Browsing Tag: France

    30 ans de tramway à Grenoble : quelles leçons pour Québec?
    Articles, Blog

    30 ans de tramway à Grenoble : quelles leçons pour Québec?

    September 12, 2019


    grenoble en france une agglomération de 450 mille habitants niché au pied des alpes sa superficie est identique à celle de québec mais les deux villes se distinguent par leur choix en matière de mobilité il y a une trentaine d’années avec un mince appui populaire de 53% grenoble s’est dotée d’un tramway nous avons tenu bon nous avons fait la fête et puis on a reconnu quelques temps après quand on l’a fini l’aménagement d’accès une réussite michel destot a été maire de grenoble pendant près de 20 ans ils placent l’expansion du réseau de tramways parmi ses plus grandes réalisations depuis 1987 plus de 40 km de rails ont été posées à chaque jour environ 240 milles déplacements sont enregistrées dans les 80 stations le succès du tramway grenoble n’est plus à démontrer même si le réseau de transport de l’agglomération propose plusieurs dizaines de parcours d’autobus c’est le tramway avec ses cinq lignes qui génère 65 % des déplacements mais attention ce succès d’achalandage n’est pas le fruit du hasard sur les lignes principales un tramway circulent en moyenne toutes les 3 à 5 minutes le coût d’un passage unique est fixé à 1 euro 60 centimes soit à peine de dollars 40 canadien présentement à québec il faut prévoir trois de leurs cinq ans pour monter dans un autobus la mobilité ces endroits il faut permettre à chacun quel que soit son revenu de pouvoir se déplacer iliad mongaburu en étonnera plusieurs par son allure décontractée mais c’est lui le nouveau président du smtc l’équivalent du réseau de transport de la capitale chez nous lors des élections municipales de 2014 ils étaient au nombre des candidats écologistes qui ont créé la surprise en prenant le pouvoir à grenoble depuis la nouvelle administration à limiter la vitesse à 30 km heure dans 80% des rues et reconfigurer plusieurs artères en sens unique pour favoriser les déplacements à pied ou à vélo n’empêche il se défend d’avoir déclaré la guerre à l’auto ce sont des mesures qui permettent d’améliorer la sécurité routière et qui permettent de diminuer les pollutions dans le territoire alors ici la parc c’est quoi retirer du débat public michel destot souligne pour sa part la façon dont le tramway à transformer grenoble on a reconquis comme on dit l’urbanisme de cette ville qui n’était pas peut-être extrêmement belle quand vous avez des villes comme lyon ou bordeaux qui sont les villes très unie très belle évidemment paris sur l’avenue jean jaurès lors des travaux de la ligne e complété en 2015 les voies du tram ont été gazonné et des traverses pour piétons ajouté la ville a choisi de retirer deux voies de circulation dans chaque direction afin d’aménager des trottoirs élargis mais le chantier qui a duré deux ans a paralysé le quartier alors je sais pas comment il fait le québec n’y suis pas allé encore j’espère y aller je venais revoir une fois que les travaux seront finis cette commerçante préfère en rire mais elle jure avoir vécu l’enfer et travaux du tram sont très très dur pour pas se voiler la face pour tout ce qui est commerce c’est traite c’est un passage qui est très très difficile la disparition de la moitié des stationnement sur rue à fait mal au commerce et la circulation est souvent lourde sur la seule voie automobile restantes tu l’avais débris fille sur le deuil et coussins etc mais selon ce fleuriste l’avenue jean jaurès se transforme pour le mieux vous voyez c’est un quartier qui bouge c’est pas un quartier qui est devenu morts en tout cas il y avait du monde avant quand c’était beaucoup de voitures il ya du monde aujourd’hui parce que beaucoup de piétons des arrêts de tram etc malgré les irritants personnes à grenoble ne semble remettre en question le tramway le plus récent projet de prolongement toujours en cours a été lancée sans la moindre opposition ici olivier lemieux radio-canada grenoble

    Le trajet en tramway et la banlieue sud du Dnipro |11| conhecimento com Ucrânia
    Articles, Blog

    Le trajet en tramway et la banlieue sud du Dnipro |11| conhecimento com Ucrânia

    September 11, 2019


    Дамы и господа! Цель сего видео – показать трамваи и пересечь половину города, чтобы достичь района, относящегося к центру города. Я нахожусь на районе, который называется “12й квартал”. (это проспект Богдана Хмельницкого, до переименования – улица Героев Сталинграда) По проспекту ходит 12й трамвай. Этот маршрут соединяет юг Днепра с вокзалом. Трамвай №12 идёт почти до вокзала. Маршрут начинается на юге города возле посёлка “Мирный”. Последняя остановка – площадь Старомостовая. Весь маршрут занимает примерно час – час и двадцать минут. Подвижной состав 12го трамвая – трамвай Tatra T3SU чехословацкого и чешского производства. Данный трамвай выпускался с 1962 по 1999 год. Это трамвайный билет. Проезд стоит 1 гривна 50 копеек. Случилась поломка, поэтому несколько трамваев стоят на месте. Спасибо за просмотр. До свидания.

    Articles

    First UK-China Train Today, Whiskey On Board, To Pass Through 7 Nations

    September 8, 2019


    the first ever freight train from Britain to China laden with whiskey soft drinks and baby products started its mammoth journey on Monday along a modern-day Silk Road trade route and the 32 container train around 600 metres long left from the vast London gateway container port on the River Thames Estuary bound for Yvonne the Chinese east coast it was seen off on its 18 Bay 12 thousand kilometer journey with a string quartet British and Chinese slags and speeches voicing hope that it will cement a new golden age of trade between the two countries as the UK leaves the European Union the first train from China to Britain arrived on January at least filled with clothes and other retail goods and Monday’s the facce was the first journey in the other direction the rail route is cheaper than air freight and faster than sea freight offering logistics companies a new metal option the driver gave a thumbs-up and tooted his horn as he got the wagons rolling at the port in stanford-le-hope east of London the train will go through the channels animal before travelling across from Belgium Germany Poland Belarus Russia and Kazakhstan before heading into China the containers will be taken off and put on different wagons at the Belarus border as the former Soviet Union country views a wider rail gauge the containers switch back to standard gay trails at the Chinese border an operation that typically takes around two hours we are proud to be able to offer the first ever UK to China export train said view bin saints the chairman of your voice I’m its industrial investment restoring the ancient Silk Road as a means by which China not Europe end now the UK can exchange goods is an important and exciting initiative I hope you liked this video and don’t forget to watch last video thanks for watching and have good day

    London and Paris Vacation – Traveling Robert
    Articles, Blog

    London and Paris Vacation – Traveling Robert

    August 30, 2019


    – Hello everybody. Coming to you today from
    the very heart of London. Bonjour, from Paris. (light music) ♪ I’m riding ♪ ♪ Riding riding riding ♪ ♪ Riding with my RV ♪ ♪ My RV ♪ ♪ Wherever I want to be ♪ ♪ Because I’m free ♪ ♪ In my RV ♪ – Greetings from the Miami
    International Airport. Today we are flying across
    the pond, to London, to be exact. With a short layover at Lisbon. For a change, our flight is delayed. So what better way to pass the time, than having a cold one while we wait. I was supposed to get a window seat, but the plane has this
    kind of gimmicky and fuzzy, but way cool, displays, showing the view from the cockpit. It is almost as good as having a window. It is a good idea to stretch
    your legs on a long flight, like this one. How? Well, by visiting the lavatory. So that’s what I’m doing,
    besides, well, you know. You get a pretty good dinner, with a choice of fish and
    pasta, and a decent breakfast. Even though it is the
    most uncomfortable flight I have ever been on, it
    goes by pretty quickly. In just under seven hours, we are landing in Lisbon, Portugal. (jazz music) We are at Lisbon Airport,
    right here in Portugal, another country to add to my list. Our connecting flight is delayed, again, due to a pilots’ strike, but eventually, they take us on this bus, to a plane which is parked way back, by the runway, and off we go again. We’re leaving. (jazz music) This time, I manage to get a window seat, and we get a spectacular view of Lisbon, as the plane takes off. As the plane turns, it
    is almost like the pilot is giving us an aerial tour
    of the city on purpose. The bridge over the Tejo
    River is to our right, does have a striking resemblance to the Golden Gate, in San Francisco. It was actually built by the same company that built the Bay
    Bridge, in that same city. (jazz music) Let’s go back, instant replay style, and see all this from my
    mom’s camera point of view. She is sitting a few rows further back, another seat arrangement screw up. We get fed one more time. It is almost too much food. (jazz music) We finally land at
    London Heathrow Airport. (jazz music) We take a black cab to our
    Air BNB flat in Greenwich. (rock music) Is that a game of cricket
    I hear in the background? After over an hour, and
    more than 100 pounds later, we arrive at our flat in Greenwich. We’ll take an Uber next time. The flat is actually
    quite nice as an Air BNB. The kitchen has everything we need, even an espresso machine. Let me continue showing
    you around the flat. That’s British for apartment, by the way. (jazz music) Now, we go out into the neighborhood. Google says there’s a supermarket nearby, but to be honest, I think we’re lost. Hello everybody, I have arrived here, we have arrived here at London. While this is not the
    most attractive of places, here we are, looking for a supermarket. We were originally going to
    go to the British Museum, but, hey, we had a series of
    problems getting here. A strike by the airline pilots, et cetera, so we have arrived here too late to go to the British Museum today, but, we’ll go tomorrow, or the day after. I have no idea where we are. We’re looking for a Tesco
    supermarket to buy some supplies. We went to a Tesco and
    bought some supplies, and now we’re going back to the apartment, and tomorrow, hopefully, we’ll be able to see a lot more of the great landmarks this city has to offer. (light music) Don’t be misled by the
    unattractiveness of this little stretch of town,
    here by the Deptford Creek, and the railroad tracks. The neighborhood is actually quite lovely. We wish we had more time to explore it. Good morning, from Greenwich. Let’s head out to London. We walk a short distance,
    towards the river, to take the Clipper to the city center. Greenwich is actually real pretty. Here, we stumble upon the Cutty Sark. One of the last sailing tea
    clippers ever to be built, before they started using
    steam for locomotion, or whatever the naval term is. Here’s our view from the pier. The tall pyramid is the Shard, the tallest building in
    the city, and I believe, also in all of Western Europe. Right here, next to the pier, we see the Royal Naval College, and the University of Greenwich. I think our boat is coming. (light music) Off we go, cruising
    along the Thames River. (light music) Here, we see Britain’s
    second tallest building, at One Canada Square. As we pass by the Canary
    Wharf, business district. Out in the distance, we see
    the iconic Tower Bridge. I think this is really efficient of us, taking this Clipper. It saves us time, instead
    of taking a dedicated river cruise for tourists, we are seeing all the same sights from a
    mode of public transportation. Pretty cool. After we pass the Tower Bridge,
    the warship to the right, is the HMS Belfast, of
    Second World War prominence. Yep. (light music) As we start going under
    the Millennium Bridge, we also see the dome of
    St. Paul’s Cathedral. It is such a stereotypical
    London weather day, overcast and gray, all
    we need is a little fog. Actually, I’ve learned
    that the famous London fog, is actually a myth. It was caused by pollution
    from the coal mine chimneys, in the 19th century, so
    it doesn’t happen anymore. We approach Westminster,
    and it is time for us to get off the boat. We are getting on the London Eye, the giant Ferris wheel
    next to the Thames River. As we continue gaining
    altitude, we start enjoying great views of the city, from
    this higher vantage point. The wheel rotating ever so slowly. It takes about half an hour to complete one whole revolution. (light music) We see Westminster down
    there, and let me zoom in on this double decker bus. We’ll see lots of them. We can also Buckingham Palace. The square in front of
    it, packed with tourists, waiting for the changing
    of the guards ceremony. (light music) Our 30 minute ride on this 135 meter tall Coca Cola commercial is coming to an end. The serene ride on the
    London Eye will set you back about 30 pounds, yeah. About a pound per minute. It does include a five
    minute long 4D movie. Whether it’s worth it or not,
    I leave it entirely up to you. I think I would do it once, like today, on my first visit to London. Next time, I’ll spend that
    money on some fish and chips, and the London Pride beer. For sure. Hello everybody. Coming to you today from
    the very heart of London. We walk across the Westminster Bridge. To the north bank of the
    river, along with the hundreds of other tourists in the area. (bell chiming) (light music) Here, we arrive at Westminster Abbey, the famous Gothic church here in London, and I really wanted to go inside. But the line is over an hour, and they don’t even let you
    take pictures or video inside, so, as much as I wanted to
    see it, forget about it. We will content ourselves,
    contemplating its anticlimactic facade. (bell chiming) We continue walking
    towards Parliament Square, with its statue of Mahatma Gandhi. Also, they have a statue of Churchill, and all the tourists are taking pictures. We wanted to continue exploring this area, but we are getting really hungry, and a little tired of walking around. So we take an Uber. We are going to eat at a
    typical fish and chips place. The Chippy, as it is also known (mumbles). The Rock and Sole place, it is one of the oldest ones in town. Very good food and service. Since we are in the neighborhood, we walk down to the Covent Garden area. (light music) At the center of it all,
    there is this former fruit and vegetable market. Nowadays, this popular shopping district and restaurants, and it’s a touristy site. Let’s admit it. We continue walking south,
    until we reach the Strand. One of London’s main arteries. The road actually dates
    back to the Roman times, and then, it was also
    used in the Middle Ages, and this zig zagging white
    lines on London streets, are there actually to alert
    drives of possible pedestrians crossing the street in the area. Who would have thunk it? We continue towards Trafalgar Square. (bagpipe music) The area is also very lively and touristy, with street musicians and
    performers, right here, in front of the National Portrait Gallery. The name of the square commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar,
    of the Napoleonic War. At the center here, we
    have Nelson’s Column. Now coming to you from Trafalgar Square, right here in London. As you can see behind
    me, the National Gallery, and we’re gonna continue
    roaming the streets of this great city. Here also, they usually
    hold many demonstrations, and most importantly, the
    New Year’s celebrations. (bagpipe music)
    (sirens blaring) We decide to hop on the
    public transportation, so we go down to the Underground to get something called an Oyster Card. The Oyster Card is a rechargeable card that you can use on the
    Underground, and also, on the bus system. We take one of the double decker buses, going east on the Strand,
    towards St. Paul’s Cathedral. We are now riding in one of the
    classic double decker buses. (jazz music) We have managed to get into
    one of the real old buses. (jazz music) Hey. We get off by St. Paul’s Cathedral. Queen Anne’s statue is
    right in front of it. We make an attempt to go inside, but it is almost 20 pounds,
    and they don’t let you film inside either, so we
    decide not to go inside St. Paul’s after all. (people talking) We follow the crowds towards
    the Millennium Bridge, which is a modern,
    pedestrian only passage, which opened on June of 2000. Hence, its name, Millennium. There you go. There’s a juggler, pretty cool. (jazz music) They also have these
    people with these carts, selling roasted nuts. It seems to be a thing. Here, I’m sure I was
    saying something profound and inspiring about the bridge, but, unfortunately, my
    microphone malfunctioned. Okay, let me try to overdub. Hey, here’s St. Paul’s
    Cathedral behind me, and the Thames River, the
    Walkie Talkie, the Shard. You get the idea. The bridge was very wobbly
    when it first opened, so they had to close it
    down for two more years, to eliminate the wobble. It finally reopened in 2002. (jazz music) Here, we also pass by Shakespeare’s Globe. It’s a replica of the 1599 Globe Theater, which was built by the playing company to which Shakespeare belonged. (jazz music) We hop in an Uber. (jazz music) We’re going towards the Tower of London, which is not that far, but
    we want to waste no time. Besides, mother is tired. The Tower of London is
    this historic castle on the north bank of the river, and it is a major tourist
    attraction here in London. It houses the crowned jewels of England. (rock music) Many prisoners, including
    Queen Anne Boleyn, entered through here, the Traitor’s Gate. We have some refreshments. Taking a quick break here. Overlooking the Shard,
    which is where we intend to end our day today. While we are here, let’s walk
    towards the Tower Bridge. Here, we see the London City Hall, this funky looking building on
    the other side of the river. We arrive and go across the bridge. This iconic landmark is a
    bascule and suspension bridge. It dates back to the late 19th century. It was an engineering marvel,
    when it was completed. (jazz music) More roasted nuts carts. (jazz music) We take yet another
    Uber, towards the Shard. In order to get to the building, we must go through the
    London Bridge Station. Here we are. Now this place is expensive. It is 25 pounds to get to the top. Really, 25 pounds. That is almost $40 US. Hey everybody. I am coming to you from the Shard, the tallest building in Western Europe. Here we are, ending
    our day here in London. (jazz music) To continue my rant about
    this place and the price, I think out of all the
    places we have visited here in London so far, this
    one is quite a rip-off. 25 pounds for just standing
    around the top floor, behind some somewhat dirty glass. Yes, the views are pretty impressive, even on this somewhat gray and hazy day, but I don’t think it’s worth the 40 bucks. Sorry. (jazz music) We take the Underground,
    also known as the Tube, in order to get back
    to our Greenwich flat. At the Bank Station, we switch to the DLR, or the Docklands Light Rail. It is a system of automated trains that goes to this further
    area, where we’re staying. As night falls, we approach
    our destination in east London. (jazz music) We end the day at this local
    pub, here in Greenwich, called The Miter, and I discovered my new favorite London ale. It is called London Pride. Good morning. Today, we continue exploring London. We take the DLR once again, and get off at the Canary Wharf station. The station is actually quite nice, with this elliptical glass roof. We are at Canada Square,
    here in the Canary Wharf, which is a major business
    district here in London. We walk towards the Tube station. Here, we take the Jubilee
    Line towards the Green Park. This is definitely the
    fastest and most efficient way to travel in the city,
    but you are underground, so there is no scenery. We get off at the Green Park station, and walk along these long
    passageways to the exit. There’s a light mist coming down. As the name of the station suggests, we emerge at Green Park. It is one of the royal
    parks here in London, and it’s very close to Buckingham Palace, which is, coincidentally,
    where we’re going. All these people seem to be
    here for the same reason we are. To witness the changing
    of the guard ceremony. There’s really not a
    whole lot going on so, either we are too early,
    or what’s more likely? Late. The band is playing inside though. Let’s get a little closer. I don’t really know what’s going on, but this is kind of dull. Now they stopped playing. Well, we’re standing right
    here, next to the gate, so, should I ask these
    two guys what’s going on? Maybe not. (royal music) They have started playing again, and it looks like they are coming out, so let’s try to get a good spot. So many tourists are
    waiting here for this. I really hope it is worth it. But, not only did we get here late, we got a horrible viewing spot. Thank goodness for my selfie stick, but still, we’re too far away. (marching band music) Yep, that was it. I am surrounded here by all
    this disappointed tourists, who couldn’t see anything. I don’t really see what the big deal is. I mean, the band sounds nice, it’s a tradition, it’s a thing. You know what is a thing? Selfies. Really a thing nowadays. (people talking) Hello everybody, and
    greetings from London. Once again, our second full day here, and I’m standing in front
    of Buckingham Palace, and we just witnessed, sort
    of, the changing of the guard. We arrived a little late, and now we’re going to
    continue roaming the streets of this great city,
    and show you lots more. By the way, take a look at
    all the TV station back there, because today was the … Was it today or yesterday? The birth of the royal baby. Seems to be a big deal around this place. See you later. Here we are, going across
    this great, wide avenue, called The Mall. It goes from here all the
    way to Trafalgar Square. (people talking) We walk along Saint James
    Park, looking for a restroom, or a water closet, or the
    loo, as they call it here. By the way, bring spare change. The loo ain’t free. The park is quite beautiful,
    even on this overcast day. We walk to this street called Pall Mall, which is parallel to the mall, and we take an Uber
    towards the British Museum. Here, we pass by Piccadilly
    Circus on the way, which is considered London’s
    version of Times Square, but nah, not really. In some ways, it kind of
    reminds me of Puerta del Sol in Madrid, for some reason, but nah, it’s not that either. I guess it is its own thing. It is basically a meeting place, that’s surrounded by some tourist traps, theaters, restaurants, and the great, giant electronic billboard. (jazz music) We are at the British Museum. Mega line. This has to be one of the
    greatest museums in the world. The amount of ancient relics
    they hold at this place, is truly overwhelming. By the way, entrance is free. As we enter, the first thing
    we see is the Great Court, which is Europe’s largest covered square. It is supposedly larger
    than a football field. We go around the Reading Room, which is this round
    structure in the middle. Originally, a great study
    hall, where many famous people, such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
    and even Karl Marx and Lenin did some of their research. Too much research, maybe. The sun has come out. We are going to enter the West Wing. This is where all the
    Egyptian, Assyrian and Greek artifacts are located. As we enter the Egyptian gallery, here’s the piece de
    resistance, the Rosetta Stone, which was discovered in 1799. Without this piece of
    rock, we may have never been able to translate the
    ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. It has the same text in
    ancient Egyptian at the top, medieval Egyptian at the
    center, and Greek at the bottom. Since we already knew
    the bottom two languages, it was relatively easy to decipher the hieroglyphs at the top. The meaning of which were a mystery, until this great discovery in 1799. The Rosetta Stone, an ancient
    version of Google Translate, if you will. We continue towards the
    right, and here we see this statue of Ramses II. This is the guy who gave Moses a hard time liberating the Hebrew slaves. This was actually just the
    top of a much larger statue. Next, we go into this area
    dedicated to Egyptian animals. Which they worshiped as
    incarnations of the gods. This ram here represents the god Amun, protecting the fragile human pharaoh. The cat represents the goddess Bastet, goddess of joy, dance, music and love, and the protection of pharaohs in battle. Busy goddess. All these boxes made out of stone, that’s where they used to put the mummies. This huge granite scarab beetle, here at the end of the gallery, was a symbol of resurrection
    and the rising sun. This is apparently because
    the beetle would go into the ground, and then
    reappear, like the sun rising and setting, like dying and resurrecting. Okay, let’s go to the second floor, to see actual mummies. Along this exquisite Turkish
    and North African mosaics, which date back to the second century. Here we have it, the
    painting that inspired the walk like an Egyptian cliche. It is called Nebamun
    Hunting in the Marshes, from about 1350 B.C. The stiff Egyptian look is accomplished by the torso being painted
    from the front perspective, and everything else in profile, because they didn’t know
    how to paint any better. We continue walking along
    all these glass cases, displaying all these mummies
    and coffins and statues, and here we see the xray image
    of the inside of this coffin. That’s pretty cool. This man, right here, is
    known to scientists as Ginger, or the Gebelein Man. He was 18 to 21 years old when he died, but he wasn’t artificially mummified, like the rest of the mummies. He was naturally preserved by
    being buried in the dry sand, with all his organs intact, as well as some of his possessions. Apparently he died at around 3,600 B.C. That’s 1,000 years before the pyramids. Impressive that we can
    still see his red hair. We see more coffins,
    burial sties, artifacts, paintings, animal sculptures. We go back down to the main gallery. This long closed fisted hand belonged to a colossal statue, and here’s
    the head of that statue, with its crown. And more and more
    statues, as we walk along. This small one stood at
    the door of a burial place. Now, we move into the Assyrian exhibition. These two human headed winged lions are our welcoming committee. They originally guarded the
    palace, at around 860 B.C. In what nowadays is Iraq. Now, here we are at the Nereid Gallery. Here we see examples of the
    first ever written language. The cuneiform writing, which
    was invented 5,000 years ago, by the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia. Way way before the Assyrians. We exit the Assyrian gallery,
    along these winged bulls from the Palace of Sargon. Next, we are going into the Greek gallery. Wow. We stand before a Greek temple. This one, in particular, is
    called the Nereid Monument from Xanthos, which is, or
    was, in southwest Turkey. It has all the elements of
    the standard Greek temple, the pyramid, which is
    the triangle at the top, the frieze that goes
    around and the medopiece, which are the relief rock slabs. These statues of exquisite
    craftsmanship were originally on the temple as well. You can tell special attention was paid to the rendering of the wet clothes. Now we are here at the Main Hall, with all these carved reliefs and statues, which are called the Elgin Marbles. Most of them were made by
    Greek sculptor Phidias, and his assistants. They originally decorated
    the greatest temple of all the Parthenon, which still stands at the Acropolis in Athens,
    well, what’s left of it anyways. First, we have these relief panels, which were part of the frieze. They represent a parade,
    celebrating the birth of the city. All these panels were originally
    painted in bright colors, and it must have been quite a sight, to see them all around the temple. At the far end of this hall, we have the Pediment sculptures. They supposedly depict
    the moment where the city and the goddess Athena were born. The Greek gods lounging at a banquet. Even though the backs of these statues were never meant to be seen, they still show pretty good detail. Steve Jobs would be proud. Finally, the middle piece,
    originally above the columns. Many of them depicting
    humans fighting centaurs. They symbolize the struggle
    between civilization and barbarism. The things we learn. By the way, curious to
    know how all this stuff ended up here? Well, this guy, Thomas Bruce,
    the Seventh Earl of Elgin, he used somewhat dubious legal grounds and controversial
    methods, and removed half of the Parthenon’s sculptures, and sold them to the British
    Museum in the early 1800s. A lot of them were later damaged during the cleaning process, and
    now Greece wants them back. Why wouldn’t they? No matter where they belong,
    or where they end up, this cultural treasure
    belongs to all mankind. The pillars of western
    civilization were established during this Greek golden age. We could spend the whole day here, and I could spend the
    whole day talking about it, but we must go on. The rest of London awaits. We’re leaving, the sun is out. (jazz music) We take another Uber. Does this street look familiar? Of course. It is The Strand. That’s the St. Paul’s Cathedral up ahead. (jazz music) We get off by the Tower of London and the nearby Tower Bridge. Although we were here yesterday, today we are going to
    the Tower Bridge again to see the Tower Bridge Exhibition, which will set us back
    about 14 pounds per person, but it might be worth it. The Exhibition begins
    with this movie about the politics and the design of the bridge. Then we go up to the walkway, which has this really cool glass floor. Beware, if you are prone
    to altitude sickness. (rock music) Here’s Bryan, making a
    time lapse with his iPhone. (rock music) Here we see a great view
    of the river to the east, and another great view
    to the west as well. (rock music) At the end of the Exhibition,
    we see another video, showing how the bridge actually works when a tall ship wants to go through. We take an elevator down
    to the ground level, to go see the steam engine,
    that was originally used to operate the bridge. (jazz music) So interesting to see how all this Victorian machinery worked. The bascule engine. (jazz music) We continue having a wonderful time, here in our second full day in London. We just visited the
    Tower Bridge experience, and that was pretty cool
    with the glass bottom floor, and all that. Now we continue roaming the
    streets of this wonderful city. We’re gonna try to find something to eat. We continue, and walk past the City Hall, this building, and then eat at this pub, called The Horniman. I have some kind of meat pie
    with vegetables and a beer. Pretty good food, slow service. The Horniman is located at this mall, called the Hays Galleria. Off we go. We go down to the Tube, one more time, and get off at St. Johns Wood. We are going to visit a must-see place, if you are a Beatles fan. Abbey Road studios. Hello everybody, we are
    standing here at the very spot where the Beatles stood
    in 1967 for the cover of their album, Abbey Road. Right here. Everybody’s having such a
    great time, taking pictures. (jazz music) This is what it looks
    like, on a regular day, at one of the most famous
    sidewalks in the world, Abbey Road. They have a live webcam at this location. You can check it out at
    abbeyroad.com/crossing. Here’s the video of one
    of the bloopers from that vantage point. ♪ The long and winding road ♪ – I’m standing here at the
    very spot where the Beatles stood, back in 1967 for the
    cover of the last album, (yells unintelligibly). (laughing) (speaking a foreign language) It is actually amazing that
    more people don’t get run over at this famous crosswalk. Yep, that’s us on the bottom right, checking out the studio wall. (jazz music) We hop on the Tube, one more time. We change trains at Baker Street, where the fictitious
    character, Sherlock Holmes, used to live. And this place needs no introduction. The Piccadilly Circus. (people talking) Hi everybody, I think we’re going to end our night here in London at this, one of the most iconic
    landmarks this city has. The Piccadilly Circus. See you tomorrow. (jazz music) Good morning from London. We are on our way to the
    Victoria Coach Station, where we are going to take a tour of Windsor, Bath and Stonehenge. The tour is offered by Evan Evans Tours, and we booked through the website Viator. (jazz music) Our first stop is the Windsor Castle. Here we have to make
    this long line to go in, along with all these other tour groups. We finally pass through
    the security checkpoint, and here we are. This is the oldest and
    largest occupied castle in the world. Yes, the Queen still lives here. Mainly on weekends. We walk up the castle hill, and go through the St. George’s Gate, and
    around the round tower. Windsor is just six miles west
    of London Heathrow Airport, so the planes are a little
    bit of a nuisance sometimes. The original moat has been
    converted into this garden. Here is the Norman Gate,
    the main entrance to the Upper Ward of the castle. Here, we’re going to visit
    the State Departments, but photography is not
    allowed inside, unfortunately, so you are going to have to
    make it all the way here, if you want to see it. Here, across the courtyard, you have the Royal Apartments, where the Queen actually
    lives when she’s here. The statue on horseback
    is of King Charles II. There is another plane flying by. Who builds a castle so
    close to an airport? Wait a minute, it was the
    other way around, wasn’t it? It is really a shame I
    can’t show you the inside of the State Departments, because they are truly magnificent. Even after a fire in 1992
    destroyed part of it. It has been fully restored though. We exit through the Norman Gate, where they used to pour hot
    oil over enemy visitors. It’s a good thing we’re friendly. And we’re going down into the Lower Ward. Here we encounter the St. George’s Chapel. A fine example of Gothic architecture. Photography inside is also frowned upon, but I left my camera on inadvertently, so might as well show you
    whatever footage I got. This chapel is also
    the final resting place of 10 dead kings, including
    Henry VIII and his wife, and also Charles I. (people talking) We walk out, into the town of Windsor. Here’s one last look at the castle. It seems to be a charming town, but we have absolutely no time to explore. If we don’t rush, actually, the tour bus might leave us here, and we’ll miss the rest of the trip. That’s going to be a constant bummer during the whole tour. More than a tour, it’s really more like an overview of these places. Always rushing, always
    looking at the clock. It is rather stressful. (jazz music) As we approach Bath, the landscape becomes increasingly beautiful, with
    all these rolling hills. (jazz music) Here we are, arriving in Bath. The bridge to the left
    over the River Avon, is the Pulteney Bridge, one of four bridges in the whole world lined with shops on both sides. Here we are, by the circus, a fine example of Georgian architecture, which is British for neoclassical. This structure, as well as
    the bridge we saw before, date back to the mid-1700s. If the former was inspired, perhaps, by Ponte Vecchio in Italy, this one was inspired by the
    Roman Colosseum, inside out. We continue, and the bus drops us off near the Roman baths, which
    we are going to visit next. We wait by this nice square,
    among crowds of tourists, like us. Luckily, we are in front
    of the majestic Bath Abbey. Officially, the Abbey Church
    of St. Peter and Paul. It is, I have learned,
    another great example of perpendicular Gothic architecture. Had we had the time, we
    would visit it for sure. But, it is time to enter
    the baths, so follow me. This is the site of an ancient Roman bath. Built during the Roman
    occupation of Britain, which lasted until about 400 A.D. But most of what you see here, dates only back to the 1700s,
    or even more recent times. Built on top of 12th and
    16th century structures. By the way, these are the
    only naturally occurring hot springs in the entire United Kingdom. The name Roman baths may be
    a little misleading here, since there is very
    little authentically Roman in plain sight. Underground, it’s a different
    story at the museum, and we’ll see that soon enough. From the baths, we can
    see this small square, by the side of the abbey. There are always street
    musicians in these squares, and you know, what I really want to do is come back to this city and
    just chill here by the square, and explore, get lost. But of course, there’s no time. Meanwhile, we continue
    walking around the main pool, among all these Victorian era sculptures, which honestly, originally
    I thought were Roman. What do I know? In the pool down there,
    however, is still lined with sheets of lead, actually dating back to the Roman times. (people talking) Here, we get to see the hot spring, and the hot mineral water, bubbling. Next, we go underground, into the museum, and we see what’s left of
    the original Roman pediment. And we walk around more
    ruins of the ancient baths. Don’t be impressed by the steam coming out from under our feet, it is artificial. It actually comes out of these nozzles. I’m such a buzz kill. This impressive face belongs
    to the goddess Minerva. (water running) And here’s the actual spring, where all the water comes from. And then, spills through
    here, into the great bath. The main pool, as I called it before. (jazz music) Well, it is pretty much time to go. Here we see again the
    aforementioned Pulteney Bridge, over the River Avon. So pretty. (jazz music) Next, we’re gonna go to our final and most coveted destination. Stonehenge. (jazz music) These here are reconstructions
    of the types of huts where the people of this
    area supposedly lived 5,000 years ago. Look at all these sheep. How cute. Hanging out on the prairie. And here you have it,
    this bunch of rocks here, in the middle of nowhere. Very old rocks. 5,000 year old rocks. Archeologists have found
    evidence that this was originally a burial site,
    built over the course of about 1500 years. We are standing, as you
    can see, at Stonehenge, in England. It was a beautiful day,
    but it has started to rain, right now. Let me give you a panoramic all around me. There are some sheep back there, posing for the pictures, and of course, here it is. This great landmark of history. Stonehenge. Stonehenge was also apparently
    an astronomical monument of some sort, although
    there is no proof of that. A bunch of people gathered
    here on the summer solstice to watch the sun rise,
    as the stones are aligned with the spot where the sun rises on the longest day of the year. There is also gathering on the sunset on the winter solstice. Here we are, just getting soaking wet. So, off we go. We are leaving Stonehenge. Until next time. (rain pouring) Bye sheep, bye Stonehenge,
    we’re going back to London. Our day trip here was
    about $130 per person. Was it worth it? Perhaps. We saw a lot, but it was
    also very very rushed. The tour wanted to cover too much, in very little time. So it is what it is, an overview. It left us wanting more, so
    we shall return sometime, with more time. On our last night in London, we eat at an Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani place in the famous Brick Lane, called Sheba. Probably the culinary highlight
    of our time in London. This was fabulous. We’re almost closing down the place, it’s what, 11 p.m.? Very good. Sheba. Time to get back to our
    flat, under the pouring rain. Brick Lane. Saying goodbye to Greenwich. This is the view from our balcony. Our last morning here in London. We’ve barely scratched the surface, here, in this city, so we must return sometime. Hopefully soon. Not only do I want to
    explore more of London, also our charming neighborhood,
    here in Greenwich. (wind blowing) We take another Uber, since
    we have some time left, before we have to leave
    for the train station. We arrive at Greenwich Park. Here’s another great view of London, from this higher vantage point. (speaking foreign language) We are going to visit the
    Royal Observatory of Greenwich. The Royal Observatory. We arrive shortly before it opens. (speaking foreign language) Here we have the remaining 10 foot section of what was, in the late 1700s, the largest telescope in the world. 40 foot long, which made
    it somewhat impractical. Hi everybody. Hello one more time from London. Here I am straddling the line that divides the east from the west. It’s a fictitious line, obviously, but it’s been used for
    navigation and many other things. This is longitude number
    zero on our planet Earth. We’re coming to you from
    the Greenwich Observatory, right here in London. These rooms were originally the residence of John Flamsteed, the
    first Astronomer Royal who lived here. Pretty Spartan, if you ask me. Then, we walk into this
    room with all these clocks, and measuring instruments. Clocks became very
    important for navigation. It was relatively easy to
    determine one’s latitude at sea, by the position of the stars and such, but without accurate
    time, it was impossible to determine longitude, or
    how far east or west you were. Pendulum clocks did not work well at sea, with all the constant pitching
    and rolling of the ships. That is illustrated in this display. The next room is the Time
    and Longitude Gallery. The following is a collection
    of the Harrison timekeepers. Named H One, H Two, and H Three. As the design gradually improved, so the clock could work at sea. They were all designed by
    carpenter and clockmaker, John Harrison. Third time piece. Eventually, clocks became
    more accurate, smaller, and even portable. Next, we see an early
    quartz clock from the 1950s. Another quantum leap in accuracy. Finally, today’s standard,
    the atomic clock. There is also a camera obscura, which is a dark room, in which
    the light coming at the top is reflected in a mirror
    up there and projected on this table underneath. Pretty cool. Time to go up to the great
    equatorial telescope. The largest of its kind in the U.K. Completed in 1893, and
    retired in the 1960s, it has a rare 28 inch lens
    that weighs 200 pounds. It is still used for private, and usually, sold out viewings in the winter. We’ll go back down to the town. Walking along this very pretty park. Greenwich Park. (wind blowing) (water flowing) We pass by the Maritime Museum, and get this quick glimpse
    at Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle. Made by British-Nigerian
    artist, Yinka Shonibare. We continue walking along
    the streets of Greenwich, wishing we could stay longer, but, time is running out. We go down quickly to the
    Greenwich Foot Tunnel, which goes under the Thames. It first opened in 1902, but, we don’t have time to go all
    the way to the north bank. (people talking) – [Elevator] Doors closing. Ground floor. – We are out of time. In fact, we are running late. We have a train to catch, so promptly, we take another Uber. I’m gonna have to get
    them to sponsor the show, if I mention them so much. (jazz music) We are on our way to St.
    Pancras International train station, in order to
    board the Eurostar to Paris. Unfortunately, we don’t make it on time, but fortunately, there
    is a train every hour, so we are able to board the next one. (jazz music) Well, we are on the way and very excited to visit the City of Light, and the train ride is quite nice. It feels shorter than it actually is. Having wine certainly helps. We go underwater for about 20 minutes, and then, we are in France. Two and a half hours
    later, we are in Paris. Yep, the sight of Basilique du Sacré Cœur in Montmartre, tells us
    we are at the right place. We are in Paris. We have arrived here at Gare du Nord, or the North Station. It may not look like
    it, but it is Europe’s busiest train station, and the busiest in the
    world outside of Japan. (jazz music) Here we are passing by the
    Place de la Republique. Isn’t Paris an amazing city? (jazz music) Wait a minute, I think we’re about to hit this cyclist in front of us. That was kinda scary, but … Where did this guy get
    his license, I’m serious. Yep, we are getting close. (jazz music) We have arrived at our temporary home. Here’s the view from our
    seventh floor apartment, here in Le Marais. My mom’s long-time friend
    and accomplished writer, Madame Machine, has come to visit, and she will be our guide tonight. Since she has lived
    here for so many years, she knows every nook
    and cranny of this city. We decide to go for a walk
    around our neighborhood in Le Marais. They have these small markets, pretty much at every block. This plug-in electric vehicle belongs to a car sharing service they
    have here called Autolib, very very cool. Man, Paris is so great, isn’t it? For example, you can see a
    fountain, like this one here, where you least expect it. This is just a regular street. (jazz music) We are now approaching Place des Vosges, the oldest planned square in the city, and it is pretty much
    the prototype for all these kind of residential squares that are all over Europe. Hi everybody, we have
    finally arrived in Paris. I’m here, standing at Place des Vosges. It was originally named Place Royal, by King Henry IV, in the early 1600s. Notice how all the facades
    have the same design? That was one of the
    architectural innovations of this square. Many prominent historical
    figures have established residence at the Place
    des Vosges over the years. Most notably, writer Victor Hugo, famous for Les Miserables and
    the Hunchback of Notre Dame. This used to be his apartment. We continue exploring Les Marais, the most historic and
    aristocratic district. Here we encounter a gas station. Yeah, that is the whole thing. They don’t really waste space here with something as
    mundane as a gas station. As night falls, it is time to eat. We are at Brasserie
    Bofinge, here in Paris, right next to the Place de la Bastille. We have some Bachelet wine, of course, and some bread, to get started. I decide to be adventurous
    and order the foie gras. I have never had it before. Madame Machine orders the oysters. Very famous at this place. It is really quite a lovely dining room, with this lively cupola, very elegant. Here’s the gratin dauphinois
    and the sautee beef, and my southwestern duck
    with spring onion hash brown and roasted tomato, mmm, so good. For dessert, well, I have
    the creme brulee, what else. It looks like we are
    closing down the place, so let’s go, let’s get outta here. I leave you with this view
    of Place de la Bastille, with the new opera
    house in the background. Good night. Bonjour from Paris. I am here in front of the Palais Garnier, the old opera house. Here, we begin our first full
    day at the City of Light. Yes, we are going to explore
    this magnificent building, in a few. But first, we have an
    amazing breakfast of cafe ole and croissant at this lovely
    place around the corner, called Le Grand Cafe Capucines. I think it might be a
    little late for breakfast, or early for lunch,
    because the whole place is pretty much deserted. Here we are, in front
    of the Palais Garnier. Once again, check out this
    guy in the orange sweater. There seems to be
    something wrong with him. He seems to be talking
    to himself all the time, and it’s kind of creepy, but everybody’s ignoring him,
    and maybe we should too. Okay, let’s go inside. We have booked a 11 a.m. English tour. Look at the exquisite
    details of the lamps, and the overall architecture. It is quite wonderful. There’s a statue of
    architect Charles Garnier, the man responsible for all this beauty. Okay, let’s go inside. We begin the tour by
    this sculpture of Pythia, which represents the patron of artists. Right here, under the grand staircase. Pythia, or the Oracle of Delphi, is also a mythological character
    and god Apollo’s priestess. In the late 1800s, those balconies on top would have been full of people. The general public, would have
    come through the main door. We, however, are VIPs,
    coming through the side. This is the grand staircase, where we would join the commoners, who had come through the
    main entrance behind us. Check out the roof,
    painted by Isidore Pils, depicting Greek mythological scenes. It is called the Gods of Olympus. Okay, it seems like it is
    our time to go up the stairs. Here, we get a peek at the magnificent five level auditorium,
    from one of the balconies. Here we get a slightly better view, and see the stage, which at the time, was one of the largest in the world. And the seven ton chandelier,
    designed by Garnier himself. The ceiling, painted by Chagall in 1964. It is installed on a removable frame under the original painting. The auditorium is an
    Italian style horseshoe, although some might call it French, too, because of the decoration. We also visit the Library Museum, where they hold miniature replicas of the different stage sets. This area was originally
    intended to be the Emperor’s private foyer. Going back the other way. Here, we have a small scale
    replica of the original auditorium ceiling. There’s also paintings
    depicting the history of ballet, and models of the building. This room, with the infinity mirrors and the bats on the roof, is called the Salon of the Moon. Notice the slightly less
    gold and more silver motif. Okay, I am officially impressed. Take a look at this room. This is the Grand Foyer. Everything in this room
    utters opulence, extravagance. It was, in fact, inspired
    by the Hall of Mirrors in the Versailles Palace. We’ll go out to the front
    balcony, to get some fresh air, and admire the view. We are treated to this great view of the Place de l’Opera. From here, I’m going to zoom in through Avenue de l’Opera, into Hotel du Louvre. At right, Cafe de la Paix, the
    famous and fashionable cafe, right here, in front of the opera. (traffic running) We are back in the Grand Foyer, admiring the magnificently
    decorated ceiling, painted by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry. This place is so grand. Whatever pictures I can show you don’t really do it justice. (light music) Here we go into the Salon of the Sun. Which has these mosaics on the floor, and the infinity mirrors, just like the Salon of the Moon, but with a gold motif. And then, this room. Everywhere you look, there
    is luxury and sumptuousness. This area features Italian mosaics. Works of art by Italian artisans, hired by Garnier himself. (light piano music) Here we are, back by the Grand Staircase. This time, admiring the view from one of the second floor balconies. Next, we walk into this unfinished area, which was supposed to be
    Napoleon III’s personal entrance. But, when he fell from power, the Third Republic did
    not allow for the area to be finished. Now, let’s go back into the
    auditorium, one more time. What a magnificent place this is. Here, we see the orchestra pit as well, and the horseshoe shaped auditorium. Each color in the Chagall
    painting pays tribute to a group of composers and their work. All the greats are represented here. Mozart, Berlioz, Debussy, Ravel, Tchaikovsky, Beethoven. I’m just gonna pretend
    I’m here to see an opera. Look at the exquisite
    decorations on this balcony and well, everywhere else. We are back by the Grand Staircase, taking one last look. Saying goodbye to the
    great Palais Garnier. Okay, it is time to
    continue exploring Paris. We go around the building, we find this requisite human statue here, it’s a touristic place, after all. This guy is still talking to himself. He did take off the sweater though. I wonder what’s wrong with him, but I guess we’ll never find out. Let’s visit, Galeries Lafayette, which is the great department
    store here in Paris. Not because we want to go
    shopping or anything like that, but because we actually
    want to see the building, and see the atrium inside,
    with this glass dome, and the balconies all around. This is one of the great
    early department stores, originally founded in
    1896, and finished by 1912. From the roof, we get a
    pretty commanding view of the city. The Eiffel Tower as the centerpiece. Notice how almost all the
    buildings are at the same height. Here, we see the back of the Opera. Also, the golden dome of Les Invalides. Well, it has started to rain,
    so let’s go underground. First, into le Rer, and then, le Metro. They have these fruit
    stands in the metro as well. Pretty cool. (train running) (jazz music) We take the Underground, and
    get off by the Champs-Élysées. It is our intention to
    visit l’Arc De Triomphe, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. Emperor Napoleon commissioned it in 1806, and it sits in the middle
    of Place Charles de Gaulle, which is a traffic circle
    where 12 avenues converge in the shape of a star. It is nearly impossible to
    cross the traffic circle. Luckily, they have this
    underground tunnel. The views from the roof, 50 meters above the street level, are spectacular. Here we are, looking towards Montmartre, and the iconic Sacré-Cœur Basilica. Here is Notre Dame, and
    the glass vault of the Grand Palais to the right, and the Louvre Museum in front of us, with the Place de la Concorde Obelisks. Below us, the Champs-Élysées. We are at the top of the Arc du Triomphe, and back there, what you can
    see is the Champs-Élysées, in Paris a great avenue. Behind it, you probably can’t see it, but there’s the Louvre Museum. Back there, of course, the lady of Paris, the Tour Eiffel, Eiffel Tower. Yes, that’s a great view of the Tower. And you can kind of see Les Invalides too. Now, we are looking towards La Défense, the business district. At the center, the Grand Arch, completed in 1989, as
    the 20th century version of L’Arc du Triomphe. We see more rain in the distance, so we might want to go back down. But before we do, let’s
    zoom in one more time on the Sacré-Cœur. And on the Champs-Élysées,
    the Place de la Concorde, and the Louvre. And one last look at our
    favorite tower in Paris. We are back at the ground level, walking towards the Tomb
    of the Unknown Soldier from World War I, where an eternal flame has been burning since 1920. (wind blowing) We have lunch at the nearby Pizza Vesuvio, and take a quick stroll
    down the Champs-Élysées. Passing by the famous Lido Cabaret. We wish we could stay
    here longer, maybe walk the whole thing, all the way
    to the Place de la Concorde, but we want to take a break, we are tired. So we go back, down to the Metro. We are going back to our
    apartment in Le Marais. (train running) (guitar music) We walk along the long and sometimes, not so attractive corridors. I think we are beginning to get the hang of the public transportation system here. At this time of the
    day, it is pretty busy. It must be rush hour. (traffic running) We emerge by our neighborhood, on the Boulevard de Filles du Calvaire, and here we encounter the Cirque d’Hiver. The Winter Circus, opened in 1852. Apparently, this structure is still used for exhibitions and shows, and the circus. We really like this
    neighborhood, by the way. It isn’t all that touristy, and that’s actually a good thing. We even have a supermarket very nearby. We go back out, taking an Uber this time. (light French music) We get off near Île de la Cité. (light French music) This is kilometer zero
    of the French highways and considered the
    official center of Paris. Right here, in front of Notre Dame. This is another one of those iconic places in the French capital. The great, Gothic cathedral. It took a long time to construct. Over 180 years in total from 1163 to 1345. It is a magnificent building. (light French music) We pass by Place Saint-Michel, which we will visit some other time. Here we are, by the Square du Vert-Galant, one of the most romantic
    places here in Paris. Located at the western
    end of Île de la Cité. It is a popular place for picnics, I hear. Here we are, looking
    back towards Pont Neuf, and ahead towards Pont des Arts, as the sun sets. We enjoy the beautiful sunset
    from Square du Vert-Galant. (light French music) We look back, once
    again, towards Pont Neuf. Even though this is not Pont des Arts, lovers and sweethearts
    have the tradition of placing padlocks wherever they can. It’s a symbol of their everlasting love. Yes, very romantic. Just like this city. (light piano music) Continue walking along the
    closed Bouquinistes boxes, and encounter the Institut de France. This building, which houses five French intellectual academies. Pont des Arts. (light piano music) By the way, this is a historic moment. Just a couple of weeks
    after this video was shot, the government removed all these locks from Pont des Arts, apparently to preserve the structural integrity of the bridge, which had become too heavy. We pass by the Louvre on our way to get another Uber home. (light French music) Good morning, from our Air
    BNB apartment in Paris. Yep, this is the whole thing. Only two people fit in here. (light French music) Here we see the train
    stations Gare de l’Est and Gare du Nord. You know, I was going
    to cut some of this out, but Paris is such a beautiful city, I’m gonna leave most of it in. (light French music) We continue up the steep,
    narrow streets of Montmartre, and it looks like this is
    as high as we can go by car. Here we are. Greetings once again from Paris. I’m standing here in front of
    the Basilique of Sacré Cœur. We’re on top of the hill called
    Montmartre here in Paris. Right here, you can see the
    view of Paris is spectacular, even though this sunny
    day is a little hazy. We were here back in 2006, and I remember vividly walking
    down that street down there, with all the touristy shops. This Romano Byzantine church
    is actually not that old. Construction began in 1875, and it was finished
    just before World War I. Let’s take in the view one more time, as we zoom in on the Centre Pompidou, the Museum of Modern Art. Let’s go back in time to 2006, when we were actually
    able to climb the stairs to the top of the cupola. We go up the steep stairs, and the views, even halfway to the top, are pretty good. (laughing) Yep, these stairs are
    definitely not OSHA approved. But the climb is definitely worth it. We get spectacular,
    commanding views of the city from the top. (light French music) Down and down we go. Back in 2015, let’s explore the streets of Montmartre a little bit. Normally, this is a very
    touristy area, but we’re early. It’s about nine a.m. Let’s take advantage of that. Montmartre, or Mount of Martyrs, has been a place of worship
    since before the Roman Empire. (people talking) (light jazz music) We’re walking towards Place du Tertre, a very touristy square, where there are all these artists, drawing
    portraits and painting city scapes, and some of
    them are extremely talented. It is a reminder of a
    time, at the beginning of the 20th century, when
    this area was the epicenter of the modern art movement. One can almost imagine
    a penniless Picasso, walking around these streets, drawing inspiration from
    all these surroundings. (jazz music) Okay, enough of that. Let’s continue. There’s so much more to see in this area. Mmm, macaroons, yum. (light music) Check out the golden cupola
    of Les Invalides from here. I’m kind of obsessed with that building. This is the famous Moulin de la Galette. Dating back to the 17th century, the windmill and the whole
    area has been painted by the likes of Renoir, Picasso, Van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec, and many others. We continue going fortunately
    downhill most of the time. Wandering around this pretty neighborhood, and look, Les Invalides again. (light music) Let’s take a break for some coffee. Pain au chocolat. If you saw the French movie, Amelie, this will look very familiar to you. This is where she used to live and shop. The entrance to her apartment
    is just around the corner. Let’s go down these stairs. Here, we encounter the Wall of Love, in which the phrase, “I love you”, is spelled in 250 languages. While we are on the subject of love, a little further down, we
    encounter Place Pigalle. This area is full of
    sex shops and theaters and adult shows, and as you can see, they even have this
    place called Sexodrome. I wonder what that’s all about. And many other places of, hm, questionable reputation, maybe, but it looks like it’s all very touristy. Very aptly named. (wind blowing) Continue walking along
    Boulevard de Clichy. Walking along all these strip
    clubs and souvenir shops. They even have a museum of eroticism. And, wherever they have
    sex, my place of birth, Cuba, has to be represented. I am sure you’ve heard of this place. We continue here in Paris. Right now, I’m in front
    of Moulin Rouge Cabaret, right here in Boulevard de Clichy. We just came from Pigalle,
    with all the sex shops, and all this kind of sexy red
    light district neighborhood. And then we’re gonna continue. Continue roaming the streets. Walking around Paris. Right now, the Moulin Rouge. Look at everybody taking pictures. Isn’t that … I’m here with my selfie stick, making a fool out of myself. Talk to you guys later. We go back down to le Metro,
    to continue exploring. We emerge by Place de
    la Bourse, right here, in front of Palais Brongniart, formerly, the stock exchange before
    it became computerized. They seem to be having some
    kind of flea market today. Liberte, Egalite e Fraternite. (people talking) We want to check out some of the famous covered passages of Paris. Here we are, at one of them. Galerie Vivienne. Galerie Vivienne. This is one of many of these
    glass covered passages, built in Paris during the
    first half of the 19th century. They are, if you will, the
    original shopping mall. This one was built in
    1823, in a neo-classical Pompeiian style, and it’s quite agreeable. We have a quick lunch, and off we go. Here we are, by Place des Victoires, looking for Palais Royal. Instead, we stumble upon
    the Banque de France. Where the money is. This building, with the metallic facade, I haven’t really figured out what it is, so if you know, please comment below. We are entering the Palais-Royal
    through this side entrance. Here, we encounter
    these curious fountains, with these silver balls, called
    the fontaines de pol bury. In this area here between
    the gardens and the palace, which is called Galerie d’Orléans. (birds chirping) In the gardens, the older men are playing a traditional French game called Pétanque. One of many popular ball
    games here in Europe. The gardens that once
    belonged to the King, are now a public park. It is a very pleasant afternoon, and Parisians enjoy the
    park, and the outdoors. Okay, it is time for us to
    continue exploring Paris. As you can see, the men are still playing with their balls. (jazz music) We take an Uber along Rue de Rivoli. This right here is the
    luxurious Hotel Le Meurice, another place which was
    frequently visited by Salvador Dali and many other artists. Located right here,
    across the street from the Tuileries Gardens. We pass by Place de la Concorde, and get a glimpse of la Madeleine Church. (light piano music) It was in a tunnel similar to this one that Princess Diana got
    killed, back in 1997. We are on our way to the Trocadéro Palace to get that quintessential
    view of the Eiffel Tower. Unfortunately, the whole
    place is under construction, so it is impossible to get
    that postcard perfect view we got back in 2006. Actually, let’s go back
    in time one more time, since I already dusted
    off the old TV cassette. (light piano music) Behind me, the most photographed icon this city has to offer. The Eiffel Tower. I do understand if you feel
    compelled to come here, at least once, to see
    the Tower, but beware, the place is totally overrun with tourists and hustlers trying to sell you souvenirs. We saw some suspicious characters, too. Do keep your belongings safe. Looking back, as you can see, the balcony where you would stand to take the iconic picture, is under construction. We still manage to walk
    around, enjoying the afternoon. Here we see a carousel,
    very typical of Paris. Here we have the Vedettes de Paris, one of the many companies that
    give boat tours on the river. Hey everybody. I am here, just underneath
    the Eiffel Tower. I think this is a pretty
    good angle, don’t you think? I’m sure there’s some weird cosmic energy coming down into me now. This is kind of like,
    sort of like a pyramid. Maybe not. All right, thank you. Talk to you guys later. Okay, one last flashback, I promise. Back in 2006, we were
    able to take the ride to the top of the Tower, and I thought I would show you some of those views. (light music) They have wax statues
    of Eiffel and Edison, in what used to be Eiffel’s office. (French music) The views from almost 300
    meters above the street level, are truly breathtaking. (French music) Okay, back to good old 2015. For good, this time. We walk along the
    majestic, ornate buildings of Avenue Charles Floquet, in the seventh arrondissement. One quick fact about
    Paris, it is divided into boroughs, or arrondissement, and they are numbered in a spiral pattern, beginning at the center of the city. We are in the seventh right now. (jazz music) We have a snack and some
    wine here at Le Suffren, and sit for awhile, and
    watch as life goes by, in this marvelous city. (jazz music) We are back underground. Back at our apartment. But just for a quick
    break, and we go back out. This time, we’ve got a
    very talkative Uber driver. (speaking foreign language) (jazz music) (speaking foreign language) (jazz music) (French music) (speaking foreign language) (French music) We finally arrive at the
    Bateaux Mouches Terminal. This is the original and most
    popular of the river tours. In fact, Bateaux Mouches
    has become kind of a generic term for all
    the river tours as well. It is incredibly crowded,
    mostly with Japanese tourists. For the last couple of
    days, the tide has been really high on the Seine. So the second floor is closed, and we will not be able to
    go past the Ponte des Arts, because there is not enough
    clearance for the boat. Kind of a bummer, we will
    not be seeing Notre Dame from the water this time. We’re going east, approaching
    Pont Alexandre III. Since it is almost the
    beginning of summer, they have all kinds of
    outdoors activities here by the river. (light music) Built at the end of the 19th century, Pont Alexandre III is considered by many the most beautiful bridge in Paris, and an engineering marvel at the time. (light music) There are a handful of
    these floating structures, that house restaurants,
    bars and ball rooms. This one is called Rosa Bonheur. And what a view. (light music) Here we see some youngsters
    enjoying the evening by the river bank, and we get a glimpse
    of the Palais Bourbon, which houses the National Assembly. Check out all these luxurious
    river front apartments. (jazz music) There is another boat that you can rent for special occasions. This one is called Concorde Atlantique. (light music) Going under the Passerelle de Solferino, we see the Musee d’Orsay,
    formerly a train station, Gare d’Orsay, nowadays it houses a great collection of Impressionist paintings, along many other works of art. Here’s another floating
    restaurant, called Le Calife. And the Legion of Honor behind it. (light music) Take one last look at Musee d’Orsay. (light music) Look how high the water is. That is supposed to be
    a sidewalk down there. (light music) We are approaching the Insitut
    de France, and Pont des Arts. Here is where we’re going to turn around, because of the high tide. (light music) Look, the water goes all
    the way up to the benches. (light music) Here we are, by the Louvre,
    looking under the Pont Royal. (light music) There’s the Egyptian obelisk
    at the Place de la Concorde, a gift from the Egyptian
    government in the 19th century. Now, for the piece de resistance, we’re going to pass by the Eiffel Tower. Yes, le Tour Eiffel. All these Japanese
    tourists are going crazy with the selfie sticks. (jazz music) We are passing, once again,
    under the Alexandre III bridge. Everybody’s going nuts. (jazz music) (people cheering) (jazz music) Here, they have a replica
    of the Statue of Liberty, near Pont de Grenelle. (jazz music) We are on the Bateaux Mouches,
    and this place is packed with people of all parts of the world. As you can see back there, the statue, the Eiffel Tower, sparkling. (French music) Well, that’s it, good night. Bonjour from Paris. It is a brand new day here at Le Marais, and it is our last day in the city. Let’s make it count. Let’s continue exploring. As in many other cities,
    there are musicians in the Underground, as we’ve seen. We emerge near Notre Dame,
    by Place Saint-Michel. We are going to walk a little
    bit in the Quartier Latin, the Latin Quarter. (jazz music) Here, we pass by Pont Saint-Michel. Man, I love this city. We walk along, the
    bouquinistes setting up shop. (jazz music) Le Parisiennes going out
    for their morning jog. (French music) Here we have a look at
    Rue du Chat-qui-Pêche, the street of the fishing cats. It is considered the
    narrowest street in Paris, at just under six feet. (jazz music) A little further down, we
    encounter Shakespeare and Company, a historic English
    bookstore, made famous by the movies Before Sunset
    and Midnight in Paris. (jazz music) We are now by Rue des Ecoles,
    at the site of the famous Sorbonne University, founded circa 1150. It has been recognized as one
    of the first universities. We continue, and here
    we have the Pantheon, which houses the remains of
    many important French people, and unfortunately, it’s
    undergoing some renovation, and it’s going to be like that for awhile. We see Saint-Etienne Behind
    this classic Citroen. I love it. This is one of those
    iconic antique French cars. (jazz music) As I mentioned before, here’s
    the Saint-Etienne Church, famous for the movie Midnight in Paris. On these stairs is where
    the protagonist sits down to wait for that antique Peugeot. Instead, we get this
    cranky street cleaning guy. Our next stop today is
    the Luxembourg Gardens. Here’s the palace where
    the French Senate meets, the Luxembourg Palace. Here we have all the Parisienne enjoying their beautiful city. (jazz music) Okay, let’s go. (light music) We see Notre Dame, again,
    as we cross the river. (upbeat music) The tower to the right
    is Tour Saint-Jacques. It is what remains of the Church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie,
    which was demolished during the French Revolution. (rock music) We are back in our neighborhood, and we’re going to buy some chocolates at the boutique place
    called Jacques Genin. They craft some of the city’s
    most exquisite chocolates. It comes at a price, but hey, we thought we’d splurge and indulge, and bring some home. (light music) Next, we are going to visit
    two museums here in Paris, and namely, l’Orangerie,
    which features Monet’s famous Water Lilies, and then the Louvre. We get off by Place de la Concorde. Here we are, contemplating this masterpiece of Impressionism. The Water Lilies, or Nympheas in French. When I was doing my
    research, I read somewhere that photography was forbidden in here. As much as I would’ve hated that, I think maybe it should be. The crowds of people
    taking selfies and pictures somewhat diminishes the experience. It prevents you from
    fully enjoying the magic of these works of art. This pair of oval rooms has
    been the home to these murals since 1927. (light music) The museum also has the Jean
    Walter and Paul Guillaume collection, with many
    other works by Renoir and Cezanne, Matisse, and many others. All the way to the neoclassical Picasso. (light music) From here, you can see Arch de la Defense, and Arch de Triomphe and Champs-Élysées, and Place de la Concorde, all lined up. That’s how perfect this city is. Turning around, we see Arc
    de Triomphe du Carrousel, and Louvre, as we look
    across the Tuileries Gardens. Look at all the people,
    relaxing by the pond. (people talking) The Tuileries Gardens
    was originally the site of a tile factory. Then, in 1564, Queen Catherine de Medici happened to like the
    place and she build the Tuileries Palace here. Then, in 1664, King Louis XIV told his gardener to
    re landscape the place, and voila, Parisians got this
    beautiful, relaxing park. Here we arrive by Arc de
    Triomphe du Carrousel. We see more people
    relaxing in these gardens by the Louvre. They closed the side door on us, so we’re gonna try from the
    pyramid, see what happens. Here we are, by the Louvre,
    but the museum is closed, even though it is supposed
    to be open until nine p.m. on Wednesdays and Fridays. It turns out the museum
    is closing early today, because of a little known to us, but major holiday here called Victory Day. When I checked the website, I didn’t see anything about that. But apparently, it was in the fine print. A number of circumstances have led to this disappointing moment,
    this anticlimactic end to our vacation. First, our Air BNB host
    lost our prepaid tickets, so we couldn’t go on Wednesday, like we had planned originally. Then, this holiday we
    didn’t even know about. This really brings down our whole day. Well, what’s left of the day. I was so looking forward
    to seeing the Louvre. At least, the highlights. If there’s a lesson to be learned here, it’s to check the local
    holidays when traveling, and don’t ever, ever
    save the best for last. You never know what might happen. Well, we’re tired, disappointed. You know what? Chances are, Paris and
    the Louvre are going to be here for awhile, and I’m pretty sure we will return some time. There is so much more to see in this city. We’ve barely scratched the surface. Just when we thought
    nothing else could go wrong, we have also found out that
    our flight on to Portugal has been canceled to due a pilots’ strike, and the airline is not
    even answering the phone. You know what? We’re just going to call it a night. (light music) (speaking foreign language) The good news, we managed to get on a British Airways flight. – [Recording] We’re now
    going to explain the emergency procedures on this
    British Airways aircraft. – [Robert] We’re going back to Miami, with a short layover in London. (jazz music) Check out the view of Paris from the air. (jazz music) We are finally landing at
    London Heathrow Airport. They say everything happens for a reason, and guess what? I always wanted to fly on a 747 jumbo jet, and now I’m going to get my chance. (jazz music) We say goodbye to the coast of England. (jazz music) Let me tell you, for such a large plane, it’s not all that uncomfortable. The food is okay, and
    the crew, very pleasant. (rock music) (light music) About nine hours later,
    we are flying above the islands of the Bahamas. (jazz music) We see the eastern coast of
    south Florida in the distance. What you see down there
    is Ft. Lauderdale Beach. We are almost home. (jazz music) This is Port Everglades and
    the Ft. Lauderdale Airport. (jazz music) A few minutes later,
    we are landing at MIA. Miami International Airport. We are back in the three O five. (jazz music) ♪ I’m riding ♪ ♪ Riding with my RV ♪ ♪ Wherever I want to be ♪ ♪ Because I’m free ♪ ♪ In my RV yeah ♪ ♪ I’m riding ♪ ♪ Riding riding ♪

    Who Started World War I: Crash Course World History 210
    Articles, Blog

    Who Started World War I: Crash Course World History 210

    August 27, 2019


    Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course World
    History, and today we continue our discussion of how a regional conflict became World War
    I. We’re also going to look at who started the war and although no one nation is truly
    to blame, some nations are more to blame than others. Like America, for once? Blameless. Well, not
    totally blameless. Largely blameless. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! That’s easy, the Germans
    started the war. Well, Me from the Past, as it happens many
    historians and British politicians would agree with you. I mean, you have an opinion that can be
    defended. And I can’t wait for you to defend it. Uhh… maybe they just, like, really liked war? I’m
    not really in the defending positions business, Mr. Green, I’m more in the like, bold proclamations
    business. Yes, Me from the Past, noted. But it turns
    out, there’s more to life than that. So the topic of who started World War I remains
    one of the most controversial and interesting topics to discuss in World History, not least because,
    you know, we’d like to avoid having another one. But in general, when we talk about World Wars,
    as when we talk about World Cups, we pretty quickly end up discussing Germany. The idea that the root cause of World War
    I was Germany, or more specifically, German militarism, continues to be popular. This
    has been the case ever since the 1960s when this historian, Fritz Fisher, identified Germany
    as the chief cause of the war. But Germany’s guilt for the war was also written into the
    Versailles Peace Treaty, in article 231, and most of you will be familiar with the idea
    that anger over that clause its incumbent debts helped lead to Hitler’s rise. Also, pretty much however you slice it Germany
    was definitely responsible for starting World War II, and looking back that made it more
    plausible that they would have also stated World War I, because, you know, they had a
    history of starting wars. To be fair, the definition of a Western European nation is
    “has a history starting wars.” Unless you’re the Swiss. Cue the Switzereel, Stan! Yeah okay, but the thing is attributing characteristics
    like militarism or authoritarianism to entire national populations is a little problematic.
    Also one nation’s militarism is another nation’s strong national defense, and when you live
    in the country, as I do, that spends more on defense than any other nation, it’s probably
    not that good of an idea to call people militaristic. There’s just something about that broad-brush
    painting of an entire nation sharing a particular characteristic that feels a little bit propaganda-y.
    Also, it wasn’t just Germans who were militaristic in 1914. The idea of “the glory of war” was
    a very popular concept all over Europe, and really there’s no evidence that the German
    people of 1914 were any more or less militaristic than the French or the Russians, They all
    had poetry that celebrated heroic sacrifice and dying for the Mother and/or Fatherland. That’s not usually and. Maybe, though. I’m
    gonna stay open minded. But there’s another problem with the whole
    idea that the Germans were more eager for war than anyone else in Europe. That argument
    relies a lot on the behavior of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German leader, and the Kaiser did
    make some pretty bellicose and stupid public statements, which in turn made people fear
    that Germans were eager for war. So Wilhelm became kind of a stand-in for German aggression,
    a literal cartoon villain, upon whom the world, especially the English, could project their
    stereotypes. So I would argue that the German character
    isn’t to blame for World War I, and in fact no national character has ever been to blame
    for any war. But I am not going to let the Germans off the hook entirely. So you will remember that Germany offered
    the so-called “blank check” that Germans would always support Austro-Hungarians’ ultimatum
    to Serbia. And in some ways this empowering by Germany’s support encouraged Austria’s
    foreign minister Berchtold to behave as recklessly as possible, under the mistaken impression that
    this is what the Germans wanted him to do. So basically, Austria thought that Germany
    wanted a war, so they were like, “Oh, we’ll just behave really recklessly and we’ll give
    the Germans the war they’ve been so excited about.” But the Germans were offering the
    Austrians the assurance of support in the hopes that it wouldn’t lead to war. So you could argue that in fact most of the
    blame for starting World War I should fall on the shoulders of the Austrians, after all,
    they were the ones who issued the ultimatum to Serbia, and they were the first to declare
    war, although only against Serbia. But, the Germans were the first to declare war on a
    major power, Russia, on August 1st, and the German advance on France through Belgium is
    what brought Britain into the war. And those are pretty solid arguments that Germany turned
    the conflict from, you know, a regional thing in the Balkans, which isn’t unprecedented,
    to like this big pan-European war. But I don’t think we’re done assigning blame,
    because we didn’t just have a pan-European war, we had a world war. Russia. Now you’ll remember that of all the major
    powers, Russia was the first to mobilize its massive army, and it was Russia’s mobilization that
    drew Germany, France, and Britain into the war. Putin is looking at me, isn’t he, Stan. I’m
    just trying to–ah! you so scary! Stan, can you please make Mr. Putin go away,
    I’m just trying to talk about history, I’m not talking about any current conflicts. And it makes me nervous to say this, but there
    was really no good reason for Russia to mobilize in the first place. I mean, when Austria declared
    war on Serbia on July 28th, the Austrians could not mobilize their own troops for two
    weeks, because they were on harvest break. I mean, if we’ve learned anything about agriculture,
    it’s that it’s hard to have a large-scale war without it, so we can’t go to war until
    all the wheat has been farmed. But even if Austria had mobilized and attacked
    immediately, their initial plan was an attack on Belgrade, not Russia, which by the way
    was called somewhat confusingly, Plan B. Now, Vienna did have a plan to mobilize against
    both Serbia and Russia, but they never used it. But even if Austria had launched an all-out
    attack on Russia, Russia had begun its pre-mobilization, the period preparatory to war, on July 25th,
    and while I usually don’t care about dates, with the start of World War I, very important,
    because July 25th was before the Serbs had even responded to the Austrian ultimatum. And just as a general rule, it’s hard to play
    the blameless victim when you’re moving all of your troops to the border. Hey, why are
    you here again, Putin? So here we have Austrians and Germans receiving
    reports of Russian troops massing on their borders, and you know, that seems kind of
    like war. A lot of it comes down to how you understand Russia’s period preparatory to
    war. I mean, do you focus on the “period preparatory”, or do you focus on the “to war”? Regardless,
    Russia became the first power to actually put its war machine into motion. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. So talking about Russia leads us to some of
    the more meta arguments about the causes of World War I because it’s difficult to understand
    what Russia was doing when it mobilized without trying to understand why they mobilized. After
    all, an Austrian attack on Serbia was hardly an existential threat to Russia, I mean, look
    at the map. Russia’s huge, and at the time, probably had the largest army in Europe, if
    not the world. So why would they care about what was likely to be a skirmish on the Bosnian
    border? Well, here’s where geo-politics and history
    come in. So, looking at the map, you can see that the Balkans are right next to the Dardanelles,
    the straits that give access to the Black Sea. Russia needed to maintain influence there
    in order to ensure traffic through those straits, especially if the Ottomans were going to form
    an alliance with the Germans, which they did. Also, at least in its own estimation, Russia
    was in danger of becoming a laughingstock in European politics: their humiliating loss
    to Japan in the Russo-Japanese War was followed by Russia’s inability to stop Austria from
    annexing Bosnia from the Ottomans in 1908, and that was the event that sparked Serbia’s
    drive to expand its own territory. Its history of prior weakness meant that Russia’s foreign
    policy makers feared that without some decisive action, Russia wouldn’t be taken seriously
    anymore. In the wake of Austria’s ultimatum, Russian
    foreign minister Sazonov concluded that Russia, quote, “Could not remain a passive spectator
    whilst a Slavonic people was being trampled down. If Russia failed to fulfill her historic
    mission, she would be considered a decadent state and would henceforth have to take second
    place among the powers…if at this critical juncture, the Serbs were abandoned to their
    fate, Russian prestige in the Balkans would collapse utterly.” Thanks, Thought Bubble. So judging from what we just learned in the
    Thought Bubble, it was really the Ottomans. If they could have just stopped Austria from
    annexing Bosnia in the first place, none of this would have happened. And if I may go
    a little further back, there wouldn’t have even been an Ottoman Empire without the stupid
    Romans. And of course the Roman Empire was largely dependent upon constant expansion
    and looting, so if only the Gauls could have defeated Caesar, none of this would have happened. In short, no wonder Caesar was assassinated,
    he was about to start World War I in 1900 years. I bring that up because that’s the tricky
    thing about the blame game. You can trace the causes of World War I back a bunch of
    ways. I mean, I can’t think of anyone who you can’t at least partially assign blame
    to – well, I mean except the Mongols. Actually you know what, if they’d just kept
    control of Russia, probably no World War I. Anyway, all of this only scratches the surface
    of the arguments about who’s to blame for World War I. I mean, I haven’t dealt with
    stuff like the alliance system or European imperialism, or you often hear about the naval
    rivalry between Britain and Germany, and then there are the ideological causes, like nationalism,
    and the Social Darwinist thinking that led people to believe that war was a natural and
    inevitable state of human affairs. You can tell all those origin stories of the
    Great War, and they’re important, but ours centers on diplomatic history. There are a
    few reasons for this, first, the decision to go to war was ultimately in the hands of
    a very small group of diplomats. I mean, even in the most democratic countries, Britain
    and France, popular opinion didn’t force mobilization. Also, in most countries that’s still the case.
    It’s still diplomats who decide whether to go to war. So understanding what makes governments
    and diplomats decide to go to war is very important. But looking at the diplomatic causes of the
    war also reveals something to us about the pitfalls of writing history. I mean diplomats
    are famous for keeping pretty detailed records of their dealings, both at the time and in
    retrospect, and then historians have to sift through all these sources and make choices
    about which ones to emphasize. And sometimes, even which ones to believe, because of course,
    often these sources are in direct conflict. Now, I’m no historian, but in creating this
    episode, we had to make choices that many of you will disagree with. Either because
    you don’t think we gave enough evidence or because you don’t like the things that we
    emphasized, and that’s great. It’s these constructive and critical conversations that lead us to
    dig deeper, to consult more primary sources, to read more broadly, and that in turn leads
    to a richer understanding of the world and a more engaged life. All that noted, the alliance system was certainly
    important and I’m sure you’ll be discussing it in your classes, and in comments. Thank you for watching, I’ll see you next
    week. Crash Course is filmed here in the Chad and
    Stacey Emigholz Studio in Indianapolis, and it’s made possible because of these people’s
    hard work and also because of your contributions on Subbable. Subbable is a voluntary subscription
    service that allows you to contribute directly to Crash Course for the monthly price of your
    choice and it allows us to keep Crash Course free for everyone forever, so thank you to
    all of our Subbable subscribers, and thanks to everyone who watches. As we say in my hometown, don’t forget to
    be awesome.

    Superb Model Railway made by French Railroad Enthusiasts
    Articles, Blog

    Superb Model Railway made by French Railroad Enthusiasts

    August 24, 2019


    Today, we are going to
    make a journey to France. At the great model railway exhibition
    in Leipzig, Germany, the French model railroad club “Amis du Rail 67” presented
    its beautiful layout built in HO scale. On the modular railway
    layout, there are one large railway line in
    HO scale, two railway lines in narrow gauge,
    and a miniature street for vehicles of the
    famous Faller Car system. The whole display takes approximately 15
    meters in length and 5 meters in width. [ Music ] Pilentum was absolutely
    fascinated by the good work, how buildings and trees and the
    landscape were modeled. Furthermore, the background
    consists of a beautiful painting. I guess, the background image
    was painted by Patrice Hamm, a famous artist
    in railway modelling. The model railroading club and its members
    created a very special atmosphere: The landscape is not
    overcrowded with gimmicks. It is a simple, but very
    beautiful landscape including a small town with
    half-timbered buildings. But the most important thing, of
    course, is the rail transport traffic. On the main line of the railway we
    can discover a lot of the finest steam locomotives and steam trains
    used by the French State Railway. [ Music ] There are also some diesel locomotives and,
    for example, the famous French railcar. Therefore, there is no catenary,
    because the French model railroaders do not prefer high-speed trains, only
    steam trains and freight trains. On the two narrow-gauge lines some ugly model
    trains running on two independent loops. Mostly, there are railcars for passenger
    traffic running between the small villages. Finally, there is also a
    miniature car system. There are trucks and buses driving
    behind the railway lines. So, let’s enjoy this superb model railway
    made by French railroad enthusiasts. [ Music ] [ Music ] [ Music ]