Browsing Tag: Rail Transport (Industry)

    A Night at A Railway Station in Bangladesh
    Articles, Blog

    A Night at A Railway Station in Bangladesh

    December 1, 2019


    I’m Now at Joydebpur Railway Station for a Cup of Tea …&… Masum forced me to come Now the Time is Exact 3:10 AM (Midnight) What’s Your name? What your name is? ASIF ASIF? Shop is open for all night long? in Day Time? In Day Time too. Another person come in Day Time 24 Hours Open! What’s your name? Mohammad SHAMIM You live here? Where’s your home? Mymensingh Mymensingh!!! Where in Mymensingh? ** Local Place Name ** What?! ** Local Place Name ** Which area? ** Saying Home Address ** & District is NETRAKONA oh! Netrakona! This is not Mymensingh… Our Food is Ready Food Just Arrived Now we will eat We are very hungry We come from a good distance What do you do here? I work in the shop You only work at night time? Both Day & Night. It’s not fixed. How much they give you? $3 per month sorry $3 per day Daily $3? This is not that bad… His salary is $0.6 per day really?!?! ha ha ha! No No No Then How much? Its $1.3 per day Its $1.3 per day Does Mohammad SHAMIM really get $3 per day? Was that true? He get $2.5 not $3 $2.5? No, $3 Owner will not give him $3 He just asked for $3, nothing else… Owner will not pay him that amount. oh! I see…. Shop owner is a Penny Pincher Joydebpur (Written in Bengali) Presented by Labib Ittihadul

    The London Railway of the Dead
    Articles, Blog

    The London Railway of the Dead

    December 1, 2019


    In the middle of the 19th century London had a problem: It had too many dead people, and not nearly enough burial plots. Recently diseased bodies were having to be exhumed and then scattered in order to make room for more people to be put in the ground. Now that was obviously an enormous health risk, that contributed to cholera epidemics, which in turn contributed to more dead poeple. And so two industrialists came up with an audacious plan: They would build Europe’s largest cemetery 20 miles outside of London in Brookwood. And they would run trains from there to here– to this terminus here in Waterloo– and it would be the London Necropolis railway. There would be first class funerals, and second class funerals, and third class funerals, which at least guaranteed you a gravesite, which was a cut above the mass graves that London was using at the time for the dead that couldn’t afford anything better. And here is the astonishing thing, the thing you might not know: It worked! The London Necropolis railway was a real thing for nearly a century. The first train ran in 1854, and while the motor car starting to become popular did diminish the service in the 20th century. It ran until World War II. The only thing that stopped it was the bombing out of the railway tracks, and this whole area during the Blitz. If those tracks hadn’t been bombed out, theoretically, we could still be seeing 21st century hearse trains going out to Brookwood. And that is something you might not have known. [Closed captions by MM. Translating these subtitles? Add your name here!]

    Articles

    Документальный фильм – тепловоз ТЭП60 / TEP60 locomotive documentary (with eng subtitles)

    November 30, 2019


    Documentary about TEP60 locomotives This… this is a toy but the film won’t be about toys the film will be about real TEP60 locomotives Due to the conversion of railway lines to diesel traction and due to the need to replace the passenger steam locomotives, Ministry of Railways in 1956 gave Kolomna locomotive factory a technical assignment to develop a passenger diesel locomotive. In May 1959 Kolomna factory presented a technical project with three locomotive versions: – Single unit, with double cab and with two 2-axle bogies; – The same but with two 3- axle bogies; – And similar to the first version but with only one cab per unit meaning a double unit locomotive. Second version was taken for the primary construction of the prototype passenger locomotive, for which the factory carried out a work project. In the middle of 1960 the testing of the first locomotive TEP60-0001 started on October railway. Diesel locomotives TEP60-0001 and TEP10-002 were tested for effects to the track. Based on the tests, Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Railways concluded advisability of using locomotives TEP60 not TEP10 for hauling passenger and especially fast trains As a result in 1961 Kolomna locomotive factory started the production of TEP60 locomotives Kolomna factory released in 1964 double unit locomotives 2TEP60-0001 and 0002 that were tested on the Moscow-Brest line Units of these locomotives differ from TEP60 only with the presence of a passage between the middle cabs of the units and with the offset of the coupler, extending the unit 75 mm All the controlling systems were left intact in the middle cabs, the only change was the added doors to the passage This solution allowed to use the double units also separately The overall appearance overall layout of the locomotive and the undercarriage is characteristic for a high speed locomotive Single unit locomotive TEP60 was meant for servicing trains with the weight of 1100 tons with the maximum speed on level ground of 80 km/h and around 50 km/h on a gradient of 9‰ Double unit locomotive 2TEP60 was meant for servicing the same trains but with speeds of 150 km/h on level ground and up to 80 km/h on a gradient Maximum power output of TEP60 locomotive is 2500 hp constructional speed 160 km/h locomotive weight with 2/3 of fuel and sand is 129 tons ±3% axel load 21,5 tons, ±3%. Fuel tank capacity 6400 kg water reserve 1580 kg engine oil reserve 880 kg,
    hydrostatic drive reserve 90 kg, sand reserve 600 kg About dimensions maximum height above rail is 4780 mm greatest width of protrusions is 3316 mm distance between the axles of automatic couplers 19,25 m total wheelbase 15 m distance between pivots 10,2 m Track gauge 1524 mm and locomotive gauge 1Т Locomotive has automatic couplers SA-3 and minimum radius of passable curves 125 m The locomotive has a welded bearing body which is a compound of the main frame side frames meaning the walls, roof, and two cabins bringing them into a single spatial design which receives the weight of the devices located on the frame and the dynamic forces when starting to move and driving on the track The locomotive body is placed on two tri-axle balanced bogies without horn cheeks On both bogies the locomotive body is operating on two vertical swing hangers fitted with rubber cones and with 4 lateral spring supports 2 of which are placed on both sides of the bogie These supports enable the bogie to turn in curves and to ensure lateral movement Spring suspension of the bogie consists of spring supports which are located next to the axle boxes and of leaf springs with balancers Wheel diameter is 1050 mm Locomotive has braking on both sides of the wheel and the brakes are controlled electro-pneumatically First locomotives had not metallic but composite brake shoes When using those shoes, an abnormal wear on the wheel tyres increased heating and rapid wear of wheel flange was noticed Because of that, from the locomotive no. 0018 factory started to produce locomotives with cast-iron shoes Therefore to increase the pressure of the shoes, brake linkage was changed Locomotive has 6 traction motors meaning that every axle has a traction motor During traction the motors are constantly and parallel connected to the generator This connection gives the best use of weight and traction force reduces less in case of failure in one of the motors Traction motors are supported by frame suspension their weight is not taken by axles, they are fixed to the bogie frame and to the suspension structure of the locomotive itself Locomotive has a two-stroke V-16 diesel engine 11D45 That has 3000 hp Main AC generator has independent excitation and forced ventilation Several auxiliary machines are being actuated from the crankshaft From the turbocharger end the engine actuates a blower for cooling the traction motors of the rear bogie and hydraulic pump for the hydrostatic drive of the cooling fans The water is cooled in water-air sections that are used also on locomotives TE3 The air is run through the sections by two axial six-blade fans Fans are driven by hydraulic motors, which are being operated with oil that has been pressurised with hydraulic pumps This drive system is called as hydrostatic and it was first used on TEP60 locomotives But what tells us a former locomotive driver-instructor from Vitebsk depot, Sergei Ivanovich Kurjakov about the hydraulic system? When operating of the locomotive, the crew had to draw more attention to hydrostatics that is in the cooling system of the locomotive and to the temperature regimes Since these are the most vulnerable nodes on the locomotive This is the engine from the cooling side The other side with the main generator is much more interesting From the generator end, the engine actuates the subexciter blowers for main generator and traction motors of front bogie main generator compressor КТ7 and a two-machine aggregate, consisting of the generator exciter and the auxiliary generator for lighting, control circuits and charging the batteries For preheating the diesel engine before starting the locomotive had a boiler-heater that was located somewhere here But starting from the locomotive number 0502 it was not installed any more At the main generator end are besides the auxiliary devices located also a toilet and high-voltage chamber, HVC for short Behind it, on the back wall of the chamber necessary switches are located for switching the cab On the front side of HVC behind a hatch are breakers for all the auxiliary circuits of the locomotive Also on the front side of HVC are breakers for lighting and buttons for checking the grounding The wall of the chamber that is facing the drivers cab has double doors with plexiglas Inside the chamber are various contactors, relays, electropneumatical contactors, reverser and so on When the diesel engine is not working, the 75 V power supply comes from the batteries which are located on the fuel tank behind hatches Over time, the electrical schematic of the locomotive was changed and improved as a former locomotive driver-instructor from Vitebsk depot, Sergei Ivanovich Kurjakov remembers I still remember from my experience the first TEP60’s I remember well number 0046 it had an old electrical circuit had old exciting of the generator But I remember few about the details due to the long period of time I just want to say that the first locomotives were experimental They had disturbances in their work later came more modern locomotives that had improved electrical circuits Systems were enhanced they worked smoothly and disturbances practically did not occur during their work Despite the changes and improvements, the electrical circuit of TEP60 was simple As one driver said – the circuit is as simple as a shovel In principle, a locomotive driver from Vitebsk depot, Stanislav Anatoljevitš Parovoi thinks the same Let’s say that on TEP60 locomotive you feel calm Why? Because on TEP60 locomotive faults that have no way out, practically do not exist Only in case of a complete assembly failure, only then All other cases, electrical faults, there is always an easy solution beginning from the emergency mode and so on Between the engine room and the cabins is a passage for entering the locomotive from both sides The cab that is closer to the HVC is considered as front cab or as cab “A” The cab that is on the cooling end is considered as rear or as cab “B” Lets enter the cab! Cabs are divided from the engine room with heat-sound isolated walls that in the middle have doors with double glass windows Ceiling, side walls and especially the floor and rear wall are thoroughly isolated The whole cab is lined with perforated steel plates but the wooden floor is covered with linoleum. For the driver and his assistant the chairs are mounted and secured to the floor and can be adjusted in height Two additional folding seats are mounted on the rear wall Front and side walls have solid windows from plexiglass with narrow vertical buttresses, which are the supporting elements of the body Two of those elements are placed to the front wall so that they form a doorway from the second cab of double-unit locomotive 2TEP60 to pass from one unit to another Locomotive TEP60 has three front windows as said earlier locomotive was foreseen from the beginning as a double-unit locomotive In cabin A under the middle window is a handbrake wheel but in cab B the layout does not have a handbrake wheel and there is access to the potential passage Thanks to the middle window the remaking of the locomotive into double-unit one can be done without any difficulty While doing that, the other windows are not affected and the body construction is not weakened This original approach allowed to leave all the necessary controls to control the unit from cab B and use it as a single unit locomotive unlike for example locomotive 2M62 Dead man’s switch, whistle/horn valve, sanding controls and brake valves are located on the right About the whistle valve handle towards yourself – whistle away from you – horn Main control panel has an inclined board which has controlling and measuring instruments Throttle, radio and the speedometer are on the left The throttle has two handles reverser with positions: back, 0 and forward and a throttle with notches 0 and 1-15 In notch 0 and 1 the engine revolutions are minimum – 400 rpm Every following notch increases the revolutions by 25 rpm and in notch 15 the revolutions reach 750 rpm How to start the engine will be shown to us by drivers assistant Valery V. Leshchenko and by driver Stanislav A. Parovoi Let’s switch on the battery Let’s turn on the breakers. – Which ones? – All of them – All of them? – All – headlight, power for „ATC“, brakes, fuel pump, plugs, fire alarm That’s it, let’s switch the cab Let’s switch the cab That’s it. Let’s go to the cab Let’s switch on the braker Fuel pressure fuel pump is working, yes? Can you hear it?
    – Yes! – And let’s push the button This is the pump for pre-pressurising the oil It will pump his time and then the crankshaft will be rotated Excellent! But how to start moving? And how to finish the service and change the cab? I wonder, how does servicing the locomotive look like from the drivers cab? Cab signal yellow
    – Cab signal yellow Entry signal 2 yellows, speed 40, stop in the station
    – Entry signal 2 yellows, speed 40, stop in the station Passed the entry signal 2 yellows, speed 40
    – Passed the entry signal 2 yellows, speed 40 Cab signal white
    – Cab signal white Arrival track is clear, green light, stop in the station
    – Arrival track is clear, green light, stop in the station Nice I wonder, how would the locomotive crew describe the TEP60 locomotive? Simple, easy to maintain, easy to control During its releasing time, comfortable. Compared to locomotive TEP70, yes, TEP70 has a bigger cab, it is more comfortable. Compared to TEP70BS, TEP70BS is more comfortable considering that it has A/C But for its time and also today in the part on driving it and on safety it meets the requirements I would say like that But interesting… were there any typical malfunctions that occurred during the servicing? Malfunctions occured, but any typical ones… I cannot say At least for me there were no typical malfunctions Well, that’s great! Among the biggest structural changes made during the release of locomotives TEP60, can be noted that since the locomotive no. 0167 some changes were made in the design of the diesel generator and it was designated as 11D45A From the same locomotive, changes in cooling system were made Water-air sections located on the roof were removed and the water that got its heat from water-oil heat exchanger was cooled in the sections located on the side walls’ With that changed the location of cooling units on the side walls In 1967 on the proposal of „Scientific, engineering and technological innovation“ locomotives 0193 and 0194 were installed with experimental equipment for dynamical braking This equipment was removed from the locomotives in Leningrad-Baltic depot of October railway after damage On one locomotive – TEP60A-0211 were experimentally installed instead of diesel engine 11D45A, diesel engine 5D49 but that locomotive was not given into operation and its body was used to assemble locomotive no. 0258 From the locomotive no. 0437 synchronized subexciter was changed to a more modern one In 1974 instead of traction motors ED-108, motors ED-108A were started to produce In 1985, since the locomotive no. 1234 were changed some electrical components in the automatic generator excitation system During the release of the locomotive during period of 1976-1985 Kolomna factory made some different changes to the locomotive construction that did not have effect on the main traction parameters From locomotive no. 0859 a key for stopping the train in emergency was applied providing simultaneous emergency braking, stopping the diesel engine and sounding the horn From locomotive no 0906 the old, built in throttle KA-1501 was replaced with the throttle KV-1552 that had a wheel shaped handle on top of the console First TEP60 locomotives worked for a period of time on Moscow-Leningrad line afterwards the locomotives started to service passenger trains Leningrad-Tallinn, Lozovaya-Melitopol and in other directions First TEP60 locomotives came to Zasulauks depot in December 1963 They were numbers 0058, 0059, 0060 During the USSR all over the Baltic railway the passenger trains were serviced only with locomotives TEP60 from Zasulauks depot From 1963 to 1992 the weight of the passenger trains grew from 850 to 1300 tons, meaning from 15 to 22 wagons, the speed increased to 120 km/h, therefore since 1985 fast trains to Moscow, Kaliningrad, Minsk and Tallinn were started to service with two TEP60 locomotives coupled together with two locomotive crews and later with 2TEP60 locomotives with one crew Altogether the Baltic railway got 90 TEP60 locomotives and 8 2TEP60 locomotives All the locomotives were assigned to TCh-2 and that was Zasulauks depot On the 1st of January 1992 58 TEP60 and 8 2TEP60 locomotives were taken in the balance of Latvian railway By that time rest of the locomotives were written off as the resource of first locomotives that came to Baltic railway was exhausted Because Estonia and Lithuania were left without passenger locomotives, in May 1992 the locomotives were divided between Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian railway 7 TEP60 locomotives were given to Estonian railway to Lithuanian railway were given 12 TEP60 locomotives All 2TEP60 were left to Latvian railway Because there was no more need for the 2TEP60 locomotives after the collapse of Soviet Union, the locomotives 2TEP60 were not used After that some of the locomotive were kept for some time in Rezekne reserve base where they were gradually cut into scrap metal Last locomotives were sent for scrapping in 2006 In 1994 in Latvia were used 19 TEP60 locomotives, they worked with passenger trains until 1997 In Latvia remained the largest number of TEP60 they had, that is 1206 which is in Riga railway museum since 2005 Indoors exposition has also the drivers cab of locomotive no. 0627 under the no. 0192 Third locomotive with no. 0925 is in the courtyard of Daugavpils Vocational Secondary School As said before, Estonia got 7 TEP60 locomotives with numbers 0222, 0315, 0319, 0339, 0922, 0924 and 0994 They were in service until 1997 The last working locomotive servicing trains was the oldest one – 0222 The only one left is no. 0924 that is behind me in Haapsalu railway museum It arrived to the museum in working condition but due to the absence of security and fences, the locomotive was quickly plundered It was externally restored in 2011 but due to the indifference of the museum management, the front windows and the colour scheme was not original According to the words of the management, it was the fault of the painters and it was promised to fix quickly 4 years have passed and as you can see nothing has changed Lithuania got 12 locomotives with numbers 0202 that was actually 0765, 0256, 0284, 0286 that was actually 1112, 0325, 0327, 0351, 0923, 0926, 0927, 0992 and 0993 5 locomotives were left by the year 2010, but in the autumn of 2009, the cab and HVC of no. 0993 burned down The locomotive was not restored Last locomotives with the livery similar to the original were withdrawn from service on 8th of September 2010 and they were scrapped in July 2011 Two locomotives in the livery of Lithuanian railway were left in service, no. 0923 and 0926 But also their time came up and they were withdrawn from service in October 2011 0923 was scrapped but 0926 was preserved and it is now in Vilnius railway museum Last TEP60 locomotives of Russian railways worked in Salsk depot in Rostov region 4 locomotives were left by the end of 2008 no. 1029, 1039, 1094, and 1236 They were used until the spring of 2009 when they were taken off from service and scrapped So after withdrawing the last two locomotives in Lithuania in 2011, the last railway that was still using locomotives TEP60 was Belarusian railway First TEP60 locomotives arrived to Vitebsk depot in 1967 Altogether 40 TEP60 locomotives worked in Vitebsk depot One of them was the oldest one starting from the beginning of the 1990’s, locomotive no. 0241 It was sent from the factory to Smolensk depot in 1968 from where it was sent to Vitebsk depot in 1978 It’s lifetime ended in 2014 when it was scrapped By that time it had worked 46 years In 2015, the oldest working TEP60 locomotive in Belarus is locomotive no. 0391, assigned to Vitebsk depot It is 44 years old but continues its service In addition to Vitebsk depot, locomotives TEP60 worked also in Orsha, Minsk and Brest depots In 2015 locomotives TEP60 are working in addition to Vitebsk depot also in Minsk Belarusian railway had altogether approximately 130 single-unit diesel locomotives TEP60 On the Belarusian railway worked also double-unit locomotives 2TEP60 Five of them, with the numbers 0049 to 0053, were rebuilt to single-unit locomotives TEP60 Units A got the same number that the 2TEP60 had for example 0049, 0050 and so on Units B were added the digit 1, such as 0149, 0150 and so on. Overall Belarusian railway had 34 double-unit locomotives 2TEP60 In 2015 Brest museum are locomotives no. 0437 and 0774, in Baranovichi museum is no. 0369 that has a livery which is similar to the original one The only locomotive with the old cooling unit
    TEP60-0121 was in Brest museum, but it was scrapped to metal Also at some point locomotive 2TEP60-0017 was sent to the museum but also it was scrapped like TEP60-0121 Single-unit locomotive TEP60 was released since 1960 until 1985, altogether were made 1241 locomotives Double-unit locomotive 2TEP60 was released since 1966 until 1987 in small batches and not every year Altogether were released 116 double-unit locomotives that were sent to depots that already had TEP60 locomotives for hauling heavy passenger trains In 1989 Poltava locomotive repair factory rebuilt around 60 single-unit locomotives TEP60 into
    double-unit locomotives 2TEP60 New double-unit locomotives got numbers with six hundred and they worked on October, North and South railways Briefly – locomotive was built since 1960 until 1987, altogether 1473 units But maybe former driver-instructor from Vitebsk depot and a current locomotive driver have something to add about TEP60 locomotives? About TEP60 I can say only one thing, that it is the most successful diesel locomotive in diesel locomotive construction of USSR It said by the fact that it is working basically 45 years without changing the power unit No-one has changed it, only repaired What can be added? I can thank the constructors for constructing the locomotive What else can I add It has served a long period of time. Since 1994 I have never had problems that I did not reach my destination The locomotive always took me home At the moment I cannot bring out a locomotive as reliable Yes, TEP70 is a good locomotive, TEP70BS is good, comfortable but in terms of reliability, no! Locomotives TEP60 and 2TEP60 were created for passenger trains and they were widely used along with the electric locomotives ChS2 on the railways of USSR After 55 years of history their time is running out, and now then can be found in museums But in 2015, these historic locomotives are still used, but only on the Belarusian Railway The moment when I came from freight traffic to passenger traffic to work on TEP60 locomotives, was the best time in my memory As the TEP60 were newer, better maintained than locomotives TE3 that were used in freight traffic It was pleasant to work on TEP60 locomotives and the sense of responsibility was greater as behind me were passengers Cast:
    veteran – driver-instructor S. I. Kuryakov
    driver S. A. Parovoi
    drivers assistant V. V. Leshchenko Host and narrator
    M. Kuusk Scenarist
    M. Kuusk Operators
    M. Kuusk, S. Koit Musical editor
    S. Koit Video editor
    M. Kuusk Corrector
    E. Urbla Additional photo and video authors Used materials:
    book “Locomotives and motor car rolling stock of USSR railways 1976-1985” by V. A. Rakov
    book “Locomotive TEP60” pictures from Kolomna factory archive
    videomaterials from Estonian Television archive Special thanks to:
    Belarusian railway Special thanks to:
    Latvian railway museum Special thanks to:
    Toms Altbergs and Ivan Rudnjev Translation:
    M. Kuusk, P. Wormald Estonia
    2015

    LUBCON Lubricants for the Railway Industry
    Articles, Blog

    LUBCON Lubricants for the Railway Industry

    November 26, 2019


    Hello and welcome. I’m Wolfgang Zschächner, Key Account Manager at Lubcon. Today I’d like to tell you a little about our “Rail” division. I’m currently visiting the lubricants experts at DB Systemtechnik. Here at ICE wheels, maximum performance is required. It may sound paradoxical, but in one place, we apply lubrication to prevent wear… and right next to it, we create friction and contact to guarantee traction. This “wheel/rail contact” is one of the really big challenges in rail technology, no matter if we’re talking about trams that place great stress on the wheels’ lateral guides due to frequent bends, or railway tracks for which high velocities and track forces have to be transmitted to the rails and then slowed down again safely. But that’s not all: You all know this very unpleasant squealing noise when trains brake or trams go round curves This noise is created when slip causes vibration in the wheel. But it causes something else, too: wear! Instead of rolling, the wheel and the rail grind against each other… metal on metal. Then we speak of noise and wear . and that is very dangerous must
    therefore be taken into account Besides, re-working or even replacing worn wheels and rails is extremely time-consuming and expensive. For this, our experts at Lubcon, together with the DB Sytemtechnik specialists, have developed special solutions that prevent the wheels vibrating and squealing. A friction modifier is applied to the front axle alone, as rail will contact automatically
    distributes the product to the other wheels. Then, there are also important environmental aspects, such as bio-degradable, solid-free substances and long dwell times without the tendency to separate in the tank, which would result in blockages in nozzles and feed lines. Maximum performance with LUBCON Lubrication and traction. That’s what we do. I’ll be happy to come to you, too.
    We look forward to seeing you!

    Документальный фильм – дизель-поезд Д1 / D1 DMU train documentary (with eng subtitles)
    Articles, Blog

    Документальный фильм – дизель-поезд Д1 / D1 DMU train documentary (with eng subtitles)

    November 19, 2019


    This, this is a selfmade toy of a D1 DMU train But this, this is a museum piece D1 DMU train But this is a functional D1 DMU train And this is a decommissioned D1 DMU train As you already understood, this time the movie will be about D1 DMU trains Documentary
    D1 DMU train D1 trains were preceded by 3-car D trains, that were preceded by 6-car DP trains which in turn were preceded by the 3-car DP trains So before we can start to talk about the history of the D1 trains, we have to go back to the year 1940, to the creation of 3-car trains DP Before the Second World War started, railway wagon factory Ganz got another order from Estado railways in Argetine to supply 10 „Rosario“ type motor trains to be used on the railway lines with the gauge of 1000 mm Released in 1940, the trains could not be sent to Argentine due to the outbreak of the Second World War During the war the trains were hidden in a forest to spare them from the air-raids so the trains survived the war without any damage The connection between Ganz factory and the Ministry of Railways started after the war, as Hungary had to pay war reparations to the Soviet Union During the negotiations between Hungary and Soviet Union Hungary offered Soviet Union the same Argentine trains with modification to the gauge 1520 mm Soviet Union took the offer and the trains were modified according to the requirements of Ministry of Railways and were delivered in 1946 These were the 10 three-car trains DP1 to DP10 The three-car diesel train consisted of two head motor carriages and one intermediate trailer car The width of the cars was altogether 2800 mm as the train was built to run on a 1000 mm gauge track This width made it difficult to use the trains on lines with high platforms In the engine compartment of the motor car was located Ganz-Jendrassik diesel engine with the total power of 320 hp Mechanical transmission from the engine to the wheelsets was four-speed Gear and direction changes were done manually using the main controller Acceleration from 0 was up to 0,3 m/s2 Maximum speed of the train was up to 121 km/h Motor cars had from the engine compartment end triaxial bogies, from the intermediate car end two-axle bogies The bogie frames were made out of chrome steel The first and last wheelsets of the triaxial bogies were tractive and 920 mm in diameter the middle wheelset was 760 mm in diameter and was supportive The posts for driving the diesel train were located in the head carriages On the DP trains, the driver’s assistant had a folding chair The driver sat in the middle and the assistant was adjacent A telephone was foreseen for communication between the control posts 3-car DP trains did not have a wall between the engine room and the driver’s cab and the driver sat basically on the engine cover In one of the head car of the trainset was the drivers cab, the engine room, room for mail, buffet with a kitchen, a toilet and a passenger salon with 44 seats In the other head car in addition to the driver’s cab and engine compartment, was a luggage compartment, four six-seated coupes, and a toilet In the trailer car were two passenger salons one for 40 passengers, the other for 48 The total number of seats in the train was 156 In the trailer cars of trains DP-4, DP-6 and DP-7, instead of the passenger cabin with 48 seats, there were five six-seat coupes Total number of seats in these three trains was 138 All the trains had bolstered passenger seats All the cars were equipped with water heating and air conditioning The climate control system also included a cooling system of the drinking water The cars were coupled with Ganz system couplers In case of necessity, SA-3 automatic couplers were installed In the Soviet Union, these 10 trains initially serviced the lines along the coast of the Black Sea in the Crimea and the Caucasus Later, in 1949, they were given to Vilnius-diesel depot and started to service several intercity lines, including the line Vilnius-Riga-Tallinn At some point, one DP train was remade in Vilnius into a commuter train The head of the depot consulted the factory about the train suspension as the weight of the train changed The diesel trains „Rosario“ were decommissioned in 1964 after the start of series production of commuter diesel trains D1 and after giving them into service Today, none of the 3-car DP trains have preserved Before the D diesel trains there were diesel trains DP01 to DP08 with electrical transmission They were the next demand of the Ministry of Railways so 6-car trains with a higher level of comfort were built for the Moscow-Leningrad line After the 3-car DP trains, the factory got another order from the Soviet Union in 1948 The order foresaw a supply of diesel trains that had to be fast, economical and comfortable for travelling At first, MashinoImport ordered 20 trains, but 8 were built Ganz factory chose a 600 hp diesel engine and electrical transmission as the driving unit for the 6-car diesel train Development of a new type of diesel train put the designers and workers of the factory in front a new great task: For the first time the factory used electrical transmission on diesel trains For the first time the factory had to create a train with such high capacity And again for the first time the factory had to create a diesel train consisting of six cars From 1949 to 1952, 8 „Hargita“-based trains were built for the Soviet Union and they got the designation DP01 – 08 Zero became the sign for distinguishing the six-car trains from the three-car trains, which had a similar designation The trains consisted of two head motor cars and 4 intermediate trailer cars The streamlined frontal parts of the head carriages visually resembled the three-car DP trains that arrived in the Soviet Union in 1946 The width of the 6-car diesel train cars was increased to 3010 mm The first 4 six-car DP trains differed from the rest They were sent for testing in the Soviet Union and after that the height of the train’s car body was increased the roof was cut off and the car walls were hightened Also the layout of the cars was changed Two Ganz-Jendrassik diesel engines were placed in the engine compartment of the motor car: a 16-cylinder main diesel engine with 600 hp for the traction generator and a 6-cylinder auxiliary diesel engine with the capacity of 220 hp for powering the auxiliary machines The diesel engines had a similar design to the three-car DP diesel trains Many parts were interchangeable And also on the six-car DP train, the motor bogie was triaxial First wheelset from the front end was supportive and the second and third were tractive and driven by electric traction motors A traction motor had the capacity of 180 kW which enabled the train to reach speeds of up to 104 km/h with the acceleration of 0,4 m/s2 All the wheels had the diameter of 1050 mm The drivers’ cabs were located in the head cars The set of gauges, located on the console was the same as in a three-car DP train, but their placement had undergone significant changes Locomotive crew consisted of a driver and two assistants, who were located in the rear car In the head cars of the train behind the driver’s cab were located the engine room, baggage compartment, 4 passenger compartments and a service compartment In three middle cars were 9 four-place and 1 two-place passenger compartments and a compartment for conductors In the fourth middle car were located a kitchen and a restaurant for 12 people, 5 four-place, 1 two-place compartments for passengers and a four-place service compartment In all the cars were toilets, boilers for heating and climate control systems with automatic operation For the night, the passengers were provided with beds with linen Total number or places for passengers in the train was 164, for crew 14 The salon walls were covered with polished walnut plywood The walls in the kitchen, engine room and in the driver’s cab were paneled with aluminium sheets The berths in the compartments were soft springed Trains differed with high comfort and gained popularity among the passengers On the 28th June, 1950, the 6-car diesel train DP-01 departed from the Moscow-Leningrad station for a test run The track from Moscow to Leningrad was covered in 7,5 hours with an average speed of 93 km/h After the tests all the 6-car DP diesel trains were assigned to Pererva depot and started to run between Moscow and Leningrad At first, the trains were painted in a standard livery for flagship trains for that time – a dark blue colour In 1956 the trains were repainted green in the same pattern In 1957 the trains were painted in the scheme of bottom red – creamy-yellow top as was a standard for flagship trains In 1958 the trains were transferred to Leningrad-Warsawsky depot and started to service the Leningrad-Tallinn line Later, some of the trains were given to Vilnius-diesel depot, where they started to work on a number of intercity lines, including Vilnius-Riga-Tallinn Most of the 6-car diesel trains stopped their service in 1961 In 1969 4 cars of DP-06 were transferred from Riga to Shchekino loading and transport management for organizing local traffic on the departmental branch The train worked under the Industrial transport office until the beginning of the 1980s, after that it was taken out of service and lifted from the bogies Until 2010 one of the head cars was used as an outhouse in Shchyokino station, after that it was scrapped for metal One middle car of the 6-car DP diesel train was used as stationmanager’s building and as a locomotive crew break room at Ruijena station, but the car was scrapped approximately in 2006 In the Budapest railway museum one Hargita-type diesel train, that was built in 1944 is preserved This specific train was a 3-car one and it serviced the head of Hungarian railways The grilles in front of the windows were not for protection from apes, as many people thought, but from birds Since the second half of the 1950’s on the Soviet Union railway steam locomotive traction became superseded by diesel and electric At the same time multiple unit trains began to receive increasing popularity in the field of passenger traffic Soviet Railways decided that in the areas of large cities on non-electrified railway lines the passenger traffic on short lines will be carried out with the help of diesel trains By that time, the production of similar electric multiple unit trains had already been launced at the Riga Wagon Factory, but there was no experience among the Soviet designers for creating multiple unit trains with diesel engines Therefore, the order for the design of suburban and local traffic diesel trains was transferred to the Hungarian factory Ganz-Mavag that had built the DP diesel trains for the Soviet Union before In the end of 1960, the first D diesel multiple unit train was created which was dark green at the bottom and light green at the top It was with the number 021, because according to the numbering, the first 10 were the DP Rosario trains, then different reparation trains from Germany and with the number 021 was the 3-car diesel train D Train consisted of two motor cars and one trailer car between them The first train, had a slightly different front view as it did not have a pilot In December 1960, before transferring the train to the Soviet Union, the train was tested on the 1435mm gauge track As a result, it was found that the train accelerated 9 km from 0 to 120 km/h and it took 6 minutes and 26 seconds In December 1960 the D 021 was given over to the Soviet Union in Zahony In February 1961, the train was sent under the orders of the Ministry of Railways to the Baltic railway, to Riga, depot Zasulauks where they had experience with Ganz-Mavag locomotives, class VME1 The train was also tested on the test track in Shcherbinka where the maximum speed of 128,7 km/h was reached During the testing, attention was paid to the acceleration, braking and to the overall dynamics of the train The acceleration of the train was 0,4 m/s2 After the tests, the train was sent back to Riga from where it was later transferred to Vilnius The motor cars had a Ganz-Jendrassik engine with 500 hp and a five-speed mechanical transmission Gear change was automatical During the design, working temperature range from +35 C to -40 C was considered Train length was 73,6 m, constructional speed 120 km/h During the building process, some changes were made to the train construction Diesel train D 021 differed from others externally – passenger compartment windows were with air vents, as well as in other details – placement of the gauges on the drivers console, coal-fired heating boiler and it did not have a button for shunting under the driver’s side window The trains 024, 025, 026, 027, 030, 032 were fitted with semi-soft seats in the passenger salons And starting from the train no. 080, upper white lights were installed to the front of the train, accordingly to the signalling instructions during that time In 1963 more capacious production to fulfil the orders from Ministry of Railways was started Besides the 45 three-car diesel trains, also 5 four-car trains were ordered About them a bit later Considering export and production for Hungary, Ganz-Mavag did not have enough factory capacity to fulfill the orders As a result it was decided that the trailer cars will be built in Pieck Machinebuilding factory, in Györ, and it lasted for almost 20 years From 1960 until 1964 Ganz-Mavag delivered 89 three-car diesel trains to the Soviet Railways The last train was with the number 109 One of the main drawbacks of the 3-car D trains was small capacity and low acceleration, not allowing the trains to operate on the suburban lines with sufficient speeds As of January 1, 1976 86 D diesel trains were operational on the Soviet Railways, the rest were damaged in accidents and crashes As the film is about the D1 diesel trains, we asked from a train driver in Chisinau depot, Vladimir Strelets, how the 3-car trains differed from the 4-car D1 trains The bodies did not differ, but the transmission was 5-speed mechanical, abruptly changed gears Here is the first gear hydraulic, smoothly changes Over time, the D diesel-trains were replaced on the main lines by the D1 trains This largely explains their rather fast „retirement“ According to some sources, the D trains worked until the year 1987, according to other sources, the last trains worked on October and Odessa railways even until the year 1991 The last working motor car was D 025-3, which was rebuilt into a railcar for inspectional runs on Odessa railway approximately in the beginning of 1980s In 1993 the car was no longer in use and was left standing in the Odessa-Freight depot The car was scrapped for metal in approximately 2003 in Hristinovka depot Today, in 2016, some of the cars of D trains are still remaining Motor car from 031 in Tbilisi and some trailer cars And now, after the 3- and 6-car DP trains and the 3-car D train we have reached the 4-car D1 train The Soviet Railways were fully satisfied with the operating results of the 3-car D diesel trains, but requested to increase the passenger capacity In 1961, the factory developed draft versions of 4-car diesel trains Factory assured that the diesel engine of the 3-car train will also manage with the fourth car but the Ministry of Railways demanded a more powerful engine The factory fulfilled the order and the 4-car train was fitted with a 730hp engine and a hydromechanical transmission As always, Ganz-Mavag offered different train designs but the familiar design of the D train was chosen Diesel train D1 consists of 2 head motor cars and two trailer cars in the middle Operating with 4 trailer cars or as a double unit train was foreseen The first 4-car diesel train D 201 was tested on 1435 mm gauge in July 1963 Technical parameters were examined for 3 weeks Maximum speed of 126,7 km/h was reached Despite the fact that the last 3-car D train was numbered 109, the first D1 got the number 201 It’s because it was a new train series and it was decided to start from the next hundred In addition, the first 4-car trains were built in parallel with the three-car trains and as it was not known how many 3-car trains will be built it was impossible to continue with the numbering In September 1964, the second train D-202 was tested in Shcherbinka According to the technician, who was overseeing the tests, the tests were carried out in a formation, where half of the train was the D-202 and the other half was from DR1 This combination, of course, was never used in service The width of the car body is 3076 mm Weight of the motor car is 68,5 tons, but the trailer cars 36,5 tons Total train weight was 210 tons and the axle load to the track 17 tons Maximum service speed of the train is 120 km/h The design of cars, bogies and arrangement of the four-car diesel trains was identical to the three-car D diesel trains All the passenger passages are equipped with automatic double doors with electro-pneumatic control from the driver’s cab Entering through the first passage, you can enter the passenger salon or the engine room, where the passengers of course, had no entry So, for now let’s proceed further into the salon The main passenger salon area is occupied by 2- and 3-seater sofas, located on the either side of the central aisle In the passenger salons there were a total of 410 wooden seats Factory offered soft seats to the Ministry of Railways, already during the production of three-car D trains but the offer was rejected because of possible vandalism and the wooden seats were installed instead At the end of the passenger compartment of the motor car is located a toilet and the second passage Originally, in the toilet was an enamelled vany steel toilet with water, a holder for the toilet paper, enamelled steel sink with tap for water and a cabinet for clean and a bin for used towels As you can see, there is nothing left of that The cars had SA-3 automatic couplers and between the cars were friction shock absorbers and a passage that enabled to go from one car to the other In the upper part of the friction absorber were three shafts for ventilation and heating Passenger salon ventilation was ensured by discharge ventilation equipment Through the two outermost air shafts the air was blown into the salon, and the middle one functioned as a shaft for air extraction Heating the air in wintertime was done by the diesel engine cooling water A fan was placed in the motor cars for blowing and venting the air into the passenger salons The air got to the trailer cars through the air shafts located in the roofs of cars, which were conneted with the shafts of the neighboring cars A liquid fuel powered automatic boiler was located in the motor car for heating the water in case of the engine not working In the trailer cars, most of the interior space has been reserved for the passenger salon, on either side of which are located passages The salons had two kinds of lamps The trains from the no. 226 until 541, the lighting of the salons was by fluorescent lamps, but on the rest of the trains the lightning was with incandescent lamps with oval shades Passenger salons in the diesel trains were equipped with loud speakers for the passengers’ information In the motor cars between the engine room and the first passage was a small compartment, that was first used for storing baggage It had 5 folding seats and without luggage it was used to accommodate passengers From the train number 306, the luggage compartment was eliminated and it was used to accommodate the air ventilation filters and radio equipment of the train Moving on towards the driver’s cabin, through the luggage compartment, we find ourselves in the engine room, where the HVC is also located On the side of which is located the main switch, different breakers and fuses, ammeters and voltmeters In the HVC are various contactors, relays and contacts, to which bridges are placed in case of failure of various systems The drivers who worked on the D1 trains, even today, after 20 years remember the contacts, where the bridges had to be placed Train driver Andrus Roosma, how long did You work on the D1 DMU trains? I worked on the D1 DMU trains since 1974 as a driver’s assistant 2 years and since 1979 as a driver for 8 years until 1987 After that the DMU train stock in Tallinn-Väike depot was replaced with DR1A trains and the Hungarian trains were left only in Tartu depot Later, when Tartu depot was closed, the Hungarian trains were given back to us for a brief period of time and I worked on them for a couple of months in 2001 So 15 years have passed since I last drove them But I can say that I learned the D1 trains with that time period so thoroughly that I can remember everything, I can start the engine without any problems, place bridges to the necessary contacts, for example contacts 119 and 130 for the selection circuit The location of the contacts I can remember to this day, I could enter the HVC even in the dark, just turn to the left and can place the bridge In the engine room is installed a V-shaped 12-cylinder, four-stroke, pre-chamber diesel engine Ganz-Jendrassik with idle revolutions of 530 rpm, which develops 730 hp at revolutions 1250 rpm Engine is started using a starter and is equipped with a turbocharger with intercooling of the charge air The D1 trains had the same engine type that the D trains The only difference was in a turbocharger on D1 trains First D train diesel engine was built in 1957 and was originally for Egyptian railway, but later it was used also on the D and D1 trains It was a standard engine for Ganz-Mavag and it was used only on railway rolling stock The cooling system is installed on the roof of a motor car above the diesel engine The transmission of the D1 diesel train is hydromechanical and it has three gears: the first is hydraulical, second and third are mechanical Also the D1 trains have automatic gear change Change from the first speed to the second occurred at the speed of 55,6 km/h and from second to third at speed 83,5 km/h As the second speed is mechanical, it was possible to start the engine from a pull start Due to the lack of spare parts in Moldova, before and now, the starter is only in one motor car and the second one is started with pulling at second speed There were situations, and not only in Moldova, where both engines stalled during the trip and with the help of passengers, engines were started with a push start During service, the lack of reliability and breakage of the third speed drives in the transmission was revealed In order to reduce damage to the equipment, the pipes of the third speed drives were closed, limiting the maximum speed to 85 km/h As it is currently in Moldova, but as the line speeds do not exceed 80 km/h, there is nothing to worry about On the D, D1 and all the Hungarian DP trains, the engine and the transmission are placed on the first, triaxial tractive bogie Factory Ganz placed the engine and the transmission on the bogie already in 1934 The idea was that along with the engine and the transmission all the auxiliary systems would also be placed on the bogie In such case, when there is damage to the car body, the body can be lifted from the bogies and replaced with a new or an overhauled old one and the train could carry on working But over time, the power and along with that the dimentions of the engine grew and the auxiliary systems no longer fit the bogie and were placed on an additional frame, under the car body Despite that, the factory left the engine with the transmission on the bogie, under a cover Placement of the engine under a cover is also good because the noise level in the engine room is similar to the noise level in the driver’s cab of a DR1A DMU train The auxiliary machinery of the motor cars charging generator, air compressor and the generator for the cooling fan with an electric drive were mounted as mentioned before, on an auxiliary frame suspended from the motor car frame on which is also the reductor of auxiliary machines driven directly by the diesel engine via the main shaft of the hydromechanical transmission The D and first 175 D1 trains had identical bogies The motor bogie of the D train was constructed specially for this series The principle was the same as on the DP series trains, but the bogie was new Motor bogies were produced with axial formula 1-0-1 The middle running axle was designed as a bent fixed axis with freely rotating running wheels mounted on bearings The peculiarity of the solution lies in the fact, that in order to pass on the curves as the axis and also the free running wheels were able to move laterally In 1969, from the train no. 376 the motor bogies had a new design Previously issued motor bogies had bent axles, bearings of which began to fail Due to that, the new plant designed a new bogie with the formula 0-2 In other words, the tractive and running axes switched places and as a result, the bogie was lengthened Supporting bogie of the motor car and bogies of the trailer cars are two-axle All the wheelsets have double-sided braking, with the exception of the supporting axis of a triaxial bogie of the motor car All the train wheels had a tread diameter of 950 mm without any wear But lets go to the cab In the driver’s cab there are the driver’s seat, mounted on the wall and a folding chair for the assistant Besides the driver’s seat originally there were two round hight-adjustable seats for the assistants On the right of the lowerable driver’s window on the wall between the driver’s cabin and the engine room is a button with which the driver can operate the train during shunting when he has to look backwards through the window and is not able to hold the throttle To the right of the driver is EPK-150, brake valve, whistle/horn valve and pressure gauges Above them is a block of fault indicator lights From the factory was foreseen a pedal for the horn in front of the driver, but for the whistle a handle on the right wall Later, the controlling of the horn was also tranferred to the handle Handle towards yourself whistle, away from yourself horn In front of the driver is the main control panel that consisted of two parts a horizontal part, consisting of buttons and switches for the control systems and various auxiliary circuits, and an inclined part containing the gauges and warning lights To the left of the console is the radio and the throttle There was also a microphone for passenger information The throttle has two handles main one with positions 0, A, B, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and a reverser for selecting the direction of movement When set to “0” all the controlling apparatus are switched off and the handle can be removed Because it is made of non-ferrous metal, it has been stolen on many of the trains and replaced with a homemade one In the position “A” the diesel engine is started and reversing can be done In the position “B” crankshaft speed increases from 530 rpm to 830 rpm In the positions from 1 to 5 the traction mode is switched on and crank shaft speed is sequentially increased Unlike the rest of the rolling stock, the speedometer 3SL-2M was locked on the D and D1 trains on the left side of the driver in the assistant’s corner For the driver there was a separate electrical spedometer in the middle of the control panel I wonder, how does servicing the train look like from the driver’s cab? Beautiful! György Villanyi was a test driver of Ganz-Mavag factory and an engineer on the first D1 diesel trains in the Vilnius depot, and we asked him if there were any problems and errors with the trains Also there was a problem when two trains were coupled together, the doors worked diagonally Meaning that the first train opened the left the doors but the second train opened the right ones When coupled together, there was also a problem with the reversor one train pulled to one direction and the other train to the other Adjustments were done to the electrical circuit on location But what do the drivers say? Did the trains have any typical malfunctions Of course there were many malfunctions Mostly with the transmission and gears Because the disks broke constantly Diesel engines worked more or less reliably, everything was new Train driver Roosma, You were the senior driver on the train D1-616 Which were the typical malfunctions on Your train, if there were any? Yes, I was the senior driver on D1-616 And I remeber well when we got it from the factory, it was brand new And I can say that it had no big technical problems Of course, there were some small errors, but they were not actually problems, they were nuances Problems started when our train went for repairs to Vilnius or for an overhaul to Velikiye-Luki There the engines and the transmissions were changed Even though they were repaired, they were old and then the problems started But as long as the trains were new, on our trains, I can say that there were practically no problems Problems started after bigger repairs On the first year, in 1964, 15 trains were released from the factory From 1965 to 1968 40 trains were released every year Record-breaking was the year 1969 when 45 trains were released from the factory Later production decreased, remaining at an average of 20 trains per year It took on average 2-3 months to build one train During the production, were there any changes made? Small changes were made, altogether around 35 Alongside small electrical and technical changes, the placement of the front lights was changed twice and added an additional tail light, the location of the ventilation air intake was changed, salon lights were changed and so on For example until the train no. 335 sand bunkers were on the motor bogies, but from no. 336, they were moved to the car body Since 1986, the engine power increased to 800 hp due to the modification of the combustion chambers and pistons The smallest change was from the train no. 296 The first 4-car trains had the designation D on the front label, not D1 In 1967, from the train No. 296 they got the designation D1 But why did that happen? The label on the head car got the additional „1“ and instead of „D“ became „D1“ But in the wagons it stayed as before, just „D“ If the first D1 trains were externally the same as D, dark green at the bottom and light green on top, then in 1967, since the train no. 306 the livery was changed and the trains became red-creamy color They stayed like this for nearly 20 years of production The livery was changed purely because of aesthetic reasons the green color was military, but red-creamy was more pleasant to the eye It is worth noting, that from 1976 to 1979, the D1 diesel trains were built as six-car trains According to some sources it was from no. 581 to 650, according to other sources to no. 660 The maximum speed of six-car trains was 80 km/h Most of the additional cars were used in other, earlier trains as replacement of damaged cars Some of these additional cars never worked on the lines For example in Estonia, the trains no. 588, 589, and 616 arrived as six-car ones The extra cars of trains 588 and 589 never went into service, and they were vandalized in Tallinn-Väike station and later sent for scrap metal For the first 6 trains, the trailer cars were also built in Ganz-Mavag factory in Budapest, but from 1963 the middle cars started to be built in Györ from there they were sent to Ganz-Mavag were they were given the last coating of paint and then sent to Zahony where they were handed over to the Ministry of Railways About Zahony, a bit later The middle cars were built in Györ until 1980 and train No. 660 was the last with trailer cars from Györ But why was the production of middle cars stopped in Györ? And in 1982, the middle cars were still built in Ganz-Mavag in Budapest as the factory in Arad was still not ready for production of the cars In the summer of 1983, the production was launched, but there were still no cars as factory production lagged behind the desired plans In their own defense, they told that they were building the cars for the first time and that is why there was a delay By the end of July, 14 motor cars were in Zahony, but not a single trailer car In agreement with the Ministry of Railways, only the motor cars were handed over and trailer cars were promised a bit later Instead of the not ready trailer cars, the additional trailer cars from the 6-car trains were used In Estonia, for example, were the motor cars of train no. 692 but the trailer cars were from train no. 616, cars no. 6 and 8 While all that is left of the factory in Györ in the year 2016 is a bare field, the street name of „Wagon building“ and a monument near the supermarket, the factory in Arad operates successfully and produces freight wagons Handing over all the cars of D and D1 trains took place at the Ganz-Mavag territory in Zahony The consist was taken to Zahony on 1435 mm track and the supporting truck had narrower wheelsets but the motor bogies were temporary for transporting From the factory, the trains had SA-3 automatic couplers and for transporting on the 1435 mm track adapter-wagons were used This kind of a wagons had a SA-3 coupler at one end and on the other end there was a screw coupler After changing the bogies in Zahony, the train was tested on 1524 mm gauge track between Tuszer and Komoro stations But the line was with speed restrictions and it disturbed the regular traffic Later, a new marshalling yard was built at Eperješke and a line to Tornyospálca, that was built for reloading for the military needs It was built for the speed of 120 km/h and the tests started to be carried out there After the testing, the trains were handed over to the Ministry of Railways There were speculations that the Soviet Union did not pay for all the trains but offered cheap oil and fuel in exchange We asked about the correctness of this information from the factory veterans The first D1 trains were sent to Vilnius depot, which was at that time the base for the development of a new series of diesel trains and an advanced repair facility, the first on the railway network that mastered the maintenance of the components and assemblies of the D1 trains Diesel trains were sent from the factory to the Moscow railway, to the October railway, to the Gorky railway, to the South-Eastern railway, to the Baltic railway, to the Lvov railway, to the Odessa railway, to the Moldovan railway and to the Donetsk railway and they ensured local passenger services on different lines The trains were operated as in 4-car and as in 8-car formations 10-car trains, meaning 4+6 cars, operated only on the line Odessa-Chisinau In some regions of Ukraine the diesel trains had special boxes, in which bread was transported to the near-station shops And in the Volyn region a wagon shop cruised, converted from the trailer car no. 448-2 In total, about 110 D1 trains worked on the Baltic railway In Estonia, the diesel trains were assigned to Tallinn-Väike and Tartu depots, In Lithuania, they were in Vilnius and in Radviliškis There were no D1 trains in Latvia, DR1 trains were used there, made by Riga Wagon Factory In Estonia, the traffic on the previously narrow gauge lines, rebuilt to the broad gauge, were opened by D1 trains These were the lines Tallinn-Rapla, Tallinn-Pärnu, Tallinn-Türi and Tallinn-Viljandi To the Tallinn-Väike depot was assigned D1-268, which has an interesting history it was damaged during testing on the military railway in Záhony As the factory veteran-engineer György Villanyi explained There was a series of mistakes There was no authorization to run but also there was nobody to tell not to run Some freight wagons were left on the track that were used for tests Nothing was said to the driver about them So the driver drove the train as he was used to And all of a sudden there were freight wagons on the track and a collision happened Motor car D1-268-1 was badly damaged and it was sent back to the factory for repairs The factory restored the car, the cost of repairs was 15 000 rubles, that would be 100 000 dollars today The train itself cost 311 000 rubles back then that today would be 2,5 million dollars So the restoration cost nearly 5% of the price of the train The last assigned D1 train in Tallinn-Väike depot was in the Soviet times and it was a mixed train with one motor car from no. 256 and the other from no. 367 In total 33 different D1 trains worked in Estonia, and in Lithuania – 70 By the end of the Soviet era the trains worked in Estonia in Tartu depot, in Lithuania in Vilnius and Radviliškis depots, also in Russia, in Kaliningrad The Donetsk railway received about 90 D1 trains and they were assigned to Ilovaisk, Debaltsevo-Passenger, Popasnaya and Svatovo depot About 60 trains arrived to the Odessa railway, to Odessa, Hristinovka, Nikolayev and Taras Shevchenko depot Among those trains was also D1-435, that worked in Nikolayev Alumina Plant The Lvov railway got about 75 trains and they worked in Korolevo, Kolomyja, Ternopol and Zdolbunov depot Around 80 trains arrived to the Moscow railway and they worked in Vyazma, Smolensk, Uzlovaya, Kaluga, and in Lgov depot The October railway got around 60 D1 trains and they worked in Leningrad-Moscow-Sorting, Leningrad-Finland, Vyborg, Novgorod, Murmansk, and in Rzhev depot The Gorky railway received about 45 trains, and there the trains worked there in Kazan and Gorky-Moscow depot Trains D1 also worked on the South-Eastern railway in Yelec, Tambov and Otrozhka depot, about 35 trains in total We asked from a veteran-train driver Vladimir Strelets, when did the first Hungarian trains arrive to the Moldovan railway, to Chisinau depot? When the first trains came to Chisinau, I was still a little boy I remember, my father worked as a train driver and around 1963 he took me with him on the trips It was around 1963 The 3-car D trains also worked in Moldova But which trains serviced passengers before the D and D1 trains? Before serviced old passenger cars with diesel locomotives and steam locomotives It was… When the diesel trains came, it was like a new era in transportation New, comfortable, modern… In total, during the whole time in Moldova, 70 different D1 trains have worked in Chisinau depot There were very few depots that made major repairs for diesel trains in capacity of TR-2 and TR-3 and that had specialized workshops, altogether only 9, including: Vilnius-diesel, Uzlovaya, Chisinau and Hristinovka In Hristinovka depot, one CME3 locomotive was rebuilt for the power tests of the D1 train engines As mentioned, Chisinau depot was one of the major repair depots Veteran driver Vladimir Strelets and senior master Vladimir Chui reminisce the old times There was a very good repair base and good, competent repairmen in Chisinau depot And thanks to that, there were constant improvements and modifications made Also the trains from Ukraine came here for repairs Innovative methods were always used in the repair process In the old times… In the old times we made 4 repairs in a month These were the times Currently there is a deficit with the spare parts, with workforce Workers are leaving, there are no younger people coming But the biggest problem are the spare parts We used to carry out the repairs TO-2, TO-3, TR-1, in the old times a bigger capacity repair TR-2 was also done We even did TR-3 repairs in the 1990’s on our own after the Soviet Union But was it convenient for the maintenance crew to work on the D1 trains? Of course it was convenient, with all the mechanizations But now there is very little left of that During the service, at least 18 motor cars of the diesel trains were converted into railcars for inspection runs and for transporting track crew A veteran driver from Chisinau depot, Vladimir Strelets reminisces the conversion of the trains into railcars First one was made in the 1970’s, it was a 3-car train It was made for the Head of the Railway, the Odessa-Chisinau railway was back then Last ones were made, of decommissioned trains, 6 cars, for the depot, for the track workers and one, a beautiful one, for the Railway Board Vladimir Pavlovich can tell you when exactly, because he was involved with them When did the railcars start to be converted? – Which ones? The first one we made was 260, yes? No, the first one we made was 033, a 3-car train Oh, yes
    – It was the Odessa-Chisinau railway back then What year? Seventy… 1975 or something like that But later no. 260 and then the 600’s These we made for the track department And the last one we made in 2002 As of 1st of January 1992 there were 472 D1 diesel trains on the railways of the ex Soviet Union At this point many of the decommissioned cars had either burned or been damaged in collisions For example, motor car 580-3 in Estonia got damaged in a collision with a panel truck The crew was not injured but the motor car was decommissioned and was used as a warehouse until the year 2005 After the collapse of the Soviet Union the situation with the repairs of the diesel trains deteriorated, as the only company overhauling the diesel trains Velikiye Luki Locomotive Repair Plant, was in Russia, but most of the diesel trains D1 were abroad As the spare parts were expensive and getting them was not easy, different railways and depots were looking for a solution for the situation We asked from a driver from Chisinau depot about this This is an interesting question Of course when there were no spare parts, something started to be made… They were looking for options where to get everything from, where to buy and with what money Something was done with our own efforts, some things improved, the repair intervals were extended And to this day we are operational The upgrading and modernizing was also done in local depots as much as it was achievable We asked whether there were any improvements made in the Chisinau depot? For example, on these trains we made the synchronization of the gear change ourself It had never been done anywhere else before Later we did a lot with the gearboxes, increased the reversor performance We modified a lot In Russia, in mid-1990s, due to lack of funding and the termination of spare part supply from Hungary, the diesel rolling stock repair department proposed to replace the power unit of the D1 diesel trains for a domestic one Design and manufacturing of the hydraulic transmission was entrusted to Kaluga machine building plant, but the diesel engine – to the “Zvezda” factory In 1995 at Velikiye Luki Locomotive Repair Plant, The first diesel train, D1-728 was modernized The modernization proceeded with considerable difficulties The hydrodynamic transmission of the Kaluga factory was not unified sufficiently with the motor bogie of diesel train and therefore did not quite fit to its geometry and there were also other problems In the future, by the decision of the Moscow railway, several more D1 trains were modernized in Velikiye-Luki plant After modernization, the diesel trains got the designation D1M Modernized trains got contradicting evaluations Along with the higher capacity of the diesel engine, there was a poor quality of components and assembly, greater complexity of servicing the diesel engine M773A in comparison with the original one, low reliability of the hydraulic transmission, problems with air intake for the engine and etc Following the Moscow Railway, several trains of the October and South-Eastern Railways were modernized, 16 trains in total As of 2012 out of the 16 trains only two were preserved and the rest were decommissioned With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Baltic railway also collapsed After the Soviet Union, 12 D1 trains were left in Estonia, in 1995 in Lithuania there were 47 D1 diesel trains left, in Kaliningrad there were about 25 trains left All the 12 Estonian D1 trains were assigned to Tartu depot By the year 2001, 4 trains were left 588, 654, 692 and 801 After terminating the passenger traffic in Tartu region in March 2001, the trains were sent to Tallinn-Väike depot where, thanks to the efforts of the drivers, trains 588 and 692 serviced the lines several times in the summer of 2001 By the year 2002 all four trains were withdrawn from service and in 2004 they were sold to Ukraine, to Zhmerynka wagon repair factory There are no D1 trains left in Estonia D1-264 which was in working order was offered to the Haapsalu railway museum, but they refused due to their own stupidity An old train driver from Tallinn-Väike depot, Andrus Roosma, reminisces the D1 trains If to reminisce unpleasant or pleasant situations, then from the unpleasant ones I recall when I received a D1 train from repairs in Vilnius After the test run, everything, the engine was working normally and we started our trip to Tallinn Everything was accepted, all was working well, even excellent Drove through Latvia to Estonia In Estonia is a town called Tartu There we were coupled together with a scheduled train So we would not be let through in reserve And we continued our trip to Tallinn On the way, at first the rear gearbox of our train got jammed and we had to switch it off and place it into neutral And some stations further, at Raasiku station, a piston from the other engine broke loose, and all the cooling water and oil was discharged and that motor car was also out of service Our train was taken to Tallinn by the scheduled train and pushed us to the Tallinn-Väike depot The Chief of the Depot of course yelled at me a lot, why did I bring some scrap metal from Vilnius and not a repaired diesel train And this was a very unpleasant moment that I still remeber I was yelled at a lot, but nothing can be done, those were the times As said, in Lithuania 47 D1 trains were left after the Soviet Union In the middle of the 1990’s all the old gearboxes were changed to new ones, produced by Ganz-David-Brown The new gearboxes fit precisely onto the mounts of the old gearboxes In the beginning of the 2000’s, the salons of the trains were modernized new plastic seats were fitted but old wooden chairs were also sheathed with soft upholstery 11 withdrawn trains, including old Estonian ones, were stored since 2002 or 2003 in several different reserve bases Most of them were scrapped for metal in 2008 Until the end of 2008, a trailer car 385-4 was used in Radviliškis station for transporting station workers In Lithuania all the D1 trains were withdrawn from service in April-May of 2011 The last working train was a mix of no. 693 and 767 Already in 1985 one motor car was placed as a monument at the entrance to the railway pioneer camp in Ignalina It was D1-210-3 It stood there until the mid-2000’s, when it was scrapped for metal In Lithuania, D1-593 has been preserved and it is standing as a 3-car set in Vilnius railway museum On the Kaliningrad railway, the D1 trains ended their service in 2010 On the Moscow railway – in 2014, On the Gorky railway around 1999 and on the October railway around 2003 Around the year 2010 the D1 trains were no longer used for transporting the workers of track maintenance station on the October Railway On the South-Eastern Railway the D1’s haven’t been used since 2008 In Russia, the D1 trains have been preserved in the railway museums of Yekaterinburg, Kaliningrad, St.Petersburg and Moscow Like in Lithuania, also in Ukraine all the old gearboxes were changed As of March 2016, the D1 trains are operated in Ukraine in limited quantity in Korolevo, Kolomya, Zdolbunov, Hristinovka, Svatovo, Rodakovo and Ilovaysk depot Trains from Kolomya depot service also the line to Rahiv, in the beautiful Carpathian mountains In total, about 35 trains are in service In 2012, by the order of the Moldovan railway, in Locomotive Repair Factory REMAR in Pascani, Romania a diesel train D1-737 was modernized Modernization consisted of updating the body, placement of a new cab, the installation of a new Volvo-Penta diesel engine, a comfortable salon and other In the beginning, the transmission was left the same, but it could not handle the load from the new diesel engine Then additionally a new hydraulic transmission was installed Bogies were left the same For passengers there were three different classes of comfort In the passages there is equipment for the disabled Modified diesel train was designated as D1M-001 numbering is in a sequence It was planned to modernize 14 diesel trains in total, but actually only 5 were modernized Since the summer of 2014, only two of them are in service 004 that was originally 681 and 005 that was originally 695 Also these modernized trains got contradicting evaluations If during the best times, 46 D1 diesel trains worked in the Chisinau depot, then in the summer of 2016, less than 10 have remained Plus the railcars in Ocnita, Balti, Basarabeasca, Bender and in Chisinau And 5 D1M trains of which only 2 are operational The technical condition of Moldovan D1 very bad and it is a miracle that they are still working But maybe Vladimir Strelets, a Moldovan driver has some good memories of the D1 trains? Yes! Only the good memories remain from the servicing There is a saying – which russian does not like to travel fast? Back then we flew on the diesel trains If we travelled to Odessa at 95 km/h, we got behind the timetable We had to drive 100, 100, 100 km/h 200 km in 3 hours…. It was a decent speed, good distances For example 300 km to Ocnita, 300 back… To Basarabeasca 200 km It was interesting, the traffic, a lot of people was back then There is a photo of D1-700 from the year 1995 in Chisinau depot in a green-yellow livery We asked from the senior master of the depot, why was the train in such livery and not red-yellow? Yes, we also had the no. 200’s, they were green But then we had a moment when we did not have any red paint, we also painted the no. 600’s with green later we repainted them to their authentic yellow-red livery But did the drivers like and do they like at the moment to work on the D1 trains? Yes, back in the day when I worked on them I very much liked them And I would work on them even today, but to compare the old trains to the new ones I work currently, the Stadler trains, I would not go back to the old ones Just once a while, once in a year or once in a month, I would do a trip on them gladly But to replace new trains to the old ones, it is not the case, lets say it like that Of course I like In recent times, of course, it has gone more difficult The trains are old. Like an old man, also an old train And so, the trains D1 were produced from 1964 until 1988 In 1988 the factory released the last, 605th D1 train with the number 805 and it was given over in Zahony to the Ministry of Railways in April of the same year But the D1 train was not the only train that the Ministry of Railways wanted to order from Ganz-Mavag Already in 1966, the delegation of Ganz-Mavag visited Riga Wagon Factory in the Soviet Union The Ministry of Railways requested Ganz-Mavag to develop a light, six-car diesel train According to the chief engineer, the development of two trains was started, one in cooperation with Riga Wagon Factory The Ministry of Railways wanted, that the prototype would be ready in three years, in 1969 By the end of 1967 the draft project of a train with hydromechanical transmission was ready But in 1968 the plans of the Ministry of Railways changed and the project was abandoned But later the topic of six-car diesel trains was brought up again but in a slightly different form In 1972, Ganz-Mavag drafted a six-car diesel train with electric transmission, prototype of which was planned to be ready in the 1976 Parallel to this, in 1977, the joint project of Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Hungary was completed the railcar AČ0 The engine of the railcar was manufactured in Balakovo Machine Building Factory Later, it was planned to use M756B engines like on the DR1A DMU trains Bogies were made in Riga Wagon Factory and were similar to the bogies of the DR1A DMU trains Auxiliary equipment, salon, etc. was manufactured by Ganz-Mavag The body was built by Škoda factory Three of such railcars were built But lets return to the Ganz-Mavag six-car trains Engines for them were supposed to be made by Škoda factory After two prototypes, it was planned to build 20 trains per year In 1978, the negotiations for the price of the train started between the Soviet Union and Hungary After 2 years, in 1980, Hungary asked for one train nearly 1.4 million rubles, what today would be 2.7 million dollars The last offer of the Soviet Union was 840 000 rubles that today would be 1.65 million dollars In other words – the proposal of the Soviet Union was merely 60% of the train price Negotiations were complicated by the fact that the ealier built motor car AČ0 did not always meet the expectations As a result, at these prices, the negotiations reached an impasse, and this ended the history of the six-car trains of Ganz-Mavag But in the next five-year plan, in the mid-80s, the six-car diesel train was again in the plans In September 1986, the topic was discussed by the Deputy Minister of Ralways of the Soviet Union in Budapest, then in the beginning of October, the technical conditions in Moscow and in November they were signed But since the official decision of the government never came, also this time the six-car trains did not go into production and the Ministry of Railways ordered AČ2 trains from Czechoslovakia As said before, D1-805 was in 1988 the last train that Ganz-Mavag made to the former Soviet Union Altogether 605 trains were made, meaning 1210 motor cars and 1330 trailer cars Making it the diesel train built in the largest number in the whole world In the Soviet Union, the D1 trains worked on 9 different railways Today, in 2016 they work only on 4 On the Lviv, Donetsk, Odessa and Moldovan railway, about 45 trains in total Here, behind me, in Budapest, in front of the Ganz-Mavag factory in 1967 a photo was made of diesel train D1-300 leaving the factory to the railway at Peoples Park where only the first trains were tested Today, in 2016 there are no longer any railways in the park Only in some places, in the grass, some rails are visible, reminiscent of the former glory After many restructurings and changes in ownership, production of rolling stock was ceased in the year 2000 The last clients were Hungary, the UK and Malaysia Today, only 3 workshops are in use, in which are made bogies for Egypt, spare parts and some engines The remaining quarter of factory is occupied by a Chinese market and only rails in some places and a Ganz-Mavag logo on a mast, reminds the past times But maybe an old Ganz-Mavag engineer and a veteran driver from Chisinau depot have something to add about the D1 trains? What to add about the D1 diesel trains? They are… I started my work career on them and with them I also end it as I already retired They were a bit modernized and I went to work on those On new and old ones, how it comes across If I had any bad memories, I… I would have not stayed here