Browsing Tag: light rail transit

    LRT: What When and Why
    Articles, Blog

    LRT: What When and Why

    October 16, 2019


    Today, Ontario is investing in new public
    transit to help our city stay competitive with the rest of the world including billions of dollars in light
    rail transit in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton region. The GTHA a is one of the world’s most
    attractive regions and one of the fastest growing metropolitan
    areas in North America with more than 100,000 new residents a
    year. As the population grows, so does
    congestion. Toronto faces some of the worst commute
    times in North America. There is a need to invest in transit that
    brings new transportation options to those that need it most at a cost that
    provides the best value per dollar. Light rail transit is that option.
    Although light rail is new to Ontario, many of the world’s leading cities have
    found LRT the ideal solution to their transit
    needs and in fact it is used in many cities across Canada
    today. From Calgary to Paris Shanghai to Los Angeles and Melbourne to
    Singapore light rail is in use to provide modern
    high-order rapid transit in world-class cities around the globe. Light rail can carry more passengers than streetcars or buses and light rail vehicles can be joined
    together to meet growing demand. They can operate on the surface and
    dedicated lanes, in tunnels or on elevated guideways fully
    separated from traffic providing convenient comfort speed and
    reliability. Vehicles are also electrically
    powered with no emissions so not only will they help move people
    through the city, they are also environmentally friendly. Work is underway on light rail transit
    projects in Toronto and the surrounding areas that will bring reliable rapid transit to communities that need
    it the most and set the GTHA on course to building vital transportation
    infrastructure to support a more prosperous future for our region and a better quality of life for future
    generations. To learn more about light rail transit
    and projects across Ontario visit our website at Metrolinx dot com

    Keep your eye on the road: ION light rail testing commercial
    Articles, Blog

    Keep your eye on the road: ION light rail testing commercial

    October 13, 2019


    [Man] Jim said he saw the ION yesterday. [Woman] Yeah, he told me that too. [Woman] Wow! Look at that!
    [music begins to play] [Man] Look! [Narrator] If you saw a moose in the city, what would you do? [Man 2] Whoa! [Narrator] They’re big, powerful and they need their space, just like the ION. When ION trains are testing remember to
    obey new signage, stay off the tracks, stay alert and give
    them their space. For safety information at your fingertips go to grt.ca/ION

    Bicyclist killed in collision with light rail train
    Articles, Blog

    Bicyclist killed in collision with light rail train

    October 12, 2019


    A A 30-YEAR-OLD A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED
    INSTANTLY A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED
    INSTANTLY BY A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED
    INSTANTLY BY THE A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED
    INSTANTLY BY THE BLUE A 30-YEAR-OLD MAN WAS KILLED
    INSTANTLY BY THE BLUE LINE INSTANTLY BY THE BLUE LINE INSTANTLY BY THE BLUE LINE
    TRAIN. TRAIN. TRAIN.
    THE TRAIN.
    THE WARNING TRAIN.
    THE WARNING GATES TRAIN.
    THE WARNING GATES HAD TRAIN.
    THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY
    COME THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY
    COME DOWN THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY
    COME DOWN AS THE WARNING GATES HAD ALREADY
    COME DOWN AS WELL. COME DOWN AS WELL. COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>IT COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>IT HAPPENS COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>IT HAPPENS IT COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED COME DOWN AS WELL.
    >>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE>>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE>>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE
    THE>>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE
    THE BLUE>>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE
    THE BLUE LINE>>IT HAPPENS IT HAPPENED WHERE
    THE BLUE LINE INTERSECTS, THE BLUE LINE INTERSECTS, THE BLUE LINE INTERSECTS,
    PRELIMINARY THE BLUE LINE INTERSECTS,
    PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION THE BLUE LINE INTERSECTS,
    PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS
    THE PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS
    THE WARNING PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS
    THE WARNING GATE PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS
    THE WARNING GATE ARMS PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SHOWS
    THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, YOU THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, YOU CAN’T THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND THE WARNING GATE ARMS WERE
    DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU ARE DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU ARE ON DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU ARE ON FOOT DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU ARE ON FOOT OR DOWN, YOU CAN’T GET AROUND IF
    YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE. YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE. YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>IT YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>IT COMES YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>IT COMES OVER YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>IT COMES OVER THE YOU ARE ON FOOT OR BIKE.
    >>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY
    BUT>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY
    BUT NOT>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY
    BUT NOT OVER>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY
    BUT NOT OVER THE>>IT COMES OVER THE ROADWAY
    BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK. BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK. BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE MORE BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE MORE REASON BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE MORE REASON IT BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS BUT NOT OVER THE SIDEWALK.
    ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE FOR ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE FOR PEOPLE ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE FOR PEOPLE TO ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR ALL THE MORE REASON IT IS SO
    WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE AND WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE AND MAKE WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WERE FOR PEOPLE TO HEAR THE
    MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE
    ARE MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE
    ARE ALWAYS MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE
    ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE
    ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A MESSAGE AND MAKE SURE THAT WE
    ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN
    WHEN ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN
    WHEN WE ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN
    WHEN WE SEE ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN
    WHEN WE SEE THE ARE ALWAYS EXPECTING A TRAIN
    WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS. WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS. WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS.
    >>WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS.
    >>THE WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS.
    >>THE ORGANIZATION WHEN WE SEE THE TRACKS.
    >>THE ORGANIZATION IS>>THE ORGANIZATION IS>>THE ORGANIZATION IS
    DEDICATED>>THE ORGANIZATION IS
    DEDICATED TO>>THE ORGANIZATION IS
    DEDICATED TO ACCIDENT DEDICATED TO ACCIDENT DEDICATED TO ACCIDENT
    PREVENTION. PREVENTION. PREVENTION.
    >>PREVENTION.
    >>HIKES PREVENTION.
    >>HIKES IN PREVENTION.
    >>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, PREVENTION.
    >>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY>>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY>>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY
    REQUIRE>>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY
    REQUIRE CAUTION>>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY
    REQUIRE CAUTION AND>>HIKES IN PARTICULAR, THEY
    REQUIRE CAUTION AND EXTRA REQUIRE CAUTION AND EXTRA REQUIRE CAUTION AND EXTRA
    ATTENTION. ATTENTION. ATTENTION.
    OBVIOUSLY ATTENTION.
    OBVIOUSLY BIKES ATTENTION.
    OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO ATTENTION.
    OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT ATTENTION.
    OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS FAST OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS FAST AS OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS FAST AS A OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS FAST AS A VEHICLE OBVIOUSLY BIKES DO NOT TRAVEL
    AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES. AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES. AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE POINTS AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE POINTS OUT AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE POINTS OUT THAT AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT AS FAST AS A VEHICLE DOES.
    >>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS
    EASY>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS
    EASY TO>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS
    EASY TO MISJUDGE>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS
    EASY TO MISJUDGE A>>SHE POINTS OUT THAT IT IS
    EASY TO MISJUDGE A TRAINS EASY TO MISJUDGE A TRAINS EASY TO MISJUDGE A TRAINS
    SPEED. SPEED. SPEED.
    >>SPEED.
    >>THE SPEED.
    >>THE TRAIN SPEED.
    >>THE TRAIN COULD SPEED.
    >>THE TRAIN COULD BE SPEED.
    >>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH FASTER>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH FASTER AND>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH FASTER AND IT>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH FASTER AND IT IS>>THE TRAIN COULD BE MOVING
    MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH CLOSER MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH CLOSER THAN MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR MUCH FASTER AND IT IS ALWAYS
    MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>
    THIS MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>
    THIS ACCIDENT MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>
    THIS ACCIDENT CAME MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>
    THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST MUCH CLOSER THAN THEY APPEAR >>
    THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE
    DAYS THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE
    DAYS AFTER THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE
    DAYS AFTER A THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE
    DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD THIS ACCIDENT CAME JUST THREE
    DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT AND DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT AND KILLED DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT AND KILLED BY DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A DAYS AFTER A 21-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
    WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A TRAIN WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A TRAIN WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A TRAIN
    IN WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A TRAIN
    IN ST. WAS HIT AND KILLED BY A TRAIN
    IN ST. PAUL. IN ST. PAUL. IN ST. PAUL.
    THE IN ST. PAUL.
    THE CAUSE IN ST. PAUL.
    THE CAUSE IS IN ST. PAUL.
    THE CAUSE IS STILL IN ST. PAUL.
    THE CAUSE IS STILL UNDER THE CAUSE IS STILL UNDER THE CAUSE IS STILL UNDER
    INVESTIGATION. INVESTIGATION. INVESTIGATION.
    CHERYL INVESTIGATION.
    CHERYL HAS INVESTIGATION.
    CHERYL HAS ADVICE INVESTIGATION.
    CHERYL HAS ADVICE FOR CHERYL HAS ADVICE FOR CHERYL HAS ADVICE FOR
    PEDESTRIANS. PEDESTRIANS. PEDESTRIANS.
    >>PEDESTRIANS.
    >>TURN PEDESTRIANS.
    >>TURN YOUR PEDESTRIANS.
    >>TURN YOUR MUSIC PEDESTRIANS.
    >>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, PEDESTRIANS.
    >>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE>>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE>>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE
    YOUR>>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE
    YOUR EARBUDS,>>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE
    YOUR EARBUDS, TAKE>>TURN YOUR MUSIC OFF, REMOVE
    YOUR EARBUDS, TAKE YOUR YOUR EARBUDS, TAKE YOUR YOUR EARBUDS, TAKE YOUR
    HEADPHONES YOUR EARBUDS, TAKE YOUR
    HEADPHONES OFF. HEADPHONES OFF. HEADPHONES OFF.
    DISTRACTIONS

    용인경전철(에버라인) 전면 전망 영상(8배속) | Yongin Light Rail(Everline) Front View (8x) | 龍仁軽電鉄(エバーライン)前面展望ビデオ(8倍速)
    Articles, Blog

    용인경전철(에버라인) 전면 전망 영상(8배속) | Yongin Light Rail(Everline) Front View (8x) | 龍仁軽電鉄(エバーライン)前面展望ビデオ(8倍速)

    October 11, 2019


    (Giheung Station) Nam June Paik Arts Center.transfer to bundang line. Kangnam univ. station another train (1) Jiseok station one short zig zag another train (2) Eojeong station Dongbaek station another train (3) train was little slow over here and here Chodang station little steep another train (4) left much space a group of TV antenna train in depot near our train Samga car depot Samga station another train (5) funk on him City hall & Yongin univ. station (Yongin Complex Town) one zig zag Myongji univ. station another train (6) nearest announcement odd Gimnyangjang station one long zig zag Stadium & Songdam College station (Yongin Stadium) another train (7) Gojin station another train (8) Bopyeong station (Yongin City Welfare Center of the Disabled) Dunjeon station another train (9) left too much space last station you get off left side

    Pemandangan Dari Light Rail Transit Kelapa Gading – Rawamangun
    Articles, Blog

    Pemandangan Dari Light Rail Transit Kelapa Gading – Rawamangun

    October 6, 2019


    Light Rail Transit public trail from North Boulevard station at Kelapa Gading to Velodrome station at Rawamangun West Boulevard main road Perintis Kemerdekaan road Pulomas station Equestrian station from Velodrome station Rawamangun to Kelapa Gading Equestrian station Perintis Kemerdekaan road East Boulevard main road North Boulevard station

    #ASKFinch – Is light rail faster than a bus?
    Articles, Blog

    #ASKFinch – Is light rail faster than a bus?

    September 21, 2019


    hi I’m Raquel gold I’m the senior
    project manager for facilities at the Finch West LRT at Metrolinx it
    should be faster than the bus because for most of the corridor you will have a
    dedicated travel lane and at intersections the traffic signals will
    be reconfigured to give priority to the LRT

    Articles

    Light rail transit | Wikipedia audio article

    September 13, 2019


    Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast
    tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating
    at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the
    United States (where the terminology was devised in the 1970s from the engineering term light
    railway), light rail operates primarily along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual
    tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train that is lower capacity and lower speed
    than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system.A few light rail networks tend
    to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or even commuter rail; some of these heavier
    rapid transit-like systems are referred to as light metros. Other light rail networks are tram-like in
    nature and partially operate on streets. Light rail systems are found throughout the
    world, on all inhabited continents. They have been especially popular in recent
    years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy
    rail systems.==History==Many original tram and streetcar systems in
    the United Kingdom, United States, and elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s
    as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except
    for Blackpool, by 1962. Although some traditional trolley or tram
    systems exist to this day, the term “light rail” has come to mean a different type of
    rail system. Modern light rail technology has primarily
    West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail
    vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many
    of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems (Stadtbahnen). Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized
    German cities maintain light rail networks.The basic concepts of light rail were put forward
    by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called “Major Urban Corridor
    Facilities: A New Concept”. Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail
    transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers
    appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together
    having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space
    faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit (LRT) was introduced in North
    America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.The first of the new
    light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of
    Edmonton, Alberta, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years later by Calgary,
    Alberta, and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, and although Canada
    has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems
    in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local
    railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed
    by the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) in London. The historic term light railway was used because
    it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the
    DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom
    was firmly established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992.==Definition==The term light rail was coined in 1972 by
    the U.S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA; the precursor to the Federal Transit
    Administration) to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in
    Europe and the United States. In Germany the term Stadtbahn (to be distinguished
    from S-Bahn, which stands for Stadtschnellbahn) was used to describe the concept, and many
    in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, which is city rail (the Norwegian term, bybane,
    means the same). However, UMTA finally adopted the term light
    rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense
    of “intended for light loads and fast movement”, rather than referring to physical weight. The infrastructure investment is also usually
    lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board (Transportation
    Systems Center) defined “light rail” in 1977 as “a mode of urban transportation utilizing
    predominantly reserved but not necessarily grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled rail vehicles operate
    singly or in trains. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities
    and performance characteristics at moderate costs.” The American Public Transportation Association
    (APTA), in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as: …a mode of transit service (also called
    streetcar, tramway, or trolley) operating passenger rail cars singly (or in short, usually
    two-car or three-car, trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is often separated from
    other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are typically driven electrically
    with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley [pole] or a pantograph;
    driven by an operator on board the vehicle; and may have either high platform loading
    or low level boarding using steps.” However, some diesel-powered transit is designated
    light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the River Line
    in New Jersey, United States, and the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel
    multiple unit (DMU) cars. Light rail is similar to the British English
    term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less
    rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English
    phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout
    the English-speaking world. The use of the generic term light rail avoids
    some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. The word tram, for instance, is generally
    used in the UK and many former British colonies to refer to what is known in North America
    as a streetcar, but in North America tram can instead refer to an aerial tramway, or,
    in the case of the Disney amusement parks, even a land train. (The usual British term for an aerial tramway
    is cable car, which in the US usually refers to a ground-level car pulled along by subterranean
    cables.) The word trolley is often used as a synonym
    for streetcar in the United States, but is usually taken to mean a cart, particularly
    a shopping cart, in the UK and elsewhere. Many North American transportation planners
    reserve streetcar for traditional vehicles that operate exclusively in mixed traffic
    on city streets, while they use light rail to refer to more modern vehicles operating
    mostly in exclusive rights of way, since they may operate both side-by-side targeted at
    different passenger groups.The difference between British English and American English
    terminology arose in the late 19th century when Americans adopted the term “street railway”,
    rather than “tramway”, with the vehicles being called “streetcars” rather than “trams”. Some have suggested that the Americans’ preference
    for the term “street railway” at that time was influenced by German emigrants to the
    United States (who were more numerous than British immigrants in the industrialized Northeast),
    as it is the same as the German term for the mode, Straßenbahn (meaning “street railway”). A further difference arose because, while
    Britain abandoned all of its trams except Blackpool after World War II, eight major
    North American cities (Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Newark, Cleveland,
    and New Orleans) continued to operate large streetcar systems. When these cities upgraded to new technology,
    they called it light rail to differentiate it from their existing streetcars since some
    continued to operate both the old and new systems. Since the 1980s, Portland, Oregon, has built
    all three types of system: a high-capacity light rail system in dedicated lanes and rights-of-way,
    a low-capacity streetcar system integrated with street traffic, and an aerial tram system. The opposite phrase heavy rail, used for higher-capacity,
    higher-speed systems, also avoids some incompatibilities in terminology between British and American
    English, as for instance in comparing the London Underground and the New York City Subway. Conventional rail technologies including high-speed,
    freight, commuter/regional, and metro/subway/elevated urban transit systems are considered “heavy
    rail”. People movers and personal rapid transit are
    even “lighter,” at least in terms of capacity. Monorail is a separate technology that has
    been more successful in specialized services than in a commuter transit role.==Types==Due to varying definitions, it is hard to
    distinguish between what is called light rail, and other forms of urban and commuter rail. A system described as light rail in one city
    may be considered to be a streetcar or tram system in another. Conversely, some lines that are called “light
    rail” are in fact very similar to rapid transit; in recent years, new terms such as light metro
    have been used to describe these medium-capacity systems. Some “light rail” systems, such as Sprinter,
    bear little similarity to urban rail, and could alternatively be classified as commuter
    rail or even inter-city rail. In the United States, “light rail” has become
    a catch-all term to describe a wide variety of passenger rail systems. There is a significant difference in cost
    between these different classes of light rail transit. Tram-like systems are often less expensive
    than metro-like systems by a factor of two or more.===Lower capacity===
    The most difficult distinction to draw is that between light rail and streetcar or tram
    systems. There is a significant amount of overlap between
    the technologies, many of the same vehicles can be used for either, and it is common to
    classify streetcars or trams as a subcategory of light rail rather than as a distinct type
    of transportation. The two general versions are: The traditional type, where tracks and trains
    run along the streets and share space with road traffic. Stops tend to be very frequent, but little
    effort is made to set up special stations. Because space is shared, the tracks are usually
    visually unobtrusive. A more modern variation, where the trains
    tend to run along their own right-of-way, separated from road traffic. Stops are generally less frequent, and the
    vehicles are often boarded from a platform. Tracks are highly visible, and in some cases
    significant effort is expended to keep traffic away through the use of special signaling,
    level crossings with gate arms, or even a complete separation with non-level crossings.===Higher capacity===At the highest degree of separation, it can
    be difficult to draw the line between light rail and metros. The London Docklands Light Railway would likely
    not be considered as “light rail” were it not for the contrast between it and the rapid
    transit London Underground. In Europe and Asia, the term light rail is
    increasingly used to describe any rapid transit system with a fairly low frequency or short
    trains compared to heavier mass rapid systems such as the London Underground or Singapore’s
    Mass Rapid Transit. However upon closer inspection, these systems
    are better classified as light metro or people movers. For instance, Line 1 and Line 3 in Manila
    are often referred to as “light rail”, despite being fully segregated, mostly elevated railways. This phenomenon is quite common in Chinese
    cities, where elevated metro lines in Shanghai, Wuhan, and Dalian are called light rail lines. In North America, such systems are not usually
    considered light rail.===Mixed systems===
    Many systems have mixed characteristics. Indeed, with proper engineering, a rail line
    could run along a street, then go underground, and then run along an elevated viaduct. For example, the Los Angeles Metro Rail’s
    Gold Line “light rail” has sections that could alternatively be described as a tramway, a
    light metro, and, in a narrow sense, rapid transit. This is especially common in the United States,
    where there is not a popularly perceived distinction between these different types of urban rail
    systems. It is even possible to have high-floor rapid
    transit cars run along a street, like a tram; this is known as street running.===Speed and stop frequency===
    In some areas, “light rail” may also refer to any rail line with frequent low speeds
    or many stops in a short distance. This inherits the old definition of light
    railway in the UK. Hong Kong’s Light Rail is an example of this,
    although it is also called “light rail” because it is a lower-scale system than the rest of
    the MTR. Sprinter in the San Diego area uses DMUs and
    is targeted towards a commuter rail audience; however, because of the large number of stops
    along the line, it is called light rail. Reference speed from major light rail systems,
    including station stop time, is shown below. However, low top speed is not always a differentiating
    characteristic between light rail and other systems. For example, the Siemens S70 LRVs used in
    the Houston METRORail and other North American LRT systems have a top speed of 106 kilometres
    per hour (66 mph) while the trains on the all-underground Montreal Metro can only reach
    a top speed of 72 kilometres per hour (45 mph). Los Angeles Metro light rail vehicles have
    higher top and average speeds than Montreal Metro or New York City Subway trains. The main difference is that Montreal Metro
    and New York City Subway trains carry far more passengers than any North American LRT
    system, and the trains have faster acceleration, making station-to-station times relatively
    short in their densely populated urban areas. Most light rail systems serve less densely
    populated cities and suburbs where passenger traffic is not high, but low cost combined
    with high top speed may be important to compete with automobiles.===System-wide considerations===
    Many light rail systems—even fairly old ones—have a combination of both on- and
    off-road sections. In some countries (especially in Europe),
    only the latter is described as light rail. In those places, trams running on mixed rights-of-way
    are not regarded as light rail, but considered distinctly as streetcars or trams. However, the requirement for saying that a
    rail line is “separated” can be quite low—sometimes just with concrete “buttons” to discourage
    automobile drivers from getting onto the tracks. Some systems such as Seattle’s Link are truly
    mixed but closed to traffic, with light rail vehicles and traditional buses both operating
    along a common right-of-way. Some systems, such as the AirTrain JFK in
    New York City, the DLR in London, and Kelana Jaya Line in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, have
    dispensed with the need for an operator. The Vancouver SkyTrain was an early adopter
    of driverless vehicles, while the Toronto Scarborough rapid transit operates the same
    trains as Vancouver, but uses drivers. In most discussions and comparisons, these
    specialized systems are generally not considered light rail.==Track gauge==
    Historically, the track gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many
    early systems. However, most light rail systems are now standard
    gauge. Older standard-gauge vehicles could not negotiate
    sharp turns as easily as narrow-gauge ones, but modern light rail systems achieve tighter
    turning radii by using articulated cars. An important advantage of standard gauge is
    that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built
    machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail
    vehicles to be moved around, conveniently using the same tracks as freight railways. Another factor favoring standard gauge is
    that accessibility laws are making low-floor trams mandatory, and there is generally insufficient
    space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow-gauge layout. Furthermore, standard-gauge rolling stock
    can be switched between networks either temporarily or permanently and both newly built and used
    standard-gauge rolling stock tends to be cheaper to buy, as more companies offer such vehicles.==Capacity=====
    Efficiency===Energy efficiency for light rail may be 120
    passenger miles per gallon of fuel (or equivalent), but variation is great, depending on circumstances.===Comparison with high capacity roads===
    One line of light rail (requires 25′ Right of Way) has a theoretical capacity of up to
    8 times more than one 12′ lane of freeway (not counting buses) during peak times. Roads have ultimate capacity limits that can
    be determined by traffic engineering. They usually experience a chaotic breakdown
    in flow and a dramatic drop in speed (colloquially known as a traffic jam) if they exceed about
    2,000 vehicles per hour per lane (each car roughly two seconds behind another). Since most people who drive to work or on
    business trips do so alone, studies show that the average car occupancy on many roads carrying
    commuters is only about 1.5 people per car during the high-demand rush hour periods of
    the day. This combination of factors limits roads carrying
    only automobile commuters to a maximum observed capacity of about 3,000 passengers per hour
    per lane. The problem can be mitigated by introducing
    high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes and ride-sharing programs, but in most cases the solution adopted
    has been to add more lanes to the roads. By contrast, light rail vehicles can travel
    in multi-car trains carrying a theoretical ridership up to 20,000 passengers per hour
    in much narrower rights-of-way, not much more than two car lanes wide for a double track
    system. They can often be run through existing city
    streets and parks, or placed in the medians of roads. If run in streets, trains are usually limited
    by city block lengths to about four 180-passenger vehicles (720 passengers). Operating on two-minute headways using traffic
    signal progression, a well-designed two-track system can handle up to 30 trains per hour
    per track, achieving peak rates of over 20,000 passengers per hour in each direction. More advanced systems with separate rights-of-way
    using moving block signalling can exceed 25,000 passengers per hour per track.===Practical considerations===
    Most light rail systems in the United States are limited by demand rather than capacity
    (by and large, most American LRT systems carry fewer than 4,000 persons per hour per direction),
    but Boston’s and San Francisco’s light rail lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per
    hour per track during rush hour. Elsewhere in North America, the Calgary C-Train
    and Monterrey Metro have higher light rail ridership than Boston or San Francisco. Systems outside North America often have much
    higher passenger volumes. The Manila Light Rail Transit System is one
    of the highest capacity ones, having been upgraded in a series of expansions to handle
    40,000 passengers per hour per direction, and having carried as many as 582,989 passengers
    in a single day on its Line 1. It achieves this volume by running four-car
    trains with a capacity of up to 1,350 passengers each at a frequency of up to 30 trains per
    hour. However, the Manila light rail system has
    full grade separation and as a result has many of the operating characteristics of a
    metro system rather than a light rail system. A capacity of 1,350 passengers per train is
    more similar to heavy rail than light rail. A bus rapid transit (BRT) system using dedicated
    lanes can have a theoretical capacity of 3,600 passengers per hour per direction (30 buses
    per direction, 120 passengers in articulated buses). BRT is an alternative to LRT, at least if
    very high capacity is not needed. Using buses, roads can achieve a much higher
    commuter capacity than is achievable with passenger cars. To have 30 buses per direction an hour, buses
    must have priority at traffic lights and have their own dedicated lanes. Buses can travel closer to each other than
    rail vehicles because of better braking capability. However, each bus vehicle requires a single
    driver, whereas a light rail train may have three to four cars of much larger capacity
    in one train under the control of one driver, or no driver at all in fully automated systems,
    increasing the labor costs of high-traffic BRT systems compared to LRT systems. The peak passenger capacity per lane per hour
    depends on which types of vehicles are allowed at the roads. Typically roadways have 1,900 passenger cars
    per lane per hour (pcplph). If only cars are allowed, the capacity will
    be less and will not increase when the traffic volume increases. When there is a bus driving on this route,
    the capacity of the lane will be more and will increase when the traffic level increases. And because the capacity of a light rail system
    is higher than that of a bus, there will be even more capacity when there is a combination
    of cars and light rail. Table 3 shows an example of peak passenger
    capacity. (Edson & Tennyson, 2003)==Safety==
    An analysis of data from the 505-page National Transportation Statistics report published
    by the US Department of Transportation shows that light rail fatalities are higher than
    all other forms of transportation except motorcycle travel (31.5 fatalities per 100 million miles).However,
    the National Transportation Statistics report published by the US Department of Transportation
    states that “Caution must be exercised in comparing fatalities across modes because
    significantly different definitions are used. In particular, Rail and Transit fatalities
    include incident-related (as distinct from accident-related) fatalities, such as fatalities
    from falls in transit stations or railroad employee fatalities from a fire in a workshed. Equivalent fatalities for the Air and Highway
    modes (fatalities at airports not caused by moving aircraft or fatalities from accidents
    in automobile repair shops) are not counted toward the totals for these modes. Thus, fatalities not necessarily directly
    related to in service transportation are counted for the transit and rail modes, potentially
    overstating the risk for these modes.”==Construction and operation costs==
    The cost of light rail construction varies widely, largely depending on the amount of
    tunneling and elevated structures required. A survey of North American light rail projects
    shows that costs of most LRT systems range from $15 million to over $100 million per
    mile. Seattle’s new light rail system is by far
    the most expensive in the US, at $179 million per mile, since it includes extensive tunneling
    in poor soil conditions, elevated sections, and stations as deep as 180 feet (55 m) below
    ground level. This results in costs more typical of subways
    or rapid transit systems than light rail. At the other end of the scale, four systems
    (Baltimore, Maryland; Camden, New Jersey; Sacramento, California; and Salt Lake City,
    Utah) incurred construction costs of less than $20 million per mile. Over the US as a whole, excluding Seattle,
    new light rail construction costs average about $35 million per mile.By comparison,
    a freeway lane expansion typically costs $1.0 million to $8.5 million per lane mile for
    two directions, with an average of $2.3 million. However, freeways are frequently built in
    suburbs or rural areas, whereas light rail tends to be concentrated in urban areas, where
    right of way and property acquisition is expensive. Similarly, the most expensive US highway expansion
    project was the “Big Dig” in Boston, Massachusetts, which cost $200 million per lane mile for
    a total cost of $14.6 billion. A light rail track can carry up to 20,000
    people per hour as compared with 2,000–2,200 vehicles per hour for one freeway lane,. For example, in Boston and San Francisco,
    light rail lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per hour, respectively, in the peak direction
    during rush hour.Combining highway expansion with LRT construction can save costs by doing
    both highway improvements and rail construction at the same time. As an example, Denver’s Transportation Expansion
    Project rebuilt interstate highways 25 and 225 and added a light rail expansion for a
    total cost of $1.67 billion over five years. The cost of 17 miles (27 km) of highway improvements
    and 19 miles (31 km) of double-track light rail worked out to $19.3 million per highway
    lane-mile and $27.6 million per LRT track-mile. The project came in under budget and 22 months
    ahead of schedule.LRT cost efficiency improves dramatically as ridership increases, as can
    be seen from the numbers above: the same rail line, with similar capital and operating costs,
    is far more efficient if it is carrying 20,000 people per hour than if it is carrying 2,400. The Calgary, Alberta, C-Train used many common
    light rail techniques to keep costs low, including minimizing underground and elevated trackage,
    sharing transit malls with buses, leasing rights-of-way from freight railroads, and
    combining LRT construction with freeway expansion. As a result, Calgary ranks toward the less
    expensive end of the scale with capital costs of around $24 million per mile.However, Calgary’s
    LRT ridership is much higher than any comparable US light rail system, at 300,000 passengers
    per weekday, and as a result its capital efficiency is also much higher. Its capital costs were one-third those of
    the San Diego Trolley, a comparably sized US system built at the same time, while by
    2009 its ridership was approximately three times as high. Thus, Calgary’s capital cost per passenger
    was much lower than that of San Diego. Its operating cost per passenger was also
    much lower because of its higher ridership. A typical C-Train vehicle costs only CA$163
    (equivalent to $199 in 2018) per hour to operate, and since it averages 600 passengers per operating
    hour, Calgary Transit estimates that its LRT operating costs are only 27 cents per ride,
    versus $1.50 per ride on its buses.Compared to buses, costs can be lower due to lower
    labor costs per passenger mile, higher ridership (observations show that light rail attracts
    more ridership than a comparable bus service) and faster average speed (reducing the number
    of vehicles needed for the same service frequency). While light rail vehicles are more expensive
    to buy, they have a longer useful life than buses, sometimes making for lower life-cycle
    costs.==Health impact====
    Integration with bicycles==Light rail lines have various policies on
    bicycles. Some fleets restrict bicycles on trains during
    peak hours. Some light rail systems, such as the St. Louis
    MetroLink, allow bicycles on the trains, but only in the rear sections of cars. Some light rail lines, like San Francisco’s,
    allow only folding bicycles on board. In some systems dedicated bike parking is
    available at select stations and others are integrated with local bike share systems.==Variations=====
    Trams operating on mainline railways===Around Karlsruhe, Kassel, and Saarbrücken
    in Germany, dual-voltage light rail trains partly use mainline railroad tracks, sharing
    these tracks with heavy rail trains. In the Netherlands, this concept was first
    applied on the RijnGouweLijn. This allows commuters to ride directly into
    the city centre, rather than taking a mainline train only as far as a central station and
    then having change to a tram. In France, similar tram-trains are planned
    for Paris, Mulhouse, and Strasbourg; further projects exist. In some cases, tram-trains use previously
    abandoned or lightly used heavy rail lines in addition to or instead of still in use
    mainline tracks. Some of the issues involved in such schemes
    are: compatibility of the safety systems
    power supply of the track in relation to the power used by the vehicles (frequently different
    voltages, rarely third rail vs overhead wires) width of the vehicles in relation to the position
    of the platforms height of the platformsThere is a history
    of what would now be considered light rail vehicles operating on heavy rail rapid transit
    tracks in the US, especially in the case of interurban streetcars. Notable examples are Lehigh Valley Transit
    trains running on the Philadelphia and Western Railroad high-speed third rail line (now the
    Norristown High Speed Line). Such arrangements are almost impossible now,
    due to the Federal Railroad Administration refusing (for crash safety reasons) to allow
    non-FRA compliant railcars (i.e., subway and light rail vehicles) to run on the same tracks
    at the same times as compliant railcars, which includes locomotives and standard railroad
    passenger and freight equipment. Notable exceptions in the US are the NJ Transit
    River Line from Camden to Trenton and Austin’s Capital MetroRail, which have received exemptions
    to the provision that light rail operations occur only during daytime hours and Conrail
    freight service only at night, with several hours separating one operation from the other. The O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa also has
    freight service at certain hours.===Third-rail power for trams===When electric streetcars were introduced in
    the late 19th century, conduit current collection was one of the first ways of supplying power,
    but it proved to be much more expensive, complicated, and trouble-prone than overhead wires. When electric street railways became ubiquitous,
    conduit power was used in those cities that did not permit overhead wires. In Europe, it was used in London, Paris, Berlin,
    Marseille, Budapest, and Prague. In the United States, it was used in parts
    of New York City and Washington, D.C. Third rail technology was investigated for
    use on the Gold Coast of Australia for the G:link light rail, though power from overhead
    lines was ultimately utilized for that system. In the French city of Bordeaux, the tramway
    network is powered by a third rail in the city centre, where the tracks are not always
    segregated from pedestrians and cars. The third rail (actually two closely spaced
    rails) is placed in the middle of the track and divided into eight-metre sections, each
    of which is powered only while it is completely covered by a tram. This minimises the risk of a person or animal
    coming into contact with a live rail. In outer areas, the trams switch to conventional
    overhead wires. The Bordeaux power system costs about three
    times as much as a conventional overhead wire system, and took 24 months to achieve acceptable
    levels of reliability, requiring replacement of all the main cables and power supplies. Operating and maintenance costs of the innovative
    power system still remain high. However, despite numerous service outages,
    the system was a success with the public, gaining up to 190,000 passengers per day.==Comparison to other rail transit modes
    ==With its mix of right-of-way types and train
    control technologies, LRT offers the widest range of latitude of any rail system in the
    design, engineering, and operating practices. The challenge in designing light rail systems
    is to realize the potential of LRT to provide fast, comfortable service while avoiding the
    tendency to overdesign that results in excessive capital costs beyond what is necessary to
    meet the public’s needs.===Typical rolling stock===
    The BART railcar in the following chart is not generally considered to be a “light rail”
    vehicle (it is actually a heavy rail vehicle), and is only included for comparison purposes.===Train operation===An important factor crucial to LRT is the
    train operator. Unlike rail rapid transit, which can travel
    unattended under automatic train operation (ATO), safe, high-quality LRT operation relies
    on a human operator as a key element. The reason that the operator is so important
    is because the train tracks often share the streets with automobiles, other vehicles,
    and pedestrians. If trains were fully automated on roads, nobody
    would be there to stop the train if a car pulled in front of it. Light rail trains are actually very sturdily
    built for passenger safety, and to reduce damage from impacts with cars.===Floor height===The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage
    of partially or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles only 300 to 360
    mm (11.8 to 14.2 in) above the top of the rail, a feature not found in either rapid
    rail transit vehicles or streetcars. This allows them to load passengers, including
    those in wheelchairs or strollers, directly from low-rise platforms that are little more
    than raised sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access
    to disabled passengers without using expensive and delay-inducing wheelchair lifts, while
    also making boarding faster and easier for other passengers.===Power sources===
    Overhead lines supply electricity to the vast majority of light rail systems. This avoids the danger of passengers stepping
    on an electrified third rail. The Docklands Light Railway uses an inverted
    third rail for its electrical power, which allows the electrified rail to be covered
    and the power drawn from the underside. Trams in Bordeaux, France, use a special third-rail
    configuration where the power is only switched on beneath the trams, making it safe on city
    streets. Several systems in Europe and a few recently
    opened systems in North America use diesel-powered trains.==Tram and other light rail transit systems
    worldwide==Around the world there are many tram and streetcar
    systems. Some date from the beginning of the 20th century
    or earlier, but many of the original tram and streetcar systems were closed down in
    the mid-20th century, with the exceptions of many Eastern Europe countries. Even though many systems closed down over
    the years, there are still a number of tram systems that have been operating much as they
    did when they were first built over a century ago. Some cities (such as Los Angeles and Jersey
    City) that once closed down their streetcar networks are now restoring, or have already
    rebuilt, at least some of their former streetcar/tram systems. Most light rail services are currently committed
    to articulated vehicles like modern LRVs, i.e. trams, with the exception of large underground
    metro or rapid transit systems. A number of UK cities have substantial light
    rail networks including Nottingham, Manchester and a line between Birmingham and Wolverhampton,
    with plans to extend out as far as Coventry.==See also