Browsing Tag: history

    African American history embedded in B&O railroad
    Articles, Blog

    African American history embedded in B&O railroad

    August 12, 2019


    ARTIFACTS ON DISPLAY. JENNIFER: THE B AND O RAILROAD
    BEGAN IN 1828, AND INSIDE THE
    MUSEUM ON PRATT STREET, YOU’LL
    FIND PEICES THAT DEPICT ITS
    HISTORY IN MARYLAND AND ACROSS
    THE COUNTRY. AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY BEGINS
    HERE DURING THE CIVIL WAR, WHEN
    RUNAWAY SLAVES BECAME WHAT’S
    KNOWN AS CONTRABAND SOLDIERS PUT
    TO WORK BY THE UNION ARMY.>>TOOK THOSE GUYS, MADE THEM
    WORKERS PAID THEM, GAVE THEM
    , CLOTHING, HAD THEM HELP
    REBUILD RAILROADS OR REBUILD
    WALLS. RINGS LIKE THAT. JENNIFER: IF YOU WANT TO SEE
    WHAT TRAVEL WAS LIKE FOR AFRICAN
    AMERICANS POST CIVIL WAR JUST
    STEP INSIDE THIS RAIL CAR WHERE
    YOU CAN SEE HOW THE SEATING’S
    BEEN CHANGED TO ACCOMMODATE SEGREGATION. JIM CROW LAWS EXPANSIVE SEATING
    IN THE REAR FOR WHITE TRAVELERS
    WITH LIMITED SEATING FOR BLACK
    PASSENGERS,CLOSE TO THE FREIGHT
    AREA AND NEXT TO THE STOVE.>>IT IS PROBABLY BLAZING HOT
    AND NOT COMFORTABLE. NOT THE BEST SEATING. IT IS A LITTLE DIFFERENT THAN
    THE OTHER. IT MAKES YOU FEEL LESS OF A
    HUMAN BEING FOR SURE. JENNIFER: IT WAS IN THE 1880’S
    AND 1890’S WHEN AFRICAN
    AMERICANS PLAYED A SIGNIGICANT
    ROLE IN THE RAIL SERVICE
    INDUSTRY. PULLMAN CARS WERE IN STYLE. THINK FANCY TRAVEL FOR THE
    WEALTHY, WITH THE FIRST SLEEPER
    CARS. THEY WANTED PASSENGERS TO HAVE
    TOP-NOTCH SERVICE.>>THE PULLMAN COMPANY MADE SU
    ON ALL THOSE CARS WERE PORTERS. PRETTY MUCH ALL OF THEM WERE
    AFRICAN AMERICANS ALL THROUGH
    THE COUNTRY. FOLKS WHO WOULD HELP THE
    TRAVELERS GET WHAT THEY NEEDED,
    SET UP THE BEDS, CARRY THEIR
    BAGS, THINGS LIKE THAT. THE RED CAPS WERE THE ONES
    HELPING AT THE STATION AND
    LOADING IN THE BAGS. ON THE TRAIN ALL THE PULLMAN
    PORTERS WERE IN THE WHITE COATS
    WITH THE BLACK TIES. THEY STOOD UP SO YOU KNEW WHO
    THEY WERE. JENNIFER: THE RAIL INDUSTRY
    WOULD KNOW THEM WELL FOR ANOTHER
    REASON.

    FEC Oversea Railway Original Part 1904 Rail
    Articles, Blog

    FEC Oversea Railway Original Part 1904 Rail

    August 12, 2019


    Hello ladies and gentlemen, I’m over here in Islamoradaa, FL. in the Florida Keys Right next to US1 over here Overseas Highway and they have this monument here I don’t know about the caboose being original but the rails underneath were legitimately part of the Oversea Railway as I see that one of the rails over here has a date and it’s barely legible. I don’t know if you guys can see but it was from 1904. The 0 and the 4 are still there. The 9 is somewhat still there, but the imprint of the 1 is vaguely still there. If you guys want to zoom in on it… and maybe the underneath part of this caboose was also original. Perhaps they renovated the top part to make an office out of it But yeah, I’m guessing this is an original caboose from the era also. 1920s music playing This was made after the fact. This building over here. But yeah, no doubt that rail is indeed part of the original Oversea Railway I’m guessing the cross ties are too. Sometimes the cross ties have like a nail with a plaque that says the original date on them. Although these, I don’t recall seeing these in new cross ties. I’m guessing they have a built in, bent piece of steel. with an S sort of shape to it maybe that was indicative of the manufacturer of the cross ties. They all do. This one actually has a double S Alright guys, thank you for viewing. Please subscribe, like, or share. Have a nice day. Bye guys.

    Disney SEA Expanded Universe
    Articles, Blog

    Disney SEA Expanded Universe

    August 11, 2019


    We’ve talked about the confirmed ties that
    attractions and restaurants of Disney Parks around the world have to the Society of Explorers
    and Adventurers, now its time to talk about the “Expanded Universe”
    To be sure, the “sightings” we’ll talk about on this video are unconfirmed, But, a few
    very intriguing educated guesses reside here, perhaps finding S.E.A. connections in corners
    you might not expect… So to finish off our list, here are some “could-be”
    connections that Imagineers have teased merely as ways to keep fans engaged, interested,
    and exploring. Raging Spirits
    Location: Tokyo DisneySea SEA Connection: Unconfirmed The Raging Spirits roller coaster at Tokyo
    DisneySea is a wonder to look at. (At this point, we can agree that everything at DisneySea
    is a wonder, right?) The temple – meant to look like an ancient Peruvian altar – is
    rich with detail and stunning architecture that looks fittingly ancient. But how does
    Raging Spirits fit into the continuity of S.E.A.?
    Simple. Remember those murals in Harrison Hightower’s hotel lobby, depicting his dastardly
    thievery from ancient cultures? One of those paintings shows Hightower making off with
    a giant stone serpent head. It should look familiar. As the painting clearly shows, Mr.
    Hightower got to the Raging Spirits site long before we did, making off with one of the
    temple’s magnificent stone serpent heads. It’s a tangential connection, but for Disney
    fans, it’s a gasp-worthy moment to see the two attractions theoretically connect, even
    if by a single story thread. Now that’s Disney detail. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad
    Location: Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World SEA Connection: Unconfirmed When Big Thunder Mountain Railroad at the
    Magic Kingdom re-opened after an extensive refurbishment in Spring 2013, it brought with
    it an interactive queue where guests waiting in line could feel like they were part of
    the old mining operation. There were opportunities to explode dynamite (with real repercussions
    outside on the mountain), listen to miners down in the caverns below, and tour the Mining
    Office. The thing that was most striking for Disney
    fanatics, though, was the hinting of a new back-story. A portrait of a miserly looking
    man named Barnabas T. Bullion adored the new queue, and it seemed certain that this man
    (who was indicated as President and Founder of the Big Thunder Mining Company) could have
    a connection to S.E.A. Sure, it’s not official, but we can find his name on one of the oars
    that adorn the Tropical Hideaway where we find plaques honoring famous adventurers and
    members of S.E.A.! The Haunted Mansion
    Location: Disneyland and Magic Kingdom SEA Connection: Unconfirmed The Haunted Mansion was not developed overnight.
    As a matter of fact, Walt’s untimely death left the project in limbo. Without his final
    seal of approval, his Imagineers weren’t sure what exactly the Haunted Mansion’s stately
    white plantation house should have inside… a sincerely scary haunt? A somber, grim, and
    unsettling walkthrough? A musical, whimsical, silly ride? While the Mansion that eventually
    opened in 1969 had a little of everything, one thing it intentionally lacked was a story.
    There’s really no through plot or overarching tale; rather, the Mansion is full of vignettes
    and special effects that are haunting in their simplicity.
    In 2006, an ethereal, spooky bride who had long inhabited the Attic scene was replaced
    with a more overtly murderous mistress whose husbands just can’t seem to keep their heads
    on. Throughout the attic, portraits of the so-called Constance with a handful of different
    men appear, with the grooms’ heads fading away as if by magic.But one particular portrait
    is of great interest for fans: a painting of the bride smiling while gripping a rose
    with a mustachioed would-be husband in a gilded frame marked: “Constance & George, 1877.”
    If you believe the legend of the newly-contrived backstory, this final husband was the reclusive
    owner of the Mansion, bequeathing it to Constance in his quickly-enacted will.
    Interestingly, it would seem that the infamous Stretching Room also includes George, though
    only as a tombstone with an ax in his head and a woman smiling stop, holding a rose…
    What’s this got to do at all with S.E.A., you’re doubtlessly wondering. Perhaps it would
    help to know Constance’s final husband’s full name: George Hightower. Yes, it’s supposed
    that George’s brother, Harrison, was the millionaire magnate and hotelier in New York City who
    would follow his brother into the afterlife 22 years later in a most unusual elevator
    accident… Trader Sam’s Enchanted Tiki Bar & Grog Grotto
    Location: Disneyland Hotel (Disneyland) and Polynesian Village Resort (Walt Disney World)
    SEA Connection: Probable, but not direct Located in a tribal hut outside the Disneyland
    Hotel in California, Trader Sam’s Enchanted Tiki Bar is certainly a possible U.S. S.E.A.
    outpost. The small bar serves drinks based on Polynesian landmarks and adventures. Order
    the right one and the bar will come alive in response. Krakatau Punch? Watch as the
    volcanoes outside erupt, the building rumbles, and the bar’s lights turn red.
    The walls of the bar are completely covered in maps, newspaper articles, and relics from
    adventurers. While the Bar gives the impression of a S.E.A. storyline, that’s not confirmed.
    What we do know is that Trader Sam’s Enchanted Tiki Bar takes place in the same continuity
    as Disneyland’s Adventureland (newspaper articles announce the discovery of the Temple
    of the Forbidden Eye by Indiana Jones, for example). And if you believe that Adventureland
    takes place in the S.E.A. universe by way of the Tropical Hideaway, then Trader Sam’s
    does, too, even if indirectly. And with this, we finish our video series
    about the Society of Adventurers and Explorers! Even if Disney’s theme parks in the United
    States and France have yet to receive a ride directly and overtly connected to the Society
    of Explorers and Adventurers, don’t lose hope. As the portrait hanging in Mystic Manor
    shows, there are plenty of adventurers out there, and plenty of stories to be told…
    You may recognize Hightower, Mystic, and Oceaneer among S.E.A.’s ranks, but just think of the
    stories you could tell using the characters pictured above that we haven’t met yet!
    In the meantime, may we live by the hope of the Society of Explorers and Adventurers:
    to set forth on voyages of great discovery, returning to share tales of distant shores,
    astounding adventures, and amazing scientific achievements.
    We would like to thank Brian Krosnick from Theme Park Tourist one more time for this
    awesome article and story! Please go check out the original article, it’s great!! Be
    sure to comment your favorite S.E.A. ride or restaurant! The best comments will be featured
    in our next video!

    Importance of Railroads in Southwest Colorado
    Articles, Blog

    Importance of Railroads in Southwest Colorado

    August 11, 2019


    before the railroad came in 1881 the food had to be transported via wagon loads over the toll road to Silverton it took three days and there was no refrigeration to get fresh food up to the miners in Silverton now when the railroad opened in 1882 that three-day trip went to three and a half hours and the railroad had refrigeration they had boxcars that they could put five hundred pound blocks of ice in and and get fresh food into Silverton [Music] [Music] in October 27th 1870 William Jackson Palmer a former civil war General founded the Denver and Rio Grande railroad the Denver and Rio Grande competed to have the best route to connect to the mineral-rich San Juans by 1881 the railroad had extended southwest from Alamosa to Durango and was starting construction to Silverton when they arrived in the Animas Valley in 1881 the railroad brought commerce and infrastructure to Southwest Colorado after the removal of ute Indians to reservations in 1881 the San Juan Mountains became an important location for mining smelting lodging Commerce and other urban services but the economic development was dependent on the development of rail transportation there is a difference between most railroads you see in big cities and the railroads that once traveled over Southwest Colorado the primary difference between the two is the different sizes of track used when general Palmer was planning the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad he decided to build it with narrow gauge track the standard gauge track size is four feet and eight and a half inches narrow gauge track size is three feet and six inches Palmer liked narrow gauge because you can lay track up steep gradients and have sharper curves which worked better to the mountainous terrain later on as technology improved about 60% of the railroad had been converted to standard gauge before the railroads a human being could go about 20 miles a day and when the railroad came you could go 200 miles a day and that that sums it up I mean right there the loads that you could carry groceries getting food to Silverton over the toll road that took three days and and that that three-day trip went to three and a half hours and the amount of coal you could haul on the backs of animals was very minimal and now you could load gondolas that carried 20 tons each and you could put ten of them together and take 200 tons of coal to Silverton in one trip and instead of it taking seven days to get that coal up there it would only be three and a half hours yeah if the railroad hadn’t arrived Durango wouldn’t wouldn’t even exist there would be a little town called Animas City and and it consisted of a farming and ranching community that was what was here before the Rio Grande arrived in 1880 [Music] after the failure of the Silverton railroad Otto Mears and investors founded the Rio Grande Southern Railroad the railroad was dependent on its connections with the Denver and Rio Grande where they met at Ridgeway and Durango at Durango and Ridgeway they shared rail yards and Depot buildings the Rio Grande southern was the other railroad and it connected Durango with Ridgway and so the Rio Grande southern became operational in 1893 it was built by a Russian immigrant named Otto Mears the the Rio Grande southern went West out of Durango up Wildcat Canyon and through Hesperus and from Hesperus it went over to Mancos and from Mancos through Lost Canyon to Dolores and then up to Dolores River to Rico and over lizard head pass through Ophir then followed itself down the San Miguel River through Sawpit going over Dallas divide and ending up over in Ridgeway and Rio Grande Southern went bankrupt in 1953 it closed for good in 1953 so the railroad operated for for 60 years Otto Mears was an amazing man now he he operated three smaller narrow gauge lines that serviced the mines around Silverton the Silverton railroad the Silverton Northern and Gladstone Northerly railroad were also Otto Mears railroads now the Silverton railroad operated over Red Wountain Pass and it was Otto Mears was going to build that line all the way down to Ouray and it part of that never happened the the plans were laid for the Silverton railroad to to operate from Ironton down to Ouray and it even involved it was a cog a railroad and it involved a spiral tunnel that if had if it had been built there would have been a spiral tunnel that went down into Ouray and what a what an engineering feat that would have been if that had been completed but Otto Mears was a an amazing an amazing man of what he was able to accomplish in his lifetime the Rio Grande southern hauled all of the ore from Rico and Telluride to Durango to the smelter where the ore was processed the Rio Grande southern just like the Denver and Rio Grande railroad made it all possible to haul you know livestock they hauled a lot of cattle a lot of sheep a lot of there were a lot of crops that were hauled on there RGS there was a lot of lumber and that was hauled by the Rio Grande southern and and probably the most famous was was as that railroad struggled and it did struggle because of the the terrain that it traversed Mother Nature was always dealing blow after blow to the Rio Grande so there many snow storms and avalanches and washouts that would take away huge bridges and it would be months before they could get the track put back in and that was partially what caused the RGS to finally collapse the Rio Grande southern is famously known for rail buses known as the galloping geese these rail buses were built in the 1930s when the RGS was facing more financial problems the Geese were built out of automobiles like Buicks and pierce Arrows and they were cheaper to operate because they only required an operator rather than an engineer and a fireman and only needed gasoline to run on these Geese were the only rail cars to operate on a daily basis from the Year 1931 through 1949 in June 1931 the first motor was built by master mechanic Jack Odenbaugh and his crew at The Southern’s Ridgeway shops and eventually there was a fleet of seven in operation on the RGS even though originally built from Buicks and Pierce arrows they were serviceable and definitely fit their purpose to travel through the mountainous terrain originally called motors they got their nickname the galloping goose from the horns which could easily be mistaken for the call of a real goose and they would waddle down the tracks that were uneven and poorly maintained but what kept the railroad going for twenty years was the operation of the galloping goose galloping goose kept the mail contracts going and so therefore the railroad got federal money to keep those those geese operating and they hauled passengers they hauled groceries they hauled the mail and they kept the railroad going for another 20 years before it finally collapsed in 1953 when World War II started various railroads around the country helped out by donating rail equipment to help transport army supplies the Denver and Rio Grande Western the RGS and various other railroads in Colorado donated rail equipment for a rail line in Alaska taken over by the US Army known as the White Pass and Yukon railway during the war and when the war ended some of the railroads who had donated equipment to the army had filed for bankruptcy and were abandoned due to the automobiles gaining popularity and efficiency almost all railroads in the u.s. struggled to compete with automobiles and eventually closed down or resorted to something more profitable after World War two the RGS was struggling to remain profitable and only had a contract with the US Postal Service and small amounts of tourism to cling onto during its final years in 1952 the RGS lost the mail contract due to heavy snowfall that winter and filed for abandonment in 1953 the agreement for assumption of operations was signed by the director-general of railroads of the United States and its locomotives and cars were sold to other railroads meanwhile a huge oil and gas boom started in Farmington New Mexico and a pipeline needed to be installed the pipeline would have been shipped out on trucks but the roads in the area were not in the condition to service thousands of trucks the pipeline contractors approached the Denver and Rio Grande and made a deal the Denver and Rio Grande Western at the time was considering abandoning its narrow gauge lines but thanks to the pipeline shipment the Denver and Rio Grande Western’s life was extended for yet another decade after the shipment the Silverton branch started attracting tourism and once again extended the life of the railroad one more decade in 1968 the route from Durango to Alamosa became no longer profitable and was removed in 1971 the Silverton branch continued to operate serving the tourism industry of Durango for another 20 years until Charles Bradshaw jr. bought the railroad in 1981 and it has ran continuously ever since [Music] [Music] ever since these railroads have closed they have left various remains along their routes on the Denver and Rio Grande Western various Depots water tanks bridges most of the right of way tons of rolling stock and to successor railroads still remain to carry on the Denver and Rio Grande’s glory on the RGS there’s still some surviving rolling stock and equipment like the galloping geese but there aren’t as many remains on the right away on the RGS compared to the Denver and Rio Grande Western as the RGS closed 20 years earlier but we went to explore these remains of the right away we went from Dolores to Rico to document bridges water tanks and other remains of the Rio Grande southern [Music] behind me is the remnants of bridge 103 A this bridge was where the grade came out of lost canyon and headed into central Dolores the river it crossed with the Dolores River we are currently at the Dolores Depot which is a rebuild of the original Depot that once stood here today this is the home of galloping goose #5 [Music] behind me here is the original Rico water tank a standard water tank like this can hold 50,000 gallons of water [Music] behind me here is where the remains of the Gallagher trestle used to be where I’m standing would be the abutment on this side and all the way over there is where the ending abutment is [Music] we are currently at the Gallagher siding it is located it’s a few miles away from the Gallagher trestle on either side of me is the remainder of the ties from this signing it was probably used to store extra freight cars or to let trains past one another We’re currently at the Lizard Head Wye there’s currently no remains of this wye and it is located on top of Lizard Head pass one end of the wye used to head towards a stalk pen which used to be in this general area [Music] behind me here is the Trout Lake trestle it is the only trestle preserved on the RGS route this trestle has remained almost fully intact and if these barriers were here you could probably drive across it [Music] [Music] behind me here is the only remaining coal chute along the RGS grade a coal chute dumps pre-measured amounts of coal into the tenders of the trains down below behind the coal chute you can faintly see part of an old grade that went behind the coal chute where workers would shovel out piles of coal out of the cars into the chutes above a worker was called a coal heavy and were paid about 15 cents per ton [Music] [Music] [Music] [Music] [Music]

    Caltrain 150th Documentary – The San Francisco and San Jose Railroad
    Articles, Blog

    Caltrain 150th Documentary – The San Francisco and San Jose Railroad

    August 11, 2019


    It’s a very significant story for the Peninsula and really California and the West. If you can imagine California was only born 14 years before the railroad was extended down to San Jose. The actual railroad that started on the Peninsula was, of course, the San Francisco and San Jose railway. It had been on its fourth reorganization before work actually commenced in 1860. And the work started at Palo Alto both ways at San Francisquito Creek I believe. If you could imagine what the Peninsula and San Francisco looked like in 1850 this improvement by 1864 was not even imaginable. In that famous year of 1849 transportation down the Peninsula consisted of stage coach service, and some… paddle wheel boats that could maneuver down the Bay. The stage coach service was such that it was very expensive; $32 in that year of 1849, and also very slow. It would take nine hours to get from San Francisco to San Jose. And that was when conditions were pretty good. So the idea of a commute, of course, was completely out and even the basics of transportation were not in good order. San Jose was a long way from San Francisco the journey was not one to be lightly undertaken as there was no road worthy of the name. You might spend hours roaming around in search of a passable route and just when you thought you’d found one the fog would roll in. Then you had a gloomy choice to make: you could keep going and probably spend the night driving blindly around in circles. Or you could just stay put until the ceiling lifted the next morning. Such was El Camino Real between California’s metropolis and it’s new capital when the first legislature met in the close of 1849. The King’s Highway of the Spanish Days. Little work had been done on it since, furthermore any improvement seemed a matter for the far distant future. County treasuries had no funds for roads despite all California’s gold. That was going east almost as fast as it came down from the mountains. Even the legislature was something of a gamble, for California was not yet formally a state. “How grand it would be,” said the travel-worn solons as they assembled, were there only a railroad North to the big City. San Jose, you see, at the time, 1850, was state capital. And so there was a clamor in San Francisco and throughout California that there’d be a linkage of San Francisco and San Jose through rail. Rail was the most efficient transportation being pioneered now on the East Coast and some kind of transportation now was desirable for the West. Don’t forget, this is… the completion of San Francisco, San Jose Railroad was five years in front of the Transcontinental Railroad So this was progressive thinking. It began actually in that year of 1850 Business interests in San Francisco began to talk about the possibilities of linking San Francisco and San Jose. And there were three tries before finally the San Francisco, San Jose Railroad was incorporated in 1860 to get this moving. In july 1860 a fourth and final company was born. Again a president was provided by the bench; Judge Timothy Dame. But the real power in the new setup was the secretary Peter Donahue. Donahue was a 49er who had found more riches in iron than in gold. A few weeks in the gold fields had been quite enough for him. The close of 1849 found Peter Donahue back in San Francisco running California’s first foundry and machine shop in a tent on Montgomery Street. From this tiny air-conditioned start had grown the great Union Ironworks, humming with prosperity at First and Mission streets. Henry Newhall, his good friend, and the City’s leading auctioneer, joined him in the venture. These three; the mechanic, the auctioneer, and the judge, proceeded filing with a few associates to build the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. They were able to get private subscription to construct the railroad but very importantly was some tax money that came their way. The people of San Francisco, San Mateo and Santa Clara County voted bond monies for this project. $300,000 from San Francisco $100,000 from San Mateo and $200,000 from Santa Clara County. This made construction possible. At first construction went very well. Track was laid down pretty rapidly and many felt that there would be an early completion to the railroad but several things got in the way. Severe winters slowed down construction, but the most important aspect of delay was the Civil War. It made getting iron very difficult. Other kinds of materials were hard to get and this did delay construction a bit. But when you think that this this project still is completed within three years, well four years, that this is still pretty good progress. The San Francisco, San Jose Railroad experimented for the first time, in railroads anyways, with the use of Chinese labor and it proved successful. This was a lesson that Governor Stanford did not ignore. And then when it came time for him and his three partners, the “Big Four,” to put forward this Transcontinental Railroad the lessons learned by the San Francisco, San Jose Railroad and the usage of Chinese labor was well put. And you have to remember that the Civil War was going on and those that weren’t being taken up by the service were in various kinds of industries that were essential to not just the war effort, but to keep California’s economy going and so labor was difficult. When the San Francisco to San Jose Railroad was completed it was actually California’s third railroad, but really this San Francisco, San Jose Railroad was first to be a real substantial and probably the first that you could qualify as a commuter railroad. As those that were creating the industrial revolution desired to get their families out of the squalor of the 19th century city the railroad tracks were allowing them to do that. There was a party in October of 1863 to mark the occasion that the railroad had made it from San Francisco to Mayfield, which is in today’s Palo Alto, and then in January of 1864 Rails were completed to San Jose. The route is nearly straight. There are no formidable hills. The distance from the summit of the mountain to the Bay is not more than ten miles. And our climate is so dry that in ordinary years scarcely a stream which crossed by the road contains enough water to drive a mill. The principal creeks commencing at the North are Islis, Cupertino, San Mateo, Redwood, San Francisquito and Guadalupe. The latter is honored with the name of river While the road is not so crooked as most of the roads in the Eastern States It is still far from straight. In the first seven miles from the Mission the longest straight stretches a mile. For five miles out from the Mission the general course is a little west of south until the bank of the San Bruno Mountain is turned, to adopt a military phrase, and thence the course is southeast with many straight stretches three or four miles long. At the point of San Bruno Mountain the wide Pacific Ocean, distant two miles, is visible with its rolling surf from the cars and looking northward we see the steep coast and mountains beyond the Golden Gate. After passing the San Bruno Mountain we are almost constantly in sight of the Bay. The hills are entirely bare until we reached the 17-Mile House where chaparral and evergreen oak appear in the canyons and hollows. At San Mateo we see deciduous oaks and a few bay trees on the plain. Near Belmont you see the comb of the mountain, or Sierra, serrated with tall redwood trees. And beyond Redwood City we pass through a dense natural grove of deciduous oak trees hanging full of grey moss and mistletoe with an abundant undergrowth of the poison rhus, the leaves of which are now red and ready to fade. – Daily Alta California, October 18th, 1863. They got the railroad pretty much up and running about 1860 actually 1864, I’m sorry. Southern Pacific, well actually the Big Four; Huntington, Stanford, Crocker, and Hopkins, they had their finger in the pie quite early. By 1868 they are pretty much in control of the railroad, that was formalized in 1870. So from that point forward they were running this railroad between San Francisco and San Jose. And the railroad became a success. They did a freight service, and it’s the second oldest railroad in West of the Mississippi. The commuter service was established and it went from there to what we have today a double tracked line with a modern signal system and a railroad that’s carrying 50,000 passengers a day. When I commuted on it after World War II it was carrying 20,000 a day. So this railroad has come a long ways.

    Streetcars in St. Paul and Minneapolis
    Articles, Blog

    Streetcars in St. Paul and Minneapolis

    August 10, 2019


    [ Music ] [ Streetcar bell ] [ Matt Anderson ] The Twin Cities are full of monumental structures. Sky scrapers suggest commerce and industry. Stately homes project wealth and influence and churches and cathedrals reach up toward the heavens. Other structures are a bit less lofty. In the shadow of the Cathedral of St. Paul sits the east portal of the Selby Avenue tunnel. Abandoned and sealed, the tunnel is a curious monument to a once common mode of transportation, the streetcar. I’m Matt Anderson, a curator with the Minnesota Historical Society and today I’m talking about streetcars in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The Twin Cities first streetcar line opened in St. Paul in 1872. Minneapolis built it’s own line three years later. Horses pulled these first cars and while wheels on rails made the horses efficient pullers, Twin City operators were left to feed, care for, and shelter nearly 2,000 animals. Looking for a better solution, St. Paul installed a cable railway system in 1887. A cable was laid in the street and pulled in a continuous loop from a central power house. Streetcars operated by gripping or releasing the cable through a slot between the rails. It was a little like a tow rope on a ski hill. The mechanism was just as complicated as it sounds and was expensive to install and difficult to maintain. Frank Sprague, a Naval Academy grad who served aboard the USS Minnesota, found the best solution, electricity. Sprague strung electrical wires fed from a central power plant over it’s tracks. Streetcars contacted the wires through long poles with wheels that trolled along the wires and fed electricity to the cars motor. Electricity was a success and Minneapolis and St. Paul electrified all of their lines by 1892. Well, almost all of them and that brings us back to this tunnel. The climb up to the top of Selby hill was too steep and St. Paul kept a segment of the old cable line in place to tow cars up the grade. In 1906 the cable was finally replaced with a tunnel. Instead of climbing up the hill, streetcars could climb through it. The project cost nearly five hundred thousand dollars, about 1.4 million in today’s dollars. But it cut the grade in half and eliminated the need for cable power once and for all. The streetcar thrived until automobiles became practical and affordable. The Twin Cities system recorded it’s highest passenger count in 1920 when it carried more than 238 million people. Ridership totals fell each year thereafter, leveled off during the Great Depression and then climbed once again as World War II brought gas and tire rationing. The gains were short lived though and riders returned to their cars at war’s end. Buses moved in and the last Twin Cities trolley left Minneapolis in 1954. The Selby Avenue tunnel isn’t the only surviving artifact. Several pieces are preserved in the Minnesota Historical Society’s collections. This sign, once mounted inside a streetcar between the windows and the clear, straight ceiling, was one of many adds that fought for passengers’ attention. This uniform cap from 1936 is typical of the headgear worn by conductors and motormen and yes, with one exception, streetcars were crewed by men. That one exception came during World War II. With men either off fighting or working in stateside defense jobs, women were hired to operate the trolleys. Theola Erickson wore this jacket and used this money changer during her time as a streetcar motorette She was one of some 500 women who kept the trolleys running at a vital time when ridership surged. This wood sign dating to about 1920, stood at the corner of Lexington and St. Clair Avenues in St. Paul and while it may not be as colorful a story as some of the other pieces, it’s just as important. After all, most trolley trips either began or ended under a sign like this. From those first humble horse car lines in the 1870’s the Twin Cities streetcar network grew to 523 miles. Lines stretched from Stillwater to Excelsior and blanketed every neighborhood in Minneapolis and St. Paul. It’s been more than fifty years since the last of the old trolleys roamed city streets but in a way they live on in museum collections, in curious relics like this, and in the memories of all who rode them.

    Railroad Collections at the Minnesota Historical Society
    Articles, Blog

    Railroad Collections at the Minnesota Historical Society

    August 10, 2019


    [ Sounds of a Railroad Steam Engine ]
    I’m Hampton Smith and I’m Matt Anderson. [ Hampton Smith ] Today we’re in the
    Minnehaha Depot in Minneapolis. [ Matt Anderson ] Minnesota has a
    rich railroad history. In addition to shipping its own agricultural,
    mineral and manufactured products, the state was a rail gateway
    to the Pacific Northwest. [ Hampton Smith ] Yes, the Great
    Northern, the Northern Pacific, and the Soo Line all maintained their
    headquarters here; in addition there were many trunk lines, regional lines,
    and short lines that operated in the state. These are all well documented
    in the Society’s collections. [ Matt Anderson ] Most prominent
    among the three-dimensional artifacts is the “William Crooks.” The “Crooks”
    was the first locomotive to operate in Minnesota when it made its
    inaugural ten-mile run between St. Paul and St. Anthony in 1862.
    Today, the �Crooks,� together with an early baggage car and coach,
    is on display at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum in Duluth. Smaller
    artifacts represent both the worker’s and the passenger’s experience on the
    railroad. This Soo Line flagman’s kit dates to the mid 1960s. In the event
    of an emergency, the kit’s flares and, of course, flag provided the flagman
    with visual warning signals signaling the following train to stop to avoid
    a collision. This padlock, stamped with a patent date of 1936 and the initials
    of the Chicago, St. Paul, Milwaukee and Pacific, was used to a secure
    track switch,to prevent vandals from tampering with it and possibly causing
    a derailment. The lantern, like this early 20th Century example issued by
    the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, might be the railroader’s most iconic
    tool. Its purpose isn’t so much to see, but to be seen. The lantern improves
    the nighttime visibility of hand signals used to communicate train movements
    between a crew member and the engineer, for example, when coupling or uncoupling
    cars. When hand signals are impossible, crews communicate with walkie-talkies,
    like this 1970s example used on the Soo Line. Few jobs were as desirable as that of
    conductor on a premier passenger train. Not only was it prestigious, it came with a regular schedule, something particularly
    prized among employees used to being called to work at all hours. This uniform,
    dating to the middle of the 20th Century, belonged to a conductor on the Chicago,
    St. Paul, Milwaukee and Pacific. Perhaps he wore it on one of the
    Milwaukee Road’s famed Hiawatha trains between Chicago and the Twin Cities.
    Many railroads were acclaimed for the quality of their dining service.
    This graceful plate, with flowers and a peacock at center, was used aboard
    the Milwaukee Road’s Hiawatha trains in the 1930s. This elegant mustard pot
    also has a Milwaukee Road lineage, as evidenced by its engraved initials.
    This box of Soo Line coasters dates to 1958. The Northern Pacific’s dining cars
    were best known for their oversized baked potatoes, as proudly advertised on this
    spoon. Railroads often promoted their proximity to National Parks to entice
    vacationers. The Northern Pacific dubbed itself the “Yellowstone Park Line” in this
    employee’s badge, while the Great Northern tied itself to Glacier National Park
    in this decal. This piece of the past may, in fact, be prologue. The sign was used
    on the Milwaukee Road’s main line between the Twin Cities and Chicago,
    the very same track currently under study for high-speed passenger
    service in the coming years. [ Hampton Smith ] In addition to 3D objects
    the Minnesota Historical Society has impressive holdings of records from the
    major railroads headquartered in the state. The Great Northern and Northern Pacific
    were primary lines connecting the Upper Midwest and through it the rest of
    the nation, to the Pacific Northwest. The lines also tapped the great
    agricultural, mining and timber resources of the Dakotas, Montana,
    Idaho, Washington, Oregon and British Columbia. The society’s railroad records
    encompass a vast variety of items including Timetables, detailed maps,
    drawings of equipment, building plans, personnel records, thousands of
    photographs promoting the railroads, and of course, records documenting
    the operation of these vast business enterprises that became the model
    for the modern corporation. Complementing these records
    are the personal letters, diaries and financial papers of James J. Hill,
    founder of the Great Northern, and the papers of his son Louis Hill who
    followed him as president of the GN. The personal lives of these men were very
    much intertwined with their business interest and their private papers include
    much detailed information on the railroads. [ Matt Anderson ] Minnesota’s railroads
    brought new residents into the state, and shipped its products out
    to the rest of the country. [ Hampton Smith ] Those important
    contributions are preserved and presented in the collections of the
    Minnesota Historical Society.

    Key & Peele – Auction Block
    Articles, Blog

    Key & Peele – Auction Block

    August 10, 2019


    – ALL RIGHT,
    Y’ALL GATHER ROUND.
    GATHER ROUND.
    WELCOME, GENTLEMEN. WHAT A BEAUTIFUL AND BLESSED DAY
    FOR AN AUCTION. ALL RIGHT, Y’ALL,
    GET ON UP THERE. – PUT THAT WHIP DOWN
    AND SEE WHAT HAPPENS, THOUGH. – STRAIGHT UP. I DON’T CARE WHAT PLANTATION
    I END UP ON. I’M STRAIGHT STAGING A REVOLT
    IN THIS MOTHER[bleep]. – HELLS YEAH. – WE HAVE LOT A,
    LOT B, AND LOT C. – UH, $3 ON LOT A.
    – $4. – 5! – $5 GOING ONCE, TWICE,
    THREE TIMES, SOLD. LOT A GOES TO THE MAN
    IN THE BLACK HAT. – I MEAN, GOOD.
    – YEAH. – [chuckles] I’M GLAD
    I DIDN’T GET SOLD, ‘CAUSE I DON’T WANT TO BE OWNED
    BY ANOTHER HUMAN BEING. – WHOEVER BUYS ME, THEY BETTER
    KILL ME THE FIRST DAY, OR I’MA GO BUCK-WILD
    ON THE WHOLE OPERATION. – OKAAY? – NEXT ONE,
    GET UP ON UP THERE, NOW. – OH, THIS–OKAY. both: [inhale] – $6 ON LOT A. – $7!
    – EIGHT. – 9! – $9 GOING ONCE, TWICE,
    THREE TIMES, SOLD! both: [exhale] – OKAY, WELL,
    YOU HAVE TO BUY THAT DUDE. – IT’S A NO-BRAINER.
    – I MEAN, THAT GUY’S HUGE. – A MASSIVE INDIVIDUAL. – THAT’S TWO OF ME.
    – ANYBODY WOULD BUY HIM. – I’D BUY THAT DUDE. – MY QUESTION IS
    HOW’D THEY CATCH HIM? – NEXT! – OKAY. OH, YEAH.
    – YEAH. – $2 ON LOT A. – $2 GOING ONCE, TWICE,
    THREE TIMES, SOLD. – SEE, NOW,
    THAT SURPRISES ME. – THAT IS INTERESTING,
    TO SAY THE LEAST. – I MEAN, WELL, IT JUST SEEMS
    LIKE AT A CERTAIN POINT, IT’S LIKE, DO THEY EVEN KNOW
    WHAT THEY’RE LOOKING FOR? – IT’S LIKE
    THE WHOLE CRITERIA SEEMS JUST A LITTLE
    INCONSISTENT. – I MEAN, AT SOME POINT,
    I WANT TO BE ON LOT A. – YEAH, WHICH–
    CAN A BROTHA GET ON LOT A? – NEXT. – OH, HERE WE GO.
    – HERE WE GO. – BEEN A PLEASURE.
    – GIVE ‘EM HELL. – ALL RIGHT.
    – OKAY. – $8 ON LOT A. – GOING ONCE, TWICE,
    THREE TIMES, SOLD! – HOW DOES THAT HAPPEN?
    – NOPE, NOT TRUE. – HOW DOES IT HAPPEN? – WHAT YOU JUST SAID–
    THAT’S GOBBLEDYGOOK. OKAY? THAT CAN’T BE TRUE.
    ‘CAUSE WHAT CAN THIS DUDE DO? LOOK AT HIM.
    WHAT COULD HE PICK? A COTTON PLANT
    IS, LIKE, THIS TALL. – YES.
    – I’M SAY– NO OFFENSE, BROTHA,
    I’M JUST SAYING. – OFFENSE TAKEN.
    – WHA–[gasps] AM I WRONG? IS HE NOT SHORT?
    HE’S SHORT. BUT YOU ARE ACTUALLY SHORT
    IN REAL LIFE, IN THE WORLD. – YOU’RE GOOD, MAN.
    – ENOUGH. I WILL NOT HAVE
    MY REPUTATION TAINTED, SELLIN’ SUPERFICIAL,
    BIGOTED SLAVES. – SUPERFICIAL? DID THAT REALLY
    JUST COME OUT OF YOUR MOUTH? – THAT’S IT!
    THIS AUCTION’S OVER! – AUCTION’S OVER?
    – WHOA, WHOA, WHOA. NO, IT’S–IT AIN’T OVER.
    IT’S NOT OVER! I’M STRONG, Y’ALL! I’M VERY STR–
    I CAN SLEEP IN A BUCKET. – I’M FAST, I GOT STAMINA,
    AND I KNOW MAGIC. – MY WORST QUALITY
    IS THAT I’M A PERFECTIONIST. – LET ME MEN–
    HAVE I MENTIONED THIS? DOCILE. I AM AGREEABLE
    TO A FAULT. YOU SHOULD HAVE SEEN THE DUDE
    WHO ASKED ME TO GET ON THE BOAT WHEN WE CAME OVER HERE. – NOT A VIOLENT BONE
    IN MY BODY. – I JUST WALKED RIGHT ON,
    NO BIG DEAL. NEVER SEEN A BOAT
    IN MY LIFE.

    The “Secret” Underground Railroad in Indiana
    Articles, Blog

    The “Secret” Underground Railroad in Indiana

    August 10, 2019


    bjbjVwVw m searching for a road that shouldn
    t exist. I m looking for a path that is unknown to others. I m looking for a cemetery that
    might be an illusion of what it truly is. I m searching for a man that is more than
    what he appears. I am looking for an Underground Railroad cemetery in Indiana. Since I was
    a kid, I have grown up and heard stories about an old cemetery that was full of run-a-way
    slaves. That was located a couple of miles North of Lexington, Indiana. Dr. Hutchings
    use to take care of the sick for the run-a-way slaves on the railroad and the ones that would
    die he would bury them right in his back yard off of his farm. We re here today in search
    of that cemetery and the old location of the old farmhouse. The only problem is how do
    you find something that shouldn t be there? Where do you begin? What do you look for?
    Hello, Pam, Travis. Hi, Travis I m Pam Peters. An historian, who has devoted her life seeking
    the truth of the Underground Railroad, might be able to help me with my own discovery.
    The Underground Railroad wasn t really, it was a movement. It wasn t an organize system
    where there were three houses all along the way. I mean sometimes maybe that happened
    as you got further north, but down here you really couldn t say there was a system of
    safe house because they had to get out of this area. Even though Indiana was a free
    state, bounty hunters made it difficult for the African Americans to use anything other
    than the Underground Railroad. The one that went up through Watson and Charlestown headed
    a little bit further Northeast towards Otisco and headed through towards Lexington, that
    was the Louisville branch, but at the time of the Civil War they had to stop building
    because they needed the men for the war. So the entire unfinished, unused train track
    ran through Kentucky, to Indianapolis and up to Michigan. I m here in Lexington, Indiana
    talking to local historian Joe Gibson about this find. Could this be the path that led
    many to freedom? Hey Joe, what do we have back here? Well, this is one of the stone
    arches built by the Irish starting in the 1850 s when they were building the railroad
    track through Lexington and it started in Jeffersonville and past through all of Scott
    County, Eastern part of it all the way up to Vernon, Indiana. What year did it start?
    1850s? They started in the early 1850s and they started and had some financial problems
    and stopped it for a while and they picked it back up and again stopped because of the
    Civil War that intervened with them and after the civil war they started it back up and
    finished the track. So the railroad ceased production during the Civil War time. Yeah,
    it was just an open bed just sitting there where they had been working. Now Joe is it
    possible during this time of the Civil War, I mean you got a line running from Jeffersonville
    which was basically just like Kentucky all the way up here. Is it possible, it s a straight
    shot that you had run-a-way slaves coming up this way? I would say they probably did
    use that. It was an open road, at the time no tracks on it, no trains, it would have
    been an ideal situation for them to use. Right and this same railroad system goes up straight
    north up to, close by to Dr. Hatchings house doesn t it? Yes, its right along the edge
    of Dr. Hutchings place. So if I want to find his place I m going to need to get on this
    and head north? That s right. All right. You had a clear shot from Jeffersonville which
    is close to Louisville, Kentucky straight due north. All they had to do is walk and
    this railroad supposedly goes right towards Dr. Hutchings place. Dr. William Hutchings
    moved to Madison, Indiana after the civil war to raise a family. Not much is know about
    his life in Lexington and his involvement in the Underground Railroad, which is still
    theoretical. The problem is we really don t know where this cemetery is, its somewhere
    a mile or two miles north of Lexington. All we have to go on is that supposedly there
    s a double Colbert bridge that there s a creek that runs east straight to the old Dr. s farmhouse.
    So we re here trying to find that bridge right now. We have some great evidence of a creek
    near by and that might possibly mean a bridge as well. Right over here across the field
    we have Sycamores that are lining the edge of the field. Sycamores always grow close
    to water, they take a lot of water to grow and as you can see they are lining that field
    possibly meaning that there is a creek right there and when there s a creek and we re walking
    on the railroad, to get across the creek someone has to build a bridge. So let s see if there
    is a bridge that we can find. Could this Colbert Bridge really be evidence that this story
    is true? It is almost exactly one mile north of Lexington, right where it should be according
    to the record. Could this bridge signify shelter and protection to those who sought their freedom?
    How can I truly walk in the footsteps of legends? Will I find what I m looking for? The problem
    with these local stories are that the directions are really vague, we have been walking for
    a good 15 minutes up, got to be a mile within up stream and still no sign of any cemetery
    or foundation of a house. We re just going to have to keep on looking, see if we can
    find it. As I press on, the fading of the day creates despair. Am I chasing a rainbow?
    Is there truly and end to my search? Only, I am left in the presence of nature and its
    inhabitants but yet, I find hope. Great thing about March is in Southern Indiana Easter
    Lilies come out early. The thing interesting about Easter Lilies is that there not wild,
    these things have been planted, buy say they planted them a hundred and something years
    ago, even if a location is gone, these things will still spread out in the area. That means
    there was a house of some sort around in this location. So lets follow the Easter Lilies
    and we ll see if we can find where they lead to. I believe, this is a theory of mine but
    I believe that this is an old road. These things probably just like a horse and, horse
    and wagon trail probably led them right up to his house and he had Easter Lilies planted
    on both sides of the road, as you can tell we are going up some sort of flat area, it
    s kind of overgrown now but these Easter Lilies are still here. Oh wow! Look at this. We have
    an entire bed of Easter Lilies that is amazing, out in the middle of nowhere. Let see where
    this goes to. That could be the front yard. We got, we got foundation. We got a big hill
    of rubble right in front of us. Let s check that out. If I can recall right his house
    was a brick house and that would explain why there is so much brick around in this area.
    We have a tin roof here, this is tin, they had tin roofs back then. What happen was this
    house probably fell down and someone came in here with a bulldozer and just kind of
    pushed it all together, but I believe this is it. Now if we can find the old, if we can
    find the old cemetery then we ll be right on the mark. Alright, we have the old rubble
    of the house up on that hill, we got a little clear field, this was probably his farmland
    because he did own a farm as well as being a doctor. Still looking for the cemetery.
    Is a pile of bricks and tin enough proof Dr. Hutchings lived there? The evidence is building
    but I still need to find the cemetery to make my theory a fact. Will I find it in the twilight
    of the evening? What do those look like to you? Do those look like, do those look like
    tombstones? Those do. I think we found this thing. Row after row of bedrock commands an
    isolated hill in an empty forest. You can almost feel the historical presence. Why so
    many unmarked graves? Why here? I heard there was around 20 unmarked graves up here. We
    ve already uncovered around 40 and those are the ones we can visually see on the surface,
    no telling how many more are underneath all the rubble. But, what are they doing here?
    Why in the middle of the woods you have 40 some unmarked graves. The sad truth is that
    these are the ones that didn t make it north. This is their final resting place. This is
    their story. Well we found the old Dr. Hutchings farm, we found the cemetery, this is a historic
    day in Indiana. Thanks for joining us with Indiana Outdoors, I m Travis James. Man, look
    at that view. urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags place urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags
    State urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags City urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags
    PlaceName urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType m searching for a road that shouldn
    t exist tjames Normal tjames Microsoft Office Word IES Dan Agust n de Guadalix m searching
    for a road that shouldn t exist tulo Documento Microsoft Office Word MSWordDoc Word.Document.8

    The Railroad Journey and the Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History 214
    Articles, Blog

    The Railroad Journey and the Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History 214

    August 9, 2019


    Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
    World History and today we’re returning to a subject that, could have an entire Crash Course
    series all of its own: the Industrial Revolution. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, are you going to do
    a whole series on the Industrial Revolution? Because that actually sounds really boring. Yeah, Me From the Past, no. I’m a little bit
    busy. I’ve got this movie that’s about to film. So yeah, no. But, uh, we are going
    to talk about like a specific and essential slice of the Industrial Revolution, that also
    like pleases my four year old self a lot: Railroads! Choooga chooga choooga chooga choo choo! We’re going to be talking about a small book by
    Wolfgang Schivelbusch called “The Railway Journey.” So in this Crash Course World History series
    we’re talking a lot about a lot of different history books so that we can approach subjects
    from a variety of angles. We want to try to introduce you to how exciting
    history can be and also how unsettled it is. How many arguments there still are. So to be clear, I’m not saying I agree with
    everything in this book – it’s one interpretation of a series of events. But it contains a ton
    of interesting ideas, and it’s one of those books that makes you think differently about
    the world. And it’s vitally important that we think
    about the role technology plays in our lives including the technology of railroads. So railroads were these big, loud machines
    that people hadn’t seen before, which makes them a pretty good metaphor for industrialization. Also, since not everyone worked in factories,
    railways were one of the few places that both middle and upper class people came face to
    face with industrial machinery. You know, if you were a factory worker that
    stuff was around you all day everyday slowly killing your soul. But if you were, say, a
    mortgage broker your work life hadn’t changed – it’s not like you had a computer. But the presence of railroads reminded you
    that you were in a different world from that of your parents or grandparents. It wasn’t
    just locomotion though, the railway itself changed the idea of an industrial machine
    to include its surrounding infrastructure, right? You needed rails and these huge engines. You
    needed timetables and organization. That encompassed everything that industrialization was about. And since railways changed the lives of middle
    and upper class people, who tend to write a lot, we know a lot about them. And the change was definitely seen as radical.
    For instance the phrase, “annihilation of time and space” was a pretty popular one
    when talking about railways. This wasn’t just a fancy way of talking
    about how railways sped up travel, but also the way that the railroad destroyed traditional
    relationships with nature. I mean sometimes nature was literally annihilated
    as when tunnels were cut through hills and depressions were graded to make the railroad as
    straight as possible, “as if drawn with a ruler.” But railroads also shaped space and time in
    a manner totally unprecedented in human history by, for instance, speeding up travel times
    which shrunk the world. And then they expanded space by creating suburbs
    and new towns. In a positive development for 99% of the population,
    railroads changed space too by opening up previously inaccessible like vacation spots
    of the wealthy. Then the wealthy migrated further away to
    places only accessible by air travel like, I don’t know, Ibiza. But now Ibiza’s full
    of Eurotrash because of inexpensive airlines. Where will the 1% vacation! Poor rich people that have to go to the Hamptons
    which aren’t even that nice, they’re just really expensive.
    And then there’s the fact that railroads literally changed time, or at least created
    the standardization of time. Like before railroads, time in London was 4 minutes ahead of Reading,
    and 14 minutes ahead of time in Bridgwater. Then in 1847 The Railway Clearing House – an
    organization established to regulate rail travel – established Greenwich mean time
    as the standard time on all rail lines, and in 1880 it became general standard time in
    England. So to be clear, time as you know it is about as
    old as the oldest living person in the world. But, the most obvious way that railroads changed
    things was travel. Until railroads, all travel was powered by muscles – either animal or
    human – so we had a sense of distance as defined by fatigue. Like when your horse died,
    you had gone a long way. Or your horse like sprained a leg going down
    a hill and you had to shoot it. Point being, for 250,000 years all power was
    muscle power and unless you could like ride a cheetah you weren’t going to go faster
    than about 20 mph. So babies could go really fast because they
    can ride cheetahs, but adults, there’s no way, cheetahs weigh like 20 lbs. As Thomas
    De Quincey put it: “When we are travelling by stage-coach at
    the rate of eight or ten miles an hour, we can understand the nature of the force which
    sets the vehicle in motion … and in the course of a day’s journey we can appreciate
    the enormous succession of efforts required to transport a loaded vehicle from London
    to a distant town.” Although to be fair, De Quincey’s ideas
    about enormous effort may have been a bit skewed as he also wrote Confessions of an
    Opium Eater Anyway, People were so comfortable with horses
    that some even argued that horsepower was superior to mechanical locomotion because
    horses relied more on renewable and easily obtained fuel. By the way, as you may see in comments there
    is still a debate about whether horse power or railroads are more carbon efficient. Anyway, the romantics at the time saw railroad
    travel as a “loss of a communicative relationship between man and nature.” And some also saw
    the old technology – horses – as having like more soul. Mechanical travel was generally seen as a
    definite economic win since it “rendered all transportation calculable,” and economists
    love to calculate. Railroads also changed the way we looked at the world, like literally
    through a window, with nature being this blur. And you can argue that like watching the world
    go by through a static window kind of prepared people for motion pictures and television
    where we stare at a screen that doesn’t move and watch a world that does. Now these noisy, coal powered trains affected
    all the senses, but especially vision. As Victor Hugo described it in 1837, “the flowers by the side of the road are
    no longer flowers but fleck, or rather streaks of red and white; there are no longer any
    points, everything becomes a streak.” So many people experienced this landscape
    as a monotonous blur, but for others it was something new and exciting. For Benjamin Gastineau,
    the constantly changing view was thrilling: “in quick succession it presents the astonished
    traveler with happy scenes, sad scenes, burlesque interludes, brilliant fireworks, all visions
    that disappear as soon as they are seen.” That sounds like a great movie. All I see when I
    look out the train window is the infinite abyss of meaninglessness, and then I pull out my phone and
    open Floppy Bird and everything is okay again. And railroad travel also changed human behavior.
    Okay let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Since looking at the landscape was no longer
    the same experience, and, according to the medical journal The Lancet, “The rapidity
    and variety of the impressions necessarily fatigue both the eye and the brain.” many
    people turned to reading books on railroads. For starters, reading was a way for upper
    class passengers to avoid having to talk with each other. European first and second class
    rail cars were designed to mimic stage coaches, with passengers facing each other. Now, in
    pre-railroad travel, you knew you were going to be stuck with whoever else was in your
    stagecoach, so it was important to try to be nice and strike up a conversation. But
    the short duration of railroad journeys discouraged the formation of rapport between travellers,
    changing our habits and turning reading on the train into a necessity.
    Rail travel also brought new fears, like when travelling at the speed of a cannonball, it
    was hard to overcome one’s terror of a possible derailment. As Thomas Creevy put it: “It is really flying, and it is impossible
    to divest yourself of the notion of instant death to all upon the least accident happening.” So that’s why I’m afraid of flying. And
    to be fair railway accidents were common enough that physicians began to document cases of
    “railway spine” a condition suffered by people who had come through railway accidents
    with complaints of pain, but few or no signs of physical injury. By the end of the 1880s,
    however, railway spine gave way as a diagnosis to “traumatic neurosis” reflecting new
    ideas in psychology. Eventually, pathological explanations for what looks a lot like nervous shock
    slipped away and only the psychological ones were left. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So new technologies
    often bring new anxieties because change is terrifying. Remember how the internet was
    going to bring an end to reading books? Remember how “e-learning” was going to
    replace classrooms and there were going to be all of these “e-teachers” who would
    replace your real teachers? But yeah, no, it turns out that real life
    teachers are pretty great. Like Heinrich Heins wrote that railroads produced “tremendous foreboding such as we always
    feel when there comes an enormous, an unheard-of event whose consequences are imponderable
    an incalculable.” Fortunately, our new industrial world view
    associated change with progress. Like this notion that humans move forward,
    that children will have a better life than their parents did – that’s new. As… oh it’s time for the Open letter! But first let’s see what’s in the globe
    today – oh no, it’s change. I hate change. An Open Letter to Progress: One of the reasons,
    I think, we’re afraid of change is that change doesn’t really mean progress. For the vast majority of human history the
    lives of children could be much worse than the lives of their parents. It depended on disease and
    weather and kings – mostly on disease and weather. There was no idea that moving forward also
    meant moving up. And I would argue that certainly innovation
    has given us much to be grateful for, but there’s something to a reluctance to change. I love you progress and you have given me
    much to be grateful for, but a gentle reminder: change doesn’t always mean progress. Best wishes, John Green. So as Schivelbusch puts it “new modes of
    behavior and perception enabled the traveler to lose the fear that he formerly felt towards
    the new conveyance.” “The sinister aspect of the machinery that
    first was so evident and frightening gradually disappeared, and with this disappearance,
    fear waned and was replaced by a feeling of security based on familiarity.” Huh, that sounds precisely like my relationship
    with a phone that always knows where I am. New technologies often change the way people
    live and perceive the world. Like one example would be the printing press. It made knowledge
    and information available as never before. But it only really affected a small segment
    of the population, at least initially. Industrialization was different in that it
    had a profound effect on large numbers of people in a very short time. And since the
    dawn of industrialization, the pace of this change and the enormity of its impact has only
    increased like, well, like a speeding train I guess. Except it’s like a speeding train that gets
    faster and faster until it reaches the speed of light – oh my gosh what a wonderful idea.
    Somebody call Elon Musk. So for most of us the Internet is a technology
    very much like the railroad. Like the railroad, the Internet in its earliest stages was both frightening
    to detractors and exhilarating to its boosters. And like railroads it has both shrunk the
    world, enabling me to communicate with you via, you know, the tubes – I don’t really
    know how the Internet works. And it’s also changed our perception of time. Think about how much sooner you expect a response
    to an email or text message vs a letter or even a phone call.
    Think about the fact that you can order a phone from China and have it arrive at your door in a
    week and that still feels like kind of a long time. In the age of the railroads to get a phone,
    which didn’t exist, from China to Indianapolis would’ve taken months. To get that same
    nonexistent phone from China to Indianapolis in 1700 would’ve taken more than a year.
    And then you turn it on and there’s not even a cell network. And you’re like “This
    is essentially just a brick. I waited more than a year and I can’t do anything with
    it!” And once the battery dies you’re going to go to plug it in and oh right there’s
    no freaking electricity! So yeah, the world is different. Now like
    railroads there’s plenty of nostalgia about the time before the Internet when people supposedly
    consumed less and talked to each other more because they weren’t constantly on their phones. But if railroad reading is any indication
    we’ve been looking for ways to use technology to avoid interacting with each other in real
    life for a long time. And we shouldn’t forget that railroads made
    travel easier and opened up new vistas and made goods less expensive and brought people
    closer together. And they also helped create the idea of nostalgia.
    I mean without industrial production the nostalgia for pre-industrial methods of travel and manufacture
    couldn’t exist. One of the best things about books like “The
    Railway Journey,” is that they help us to draw parallels between the past and the present
    and get us to focus on overlooked aspects of history, like what it meant for people
    to ride on trains for the first time. Now our study of history shouldn’t be focused
    too much on what we in the present can learn from the past, but trying to glimpse innovation
    and change as those who lived through it saw it, well I think that can be very useful to those of us
    living through a new technological revolution. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is filmed here in the Chad and
    Stacey Emigholz studio in Indianapolis, it’s possible because of all these nice people
    who make it, and because of our Subbable subscribers. Subbable is a voluntary subscription service
    that allows you to support Crash Course directly so we can keep it free for everyone forever.
    Also you can get like, I don’t know, Mongol t-shirts, posters, DVD’s if you want to
    support us. Regardless, thanks for watching and as we
    say in my hometown, “thanks for being awesome. Wait, no, we say, “don’t forget to be
    awesome.”