Browsing Tag: interesting

    Warley National Model Railway Exhibition 2019: Over 70 inspirational Model Railway Layouts
    Articles, Blog

    Warley National Model Railway Exhibition 2019: Over 70 inspirational Model Railway Layouts

    November 27, 2019

    Pilentum Television The World of Model Trains Warley National Model
    Railway Exhibition 2019 The Spirit of Swindon (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Will Heath – Ludlow (Scale: n Gauge)
    – I. & E. Coules – Hawes Junction (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Warley MRC – Brinklow (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Bob Taylot and Team – Cragmill (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Chester Area Group, N Gauge Society – Martini Junction (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Hull MRS – Kingver Society of Model Engineers
    (Locomotives 3 1/2”, 5” and 7 1/4”) Santa Maria (Scale: HOm)
    – Dan Spalding – Halland (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – John Gay – Llangenydd (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Ken Jones – Tudwick Road Siding (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Dave Tailby – The Lochty Branch (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Ian Futers – Mill Bank Alley (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Hughie Flynn – Parkstone Goods (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Colin Lockyear – Coed Helen (Scale: Nn3)
    – Ian Coe – Beacon Point (Scale: 4mm/ft, Narrow Gauge)
    – Mac Strong – Llandtrevelyn (Scale: 4mm/ft, Narrow Gauge)
    – Adam Sanders and Thomas Domontry – Rabbit Warren (Scale: 4mm/ft, Narrow Gauge)
    – Lichfield and District MRC – ??? Zlata Vychod (Scale: HO)
    – David Payler – Deinsdorf-Düsselbach (Scale: HOe)
    – Modelspoorclub Veluwezoom – The Italian Railway Society Belgomine Traveaux (Scale: HOm)
    – MSC Hetspoor – Mauch Chunk PA (Scale: HO)
    – Barrowmore MRG – Modbury (Scale: 2mm Finescale)
    – Ian Smith – West Wick (Scale: N Gauge)
    – GWR MRC – Umbridge (Scale: N Gauge)
    – The Railway Enthusiasts Club – Ardmore (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Model Railway Society of Ireland – Süd Harz Railway (Scale: HOm)
    – Paul Steedman) ??? Loughborough Road (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Aland and Simon Paley – Sydney Gardens (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – The Park Keepers – Drumslochtock Summit (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Moray MRG – Lough Motive Power Depot (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Terry Yeend – ??? Baggies TMD (Scale: 4mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Robert Godding – Weaver Hill (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Benjamin and Richard Brady – Wallsend & Brooksbridge Light Railway (Scale: 4mm/ft)
    – Mike Wall – Camlas (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Chris Thomas – Brandgeight (Scale: 4mm/ft, Narrow Gauge)
    – Peter Hardy – North Ballachulish (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Andy Cooper – Trix Twin Railway (Scale: 16.5mm Gauge)
    – Sheila and Norman Beaumont – Blackfriars Bridge (Scale: 18.83mm Gauge)
    – Blackfriars Bridge MRG – Lone Star Model Railways (Scale: OOO Gauge)
    – Stuart Dale – Greenwood Garden Railway (Scale: N Gauge)
    – Philip Hunt – Sheepcroft (Scale: 18.2mm Gauge)
    – Stu Davis – Ampney Crusis (Scale: 18.2mm Gauge)
    – Warley MRC – Arch Road Yard (Scale: 7mm/ft)
    – Rev’d Nigel Adams – Nancledre Harbour (Scale: 7mm/ft)
    – Warley MRC – Campbells Quarry (Scale: 16mm/ft)
    – John Campbell – Pen-Y-Graig (Scale: 5.5mm/ft)
    – Barrie Johnson – Norwich Central (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Peter Thomson and David Smith – Evercreech New (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Southampton MRS – Lindon Road (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – J. Long – Abergavenny Brecon Road (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Richard Cox – Tanybwlch & Penrhyn (Scale: 4mm/ft)
    – Nigel Smith – Tarrant Valley Railway (Scale: 4mm/ft)
    – Wimborne Railway Society – Woodcroft (Scale: 4mm/ft)
    – Market Deeping MRC – Hortus Halt (Scale: G Scale)
    – Warley MRC – Lego Layout
    – Jonathan Tansley – Binns Road (Scale: Hornby O Gauge)
    – Hornby Railway Collectors’ Association – Nouvion (Scale: French Hornby AC/HO)
    – Hornby Railway Collectors’ Association – Mossdale (Scale: Hornby Dublo 2 Rail)
    – Hornby Railway Collectors’ Association – Holly Park (Scale: Hornby Dublo 3 Rail)
    – Hornby Railway Collectors’ Association – Stodden Hundred Light Railway (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Andrew Jones – Nafferton (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Dave Wellington – Kimble (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Leamington and Warwick MRS – Mwch Grumblyn (Scale: 16mm, Live Steam)
    – Guildford MES – Ridings (Scale: Gauge 1, Live Steam)
    – G1 MRA (Midlands) – Kinlet Junction
    – Wyre Forest Model Railway Club – Franwood T.M.D. (Scale: 4mm/ft, OO Gauge)
    – Neil Woodbine – Heybridge Wharf (Scale: 14.2mm Gauge)
    – Mike Corp – Cranmore (Scale: 7mm/ft, O Gauge)
    – Eric Hines –

    The High Speed Rail Revolution | China’s Future MEGAPROJECTS: Part 4
    Articles, Blog

    The High Speed Rail Revolution | China’s Future MEGAPROJECTS: Part 4

    October 21, 2019

    The Chinese aren’t just flying in record
    numbers, they’re falling in love all over again with the preferred method of travel
    in the 20th century, as hundreds of millions of Chinese acquire middle class status and
    the extra income to afford cars. This is presenting a relatively new challenge: heavy congestion
    on their motorways. So to tackle this problem, China has set itself apart from the rest of
    the world by embracing high speed rail at a breakneck pace. It’s goal to build a system
    with more than 35,000 kilometers of track is now more than half complete, making it
    one of the most expensive megaprojects in history. The other reason behind this plan is to allow
    people to commute to work from much farther distances than they could than if they had
    to drive, making high speed rail the key to urbanization. And because China has as much
    high speed rail as every other country combined, it will have more and more of the world’s
    largest cities. In fact, of the top 10 urban areas on Earth
    with more than 20 million people, three of them are in China—and those cities are growing
    so fast that two of the three weren’t in the top 10 last year. The explosion in high speed rail in China
    is especially mind-blowing when you consider that it was first introduced there in 2007,
    that’s less than a decade ago. Since then, daily ridership has grown from 237,000 to
    over 2.5 million. To accommodate all those passengers, it’s
    Railway Ministry has swelled, and now has the same number of employees as there are
    civilians working for the entire United States government. China got to this point under the heavy-handed
    leadership of Minister of Railways Liu Zhijun, or “Great Leap Liu,” who pushed his patriotic
    workers in shifts around the clock to plan and build rail lines as fast as possible.
    He famously said, “to achieve a great leap, a generation must be sacrificed.” Liu meant
    his workers, but when a poorly designed signaling system caused a dramatic crash on a viaduct
    high above a valley in 2011, it was clear that some of the first generation of passengers
    would be sacrificed as well. News anchor: “China’s railway system has
    been plagued with problems including corruption and quality concerns. Authorities have come
    under fire for the way they’ve handled the accident, especially when they buried several
    carriages before carrying out an investigation.” Bryce: But, despite the 40 deaths – and more
    than 200 injuries – in the Wenzhou train collision, the attempts of the government to cover the
    disaster up, and Great Leap Liu’s subsequent fall from grace, the high speed rail boom
    in China has roared on and the system is now considered to be among the safest modes of
    transportation in the entire world. It also leads the globe in annual ridership,
    has the longest single service at 2,400 km from Harbin to Wuhan and has the fastest commercially
    operated train with peak speeds of 430 km/h. Now, having successfully linked up much of
    its own country with high speed rail, China aims to do the same for the rest of the world.
    It is building systems in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and South America, and is bidding on projects
    in Russia, Brazil, Myanmar, and the United States. Thank you very much for tuning in. Until next
    time, for The Daily Conversation, I’m Bryce Plank.

    Detroit Light Rail – Bright Side 3
    Articles, Blog

    Detroit Light Rail – Bright Side 3

    October 17, 2019

    Our next segment will focus on an exciting
    project coming soon to Detroit. The M1 Woodward Avenue light rail project will connect downtown
    Detroit with the city limits at 8 mile road. It will be one of the first mass transit light
    rail projects in the state of Michigan. So the city of Detroit in 2006 started analyzing.
    If we’re going to build rapid transit somewhere in Detroit, where should be do it and what
    should it be? And they decided after several years of study that it should be a light rail
    type of line and it should be right along Woodward Avenue. So for at least five years now the city of
    Detroit has been working on developing light rail. A lot of cities around the country have
    a light rail. It’s an on street rail line where the rail is built right into the ground
    and there are overhead electric lines. So its’ a lot like a bus in that it drives on
    the street, but it’s a lot faster and generally more reliable, more attractive, more convenient
    than regular busses are. Fully a third of the people within the city
    of Detroit don’t have their own cars, and so they really need to have other transportation
    choices. But even more so, in city after city around the country in communities that have
    developed light rail you’ve seen enormous economic development. People want to live
    and work and shop and play near convenient public transit. And so developers know that
    and they really build a lot of new hotels and lofts and condos and restaurants in much
    more dense, walkable communities. So we really believe that this Woodward light
    rail can be an economic development catalyst for the city of Detroit. They actually just completed a critical step
    on developing an environmental impact study which the federal government requires, and
    making the final decisions about where exactly the line’s going to go, where the stops are
    going to be. They’ve lined up most of the funding at this point and they’re going to
    be moving into the detailed engineering. Construction could start as early as next year and should
    be… we should be riding in about 2015. I really see Detroit and really this whole
    region is at a bit of a fork in the road. We’ve obviously had some enormous difficulties
    and there is a chance that if we don’t make some major changes in how we develop and how
    we invest in making Detroit a place people really want to be, we really could continue
    down on a downward spiral. But I think we’re also at a cusp of something
    much greater. There’s so many people who are excited to make a positive difference in Detroit
    and are trying their little piece at a time. I don’t think that the light rail will necessarily
    solve all of Detroit’s problems but it could really be a catalyst to focusing a lot of
    the development, a lot of the new energy, a lot of the new entrepreneurial spirit along
    this Woodward corridor and really demonstrate what’s possible in Detroit in a very exciting
    and positive way. I really do think that this Woodward light
    rail project can be a catalyst for something great for Detroit

    Worlds most smallest train I Smallest passanger train I সবচেয়ে ছোট ট্রেন
    Articles, Blog

    Worlds most smallest train I Smallest passanger train I সবচেয়ে ছোট ট্রেন

    October 10, 2019

    Hello friends today, I’ll let you know the discovery of the first train and also take you to familiar with different types of train Let’s have a look History of rail transport started in 6th century to the Ancient Greece. The First train seen in the year of 1804 Trevithick’s pioneering engine was of the train and capacity was 2.5 tones of Iron Material and can hold 70 people to the distance of 10 miles Here we have the smallest passanger train.An small sizes of train line has set up to drive the train over it. Many tourist is visited the place to enjoy the awsome smallest train train journey. When someone seat on the train its seems a man like a gaint cz its smaller than the rider. It’s now located to the Australia, canad and some other country. These types of train demanded by the advanture types of park. Train journey is favorite for all and can Enjoying the beauty of the side of the park. a couple of year back we seen a train like bus and its like a passanger train can carry up to 4 people per train. its maximum speed up to 30 km per hour. The highgest speed train can speed up to 603 km/hr and its hydraulic controling system is designed to control the speed as first as the operator needed. Another double decker trains located in austraillia and its having dozens of container. Unbelibable carrying capacity of these types of train that you not ever seen. We have also a amazing two different types of sky train that runs closed truck on a lifted box guider and whil guider supported to the rail. The train manufacturer gaze that it can give the safe tranportation to the people. This train maximu running speed is 70 km per hour. Lets have a look to the future train conception. Future generation can expect the model of the train will lunch at the year of 2050

    Why the UK Runs Trains to Nowhere
    Articles, Blog

    Why the UK Runs Trains to Nowhere

    September 6, 2019

    This video was made possible by Squarespace. Build your website for 10% off at This train should not exist, and, if were
    up to the train company, it wouldn’t, but it’s not. You see, in the UK, trains work off a franchising
    system where the UK government awards contracts to different private companies to
    operate rail services. For example Virgin Trains East
    Coast operate the east coast route, ScotRail operates most trains in Scotland, TransPennine
    express operates many trains to and from Manchester, and there are about two dozen other
    operators, but this particular train that shouldn’t exist is operated by Chiltern
    Railways. They
    mostly operate trains to smaller towns between London and Birmingham and all of their trains
    to London terminate at Marylebone station…
    except for one—this one. This particular train
    operates from the nearby London Paddington station—the terminus for Great Western and
    Heathrow Express services. But Chiltern railways has to operate services
    to London Paddington because this document says so—their franchise
    agreement. This document is basically the
    contract between the railway company and the UK government so to modify this document they
    have to ask the government and, as we all know, sometimes governments aren’t very
    efficient. So here’s your super simple guide to closing
    a railway route in Britain. Step one: perform
    a “transport appraisal.” This is basically an analysis of the effects
    that the line closure will have on passengers, the environment, and the economy. The strait-forward three stage fourteen step
    process of creating a transport appraisal is explained in this handy 35 page document
    featuring this super user-friendly flowchart. Once you’ve completed that, just give it
    to the UK Department of Transport who will analyze your
    analysis. Step two: publish your proposal of
    closure including the findings of your transport appraisal six months before the proposed closure
    in one local newspaper circulating near the proposed closure and in two national newspapers
    for two weeks continuously. Step three: open a twelve-week consultation
    period including public hearings where anyone who disagrees with the
    closure can protest. Once you’ve completed those
    three easy steps, then you’ll hand everything over to the Office of Rail and Road who will
    decide whether or not you can close the line. As you might have been able to tell from my
    not-at-all-sarcastic explanation, it’s not easy
    to close a franchised rail route, but nowhere in the agreement does it say how often Chiltern
    Railways has to operate their route to Paddington—it just says they need to. So they operate it…
    once per day. Now compared to the US where cities as big
    as Houston, Texas only see three trains a week and have stations that look
    like this, a daily service from Paddington probably
    seems normal, but the station this service goes to, High Wycombe, sees 95 trains a day
    from the normal London station—Marylebone. One train per day is nothing for a UK train
    route, especially from London. Chiltern Railways, like many other train companies,
    have decided it’s just easier and cheaper to operate an infrequent
    service to fulfill their franchise agreement instead
    of going through the rather expensive formal closure process. But some rail companies have pushed the boundaries
    of what is considered “service” to an extreme. Northern’s franchise agreement requires
    them to operate a train between Stockport and Stalybridge which they fulfill by running
    one train, one-way, once per week. Between
    Stockport and Stalybridge there are two stations which are therefore serviced by one train
    per week. Closing stations is just as difficult as closing
    lines so they won’t do it. Denton station
    therefore recorded only 144 passengers in the past year while Reddish South saw just
    94. Thirty
    miles to the north, London Midland is required to operate services to Barlaston Railway Station,
    but companies are allowed to temporarily operate rail replacement buses during maintenance. This company, however, has interpreted “temporary”
    as 13 years as they’ve operated rail replacement busses to this station since 2004
    to fulfill their obligation. The Chiltern Railways service from London
    Paddington to High Wycombe is definitively unprofitable. On many days there are zero passengers. On the day this footage was filmed, there
    was only one. This bureaucratic closure process is meant
    to protect the public by preventing companies from closing unprofitable smaller
    stations, but in reality most of what is does is make
    these ghost trains. If you’ve just realized “ghost train”
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    The Fake Neighborhoods on Google Maps
    Articles, Blog

    The Fake Neighborhoods on Google Maps

    August 28, 2019

    This video was made possible by Brilliant. Start learning with Brilliant for 20% off
    by being one of the first 200 to sign up at If you’re from San Francisco there’s a
    few things you’ve probably never heard of: toast without avocados, three figure rent,
    republicans, and the East Cut neighborhood. If you go on Google Maps though and search
    for East Cut it’ll tell you that’s this neighborhood between Market Street and the
    Bay Bridge even though, before a year ago, nobody had even tried to call this area the
    East Cut. Nowadays, however, the “East Cut” name
    is seeping into the real world all thanks to the world’s benevolent dictator—Google. Now of course Google is amazing and lovely
    and I don’t mean to be critical at all of such a fantastic organization but they do
    have a certain amount of power over, well, everything. More than half of the world’s smartphone
    users have used Google Maps in the past month and, considering that there are 2.5 billion
    smartphone users in the world, that’s a lot. Google Maps is the most popular mapping service
    in the world and that means that when someone wants to figure out what something is, they
    check Google Maps. Quite bafflingly, the benevolent dictator
    almost almost started a war in 2010. You see, where Nicaragua and Costa Rica meet
    on the Atlantic Ocean Nicaragua believes the border to be this while Costa Rica believes
    it to be this. In 2010 a Nicaraguan military troop was sent
    to the area to do dredging work on the San Juan River. While there, though, the troop just happened
    to meander onto Calero Island which, as far as Costa Rica was concerned, was Costa Rica. Now, having a foreign military strut into
    your country with no prior warning doesn’t look great. It looks a whole lot like an invasion so Costa
    Rica, being, interestingly, the most populous country in the world without a military, sent
    70 police officers to make sure that this wasn’t the beginning of the Nicaraguan annexation
    of Costa Rica. In response, Nicaragua sent an additional
    50 troops and the two parties sort of just had a stand off while the two country’s
    leaders had a discussion. As it turned out, the few dozen troops that
    entered Costa Rica had no intentions to singlehandedly overthrow a country of five million. Their commander was just using Google Maps
    to navigate which showed the border as this. Costa Rica then went to the International
    Court of Justice, and complained and then, after years of back and forth, the court ruled
    that this area was in fact Costa Rica and so now Google Maps shows it as Costa Rica
    and Nicaragua lays off the invasions. Unfortunately Apple missed the opportunity
    to create a great Apple Maps ad. Google Maps does try more or less to follow
    what people say places are but sometimes some people disagree on what a thing is. For example, some say New Zealand, other say
    “where?” Some say Machias Seal Island is part of Canada,
    other say it’s part of the US so if you search it on Google it won’t tell you which
    country it is like it does for the rest of the US or Canada. It’ll do the same if you look at a town
    in Western Sahara, Kashmir, the South China Sea, or any other disputed territory. But perhaps the biggest issue for Google Maps
    is what to call neighborhoods. You see, in most cases, neighborhood names
    aren’t official—they’re just decided through what people colloquially call places. People just refer to this area in San Francisco
    as Russian Hill or this area Telegraph Hill, this area Jackson Hill, and at least a few
    people call this area the East Cut. In 2015, you see, an organization was founded
    to improve what was then called Rincon Hill. For some inexplicable reason they decided
    they needed a rebranding and they settled on the neighborhood name “the East Cut.” They updated street signs and their website
    and everything but still, when asked, the mayor of San Francisco said he had never heard
    of the neighborhood. Lucky for the East Cut organization, one of
    their board members just happened to work at Google, whose offices are in the East Cut,
    and, according to the New York Times in an article about this debacle, was able to persuade
    the company to switch the name which is the most San Francisco story ever. Some neighborhood names on Google Maps are
    even more baffling, though. In Detroit Google Maps refers to this area
    as “the Eye” even though really nobody has ever referred to this area by that name. A blogger did some detective work and was
    able to figure out that Google Maps copied the neighborhood names from a map that some
    random website published in 2003. Google Maps even copied the misspellings from
    that map. As it turns out, “the Eye” was the name
    of a community watch organization in the area so there were signs around the area saying
    “the Eye” and somewhere along the line someone got confused and assumed it was the
    neighborhood name. Still today that name shows up on Google Maps
    and, if you really want, you can search and buy real estate in the prestigious Eye neighborhood. In true Detroit fashion, houses start at $8,000. Nobody’s really sure exactly how Google
    determines neighborhood names but, once they do, that name essentially becomes official. According to Google Maps Machias Seal island
    is both Canada and the US at the same time but you know what’s also two things at once—Quantum
    objects since, thanks to Quantum superposition, these particles can be in two or more quantum
    states at the same time. This is what Schrodinger’s Cat is about—it’s
    like if a cat was both dead and alive at the same time. Quantum mechanics is like magic that’s happening
    in our world right now and it’s sort of complicated but Brilliant is the expert in
    teaching super complex things in an understandable way. If you take their quantum objects course you’ll
    go away knowing what only specialized physicists understand. Of course Brilliant has plenty of other great
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    How Airlines Price Flights
    Articles, Blog

    How Airlines Price Flights

    August 27, 2019

    This video was made possible by Blue Apron. Get three free meals from Blue Apron by being
    one of the first 100 people to sign up at the link below. Airline ticket pricing probably seems like
    a crapshoot. The numbers change seemingly arbitrarily every
    week, day, or hour, but there’s some real science behind these prices. People spend their whole lives figuring out
    what to charge you to fly. Let’s take a look at one flight on one route
    by one airline to understand. American Flight 33 leaves New York’s JFK
    airport every day at 7 AM bound for Los Angeles arriving at 10:51 AM pacific time. This transcontinental route is one of the
    most competitive in the world with over 3.5 million yearly passengers and five major airlines
    connecting the country’s two largest cities. There’s nowhere where pricing strategies
    are more important for airlines than here. Looking at three months of fares for this
    flight, there are eight distinct prices for economy ranging from $129 to $472. These all get you on the exact same flight
    in the exact same seat but each and every price has a purpose and place. The lowest price, $129, is the most competitive
    price. This fare only shows up three times in our
    three month span—each time on Tuesdays. Now, Tuesdays are very often the cheapest
    days of the week to fly. Business travelers tend to make up much of
    the demand during the week and they most often want to fly out on Monday and return on Thursday
    or Friday so Mondays, Thursdays, and Fridays tend to be the most expensive travel days
    while Tuesdays and Wednesdays are often the cheapest. The average ticket price for this flight shows
    this—Tuesdays average $182 and Wednesdays $173. Even if the demand is lower American Airlines
    runs the flight anyways and they have to fill seats to break even so they sell the flight
    at rock-bottom prices. The next price, $144, actually demonstrates
    a very interesting phenomenon. Whenever American prices their flight at $144,
    they are not alone. Take March 6th for example. American, Delta, Virgin America, JetBlue,
    and United all have flights from New York to LA at around 7 in the morning selling for
    $144. They’re doing what is called price matching. Because this is one of the most competitive
    routes in the world and because the number one determinant for travelers on which airline
    they take is price, all five airlines flying this route match each others prices. This way, travelers make their decision based
    off the reputation of each airline rather than the price. The price stays at $144 because it’s in
    each airlines best interest to keep it there. In a normal market, if Delta, for example,
    dropped their price to $119 they would get more travelers since they were the cheapest,
    but in this price matched market all the other airlines would drop their prices as soon as
    Delta drops theirs so all of them would get the same amount of travelers as before while
    earning less money, but there are some cases where it can make business sense for airlines
    to drop prices to below even being profitable. Around the year 2000, WestJet and the now
    defunct CanJet airlines started flying from central Canada to Newfoundland. These routes were historically operated exclusively
    by Air Canada and they were expensive. A one-way flight from Montreal in 1999 cost
    over $600, but when the budget airlines WestJet and CanJet started flying the route, prices
    dropped dramatically and Air Canada was threatened, so they dropped their prices even lower. The $600 Air Canada fares then cost $89. Now, it wouldn’t make sense for anyone to
    fly a budget airline over Air Canada at the same price so WestJet and CanJet were almost
    driven out of business on these routes, until Canada’s Competition Bureau stepped in. They concluded that Air Canada was engaging
    in the uncompetitive action of predatory pricing since they were pricing flights below what
    it cost to operate them, so they were forced to stop. Airlines in the US, with some newly strong
    budget competitors, are engaging in similar actions nowadays. United airlines, for example, is matching
    Frontier’s $40 fares on many days from Denver to Chicago, among other routes, in order to
    maintain their market stronghold in Denver and Chicago even though their cost to operate
    the route is drastically higher than Frontier so they are almost certainly loosing money
    on those fares. But back to the New York to LA route. $159 is the lowest regular fare for this flight. The $129 and $144 price points were both basic
    economy fares—the most restrictive type with no seat selection, no carry on bags,
    and no changes or refunds. Every flight has a bunch of different booking
    classes each with a fare code. For example, the basic economy fare code for
    the $129 and $144 price is B, but the $159 price books into fare code N. These different
    booking classes are sometimes known are fare buckets. Essentially the airline decides it’s going
    to sell a certain number of tickets at the $159 price with fare code N, let’s say 10,
    then when those ten tickets are sold the airline then sells economy at fare code G for $204
    then when those are sold it sells economy at fare code V for $269 then fare code L for
    $318 and so on and so forth. There are also some cases where a ticket will
    default to a more expensive fare bucket because of reasons other than the lower fare selling
    out. Many fares, including each mentioned so far,
    have advance purchase requirements meaning that, even if a flight is not full at all,
    the price will increase closer to departure. All the fares below $204 have an advance purchase
    requirement of two weeks meaning that you can only purchase them more than two weeks
    before departure while the $269 fare, for example, has an advance purchase requirement
    of only one week. Although, the cheapest fare without an advance
    purchase requirement at all, that is, the cheapest fare that you could buy day-of for
    this flight is fare class K at $472 which happens to be the most expensive economy class
    fare. And now for some caveats. Not every fare for this flight is going to
    be priced at one of these eight prices. Airlines have mechanisms to adjust fares from
    these buckets. In the short-term, they can adjust things
    like the fuel surcharge to raise the price if other factors, like oil prices, increase. In the long term they can adjust the actual
    prices of the different fare buckets. Airline often increase the base fares for
    busy seasons like summer. American Airlines does exactly that on this
    New York to LA route where their fare class M, for example, increases from $357 to $410
    in August. But so far we’ve looked at this at a micro
    level—how prices differ on one flight—but we also have to consider the macro level. Why if you leave on Tuesday February 6th and
    fly 2,469 miles to the west to LA do you pay $129 while if you fly 3,442 miles to the east
    to London—only a thousand miles further than LA—you pay $2,772. Well, the second figure is a bit deceptive
    because that’s the price of a one-way ticket. If you switch the LA flight to a round-trip
    ticket returning a week later it will cost $257—exactly double—while if you turn
    the London flight into a round-trip returning a week later the price will drop to $602—almost
    five times less. This is understandably confusing—a one-way
    ticket that costs more than a roundtrip—but the reason this is goes back to the fare codes. Embedded within each fare code are a bunch
    of little restrictions that dictate when you can use that fare. On the New York to LA trip those restrictions
    are just things like blackout dates for the fare and advance purchase requirements, but
    the New York to London ticket has loads more restrictions and the ones that make one-ways
    more expensive than round-trips are the minimum stay requirements. These requirements dictate how soon your return
    flight can be in order to get a particular fare. The idea is to price discriminate—business
    travelers should pay more because they can pay more. Meanwhile, airlines try to give the lowest
    prices to leisure travelers since they’re the ones paying for their own tickets and
    therefore they’re the ones that are the most price sensitive. Business travelers often want to be home for
    the weekend, so many of these minimum stay requirements, like with fares Q, N, and S,
    just require a Sunday at your destination. Others, trying to accomplish the same thing,
    require seven days, a full week, which would also require a traveller to stay the weekend
    at their destination. Now as the prices go up the requirements go
    down so once you get to paying around $2000 you can stay for as few as three days, but
    the cheapest roundtrip base airfare with no stay requirement at all is $5,544 in fare
    class Y—exactly double the one way price. So that explains this—the one way ticket
    is so expensive because, since the airline doesn’t know how long the traveller will
    stay at their destination the one-way fare has to be booked into the least restrictive
    fare class without the minimum stay requirement. You’ll see this idea of price discrimination
    all over ticketing structures. It’s a genius pricing concept that allows
    different people to buy products at the prices they can afford and therefore its allows businesses
    to sell the same product to more people. Tickets increase in price closer to departure
    because leisure travelers buy tickets far-out and business travelers buy their tickets close
    to departure and flexible tickets are more expensive because that’s what business travelers
    need, but there’s another pricing difference going on that’s less fair—between routes. It’s all about competition. Different routes of the same distance cost
    different amounts generally not because they cost different amounts to operate, but because
    of how much the competitors are charging. This is part of why flights into small airports
    are so expensive—because they lack competition. You can fly the 240 miles from Detroit to
    Pellston, Michigan on a CRJ 200 for $242 or you can fly the 170 miles from Detroit to
    South Bend, Indiana on a CRJ 200 for $76. The only difference is that South Bend Airport
    has flights from United, Delta, and Allegiant while Pellston only has flights from Delta. The same phenomenon happens over the Atlantic. There’s more competition on the six hour
    flight from New York to LA than on the six hour flight from New York to Dublin so you
    can fly to LA for $250 round trip while Dublin costs $500 round trip. Of course, travelers from New York to LA can
    drive, take the bus, take the train, or take a flight connecting halfway there while travelers
    to Dublin only have one choice—to fly. In all, the truth is that prices reflect what
    people will pay and so people will pay what flights are priced. If you’re a busy person like me, you know
    that eating healthy can be difficult. Sometimes it seems like you have two choices—quick
    food or healthy food—but you have another one—quick and healthy food because that’s
    what Blue Apron is. Blue Apron ships you boxes every week with
    farm-fresh pre-apportioned ingredients and recipes that let you make these delicious,
    healthy meals in at the very most 40 minutes. I recently made the Spicy Pork and Korean
    Rice Cakes meal which was delicious and quick. With Blue Apron, you’re sure to get stuff
    that you’ll actually like because they have a selection of eight different recipes each
    week from which you can pick. All the ingredients arrive in a refrigerated
    bag, ship to most everywhere in the US, and start at just $8.99/10.99 per serving. I highly recommend you try Blue Apron out
    and the good news is that you can try out three meals for free at the link in the description.

    Why Cities Are Where They Are
    Articles, Blog

    Why Cities Are Where They Are

    August 27, 2019

    This is a Wendover Productions video made
    possible by Squarespace. Make your next move with a beautiful website
    from Squarespace. The Cumberland valley is home to six towns
    lying between Hagerstown, Maryland and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania— Greencastle, Chambersburg,
    Shippensburg, Newville, Carlisle, and Mecanicsburg. What’s exceptional about these small Pennsylvania
    towns is that they’re each almost exactly 10 miles from each other. The distances deviate by no more than a mile
    from this rule. This isn’t a coincidence and this isn’t
    planned. Drawing equal sized radii around each town
    shows you their spheres of influence. Assuming each town has the exact same shops
    and services, rational people will just go to whichever town is closest to buy or sell
    goods. Towns ten miles apart mean that nobody has
    to travel more than five miles to reach a town. Each one of these towns was founded before
    the formation of the United States, so that means that, of course, nobody had cars and
    pretty much everybody walked everywhere. 10 miles, or 5 miles each way, is about the
    distance a person can comfortably walk in a day with enough time to buy or sell goods
    at a central market. Back in this era before cars, a 5 mile radius
    was essentially the largest possible commuter zone to small agricultural towns and therefore
    having towns ten miles apart was the most efficient possible use of rural land. When you get a chance, take a look at map
    of a rural area that existed before cars. You’ll see that the distance between medium-sized
    towns is almost always somewhere between about 10 to 15 miles. Because the Cumberland valley is a valley,
    towns really could only develop in a line, but in most cases towns develop in all directions. This is what the ten mile rule looks like
    going out in all directions. Each of these points is a town and the hexagon
    around it is the area from which people will go to the town. In the real world, each of these towns probably
    has a small grocery store, a pharmacy, a bank, and maybe a restaurant. Since everybody uses these services, there
    doesn’t have to be many people in a towns sphere of influence in order to sustain these
    shops. But where do you put something more specialized,
    like a mechanic. People only need to go the mechanic every
    once in a while so you need more people to sustain one mechanics shop than one grocery
    store. Well, some of these small towns develop into
    larger towns with more people that can support more specialized shops and services. Putting these larger towns with more specialized
    shops closer together would be unsustainable since there wouldn’t be enough people going
    to those shops but putting them farther apart would be inefficient since there’s land
    that people would not go to a city from. This happens once or twice more until you
    have cities. These cities have the largest spheres of influence
    and the most specialized shops. You of course still have grocery stores and
    pharmacies in cities, but you also have things like luxury car dealerships, brain surgery
    centers, and airports. The city’s sphere of influence is enormous
    because people will travel hundreds of miles to buy an expensive car or get brain surgery
    or fly from an airport. Think about it within a city. How far would you walk to buy a latte. Probably only a few blocks and that’s why
    you see Starbucks or other coffee shops on almost every block. Since almost everyone buys coffee, you only
    need a few blocks of people to sustain one coffee shop. But how far would you walk to buy a MacBook? Probably quite far since its a infrequent
    and substantial purchase. That’s why Apple stores are rather rare
    even in cities. You need an enormous amount of people to sustain
    one Apple store and we can actually figure out roughly how many. In Connecticut, the Trumbull Apple Store is
    about 20 miles away from the New Haven store to the north-east and the Stamford store to
    the south-west. In the 10 mile radius around the Trumbull
    Apple Store there are about half a million inhabitants which tells us that you need about
    half a million people to sustain one Apple store. We can compare that to the Starbucks’ of
    lower Manhattan which are spread out at an average distance of about 600 feet. Drawing a 300 foot radius around one Starbucks
    in lower Manhattan covers around 6,000 people which means that one Starbucks needs 6,000
    people to sustain it. Of course both Connecticut and New York are
    places with higher than average incomes which means less people are needed to sustain one
    Starbucks or Apple Store. The numbers would be very different in, say,
    rural Kansas, but since each store generally only builds in areas with higher-than-average
    incomes this gives a good sense of how many people Apple and Starbucks looks for in an
    area before opening up a store. So, our model shows where cities should be,
    but its not like this in reality. This is the most efficient spread of cities
    if you’re assuming that the cities are on a perfectly flat plane with no geographic
    features, no social influences, no variability of income, equal distribution of resources—essentially
    assuming the world is one homogeneous place… which its not. In reality, of course, our world has an enormous
    effect on where and why cities develop. To start out, let’s cut this down to one
    city on a flat, featureless plane for simplicity. What affects the location of cities more than
    anything is water. If we put an ocean on one side of our isotropic
    plane, our city will almost certainly locate near it. Oceans have always been and still are what
    connects the world. There’s no other means of transport that
    can move such enormous amounts of cargo for so little. Any city needs to be economically efficient
    to grow and it will cost more to bring goods to a city that’s 1000 miles inland than
    one right by the ocean. Just look at Europe. 6 of the 10 largest European cities are within
    100 miles of the coast. But oceans aren’t the only bodies of water
    to affect cities. Rivers are just as or perhaps even more influential. Milan, the 19th largest European city, is
    the largest to not be either directly on the ocean or on a river, and even then its only
    15 miles from a river and 75 miles from the ocean. Until the last century or so, cities could
    not survive without direct water access. If you need more proof, 14 of the 15 largest
    cities in the world are within a few dozen miles of the ocean. Perhaps the most obvious attractor for cities
    is resources, so going back to our isotropic plane, putting natural resources anywhere
    on this map will draw cities near it. Cities that existed before the last century
    or so generally sprung up right near the resources, much like Pittsburgh, since they acted as
    manufacturing and transportation hubs for those resources, but more recently new resource
    dependent cities don’t need to be as close to the resources themselves. New transportation technologies can bring
    the resources from their source. Just look at Dubai. Of course the UAE has enormous oil deposits,
    but they’re much closer to Abu Dhabi and the South-West than Dubai. In 1900, Dubai had 10,000 residents, less
    than half that of Carlisle, Pennsylvania—one of the farming towns we talked about at the
    beginning. That only grew to 40,000 by 1960, but today
    its known worldwide and has more than 2.5 million residents. It was able to grow at this enormous rate—even
    faster than Abu Dhabi—since it cemented itself as the economic and administrative
    hub for the oil industries of the region. Another geographic feature that we can add
    to the plane is mountains. Now, mountains don’t always have a uniform
    affect on cities. Mexico City, Bogota, and Addis Ababa are all
    enormous cities at elevations above 7,000 feet. Mountains do make transport and trade difficult,
    but they also provide protection. Many ancient cities grew in these locations
    since they were easy to protect, which left more time to focus on growing the city, but
    mountains can also hinder development. For quite a while, the United States could
    not develop west of the Appalachian mountains. They just served as an enormous barrier. In 1800, the average center of population
    for the entire United States was here even though the US had sovereignty over this entire
    area. Of course technology eventually conquered
    this barrier and moved the mean population center all the way out to Missouri today,
    but if the Appalachian mountains didn’t exist American history and geography would
    be completely different. We would have seen urban development much
    earlier in the mid-west. But mountains can have another effect. You see, coal, silver, gold, and other mineral
    deposits are all often located in mountainous regions, and, just like Dubai, cities can
    develop in less hospitable and easy places due to resources. The economic advantage of exploiting the resources
    overpowers the economic disadvantage of being in an inhospitable location. Denver, Colorado grew 650% between 1870 and
    1880 with the opening of a railroad branch connecting with the transcontinental railroad. It served as an access point to transportation
    to the gold miners in the rockies. So mountains can either push cities away or
    bring them nearer—it really just depends on the circumstance. Let’s exchange our isotropic plane for a
    world map. Where should cities be on here? Well, our world’s cities are not necessarily
    all in the most geographically efficient locations. While there is a certain level of natural
    selection that grows the efficiently placed cities and shrinks the inefficiently placed
    cities, humans are not always able to put cities in the most efficient locations. Let’s put up the 224 cities in the world
    with a population over 2 million. You can immediately see some patterns. Putting up the equator, you can see a clear
    divide. Only 32 of these cities lie in the southern
    hemisphere. One might think this is because there is so
    much more land in the northern hemisphere, but that’s not entirely true. You see, the southern hemisphere still has
    32% of the world’s land, but only has 14% of the world’s large cities. There’s clearly a higher density of cities
    in the northern hemisphere. You can pretty much trace this all back to
    Europe and Asia. The first large civilizations and empires
    were on these two continents even though the human race likely originated in Africa. There’s hundreds of different theories on
    why civilizations succeeded in some places and failed in others, but one of the more
    plausible and interesting theories is that Europe and Asia succeeded because they’re
    wide instead of tall. The very shape of the continents may have
    changed the course of human history. You see, when a continent is wide, you have
    a ton of land with roughly the same climate. Climate tends to change when you go north
    and south rather than east and west as a nature of how the earth rotates around the sun. Much of the success of early civilizations
    had to do with the domestication of plants and animals and the corresponding technology. When expanding horizontally, the climate is
    similar enough that an empire can use the same successful plants and animals, while
    expanding vertically requires the domestication of new plants and animals. If a civilization started in central-america,
    for example, there would be very little land on the continent with a similar climate and
    their expansion would be severely limited. In Europe and Asia, on the other hand, theres
    thousands upon thousands and miles of similar climate that can be reached just by traveling
    east or west. There’s evidence to back this up. Just look at the maps of the four largest
    early empires—the Qing Dynasty, the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, and the
    Mongol empire. They were all in Eurasia and they all expanded
    horizontally. When some of the more modern empires expanded,
    they had the technology to do so overseas. The three major modern empires were the British,
    Spanish, and French empires—each of which came from relatively similar climates. A major reason why America was able to succeed
    is because all the agriculture from Europe worked there. Climatically, Europe and America are nearly
    identical. The majority of developed colonized countries
    are in the northern hemisphere just because they were closest to Europe, but formerly
    British countries like South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand are all highly developed and
    in the Southern Hemisphere. Their success over more northern countries
    in the southern hemisphere can also be partially attributed to their greater climate similarity
    to Europe. Let’s ask one more question. If our world only had one city, where would
    it logically be? Well if you take the location of every person
    in the world and average it out, you come to south-central Asia. That means that this general region is the
    optimum place to live on the planet, but where more specifically should our world city go. Well, this region is already in the Northern
    Hemisphere and in Eurasia, so we’ve already covered those two criteria. We want a place within a hundred of so miles
    of the ocean, on a navigable river, near mountains with rich mineral deposits—the single best
    place for a city on earth just might be… Dhaka, Bangladesh. Every geographic model and theory says that
    there is no better place on earth to put a city than here. There’s evidence to back this up: Dhaka
    is between the 4th and 18th largest metropolitan area on earth depending on how you define
    metropolitan area, and Bangladesh is the sixth densest country on earth—there are 161 million
    people living in an area about the size of England. History has affected geography enough that
    the largest and most advanced civilizations are not all in South-Central Asia, but if
    we started all over again, did humanity a second time, every geographic model says that
    this region could be the origin and central point of human civilization. I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Productions
    video. This video was made possible by my amazing,
    brand new sponsor, Squarespace. Squarespace is an all-in-one platform to make
    your beautiful, professional website. Months before Squarespace signed on to sponsor
    Wendover Productions, I used them to make my website— Now, I wasn’t looking for anything fancy. I just wanted to make sure that nobody else
    got their hands on the domain and also to create a great-looking
    landing page. This way, I can give people one link that
    goes to all my different social accounts. I know that most of you guys are smart, upstart,
    entrepreneurial people that want to make your mark and what’s so much more professional
    than a LinkedIn or Twitter or Facebook account is a standalone website and its cheaper than
    you’d think, especially because if you sign up using the link
    and use the code “Wendover” in your order, you’ll get 10% off. This is hopefully the beginning of a long
    and prosperous relationship between Wendover Productions and Squarespace. They’re really committed to helping independent
    creators like me and perhaps you make great things, so definitley take a look at what
    they have to offer and make your next move with Squarespace. You can support Wendover Productions by contributing
    on Patreon where 100% of the funds go right back into the channel. I even release expense reports at the end
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    like early access to videos, stickers, hand-written letters, and most recently, t-shirts. You can also order a t-shirt by itself for
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    The Time China Had a 12 Day Long Traffic Jam
    Articles, Blog

    The Time China Had a 12 Day Long Traffic Jam

    August 25, 2019

    This video was made possible by Brilliant. Learn intuitively with Brilliant for 20% off
    by being one of the first 200 to sign up at If something’s crammed, communist, and a
    country it’s probably China. China used to look like this but now it looks
    like this. The country’s grown enormously in the past
    few decades both in population and wealth. Now, of course global warming isn’t real
    and the earth is flat, but in a world where global warming was real and the earth was
    some other shape, the best thing you could do to combat turning Minneapolis into Miami
    would be to be poor. The poorest half of the world’s population
    only contributes 10% of all carbon emissions. This does make sense as the richest .01% of
    the world eat their imported truffled wagyu filets on their private jets traveling to
    Ibiza for the day while the poorest .01% eat their meals by, well, not but the bigger factor
    is what happens as people get into the upper 10 or 20 or 30% of world wealth. China, for example, was poor but now it’s
    somewhat rich which means that its population now eats things like hamburgers which, no
    joke, are slowly killing the environment as cows fart huge amounts of methane which is
    a greenhouse gas. More importantly, though, more and more people
    in China own cars. There are now 217 million cars on Chinese
    roads which, considering there were only 59 million ten years ago, is a lot. That means that in ten years, China has essentially
    had to triple the capacity of its roads which is basically impossible. Hence, traffic. Now, this is one of China’s busiest roads—National
    Highway 110. This highway connects inner Mongolia, the
    part of Mongolia that’s in China, to Beijing, the capital. G110 didn’t, however, used to be so busy. What happens when your country transforms
    from being mostly composed of poor rural farmers to relatively rich urban populations is that
    suddenly you need energy to power everything. See, here’s a graph that says a thing! China didn’t really go for that hippy wind
    or solar energy, they went for coal. 70% of their overall energy need is fulfilled
    by this rock. Of course this isn’t sustainable long term
    as coal isn’t a renewable resource like wind or Batman reboots but for now, it’s
    a cheap and easy source of energy. That’s helped by the fact that China has
    about 13% of the world’s coal in its ground while Mongolia, China’s neighbor, has about
    10%. A good amount of China’s coal is in inner
    Mongolia, the region, and they also import plenty of coal from Mongolia, the country. What China doesn’t have, though, is coal
    transportation infrastructure… or YouTube, a free press, a market economy, freedom of
    movement, freedom of speech, a freely floated currency, or time zones, but the transportation
    infrastructure is the important thing it’s missing in this case. There are, for example, only seven roads that
    cross the border from Mongolia, the country, to China, the country. What’s worse, there are barely any railways
    and trains are the primary means of transportation worldwide for coal as it’s really not very
    dense and trucks can’t carry that much. This lack of railways means that there are
    huge amounts of trucks driving from inner Mongolia to Beijing carrying coal each and
    every day. There are a few routes these trucks can take
    into Beijing but the most popular one is G110. That’s because much of the coal coming from
    inner Mongolia comes from illegal, unlicensed mines and, while the other routes from inner
    Mongolia have inspection stations to combat illegal mining, G110 does not. All these factors compounded to create the
    beginnings of a traffic jam on August 14th, 2010. It was the busy summer season and the highway
    just couldn’t handle the amount of trucks but the real problem started five days later
    as maintenance work began on the highway to fix damage from overuse. That shut down half the lanes at points and
    this traffic jam, which had already been going on continuously for five days to a lesser
    extent, just became a parking lot. At its worst, the congestion lasted for 60
    continuous miles and drivers were only able to move as little as 0.6 miles per day. It took some close to a week to make their
    way through this stretch of highway—a journey that would normally take an hour. This whole mini-economy sprung up as villagers
    from near the highway walked or biked up and down selling food and drinks. Water, which normally sells for 1 yuan, went
    for 15. Drivers took naps under their trucks, played
    cards, took walks, there really was no reason to be behind the wheel as nothing was moving. Throughout this all, authorities desperately
    tried to reduce the traffic by sending trucks on different routes and telling people not
    to drive. As the jam entered its second week nothing
    seemed to be working although, with time, as it gained national and international media
    attention, people eventually stopped taking the highway and then, finally, after twelve
    whole days of bumper to bumper traffic, the congestion dissipated and National Highway
    110 was back to normal. China has since built railways, expanded highways,
    and cracked down on illegal mining which has prevented any more apocalyptic jams but this
    August 2010 one on G110 is now believed to have been the worst traffic jam in world history. If you want to learn how to make apocalyptic
    jam unfortunately Brilliant does not have a course on that but they actually do have
    a course on how to make regular jams, traffic jams. Their physics of the everyday course includes
    a whole section teaching how traffic jams form and work. Brilliant, as you know by now, is the best
    place to be taught complex concepts as they teach the intuitive principles so you understand
    rather than just learn. If you want to become the sort of person who
    can explain the physics of traffic jams, Brilliant is the place for you as they have courses
    on that and plenty of other interesting topics such as artificial neural networks, number
    theory, and solar energy. Best of all, you can try Brilliant classes
    for free by signing up at and then, if you decide to upgrade to their
    premium account, the first 200 to do so at that link will get 20% off.

    Why Iceland Imports Ice
    Articles, Blog

    Why Iceland Imports Ice

    August 22, 2019

    This video was made possible by Squarespace. Build your beautiful website with Squarespace
    for 10% off at Chances are that somewhere on the internet
    you’ve heard the “fact” that Iceland was named Iceland by its viking settlers to
    stop their enemies from coming to the island. Well, that fact is about as wrong as pineapple
    on pizza. The truth is that the first norse settler
    of the island was feeling a little bummed out upon arrival since his daughter and livestock
    died en route so he just stayed for the winter before returning to Norway and, since the
    particular area he stayed in happened to be icy he figured all of the island was icy and
    therefore called it Iceland. Of course that’d be as absurd as, you know,
    seeing that the sidewalk was flat and deciding the whole earth must be flat, or something. Iceland is cold and has plenty of snow and
    ice during the winter but as a whole, the country is fairly green. Still, for such a northern and wintery country
    the idea that it imports ice is pretty absurd. Nonetheless that is reality but Iceland’s
    ice importation has a surprisingly rational explanation. Now, taking ice from one place and selling
    it in another is nothing new. El Chapo was great at it but as it turns out,
    centuries ago people’s refrigerators didn’t have ice dispensers. For the majority of history people just dealt
    with having warm drinks like cave-people but when the 19th century rolled around that all
    changed. An entrepreneur named Frederic Tudor started
    taking ice from cold places like Maine and selling it in hot places like Cuba. Genius, right? Only problem, ice melts. Frederic understood this and insulated his
    cargo with sawdust and, with enough ice, at least some of it would make it through the
    1,600 mile journey from Maine to Cuba. At first Frederick received a frosty reception
    from the hot place people as they were doubtful that they needed ice so Frederic channeled
    his inner drug dealer and gave them their first bit of ice for free to get them addicted. Soon, business was booming. Now, places like New York and DC get too cold
    in the winter for people to want ice but in the summer, they too get swelteringly hot
    so Frederic wanted to make a way to be able to sell ice in the mid-Atlantic summers. Really the only solution was to take a whole
    lot of ice, put it in an insulated building, and hope some of it lasts until summer and,
    crazily enough, that worked. Most of North America started to rely on ice
    so it was time for Frederick to take the ice trade intercontinental. The rest of the world also had hot places
    like India so Frederic Tudor set up a regular shipment of ice to Calcutta, India which became
    hugely popular with the rich English colonialists who were used to cooler temperatures. Amazingly, he had the process refined so well
    at that point that the ice from New England was selling in India for, adjusted for inflation,
    only $1 per pound. Soon after, ice from New England was shipped
    and sold in London, in Rio de Janeiro, in Cape Town, in Hong Kong, the New England ice
    even reached as far as Sydney, Australia where it sold for only $2 per pound. So, was it a coincidence that the climate
    starting rapidly warming only a century after the world’s elite started using ice shipped
    from the other side of the world by steamship all so they could have a chilled beverage? I’m not saying the ice trade singlehandedly
    caused climate change, but it certainly didn’t help. Of course, with time artificial refrigeration
    became cheap and widespread but not before making Frederic Tudor a very rich man. Iceland today, despite what some may think,
    is not some backwards heathen society that shuns the use of refrigerators. Its importation of ice has to do with something
    else—economics. You see, Iceland is a very expensive place. Like many isolated, northern counties, Iceland
    relies on imports for many things like oil, wood, wheat, and other food. It just doesn’t have the ability to produce
    these items domestically due to its geography but shipping to Iceland is also relatively
    cheap since its economy is export-driven. While fish is Iceland’s biggest export this
    is mostly shipped by plane but the country also has an enormous aluminum industry thanks
    to its low electricity cost. Aluminum, along with most everything else
    Iceland makes, is exported by ship which means that there’s demand for shipping from Iceland. That means that ships are already coming to
    Iceland to bring items elsewhere so its relatively inexpensive to fill those ships with other
    goods to bring to Iceland. At the same time, the average Icelander makes
    about $57,000 per year, it’s one of the highest income countries in the world, so
    that means making things in Iceland, in most cases, is expensive. If you go and check your handy dandy Icelandic
    schedule of tariffs, though, you see that water, ice, and snow have no import duty if
    imported from the European Economic Area. Therefore, Iceland imports ice from other
    less expensive countries in the EEZ such as Scotland and the only additional cost is the
    cheap shipping. While there are plenty of other countries
    that don’t charge import duties on ice, there are few that have the mix of high domestic
    labor costs and cheap inbound shipping that make it worth it for Iceland to import ice. That’s why Iceland’s grocery stores are
    stocked with this imported ice from hundreds or thousands of miles away as it ends up being
    about 40% less than Icelandic ice. If you want to sell a different kind of ice
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