you
    can make them two-foot but I chose to keep it under six inches I’m gonna put a
    couple of drawings up on here of a cup of a few sections my mountain section
    and my high grade you can see how I ran my buss wires through my layout now I’m
    not going to show you the low grade or the other section for Big Rock
    I mean it’s just a repeat of what I did in the sections for the mountain section
    and the high-grade behind me I have a rough drawing of the mountain loop now
    as you can see I have the bus wire running along the tracks
    now I’m only showing one line for the tracks
    okay I’m not putting both tracks in here but I’m showing that you have the
    positive the minus the positive and the minus of the tracks coming up here now I
    have a siding on there and I have a loop coming around now what I had to do was
    put a reversing in there the AR-1 and the reason for that is as you
    could see on this side you have the negative coming around here okay and
    then it’s matching up with the positive right here so whenever you have that
    scenario you have to put a reversing loop in there so what you do is you
    double gap all the track right here there there and there
    what the manufacturers tell you with the reversing loop is now this is my theory
    okay say you have a locomotive and it’s crossing over right here okay and you
    have all your cars all the way up here and on your last car you have a decoder
    in it to operate a delight for your end of train light or you have a caboose
    with the light in it or anything else if your wheels are crossing this gap here
    the same time the wheels are crossing the gap back there on the other end of
    your train then you’re going to run into a problem because your AR-1 one is going
    to try to reverse polarity here it’s going to try to change this to a
    positive and this to a negative but over here you have another short
    you’re gonna run into a problem I’m not sure what it is if it’s gonna stall out
    the train and burn up the AR-1 or even burn up your command station or burn up
    your PM 42 like I have on here now this is just to show you that I have one bus
    wire or a set of bus wire to black and white
    running and I could you know I could feed it with two separate tracks going
    all the way around and bring it around all the way to a certain point and then
    I terminated here and then this is fed by the AR one it’s getting its signal
    from the bus wires over here I’ll do a drawing of another section so you could
    see how I did it now I have a rough drawing of my high grade now again I’m
    only showing one line for the track and one line for the bus to make it simple
    but you can see I have the this is in the center and I have the command
    station I have two PM 42 and I’m not showing all the connections for that but
    my command station and everything else is in the center of everything now this
    from here to here is 17 foot and this from here to here is 10 foot you have a
    bus wire that runs all the way down to here and then this one over here is the
    same thing now I’m branched off on these two right here where the tracks are
    coming apart where all where all the tracks are close in together this one
    bus wire will feed all these tracks here and the same thing for over here it came
    around now this is Leakin Creek right here and this is underneath the tunnel
    this is underneath scenery right here now it comes back out and I have the bus
    wire here and this one feeds the engine facility that’s underneath the mountain
    section and these are sidings right here this buss wire that comes down here
    off of the terminal board right there and I have these
    sidings and this is a loop that comes around my drop bridge and goes out to
    and terminates right here and going this way is to the mountain section and then
    this is the the close-in rail right here from the high grade that goes to the
    mountain section it’s terminated right there so you can see I just have you
    know the pair of buss wires coming around to feed wherever I need it now I’m
    keeping the feeder wires as short as possible as I’m coming around
    so I’m feeding both of these tracks here actually three three tracks right here
    because this one terminates right here to go to the low grade I’m not showing
    that in this drawing right here you could feed multiple tracks from a single
    pair of bus wires if they’re close enough together now I’m trying you know
    this right here from this track right here to this track right here is no more
    than I’d say ten or eleven inches so with the bus wire coming in between you
    know I could run short feeders to all of these tracks right here all three of
    these tracks right here and then I have a terminal board here where I I run it
    run it down this is the peninsula where I have my computer right now and it
    feeds these sidings right here and it feeds this loop coming around right here
    all the way to the drop bridge now there’s as you can remember I have a
    switch on a drop bridge that cuts off a section of this whenever the bridge is
    down so this is all dead track right here
    when the bridge is down but it’s all fed from the same bus wire at the same
    potential everywhere on there so you just have one pair of buss wires that
    feed all these tracks in here and all of this is connected
    – one section on the PM 42 you could separate your wires here you can see
    where I have high-grade feed and low-grade feed and then I split them off
    on this terminal board here in two different areas and this could be done
    anywhere on your layout where you need to branch off on another section I have
    below grade on another section I have the high grade and on another section I
    have the continuation of the low grade over here on a future city that I have
    called big rock the biggest thing that you have to be concerned about is making
    your bus wire large enough to handle the signal and to handle the area that you
    have now I did I I told you in the previous video what you have to take
    into consideration I gave you all the charts on there and I’ll put another
    chart up here to show you the same thing on this one here but that’s the biggest
    thing is make sure that your bus wire is big enough and your feeder wires you
    have your feeder wires close enough together on my layout I have them every
    three foot or closer now I use flex track through most of the layout here so
    every piece of flex track I have a feeder wire going to it on some of them
    I have more because of turnouts in there and you know you put the feeder wires on
    your sidings and everything else along with your main line so I have it at
    three foot manufacturers and everybody else
    NMRA has their standards for it in DCC Wiki they have the standards different
    manufacturers have their own standards for it so whatever you feel comfortable
    with is how you should do it okay if you feel that you could stretch it out to
    six foot just make sure that you do the coin test on there where you put a
    quarter on a rhasta tracks to make sure that your
    command station shuts down as long as it shuts down you’re doing good well you
    know that I’m gonna have some comments and questions on this and on the last
    video that I did I already had some questions and so I’m gonna be doing a QA
    coming up pretty shortly so watch out for that
    check out TomsTrainsandThings Dot Com and don’t forget to check out my patreon
    page and I want to thank Chris O’Connell for pledging on my patreon page on
    Sunday thank you very much I really appreciate it it helps out to put out
    better content and more content so I could teach you things about model
    railroading so that’ll be it for right now and we’ll see Ya!

    Easy And Cost Effective Way To Light Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Easy And Cost Effective Way To Light Your Model Railroad

    August 21, 2019

    woodland Scenic’s has an easy way of
    adding lighting to your model railroad through the just plug hub now this could
    be very expensive so if you’re a budget minded you may want to build one for
    yourself and I’m gonna show you how to do it on a breadboard so let’s get
    started right now hi I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms Trains and Things this
    channel was created to help other modelers who are in need of guidance in
    pursuing our dream of building a model railroad there our model railroaders who
    are not very good at electrical issues so Woodland Scenics made this just plug
    for them but there are others that are pretty good with electronics and
    electrical items and want to experiment with things so I’m going to show you how
    to do duplicate this right here on here on a breadboard I’m gonna break this up
    into two videos I’m going to go over these components on here the new
    components that I haven’t showed you anything on yet and on the first one and
    I’ll show you a little demonstration of what I did so far on the first video and
    then the second video we’ll get into the meat and potatoes of putting this thing
    together and showing you how to do this and the rectifier this rectifier and the
    other rectifier that I just got in so make it a little bit easier so you could
    hook it up to your power pack now one thing that you can do with this is the
    just plug the way they designed it you could use it for AC and DC they make a
    wall wart for it and you could also hook it up onto the AC of your power pack
    because they have a little rectifier and capacitor in there and that’s what this
    is right here so we’re going to talk about that and then go into the building
    of this in the second video so if this is your first time here and you would
    like to see more videos on model railroading and cost-effective ways to
    illuminate your model railroad and animate your model railroad go ahead
    and hit that subscribe button and while you’re at it ding that Bell and that’ll
    notify you whenever I have a new video coming out and while you’re at it check
    out my playlists in the playlist page of my channel I have a lot of different
    playlists in there categorize by subjects so it’s easy for you to find
    there’s over 40 some playlists in there right now so go check that out also I
    have 5 potentiometers on here and the potentiometer was the most expensive
    item on here which was 95 cents apiece but they make cheaper ones now I have 5
    lights this one has 4 this cost you what $18.00 19 it what does this cost you
    here well there’s a cost savings here and you could add to it keep adding to
    it and the more you add the less it’s gonna cost you because the LEDs are very
    inexpensive the transistors are very inexpensive I got a whole box of 200
    transistors now they’re different transistors but the ones we use there’s
    20 of the ones in there and you we could use some other ones in here also that
    could do the same thing the resistors are very inexpensive like I said the
    most expensive part on here are the potentiometers Christmas tree lights
    here is a set that we bought after Christmas and paid I think about $2 for
    Matt’s CVS you get 50 LEDs in here now there are Christmas tree lights where
    you can get a hundred of them that may cost that maybe a dollar more but this
    is what we picked up we got four boxes of it so that’s about 200 LEDs so
    that’ll last us a long time in our experiments here but anyway this is what
    the circuitry looks like on there and they use SMDs on there so it’s pretty
    inexpensive for them to make these in fact I price the little transistors that
    they have on here and I could get a hundred of them for
    two dollars and 68 cents the only thing is that I’d have to wait about three to
    four weeks to get them because they’re on a slow boat from China just like
    everything else these SMD resistors on here which are
    dirt cheap and just like this the probably the most expensive part on it
    is the potentiometer but before I show you how to do this and what is involved
    in doing is I’m going to tell you a little bit about we haven’t discussed
    these yet transistors potentiometers and what I have here are diodes and a
    capacitor and I and I got a little switch that I had it on a little push
    button switch well we’re going to talk about diodes and capacitors now the
    reason I have four diodes on there is because it’s a rectifier but after you
    know dude this was another thing that took a while to get here but this is the
    same thing it has four leads on the back of it that I soldered on this board just
    to play around with it but that is also a rectifier it changes AC into DC and
    we’ll talk about that and they add a capacitor to it just to hold the charge
    let’s take a look at the components that we haven’t seen yet the diagram you see
    right now on the left-hand side is of a potentiometer and on the right-hand side
    is a visual representation of exactly the same thing the only thing with the
    one on the left the wiper where you could see the arrow that could be moved
    from one end to the other to change the resistance throughout the entire circuit
    number one and number two are both capacitors in the ones that we’re going
    to be working with right away or is number two which you can see a plus sign
    on it that’s because it’s an electrolytic capacitor it stores
    electricity and has a plus on it you could only hook it up in one direction
    if you try hooking it up in the opposite direction you
    you’ll explode the capacitor so you have to be careful with those this is a
    symbol for a diode similar to the LED except it doesn’t emit light current
    flows from the anode to the cathode and blocks current flow in the opposite
    direction from the cathode to the anode so this a device is used to control
    which direction the current flows in your circuit here we have two
    transistors the one on the left the NPN is the one that we’re going to be using
    in our projects right now this device regulates the current flow in our
    project it can either be turned off it could be turned on completely or it
    could regulate the current flow going from the collector to the admit er we
    won’t get too far into the theory behind it but we’ll just use it in our projects
    and rely on the magic of the NPN transistor this last picture here is a
    rectifier with the RC filter on it now the four diodes on there converts the AC
    signal to DC and with the capacitor and the resistor it smooths out the peaks
    and valleys of the voltage created by the diodes as you can see in the dotted
    lines this may seem a little confusing in the beginning but once you start
    working on circuits and see how everything works and experiment along
    with me you’ll be able to see how easy this is to understand I use the only D
    just to determine that there’s power on it because I when I was first tested it
    out I had these leads on my meter detect a voltage on it but anyway there it is
    right there with the rectifier on it coming off of the AC on a power pack
    this breadboard right here this mini breadboard right here is a rectifier you
    can see the four diodes and I have the capacitor and actually I have two
    resistors on there one for the capacitor and one for the LED you know I don’t
    need the LED on it it’s just for indication that there’s power on now
    this over here is the rest of the circuit where you have two resistors a
    transistor in a potentiometer to light two LEDs and to change the brightness on
    it now I’m using one finger on here so I’m just going to go like this and raise
    that up all the way up and you can see the difference in the lighting now with
    this right here it’s not as bright as it is if i hook it up to the power supply
    with the 24 volts now they have a wall wart that you could use to plug into
    this that is 24 volt DC and that’s what I simulate on this power supply right
    here and I’ll you know I’ll show this right here and then I’ll just switch
    this over I’ll put the leads on here from the power supply and you can see
    the difference you could turn them all the way off and then brighten them up
    with the potentiometer I hooked up one of the lights just plug lights this is a
    blue one that they have let me see if I could fun yeah thing right here LED
    stick on lights blue 25 milli amps each ready to plug in and where is this thing
    at 2:59 I got it a bunch of them but anyway these are the the ones that they
    use are very very bright I have this one turned up all the way and let me turn
    this one up so that’s Christmas tree light all the
    way up and that’s the one that you get from wooden Scenic’s to just plug lights
    now that’s the blue one right there let me turn this one down a little bit I
    mean they’re very bright I mean they’re they’re a a 6-pin LED and they’re on a
    real small circuit board but they they get pretty bright as you can see right
    there and put 10 all the way up that one this one’s all the way up and this one
    right here is all the way up and these I have cut down a little bit I just wanted
    to show you I hooked up a the other output to it so I got five on there now
    and I’ll put the power supply on and I have these down pretty low so I’m going
    to increase them and as I increase them we’ll take a look at the amperage on
    here and it’s three of them all the way up
    there’s the fourth one all the way up and here’s the fifth one so with five
    five LEDs all the way up to maximum brightness on it it’s 0.1 three amps so
    you could make a lot of these before you get up to one amp but I mean I wouldn’t
    worry about the amperage on this if you’re using even if you’re using a
    Walworth it’s 24 volts like they have for the just plugs you can that one is
    one amp or if you’re using on a power supply and you want to use the minus 12
    and the plus 12 on there you can get one amp on there and still have plenty of
    power left over – for a lot of other lights now there are other ways of doing
    it we could do the same thing with the Arduino which is going to be a lot
    easier and I’ll show you that in one of the episodes that I do for a nor do we
    know how to change the brightness on their next episode I’ll show you how to
    go from a bare breadboard like this – this right here will go through all the
    steps of assembling this and we’ll also show you how to make the rectifier and
    I’ll do it with the four diodes and I’ll do it with the small rectifier right
    here which makes it a little bit easier all it has is four pins on it – for the
    AC and – for the DC and we’ll show you how to do that so you could hook it up
    to your power pack just like this the AC accessories we’ll see ya

    Top 10 Money Saving Tips For Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Top 10 Money Saving Tips For Your Model Railroad

    August 20, 2019

    if you want to know how to save money
    while you’re building your model railroad you’re gonna want to see this
    did I hear somebody saved budget I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms Trains and
    Things this channel was created to help other modelers who are in need of
    guidance in pursuing their dream of building a model railroad and I’m gonna
    give you ten ways that you could save money while you’re building your model
    railroad if this is your first time here and you would like to see more videos
    about building your model railroad go ahead and hit that subscribe button and
    while you’re at it ding that Bell so you could be notified whenever I have a new
    video coming out so let’s get started with this right now with number one the
    first way to save money while working on your model railroad is to buy at train
    shows you can get a lot of good bargains at train shows and the earlier you go
    the better the bargains that you get Debbie used to tell me to go to church
    sales and garage sales and go there a half an hour an hour early and wait in
    line and I always wondered why well because you get in there and get with
    all them people and they fight over all that stuff and get in there and get all
    the good stuff before everybody else gets it so that’s the first one go there
    early to the train shows number two you’re gonna find a lot of things at
    thrift stores that you never thought that you could use on your model
    railroad in fact about three or four years ago I found an entire collection
    of somebody who must have passed away and their wife just unloaded it at a
    thrift store I got about four locomotives a lot of buildings in fact
    some of the buildings are here on my layout I got all kind of good stuffs
    really cheap and not only model railroad related but tools
    I got a tripod at Bogan tripod it’s worth a couple hundred dollars I got for
    $9 at a thrift store because they didn’t know the value of it a lot of times
    these people at the thrift stores know the value of some of them do some
    of them don’t and wall warts you know these wall warts that I’ve been
    showing you it well if you don’t like doing electrical projects and you want
    to get the wall warts some of them go as far as categorizing them put them in
    little plastic containers according to voltage for 50 cents apiece
    so there’s your power for your model railroad at thrift store number 3
    clearance isles at your local Hobby Lobby A C Moore Jo Anns Michaels any one of
    those stores even Walmart you could get paint I don’t know how many of those
    little tubes of paint that I got some of them I got for as low as twenty-nine
    cents they’re odd colors but they still work as far as scenery goes you can get
    some really good stuff there and I always shop there I get all my paint
    brushes there they seem I got a gallon of Elmer’s glue for something like 17
    bucks and a Seymour I think was even less than that but anyway at the
    clearance Isles for these places and I told you about the Just Plugs these
    things here okay I got this one apart right now but anyway I got this one for
    I think that the hub for $3.59 and I got all those LEDs these things right here
    they normally go for $9.99 for two dollars and 59 cents
    number-four garaad’s sales you can get a lot of stuff at garage sales in fact I
    got a shovel hanging up on the wall it’s a coal shovel I got that at a garage
    sale the guy didn’t even have it out selling it because he had some other
    stuff selling I asked him if he had any other railroad related stuff and he said
    sure I got this I got that and I got some other good stuff and not this one
    here you could get tools I’ve got a lot of these clamps at garage sales from
    people that didn’t want them anymore I bought an entire N Scale layout that
    had more turnouts in the boxes that came
    with the layout and there was on the layout itself and there was about 20 on
    the layout itself I mean I had over 40 turnouts between what was on the layout
    and and I only paid like $95 for it at a garage sale so you can find a lot of
    good stuff at garage sales number five now this one you got to be careful with
    eBay and Craigslist you could find some good stuff on both of them but you have
    to be very knowledgeable you have to do your research when you’re buying there
    otherwise you’re gonna get burnt you have to know what you’re doing you have
    to know what you’re talking about and you have to know the products and you
    have to read all the little things about the shipping on it also because a lot of
    times you can get something real cheap and the shipping will cost you three or
    four times what the product cost you so you have to beware but you get some good
    stuff on there in fact if you’re looking for projects electronic projects or
    anything else on eBay you could get hundreds of transistors hundreds of
    resistant for pennies I mean I got on this Just Plug board right here they
    have a transistor on there that I looked up and they were selling them on eBay
    now it’s on a slow boat from China it takes two to three weeks to get them
    but a hundred of those transistors the SMD versions of them for two dollars and
    sixty eight cents a hundred of them so you could find some good stuff on there
    but you could get burnt on it also so be careful number six make your own
    lighting just like I said with the the Just Plugs okay I bought a lot of stuff
    at Hobby Lobby on a discount sixty percent seventy five percent seventy
    percent discount at Hobby Lobby and I figured out how to do it by the parts
    and you got your instant lighting build your own lighting things you could I
    have so many videos out there showing you how to
    solder how to use LEDs how to figure out what resistors to use with LEDs you can
    make your own lighting you can make your own effects with lighting to that I’m
    gonna go into with Arduino number seven scratch build your buildings it doesn’t
    take a lot to scratch build in fact you can define cheap items all over your
    house that you could use for scratch building
    Vinny Susseto uses for sale signs that he gets at Home Depot or Ace Hardware for
    his styrene projects and you could do the same thing years ago when people
    didn’t have the supplies that’s how they did it they found things around the
    house to build their buildings from a lot of people just use that stuff to
    make cutouts for just to see where the buildings are gonna go but you could
    even make your buildings out of that card stock that heavy cardstock and draw
    right on it and do make your own buildings out of anything that you could
    find around the house number eight your scenery you could make your own scenery
    outside dirty dirt there’s trees there’s leaves that you could crunch up in a
    blender there’s foam that you could use from packing that you get your supplies
    from and grind it up in a blender and use that as a ground cover there’s an
    unlimited amount of things that you could use for your scenery from stuff
    that you get around the house all my scenery the the the base that I use was
    it froze from cardboard boxes I just sliced them up and put them together
    with a hot glue gun and that made the form for the scenery of my mountains the
    plaster cloth here’s some that I got the wooden hood Scenic’s plaster cloth that
    I got at Hobby Lobby 4 or 4 dollars and 31 cents but if you can’t find it that
    cheap you can always use paper towel and diluted plaster of Paris like we used to
    do 30 years ago when there wasn’t any plaster cloth or the only place that you
    can get plaster cloths was in a hospital for where there was making the cast
    number nine buy in bulk every piece of roadbed I have on my railroad is quarter
    inch cork underlayment I bought it in bulk it comes in four foot wide 80 foot
    rolls now in here I don’t know if it’s anywhere else but the Home Depot here
    will only sell it by the roll but they used to sell it by the foot and that is
    a lot better than buying these little strips here now granted you could bend
    these a little bit around the curve you know once you take these apart how much
    do you pay for this compared to buying a whole roll of cork or just how many feet
    that you need I think I did my whole layout with about 25 foot of cork and
    you can’t tell the difference because your ballast over the stuff anyway the
    only time that you could tell the difference is before you put the ground
    cover down so buy in bulk the same thing with your electronic projects if you’re
    doing any kind of electronic projects on here for LEDs for transistors for
    resistors buy them in bulk it’s cheaper that way number 10 repurpose your items
    I have a static grass applicator that I made myself from one of those electronic
    fly swatters and a little strainer it cost about 6 bucks
    altogether and how much did they cost in the store 35 $40 for the same thing
    that’s something two things that you can repurpose into make a one little tool a
    lot of modelers use hairspray on their models especially on the trees to
    finalize their things and what I found is to use the pump type ones instead of
    the aerosol because you could use them over once you’re finished with the
    hairspray you could either put alcohol in here or water in here for your
    scenery and it has a much finer mist than those spray bottles that you have
    to pump that you get from the hardware store or from WS these are
    much better a much better spray on them a finer spray on them and you can put
    anything in here I use them for alcohol and water and diluted glue on here also
    a lot of the things I mentioned in here I just went over real quickly for you so
    I could go into better detail in other videos coming up soon about how to do
    things on a budget I hope you were able to get some good tips on saving money on
    your model railroad this is how I’ve been doing it for a long time and I try
    to save as much money as I can whenever possible on my model railroad so I think
    it’s a good idea that you could do the same thing there’s a lot of good tips in
    here that I’ve given you to save money on your model railroad and I hope you
    could save money too so we’ll see ya next time

    Model Railroad Layout Tour Of Leakin Creek & Big Rock RR
    Articles, Blog

    Model Railroad Layout Tour Of Leakin Creek & Big Rock RR

    August 19, 2019

    i’m going to show you my layout, what I’ve already done back here, and over there all the way around and what I am currently working on and what I will be working on in the near future. So let’s get started with this! About two to three months ago I did a few videos showing you little pieces here and there of my layout but on this one I’m going to take you all the way around it give you a good view of everything that I’ve done and what I’m going to be doing in the future. This is the newest section of my layout i did about a year and a half ago and I had to finish this part of it mainly because it’s sitting over top of my stairs coming up to the second floor. This is connected to the one area that I did. I showed in a previous video of me building Leakin Creek. This town right here is Rockwood Pennsylvania, but this is basically the outskirts of the city. This corner right here is a catch-all for all my loose items. Anyway we go all the way down as you can see the mountains in the far corner. That is the Leakin Creek section of it, and down below in the valley i have an engine facility. Down there i have a to stall engine house with a bunch of buildings that I haven’t yet quite finished . I could pull the buildings up and whether them. That’s all I need to do with them, and then the track, I just have to do a little bit of dirt. I’m not going to do balast or anything, I’m just going to simulate it as dirt up to the level of the ties. Then I have a small creek that runs along through it, and the railroad when they came over and built there right of way over here, they built a little culvert, and then this area right here was a little little lake. I have a lot of these Bar Mills models and a couple of them are Walthers models and then some other ones. Let me see we gotta ah, these are all Bar Mills over here except for the welding house this is a a Walthers kit. I have Hart Supply, and Wicked Wanda, Mooney Plumbing, and then Crown Crate, and then have the grocery store and meat stand and Bulls Salvage, and then the other white building way in the back is a Walthers kit also, its Lakeside Ice and Coal. From this side you can see that the backs of all the buildings and the the hillside on down into the engine facility. I have the bridge over there ,and over here in the corner is where the hobos are hanging out, and I have a an abandoned building that’s an old Campbell Scale Model – abandoned house on the corner. i’ll get a little bit better shot of it, there’s the Campbell Scale Model – abandoned building and then my hobos over here along the tracks. And then in the background I have the wholesale meat, Uncle Tony’s wholesale meats. I think it’s Uncle Tony’s. Right there in the distance you can see the little sawmill. This area right here is Leakin Creek, this is the first part of the layout that i built, and originally I had it about 4 feet over towards the right more because right where your viewing right now used to be a wall that divided the stairs coming up there. You know you came up nine steps than hit a landing and then turn and then go up another six steps. And where that tunnel portal is, is where i had the wall so that was over about another almost four feet so I had to add four feet over in this area right here. And this is the rest of Leakin Creek right there. That right there used to be a wall that went all the way up to the ceiling. Snd that right there I have to build a little bridge over there i’m going to scratch build a bridge, but originally this little building right here was Long’s Coal and I had an elevated track right there where hopper would dump the coal. Well i’m going to extend that track, go over top of Leakin Creek. Ok. and then meet up with these tracks over here, they go into the engine facility. And here’s a long view of the engine facility and got this two stall engine house and then right right behind it where the stacks are is the boiler. and then a couple of sheds and paint shop, and I gotta sand house that’s an old plastics sand house that I picked up at a train show. And then the rest of it is laser cut. That one passenger car right there it’s a wooden model that I picked up at Metro Trains & Hobbies in Fort Myers. I think I paid five bucks for it. The bridge right there was a kit. Okay, that’s Leakin Creek all the way in the back. I did the mountains with hardboard and then i used all the same texturing material, Woodland Scenics, texturing material as I did on the ground cover so you know in order to match it up. A lot of the kits, I got were from train shows, and most of them I built myself, like the DPM kids, and the old I guess they’re Atlas kits or whatever, and then there’s a few Bar Mills over this way, and some other laser cut wood kits. and then the Excel Manufacturing right there is the, I believe that’s the DPM panels that you could create a building from and then this area right here is basically my industrial area. Do a little bit of switching right here but not much. More into running the trains around. And I have to continuous loops on this layout. And basically those in the back are just flats that I’ve made and the ones in front of themare wood kits, some of them, Bar Mills and some of them are FOSe Scale Models. In this area right here, all the track work is finished all the way to you know all the way from the other end down through here. I just have to work on the buildings and some of the some of the textures, groundcovers. These are the buildings that are on one of my access doors. That’s my next project. i’ll be doing a video on those. And going on over there, and that’s the rest of the buildings on the access door. And that’s way back in the other corner of my room. And there is my NMRA Gauge that i modified, and I know exactly where it is right now. I have a little lift out section right here to gain access to the track that is right underneath going to the back. That’s one of the loops it goes back behind underneath the access door. And right there where that void is, is where the access door that I just worked on! And all these backdrops right here, i’m going to pull these out. i’m not really satisfied with them. i put them up here to see what they would look like. You know, they are good scenery, but they just don’t fit right. So I’m going to pull them all down and redo the background. Okay, over here is where I did the hardboard again, I came all the way down to this area right here. I think i’m going to continue with the hardboard down a little bit further and then i’m going to cut out the buildings and place them on some black Gator board and put them in the background like that. Okay now, this is where the other access door is. Where I just finished doing a video on, and that building that’s up on it side, that’s one of my next projects. It’s a it’s a flat or actually it’s got two sides on it and an angled roof because i had it sitting up against the the wall before. And i’m just going to put back walls on it, and continue the roofline. Going back now looking down from this retaining wall i used to have a lot more tracks over here and I just pulled out a lot of the scenery and redid this area. Iit was just too busy with tracks, and you can see the area back here where you can see the wood, I had that all covered up, and couldn’t see the tracks in the back. So I decided I was going to taper that down so at least I could see the rail in the background, and the little trestles, and the the creek that runs along there. Okay that building its just uh I think City Classics, and i just did one panel deep in that so it’s only like two and a half inches deep. And this is what I have to work on, and I’ll probably be working on this for a long time. I’ll get you another angle of it here. Down on the bottom is Big Rock Okay, here’s the access panel that I just finished I just have it laying right here. But on the lower level ,on the low grade, is where Big Rock is, and I don’t have that finished yet. And i’ll head over that way in a little bit, but this area right here is unfinished, and I changed this a couple of times so far because You know, my original track plan, it just didn’t fit right, and really didn’t look right, and it looked too crowded so I redid it. And here’s another coal dump that I have, I built this and I got it on a little piece of hardboard so I can move it around and put it wherever I want to. And then here’s the Big Rock bridge, and then i’m going to build, (scratch-build) two trestles to go over this little creek right here. And then right in this corner right here, i’m going to build up the mountains. Right here i have the creek, let me move this out of the way. I have basically the water in there but I haven’t done any of the ground cover, or anything. And then I tore out what I had and i’m going to redo it and I’m going to put a mountain right there so you won’t see these tracks coming around the curve. And I’m giving you a view of the my isle right here, where I have the drop bridge that i did a video on installing the switches. And on the lower lower end where the box and the braces, that’s where I’m going to have a dock and water scene right there. And then we’ll go past these tripods right here. This area right here is what’s going to be Big Rock. And once i’m finished with doing everything else, basically right now, this is my workbench where I do all my work. And then actually that area right there, back behind the tripod, I have to leave that open, and I have to leave access because right above it I still have the sheet up there as not to get any insulation down on the layout. But if I have to access my air-conditioning unit, it’s right up there, so for right now, the sheets still there but whenever I build, that area right there, I have to make it so i can pull it out very easily. I hope you enjoyed the video i’ll have more vidios out like this with my progress, check my playlists, leave some comments down at the bottom, and if you haven’t done so already, subscribe. And then there’s a little bell [DING] right next to the subscribe button, that if you click on it, there’s a little checkbox that you could check off and it’ll inform you of whenever I have a new video out. And we’ll see ya, and thanks for watching, bye bye

    A Tour Of Railroad Museum Of Pennsylvania
    Articles, Blog

    A Tour Of Railroad Museum Of Pennsylvania

    August 18, 2019

    today we’re going to take a look at the
    Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania located in Strasburg Pennsylvania I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms Trains and Things this channel was created to help other
    modelers who are need of guidance and pursuing their dream of building a model
    railroad and there’s no better way to learn about a railroad than going to a
    railroad museum and that’s what we did in Strasburg Pennsylvania the railroad
    museum of Pennsylvania we’re going to show you some video that we took outside
    and I took a short little video inside but the rest of them are all
    photographed we have some steam locomotives we have
    some electric locomotives we have some diesel locomotives in there now we also
    have some rolling stock and tools and some other items that you can model for
    your railroad we have some pretty good photos in there so take a look at them
    if you would like to see more videos like this go ahead and hit my subscribe
    button and while you’re at it be that Bell so you could be notified whenever I
    have a new video coming out and you could also take a look at my playlist
    where I have a lot of videos on there categorized for you to find easily so
    check that out and let’s get started with this right now track my track on my
    way down to Mont on railroad 701 that I spotted on the way up here on the side
    road we got a lot of nice local motors here
    here’s the other side of the locomotive all right
    pan it on down there we’re gonna walk down to the end and water spot and
    there’s an old turntable the guy was talking he said it used to be on the
    Reading Railroad they moved it up here that’s the same kind we had at the mall
    Galen connecting similar at the top of it was similar to that he’ll bring the
    power in on it when the locomotive works 1200 and then behind there you could see
    MCRR that’s the 701 we’re about ready to walk down to the end of the line
    there’s a 701 monongahela connecting railroad a really bad shape I used to
    work on this thing back in late 70s early 80s until I got laid off but they
    had to shaved they shaved down the cab to fit in the low clearance at Furness
    alley Jones & Laughlin in Pittsburgh it’s one of a kind
    it’s the same that they’re not fixing it up or painting it but that’s the
    original paint job on it I’ve seen it here when I was here about 18 years ago
    they had it displayed out and on the Strasburg side on on the other side of
    the street back then now they got it back here in the corner among the corn
    fields back there here we get up close to the 701 it’s in really bad shape
    right now needs a paint job really bad and I
    imagined a lot of work on it but what do you expect for something from back in
    the 70s it’s been here for quite a while taking care of this one here the crane
    car that looks nice we got the front well at least two of them 67-55 and
    37:15 I can’t see that parse 53 okay I’ll have to zoom in on it when I look
    at this later in these next few photos we’re going to
    take a look at the consolidation type 2-80 Pennsylvanian railroad 1187 which
    was built in the Altoona works in 1888 and finally retired in 1939 now there
    was a pit underneath it that was a little bit deeper than the regular
    maintenance pit I got a few pictures of it so you could
    see what it looks like underneath I’m taking the video take a video
    well here we go I’m taking a video now you got Conrail in a reflection ok we’ll
    zoom down to this way here I hope you enjoyed the video of what we
    saw at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasbourg we have one
    more place that we visited that was the national toy train museum and that will
    be coming out in a few days and that will be the last one from our vacation
    but then after that we have Suncoast Center for fine scale modeling which we
    went to see last Saturday and next Saturday we’re going to Suncoast Model
    Railroad Club they’re having an open house and a train show so we’ll be going
    there on the 29th of this month and we’ll be and of course we’re going to be
    putting out a video on that also so take a look for that and until then we’ll see
    ya from the museum

    Budget LED Wiring For Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Budget LED Wiring For Your Model Railroad

    August 17, 2019

    if you want to light up your model
    railroad and you’re on a budget you’re gonna want to watch this in a previous
    video I showed you how to use an Arduino Nano to light up your model railroad now
    I’m going to show you what wires you could use on there and the LEDs that you
    could use on there I have some other videos that are related to this as far
    as soldering SMD LEDs and taking apart a wall wart which is a big part of this
    video right here so let’s get started with it right now in another video I
    tore apart a wall wart we got these wires from there it’s called magnet wire
    and you got two coils inside the one coil it is like hair thin which is no
    good for what we need on here but this other coil of wire is approximately 24
    gauge wire and it’s nice and strong the only thing is you have to scrape off the
    insulation on here now I did the video on it about tearing apart the AC wall
    warts you may have different size wires on your wall wart coils based on the
    voltage of the wall wart so keep that in mind you can find very inexpensive wall
    warts at your local thrift store I got mine for about 50 cents apiece now what
    I’m using here is the magnet wire on there for the SMD LEDs and here’s one
    that I already made up and I scratched off the ends of it but let me show you
    how we work this here what I want to do is measure out about it 12 inches of it I just set it up over here and cut off
    just a little bit over 12 inches about 12 and a half inches and what we have to
    do is scrape the edges of it to get the insulation off of it now this is it’s
    kind of hard to get off and I’d do it two different ways I use the exacto
    blade and you got to turn this thing over to get both sides of it and try to
    get as many angles on it as you can like this turn it just a little bit that way
    and then turn it back this way and then these finger nail files Dollar Tree you
    get a whole stack of them for a dollar and you could what I do is just turn it
    in there hold the hold two of them together and just use the the sandpaper
    on there to clean it off a little and this usually does the trick on there and
    then you do the other side the same way scrape it off with the exacto blade now they do make magnet wire where you
    don’t have to scrape off the insulation and I’m going to show you that in a
    little bit here that I bought some it comes from the manufacturers Remington
    and I showed you on a previous video we saw during a 30 gauge wire to the SMD
    LEDs I just purchased some 24 gauge wire and it’s about seven dollars for a
    hundred foot of it and you can get it in you know different foot footage rolls
    that I got about a hundred foot of it for seven dollars and I’ll show you that
    next but the coating on the wire is actually flux when it melts it’s
    actually flux so when you put the iron up up against it it melts turns in the
    flux and then you could solder your wires together okay so let’s get the
    meter over here okay that’s this one here so what I do
    is I just take the meter on both ends of this to make sure we’ll put it on the
    audible let’s see we got we got a continuity on there but not very good we
    could maybe just send right here yeah descend right here maybe we could
    do a little bit more work on it so just come over here with the sandpaper and
    just hit it a couple more times until okay that’s good right there so that’s
    what we do with the wire we do both of them and then we twist them together now
    we got the two wires ready we’ll all we need to do is just twist them together a
    little bit now I’ve seen people do this in a drill but you don’t want them you
    don’t want to get it too tight I mean you could do it in a drill but it’s
    going to make it really tight so I just come down and I just twist it together
    like this and that’s all you need just to hold the two wires together okay and there we go I got two more of these and
    I’ll show you what I did so far with these other ones I made up four of them
    and I got the SMD LEDs on there and then on the other end what I did was tested
    them and the wire that I used for these other ones that I have these ones right
    here i soldered wire on the end of them i
    soldered wire on the end of these right here and this is heat shrink on this is
    black and yellow heat shrink because the insulation from the black wire won’t go
    over that but i use the insulation from the black wire on here just slid it over
    top of the negative lead so whenever we go to hook this up I know which lead is
    negative and if I have to cut this shorter we’ll just strip it down a
    little bit and scrape it like we did the other one and then just take the
    insulation and move it down to where we we need it but this is what we’re going
    to be using on the building’s we’re going to be using the SMD LEDs on here
    now these are warm I think these are warm white that I showed you in another
    video and all these things that I’m showing you here I did in another video
    at one point or another now I’m putting them into use in the buildings and this
    this type right here is going to be the kind that I use for the arc welder it’s
    a it’s a real small one and actually it’s it’s coated so what I did was I cut
    the coating off of it but that’s another video right there but this one here
    we’re gonna make up about 12 of these so that’s what we have so far we have to
    work on a little bit more of the wiring and let me show you the Remington wire
    that is already is ready to solder now here’s a spool of the remington wire
    that I was telling you about it’s 26 gauge and you can see it’s red it comes
    in assorted colors and it’s magnet wire and like I said before all you have to
    do is heat this up and the insulation that
    is coding this is actually flux so you don’t need flux when you’re soldering it
    to your SMD LEDs and it comes in different gauges I showed you on a
    previous video I use some 30 gauge but I but this 26 gauge here it’s a little bit
    heavier I got this at Amazon and I think you can order directly from Remington –
    I’m not quite sure but I got it through Amazon when I get it through Amazon I
    get it a lot quicker these LEDs right here are from something
    that I got at Michaels there was a long string of a series of LEDs and they had
    a little box where you could put a battery in there and they flash and do
    all kind of things you buy these after Christmas and you can get them for a
    couple of bucks these are the LEDs that I used on my welding sketch that I have
    right back here that anyway on here I soldered a little bit heavier wire on it
    because this is kind of flimsy wire on it it’s maybe 28 gauge or so so I put 22
    gauge wire on the bottom of it I soldered on it and then I like I said
    before I put the shrink wrap on it and you can get this at spools of this I
    have six different colors of it I got it at Adafruit you can get it anywhere I
    think they have them at Amazon also it’s a good thing to have this is solid wire
    you could also get stranded wire but I preferred solid wire for this because
    you could easily put this and this is why I did it because you could push
    these into the breadboard real easily if you recall the SMD LEDs come in a little
    tape like this right here and all you do is just remove the cover on there and be
    careful with it because if should there’s some LEDs in the carpet
    someplace that you know bounced off of here and went down there now I never
    found that anyway be careful with it you just take them off one by one just peel
    this thing back whenever you need a LED and just drop it onto your your
    bitch but you get a hundred of them for six bucks and I bought another package
    of them this one is warm white and this just is plain white so I could vary the
    the colors on there and you could also take some acrylic paint and put a light
    coating on there to change the color if you need to change the color on these
    things and I’ll show you how to do that in it later on here’s the packaging of
    those like teardrop it are called rice lights they’re originally $7.99 but I
    got them at Michael’s after Christmas not this past Christmas but the year
    before for about a couple of bucks they’re very inexpensive after Christmas
    and if you’re intimidated by SMD lights I got these at Walgreens after Christmas
    I finally got them about two dollars a box
    so for 50 LEDs two bucks for 50 LEDs and I already disassembled one of them you
    know it’s the Christmas tree lights and all you do is just all you do is remove the LEDs from the
    string it’s a little work and you’ll notice on about every four or five of
    them there will be a little resistor on each one of the LEDs but you could use
    these anywhere and I’ve used these in projects already and so I have about 200
    clear LEDs that cost me two four six eight eight dollars and then these these
    right here were two dollars I got two packages I used one package already and
    here’s the other one and the inside here there’s a little battery pack that you
    could also use that for lighting up something that’s remote if you just want
    to do it every once in a while you put some batteries in it turn the switch on
    you got five volts for you lighting if you’re intimidated by the SMD lights you
    can get these after Christmas or you can get a whole package of assorted colors
    for about seven bucks on Amazon and I have the link down in the description
    I’ve used those to you know get them in a nice little thing and I think there’s
    200 LEDs in there of assorted colors you got clear red blue green yellow now I
    showed you in a previous video that we’re using the Nano on a circuit board
    and I’m using a DF player mini on it but you don’t have to do that if you don’t
    want to sound associated with your building lights but you could do it with
    a nano and you can get about three of the nanos I got three of these nanos for
    about eleven bucks on Amazon or if you prefer something larger a legume you get
    two uno and I got this I think it was about ten bucks on Amazon for the a
    Lagoo uno and it just like the Arduino Uno but less expensive but I’ve had
    pretty good luck with everything from a Lagoo these nanos are from a Lagoo also
    so take a look into that that’s a very inexpensive way to light up you
    or model railroad with the wall wart wire or if you prefer not to work so
    hard you can get this from Remington and you don’t have to scratch off all the
    insulation on the wall wart wire but anyway you could put it on a circuit
    board like this you could use these connectors or if you don’t want to you
    could solder the wires directly on here you put your resistors on here but on
    future ones I’m going to use all sip resistors on or instead of using the
    regular resistors on there for the LEDs as usual everything that I talked about
    in my videos if there’s a link or anything else you could find that in the
    description and sometimes if it’s a video you’ll see it in the info boxes up
    there so until the next time we’ll see Ya

    Easy Grade Crossing Flasher Circuits For Your Model Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Easy Grade Crossing Flasher Circuits For Your Model Railroad

    August 14, 2019

    I’m gonna show you a few different ways
    to do grade crossing flashers and how to adjust the speed of them so let’s get
    going with this right now i’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms Trains and Things..
    this channel was created to help other modelers who are in need of guidance in
    pursuing their dream of building a model railroad now I showed you how to do a
    crossing flasher in Arduino and it was really simple was just changing a couple
    of lines of code and there we go flashing on there but now I’m going to
    show you how to do it with a 555 timer chip and a couple of resistors I’ll show
    you how on the Fritzing diagram and the wiring diagram what they look like you
    could see the components on this video on the wiring diagram that I have listed
    at the end of the video and the Fritzing diagram will be there also on the two
    projects that I did I actually did three different projects but I only settled on
    two of them so take a look at that at the end of the video if this is your
    first time here or a returning viewer and you would like to see more videos
    like this go ahead and hit that subscribe button and while you’re at it
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    different videos in every category about model railroading in my playlist so go
    check that out there I have over 40 playlists in there with over 280 videos
    so check that out so let’s get going and see how we do these flashers I have a 33
    microfarad capacitor hooked up to this right now
    you can see how fast it’s going now if I put a 47 micro farad capacitor in there
    it’s going to slow it down a little bit so that’s the 33 now this is the 47
    micro farad and this is with the 555 timer chip now
    we’re doing the same thing with this circuit right here with two transistors
    two capacitors and four resistors in there and it does the same thing and
    like let me hook that one up but this is a little bit slower so we can adjust the
    speed of that right now I have in this diagram it says 10 micro farad
    capacitors and that’s how it’s hooked up we’ve got the two transistors I got two
    capacitors going across the transistors from the collector to the base with the
    470 ohm resistors right there and that controls the brightness of the resistors
    now I got 200k ohm resistors on the base if we try to reduce the 100k we could
    see what that does using the resistance substitution boxes I have one over here
    the box and then I have this one here both of them are set at 68 K now that
    goes a little bit faster let’s see if we could bring it down or bring down the
    resistance a little bit more and see how fast it is we’ll go down to 47 K and see
    how that does you can see I have two resistance substitution box on here and
    that was just to check different resistors real quick without trying to
    pull out resistors and everything else just flip the switch and use jumpers on
    the other one that makes it a lot easier instead of
    having to go and change components on your breadboard now that’s at 47 K so
    you can see on this one here with the transistors and the capacitors changing
    the value of the tubers Esther’s on their that go to the base of
    each transistor as you decrease the resistance you increase the speed of the
    flashing and on the other one with the 555 chip you do that with the capacitor
    I have both of these circuits running pretty close to but not quite on my
    resistance substitution box I only have like right here I only have 47 68 and
    100 that I could choose from and right now I have it at 47 and then over here
    on the capacitors what I’m using right now let me see this one’s the 33 so I’m
    using the 47 micro farad capacitor on that one with the 555 chip now they’re
    close but not exactly the same these are a lot harder to build than what we did
    with the Arduino you saw with the Arduino on Saturday how easy it was with
    just some code to flash the LEDs although this one works and you adjust
    the speed with the capacitor right there I’m going to try a different design
    which uses two capacitors but the speed is adjusted by the resistor that goes
    between six and seven so we’re going to do I’m going to change this design here
    and pull this out I’m going to keep these LEDs here and just change this
    around right here with these resistors and the capacitors we’re just going to
    have to change these around the jumpers are the same from 2 to 6 and from 4 to 8
    and then one goes to negative and then eight goes to the positive
    and three is where your LEDs come from and it’s split your LED and resistors
    split from one goes to the negative and the other goes to the positive so when
    it just flips back and forth when one when one is high the other one’s low now
    this circuit right here that uses the two capacitors both of them both the
    negative side of the capacitors go all the way to ground this one right here
    the 22 microfarad goes between the plus and the minus leads and we use the
    resistor here there’s a 2.2 K ohm resistor between pins seven and eight
    and in between six and seven there’s a 47 K ohm resistor and that’s the one
    that adjusts the speed now the 47 K ohm is the same 47 K ohm that I’m using on that
    circuit right there so we could use both of these circuits with 47 K ohm and
    adjust them by the resistor in the circuit with I like this circuit better
    right here this one is off of a 9-volt battery okay this one over here is off
    of 12 volts I’m going to put the 9 volt on here and see how it works I played
    around with several different designs on there and came out with the best one to
    use the last one with the five five five and the two capacitors on there and and
    the 2.2 and the 47 K resistor I think is the best one to use with the 555 timer
    and the one with the two transistors on there and two capacitors that’s a good
    one also if you like doing it that way but those are the two best ones that I
    have found there’s many ways that you could do it I searched on the internet
    and seen about five six different ways to do
    it with the 555 timer and then the one that I have right here I think is the
    best one to do you can make your own decision on that these two that I chose
    are the best ones for me but it may not be for you so go ahead and check out see
    there’s other designs that you could find on the Internet
    okay now I have both of them operating off of the 9-volt battery right here the
    only thing I changed on this one I had 220 ohm resistors on there but I have a
    1k ohm resistor on each one of these LEDs and it seems like the same
    brightness as it was before over here as you can see we have 470 K or 470 ohm
    resistors on these LEDs right here but we could add a second set of LEDs on
    second LED on each one of these and it will still work let me pull one off of
    each one of these and we’ll just show you how it is with one on each one so
    there we go we got both circuits right there but there’s our flashing circuits two
    different ways of doing the flashing circuit one with a five five five chip
    and the other one with I think these are 3904 transistors you can also do them
    with 22 22 transistors and PN transistors and you got two capacitors
    here you got two capacitors here these capacitors here are 10 microfarad these
    ones over here you have 10 this is a 10 micro farad and this is a 22 micro farad
    it goes from the positive right to the negative two different flashers two
    different means of getting the LEDs to flash one with transistors are one with
    an integrated circuit 555 timer and I’ve got both of them so we can
    adjust them with the resistors in the circuit you know I tried one circuit and
    you have to use a capacitor to do that this is a transistor diagram and the
    only thing that I changed on here is the 100k resistors I reduce them down to 47
    K to get the LEDs to flash a little faster now on this Fritzing diagram I
    reversed the transistor on the right so the left transistor the flat is facing
    you and the flat on the right transistor is away from you you’ll notice that the
    emitter on both transistors are on the outside with the black wire going to the
    negative rail on this 555 timer chip circuit I left everything as is so the
    components you see on here are the same components that hi
    used on my example since you can’t stand resistors up on n on the Fritzing
    diagram I have the two resistors on the blue and yellow wires laying down but
    they are the same as in the breadboard in my example you have to be very
    careful when using electrolytic capacitors because they have a polarity
    on them so if you hook them up backwards you’ll have very bad results they can be
    severely damaged you make sure that you have the plus on the plus side of the
    diagram and the minus on the minus side of the diagram they’re clearly marked on
    there they have a silver band or a white band on one side that has the writing on
    them so that’s the negative side of the electrolytic capacitor I gave you
    several different designs of the flasher in this video that if you would like to
    activate and deactivate it’s as simple as this battery here with a switch you
    could use your own activation in your track or however you want to do it but
    it’s just like interrupting the power with a switch that’s all it is and we’ll
    cover something like that in the we know later on when we get that far in
    the Arduino made easy curve and we’ll see Ya.