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    MDOT MTA Summer Intern Program Helps Put Careers on the Right Track
    Articles, Blog

    MDOT MTA Summer Intern Program Helps Put Careers on the Right Track

    August 27, 2019

    As summer winds down and school starts up one group of young people has a special experience to look back on the youth works organization and MTA partnered to bring 16 high school students into the Organization to give them a first-hand look at life in the world of transit This is a great opportunity to bring in some good young people to get to know the agency and a fantastic partnership You know we always look for ways to partner with our communities. We place them in different departments so finance IT Engineering because we wanted to place them based off their interests so the the program the main goal of the program is to be as mentorship, so We’re teaching them about professional skills so coming to work on time Being a team player The Baltimore streetcar museum played host to interns and staff as they celebrated their graduation from the program on the Baltimore streetcar Museum has been here for about 50 years We have a absolutely fabulous collection of antique streetcars that ran in the city of Baltimore we have been hosting the MTA interns for several years we enjoy having them come and See the museum riding the cars. We have to talk to them a little bit about what they’ve been doing So it’s a great experience for us What’s on board the students reflected on their experience this summer for five weeks of youth works? I worked in the payroll department We had to deal with checks and direct deposits and like child support. I learned that When you were into a department like payroll you have to work together No matter. What because if somebody is one person messes up the whole department messes up, so that’s good team leadership skills overall it was a pretty good experience for me because I Got to do professional work for Something I want to do in the future Administrator Kevin Quinn made sure the interns were on the right track as he took a vintage streetcar for a spin Nice and cool you feel the the wind in your face and reminds you of what it used to be like in the city when they had you know 150 of these going up and down the streets and Taking everybody you know to work every day this was amazing and a lot of fun Driving this thing and I could see myself doing this for another 50 years After enjoying a cookout on the grounds the participants were awarded their certificates and given a memento of their experience We are building bridges here in Baltimore the students have an opportunity To get with some of the best companies throughout the throughout, Baltimore City And learn you know basic job skills Learn how to come to work on time Learn what it is to? Dress for Success while being at work if this year’s group is any indication the future of the MTA looks to be in good hands

    Why Trains are so Expensive
    Articles, Blog

    Why Trains are so Expensive

    August 27, 2019

    This is a Wendover Productions video made
    possible by Videoblocks. Get an exclusive 7 day free trial of Videoblocks
    with up to 140 free stock footage clips for your videos by using the link Before I start, I want to quickly mention
    that I started a podcast with Brian from Real Engineering called “Showmakers.” In the very first episode which is out now
    we chat with none other than Hank Green. I’d really appreciate if you give it a try
    and the link is down in the description. Trains are expensive. So expensive, in fact, that on three of the
    most travelled routes in three countries—New York to Washington in the US, Edinburgh to
    London in the UK, and Paris to Lyon in France—they’re pretty much the same price as the plane. These routes start at $49, £30, and €30
    respectively on the train and $52, £13, and €53 on the plane. On a longer route like New York to Chicago,
    the difference is even more pronounced: $59 for the plane, $108 for the train. And that’s keeping in mind that trains are
    subsidized or government run in almost every country while airlines are highly profitable
    commercial enterprises. The planes flying between DC and New York
    are $49 million dollar machines, while the trains traveling the route cost no more than
    $10 million total. The plane has to burn 1.7 gallons of fuel
    per mile flown (3.9 liters per km) while the train relies on cheap, clean electric power. All this therefore begs the question, why
    are trains so expensive? Now, I mentioned that fares between DC and
    New York start at $49, but that’s far from the average price—$73. Let’s look at the expenses that go into
    that fare. The single largest expense for Amtrak is staffing. Trains require a lot of people to operate. 85,000 passengers journey on Amtrak daily,
    but for that Amtrak employs 20,000 people meaning that, daily, Amtrak requires one employee
    for every four passengers. On top of that, the majority of those working
    for Amtrak are highly specialized, unionized workers who demand high salaries. Amtrak’s financial reports tell us that
    they spend $105,000 per employee, but that’s not to say that everyone at Amtrak is making
    six figures. Taxes and benefits typically cost an employer
    30-40% of a salary so the actual average salary for an Amtrak employee is around $75,000. These salary costs are so high that they account
    for over a third of the ticket price between DC and New York—$25.82 total. The cost of employees is so high for train
    operators largely because trains are so slow. For a flight from DC to New York, an airline
    would only have to pay employees for an hour of work while Amtrak has to pay their employees
    for three and a half hours of work. The difference is even more striking on long-haul
    routes—Chicago to Los Angeles for example. An airline would have to pay for four hours
    of work, while Amtrak pays for 44 hours of work. In addition, trains have physical infrastructure
    to maintain along the journey—the rails. Airlines also have infrastructure to pay for
    on each end—the airports—but between those they just use the sky, which is free. Amtrak only owns 730 miles of the 21,000 miles
    of track they use, but they still indirectly pay for the employees who maintain those 20,000
    miles of rented track through the fees charged by the track owners for their use. The next largest cost for train operators
    is that of the trains themselves. Trains aren’t that expensive compared to
    airplanes, but they still cost millions of dollars. The locomotive pulling the train from DC to
    New York costs $6.5 million dollars and then each one of the passenger cars costs an additional
    $400,000. With a seven car train, that works out to
    $9.4 million dollars which accounts for $9.67 on this particular ticket. The other part of infrastructure—rails—costs
    Amtrak an additional $3.66 on this ticket. Railroad tracks are extraordinarily expensive
    to build—typically more than $1 million per mile—but on routes like DC to New York,
    they’re just used so much that the per train or per ticket cost is negligible. Amtrak is a business, so it also needs to
    pay to run the business. $2.15 of this ticket goes to administrative
    costs, and then another $1.31 to advertising. Moving on, trains are extremely safe compared
    to cars, but you’re still more than 3 times as likely to be killed on or by a train than
    a plane. Trains do occasionally crash, and they also
    crash into people. When this happens, Amtrak often has to pay
    a settlement to the victims, and the fees associated with that account for $0.79 of
    the DC to New York ticket. That does mean that when traveling between
    DC and New York, in essence, you’re paying $0.79 in order for Amtrak to kill or injure
    people. Those were all the major costs to run a train,
    but there’s still another $5.91 on that ticket that just represents other minor costs. So the total expense for Amtrak to run that
    train is $50.14. The remaining $22.86 is pure profit. You see, the train from DC to New York, the
    Northeast Regional, is one of the few Amtrak routes to make a profit. The demand, speed, and frequency of the train
    helps it succeed financially where other routes failed. Per passenger per mile, Amtrak makes eight
    cents of profit on the northeast regional, the low speed train, and 29 cents per passenger
    mile on the Acela Express, the high-speed train. These profitable routes help pay for Amtrak’s
    unprofitable routes… and there are a lot of them. Some routes like the Sunset Limited between
    New Orleans and Los Angeles lose as many as 21.7 cents per passenger per mile, and when
    passengers can travel 2,000 miles on that route, that’s a lot of loss. As I mentioned, that $49 fare is not the average
    ticket price to travel between DC and New York. The $49 fare is the price at which Amtrak
    starts selling tickets, but as the date of travel nears, the price can increase to hundreds
    of dollars. That might seem like price gouging, but its
    actually a way to make sure everyone can afford a ticket. That’s not to say Amtrak and other train
    companies are these altruistic organizations trying to bring travel to the masses—it
    just makes more money. Especially with trains where it costs the
    operator roughly the same to transport 5 passengers as it does to transport 500, the operator
    always wants to have as many seats as possible filled, even if that means selling cheap tickets. In a perfect world for the operator, they
    could ask every potential passenger what the maximum amount they’d be willing to pay
    for a journey is. If they adapt the ticket price to every passengers
    maximum price then they can fill each seat with passengers paying the highest possible
    amount. However, in practice, nobody would ever answer
    the question truthfully so it would never work. Ticketing systems, however, try to ask this
    question subliminally. Going back to that route from Edinburgh to
    London, the operator, Virgin Trains East Coast, sells three types of tickets—advance, off-peak,
    and anytime. The advance tickets range anywhere from 30
    pounds to 140 pounds, the off-peak fares cost 137 pounds, and the anytime fares cost 148.50
    pounds. For the advance fares, there are a certain
    unknown number of tickets at different price levels on sale and once they’re gone, they’re
    gone. For example, there might be 15 tickets at
    30 pounds and once they’re sold, the price would increase to 35 pounds, then 40, 45,
    and so on a so forth. That encourages those who can buy early to
    buy early. Normally that means tourists. Tourists tend to plan far in advance and are
    more budget conscious since they’re paying their own costs. They’re also more likely to travel down
    to London on the often cheaper plane since they’re less attracted by the convenience
    of the train. These advance fares are only valid for the
    exact route, day, and time bought which is fine for leisure travelers, but business travelers
    typically want more flexibility. Buying advance fares often doesn’t work
    for business travelers since their plans are only made a few weeks or days in advance and,
    since they don’t personally pay for their tickets, its no problem for them to pay for
    the convenience of taking the train on a flexible ticket. That’s why they often pay £148.50 for an
    anytime ticket. With these, you can just hop on a train whenever—it
    doesn’t matter if its in 10 minute or 10 days. You just step on the train and take a seat. The middle ground between those two is the
    off-peak single which lets you take any train that arrives in London after 11:17 am or is
    on the weekend. These fares are still geared towards business
    travelers, but by restricting against the early morning trains they give a discount
    to those who can avoid the busiest morning trains.. For each of these fares there are equivalents
    in first class—the advance first fares range between 40 and 200 pounds, the off-peak fares
    are 185.50 pounds, and the anytime fares are 236.50 pounds. On top of that, young, disabled, and elderly
    people get up to 1/3 off their fares with a rail-card. This all means that there are essentially
    12 different types of tickets for sale and that one person heading to London might be
    paying 20 pounds while the person sitting right next to them is paying 200 but what
    they’re really paying for is convenience. Now, back in the US, if Amtrak only operated
    profitable lines, their route map would look like this, but the routes that don’t make
    money are the ones that really matter. Amtrak serves over 500 destinations in 46
    states—many of which are small towns with no other means of public transportation. While trains are normally the more expensive
    means of transport, they are less expensive than planes to service small communities. The small airports in the rural parts of America
    are extraordinarily expensive to operate. Even if there are just two or three flights
    a day, they still need a runway, terminal, security, and air traffic control while a
    rural train station needs barely any infrastructure or maintenance. In fact, it’s cheaper to fly from Chicago
    to London ($741) than it is to fly from Havre, Montana to Chicago ($811 May 17-22) whereas
    Amtrak brings passengers from Havre to Chicago for only a few hundred dollars—much more
    in budget for the average resident of Havre who makes only $22,000 per year. Of course this is a political issue, but a
    part of why trains are so expensive is to allow train operators to fulfill obligations
    to serve small communities who need solid transport links. Research has shown that ease of access to
    transport has a stronger influence on whether someone will earn more than their parents
    did than the level of crime in their area or whether they grew up in a two-parent household
    and so keeping trains running through rural America is incredibly important. Next time you take the train from DC to New
    York, just keep in mind that that $22.86 of profit goes to making sure that someone from
    Havre can get to Chicago for less than you can fly to Europe. So you see this number? That’s how much these last few seconds would
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    How Airlines Price Flights
    Articles, Blog

    How Airlines Price Flights

    August 27, 2019

    This video was made possible by Blue Apron. Get three free meals from Blue Apron by being
    one of the first 100 people to sign up at the link below. Airline ticket pricing probably seems like
    a crapshoot. The numbers change seemingly arbitrarily every
    week, day, or hour, but there’s some real science behind these prices. People spend their whole lives figuring out
    what to charge you to fly. Let’s take a look at one flight on one route
    by one airline to understand. American Flight 33 leaves New York’s JFK
    airport every day at 7 AM bound for Los Angeles arriving at 10:51 AM pacific time. This transcontinental route is one of the
    most competitive in the world with over 3.5 million yearly passengers and five major airlines
    connecting the country’s two largest cities. There’s nowhere where pricing strategies
    are more important for airlines than here. Looking at three months of fares for this
    flight, there are eight distinct prices for economy ranging from $129 to $472. These all get you on the exact same flight
    in the exact same seat but each and every price has a purpose and place. The lowest price, $129, is the most competitive
    price. This fare only shows up three times in our
    three month span—each time on Tuesdays. Now, Tuesdays are very often the cheapest
    days of the week to fly. Business travelers tend to make up much of
    the demand during the week and they most often want to fly out on Monday and return on Thursday
    or Friday so Mondays, Thursdays, and Fridays tend to be the most expensive travel days
    while Tuesdays and Wednesdays are often the cheapest. The average ticket price for this flight shows
    this—Tuesdays average $182 and Wednesdays $173. Even if the demand is lower American Airlines
    runs the flight anyways and they have to fill seats to break even so they sell the flight
    at rock-bottom prices. The next price, $144, actually demonstrates
    a very interesting phenomenon. Whenever American prices their flight at $144,
    they are not alone. Take March 6th for example. American, Delta, Virgin America, JetBlue,
    and United all have flights from New York to LA at around 7 in the morning selling for
    $144. They’re doing what is called price matching. Because this is one of the most competitive
    routes in the world and because the number one determinant for travelers on which airline
    they take is price, all five airlines flying this route match each others prices. This way, travelers make their decision based
    off the reputation of each airline rather than the price. The price stays at $144 because it’s in
    each airlines best interest to keep it there. In a normal market, if Delta, for example,
    dropped their price to $119 they would get more travelers since they were the cheapest,
    but in this price matched market all the other airlines would drop their prices as soon as
    Delta drops theirs so all of them would get the same amount of travelers as before while
    earning less money, but there are some cases where it can make business sense for airlines
    to drop prices to below even being profitable. Around the year 2000, WestJet and the now
    defunct CanJet airlines started flying from central Canada to Newfoundland. These routes were historically operated exclusively
    by Air Canada and they were expensive. A one-way flight from Montreal in 1999 cost
    over $600, but when the budget airlines WestJet and CanJet started flying the route, prices
    dropped dramatically and Air Canada was threatened, so they dropped their prices even lower. The $600 Air Canada fares then cost $89. Now, it wouldn’t make sense for anyone to
    fly a budget airline over Air Canada at the same price so WestJet and CanJet were almost
    driven out of business on these routes, until Canada’s Competition Bureau stepped in. They concluded that Air Canada was engaging
    in the uncompetitive action of predatory pricing since they were pricing flights below what
    it cost to operate them, so they were forced to stop. Airlines in the US, with some newly strong
    budget competitors, are engaging in similar actions nowadays. United airlines, for example, is matching
    Frontier’s $40 fares on many days from Denver to Chicago, among other routes, in order to
    maintain their market stronghold in Denver and Chicago even though their cost to operate
    the route is drastically higher than Frontier so they are almost certainly loosing money
    on those fares. But back to the New York to LA route. $159 is the lowest regular fare for this flight. The $129 and $144 price points were both basic
    economy fares—the most restrictive type with no seat selection, no carry on bags,
    and no changes or refunds. Every flight has a bunch of different booking
    classes each with a fare code. For example, the basic economy fare code for
    the $129 and $144 price is B, but the $159 price books into fare code N. These different
    booking classes are sometimes known are fare buckets. Essentially the airline decides it’s going
    to sell a certain number of tickets at the $159 price with fare code N, let’s say 10,
    then when those ten tickets are sold the airline then sells economy at fare code G for $204
    then when those are sold it sells economy at fare code V for $269 then fare code L for
    $318 and so on and so forth. There are also some cases where a ticket will
    default to a more expensive fare bucket because of reasons other than the lower fare selling
    out. Many fares, including each mentioned so far,
    have advance purchase requirements meaning that, even if a flight is not full at all,
    the price will increase closer to departure. All the fares below $204 have an advance purchase
    requirement of two weeks meaning that you can only purchase them more than two weeks
    before departure while the $269 fare, for example, has an advance purchase requirement
    of only one week. Although, the cheapest fare without an advance
    purchase requirement at all, that is, the cheapest fare that you could buy day-of for
    this flight is fare class K at $472 which happens to be the most expensive economy class
    fare. And now for some caveats. Not every fare for this flight is going to
    be priced at one of these eight prices. Airlines have mechanisms to adjust fares from
    these buckets. In the short-term, they can adjust things
    like the fuel surcharge to raise the price if other factors, like oil prices, increase. In the long term they can adjust the actual
    prices of the different fare buckets. Airline often increase the base fares for
    busy seasons like summer. American Airlines does exactly that on this
    New York to LA route where their fare class M, for example, increases from $357 to $410
    in August. But so far we’ve looked at this at a micro
    level—how prices differ on one flight—but we also have to consider the macro level. Why if you leave on Tuesday February 6th and
    fly 2,469 miles to the west to LA do you pay $129 while if you fly 3,442 miles to the east
    to London—only a thousand miles further than LA—you pay $2,772. Well, the second figure is a bit deceptive
    because that’s the price of a one-way ticket. If you switch the LA flight to a round-trip
    ticket returning a week later it will cost $257—exactly double—while if you turn
    the London flight into a round-trip returning a week later the price will drop to $602—almost
    five times less. This is understandably confusing—a one-way
    ticket that costs more than a roundtrip—but the reason this is goes back to the fare codes. Embedded within each fare code are a bunch
    of little restrictions that dictate when you can use that fare. On the New York to LA trip those restrictions
    are just things like blackout dates for the fare and advance purchase requirements, but
    the New York to London ticket has loads more restrictions and the ones that make one-ways
    more expensive than round-trips are the minimum stay requirements. These requirements dictate how soon your return
    flight can be in order to get a particular fare. The idea is to price discriminate—business
    travelers should pay more because they can pay more. Meanwhile, airlines try to give the lowest
    prices to leisure travelers since they’re the ones paying for their own tickets and
    therefore they’re the ones that are the most price sensitive. Business travelers often want to be home for
    the weekend, so many of these minimum stay requirements, like with fares Q, N, and S,
    just require a Sunday at your destination. Others, trying to accomplish the same thing,
    require seven days, a full week, which would also require a traveller to stay the weekend
    at their destination. Now as the prices go up the requirements go
    down so once you get to paying around $2000 you can stay for as few as three days, but
    the cheapest roundtrip base airfare with no stay requirement at all is $5,544 in fare
    class Y—exactly double the one way price. So that explains this—the one way ticket
    is so expensive because, since the airline doesn’t know how long the traveller will
    stay at their destination the one-way fare has to be booked into the least restrictive
    fare class without the minimum stay requirement. You’ll see this idea of price discrimination
    all over ticketing structures. It’s a genius pricing concept that allows
    different people to buy products at the prices they can afford and therefore its allows businesses
    to sell the same product to more people. Tickets increase in price closer to departure
    because leisure travelers buy tickets far-out and business travelers buy their tickets close
    to departure and flexible tickets are more expensive because that’s what business travelers
    need, but there’s another pricing difference going on that’s less fair—between routes. It’s all about competition. Different routes of the same distance cost
    different amounts generally not because they cost different amounts to operate, but because
    of how much the competitors are charging. This is part of why flights into small airports
    are so expensive—because they lack competition. You can fly the 240 miles from Detroit to
    Pellston, Michigan on a CRJ 200 for $242 or you can fly the 170 miles from Detroit to
    South Bend, Indiana on a CRJ 200 for $76. The only difference is that South Bend Airport
    has flights from United, Delta, and Allegiant while Pellston only has flights from Delta. The same phenomenon happens over the Atlantic. There’s more competition on the six hour
    flight from New York to LA than on the six hour flight from New York to Dublin so you
    can fly to LA for $250 round trip while Dublin costs $500 round trip. Of course, travelers from New York to LA can
    drive, take the bus, take the train, or take a flight connecting halfway there while travelers
    to Dublin only have one choice—to fly. In all, the truth is that prices reflect what
    people will pay and so people will pay what flights are priced. If you’re a busy person like me, you know
    that eating healthy can be difficult. Sometimes it seems like you have two choices—quick
    food or healthy food—but you have another one—quick and healthy food because that’s
    what Blue Apron is. Blue Apron ships you boxes every week with
    farm-fresh pre-apportioned ingredients and recipes that let you make these delicious,
    healthy meals in at the very most 40 minutes. I recently made the Spicy Pork and Korean
    Rice Cakes meal which was delicious and quick. With Blue Apron, you’re sure to get stuff
    that you’ll actually like because they have a selection of eight different recipes each
    week from which you can pick. All the ingredients arrive in a refrigerated
    bag, ship to most everywhere in the US, and start at just $8.99/10.99 per serving. I highly recommend you try Blue Apron out
    and the good news is that you can try out three meals for free at the link in the description.

    Proof That Alaskan Bush People Is Totally Fake
    Articles, Blog

    Proof That Alaskan Bush People Is Totally Fake

    August 27, 2019

    Since 2014, Alaskan Bush People has been airing
    on the Discovery Channel, following the seemingly dangerous lives of the Brown family…but
    are those adventures real, or is Alaskan Bush People one big reality TV show lie? There are actually a few a reasons why Alaskan
    Bush People is totally fake… Based on a true story Family patriarch Billy Brown wrote One Wave
    at a Time in 2007, which was the source of inspiration for Alaskan Bush People. The Brown family supposedly ventured into
    the lower 48 for the sole purpose of turning his book into a movie or TV show. Capital City Weekly reports that the Browns
    took a production crew back to Alaska to recreate the journey described in the book. It was initially intended to be a one-season
    documentary in which the Browns re-enacted their life in the Alaskan bush, but the project
    proved so popular that it was repackaged into an ongoing series. Not so remote True isolation means there are no roads, nearby
    towns, or neighbors, but this wasn’t the case with the Browns when they set up shop during
    the first season. According to research by Alaska Dispatch-News,
    the show filmed near a resident who admitted his family wasn’t too thrilled with the noise. They also claim the first season took place
    half a mile away from a pizza place, because nothing says “wilderness” quite like melted
    cheese and pepperoni. California dreaming Sometime between seasons four and five, the
    Browns found themselves in California, where Noah Brown allegedly met up with a pretty
    Californian brunette named Karryna L. Kauffman. Later, she accepted an invitation to “Browntown”
    to reunite with him. Their date was filmed for season 5, and shortly
    after their awkward encounter aired, social media sleuths found Kauffman’s social media
    profiles…and an IMDb page. The coincidence seems to imply that Alaskan
    Bush People hired an actress. It wouldn’t be surprising — after all, the
    “date” was mostly about Brown getting over his ex-girlfriend. He even performed a song about it for Kauffman. (playing song about ex-girlfriend) …because nothing wins a girl over on a date
    like a guy singing a song about his ex-girlfriend. Busted CNN reported that the Browns pled guilty to
    lying on their Permanent Fund Dividend forms. Dividend forms are used to pretty much give
    out free money for anyone staying in Alaska year-round…which the Brown family didn’t
    technically do for a couple of years. “The charges came with a potential prison
    sentence for much of the family.” “All I know is we’ll do what we’ve always
    done. We’ll take what comes, we’ll knock it down,
    and we’ll stand proud.” Billy Brown attempted to explain the family’s
    legal problems to TV viewers, implying that that family is innocent because the state
    won’t allow them to live “free and wild.” “They won’t let you live like we live anymore. If anything else, what you and I are going
    through right now, and about to go to jail for, proves it.” Using state money to support yourself is kind
    of the opposite of “off the grid independence” anyhow. Web-savvy The Alaskan Bush People creators went out
    of their way to claim the Brown kids had no clue how an iPhone works or who Kim Kardashian
    is… “That’s the princess, or queen. “The queen’s still alive. “Is she?” “Jazzy?” “Jaz-E?” “Yeah, these names…” But before they were known as Alaskan Bush
    People, the family created a website to market themselves and Billy Brown’s books, which
    pretty much shatters the claim that the Browns have no concept of modern technology. Sure, the site could have been professionally
    built for the Browns because of their lack of computer savvy, but there’s plenty of other
    evidence that further proves that the Brown family really isn’t a bunch of Kimmy Schmidts. Case in point: their individual YouTube channels. Bam, Gabe, Noah, Snow, and Rain Brown were
    all active on YouTube at one point, and their channels featured some very non-wilderness
    details about their lives. Unless arcade shootouts are just some Alaskan
    wilderness tradition that we just don’t know about yet. Thanks for watching! Subscribe to our YouTube channel to watch
    more videos like the one you just saw. And leave us a comment to let us know what
    you think of Alaskan Bush People…

    The Vietnam War: Reasons for Failure – Why the U.S. Lost
    Articles, Blog

    The Vietnam War: Reasons for Failure – Why the U.S. Lost

    August 27, 2019

    goodnow america’s longest war its most costly war its first military the treaty and as
    well as nightmares national problem people spell often what went wrong how it applied to the u_s_ get involved with vietnam a tragic mistake as
    liberals crying did the u_s_ lose because of
    self-imposed constraints as conservatives crying could we have won the war quijote
    unleashed a military machine and bond the north vietnamese back to
    the stone age what was the cost of vietnam the human cost the political
    cost the economic cost about united states and the vietnamese one person who have been researching
    these questions for over ten years is william gibson we’ve just published a
    book the perfect war techno war in vietnam with atlantic
    monthly press though is a graduate of the university
    of texas where he did his undergraduate work and he got his p_h_d_ at yale university and is now a professor of sociology at
    southern methodist university and dollars and we’re very pleased to have
    you with us today alternatives built a discussion of
    vietnam dot this is an incredible book erbil uh… you have read a lot about vietnam or if you have
    never read anything about vietnam this is the one you should read because uh… it shows the picture from the top from the bottom and it gives a explanation this to what
    really happened there and quite things happen usually come back what kind of empty
    feeling unwell frustration or not really knowing that you after reading your book yet you
    understand him incredible and i were thinking and you
    got the emotional feeling the impact as well as what was happening in the
    mind an incredible stories like hell the north vietnamese were able to bring down american justice by lying on
    the back and firing forty-five rifles weapons but i’m getting out of the story
    doesn’t know what they did and i talking about that in your opinion is
    distinctive about the vietnam war what about that brought
    about u_s_ involvement in this bill clinton adventure the most distinctive features of the
    vietnam war but it was the first warren modern times to be taught from a managerial jisme
    perspective during world war two u_s_ industry may
    domestic contribution to the war african american military man and political
    leaders fully appreciated that effort during world war two the military
    partially adopted a business model organization put their supply operation after world war two they began to think
    of combat there’s also a production process the option of core racine otters
    gladiator heroes who were meeting in combat but is a poor managers internally enlisted men we’re no longer the citizens of the
    nation but they were workers managers and workers that worked on the
    production line to produce deaths and the product and was in the body
    counts so just in american society st
    supposedly was high technology capital-intensive business so too it we fight wars is high-technology capital-intensive
    work there we would be able to drive the other side
    bankrupt so if this production model of war or
    what i call techno war that distinguishes at a primary structural level vietnam from other warfare and will bend and uh… in this way we
    couldn’t lose because we were fighting and ball underdeveloped uncritical third world country look has inspected exactly from an american perspective the only thing that counts in warfare is technology in economics welcome your economy and how you
    translate our economy into your military dead week it was impossible for us to
    loosen theoretically impossible who are going to develop hasn’t economy to beat the united states it just
    couldn’t happen therefore whenever we ran into a problem in four fifty four or sixty or sixty
    four every time you asked me to do this we always thought that if we cast
    related to the next highest level we would win it’s a closed system and there’s always vietnam chosen at the
    start for the first etna war uh… there’s no stork will resume for vietnam it was really vietnam as a
    country as a people as a culture didn’t really matter to the americans so there was nothing about about the country per se to make despite their it was certainly the time winner of this
    whole apparatus of warfare was developing vis-a-vis the time and situation in vietnam was deteriorating from an american
    perspective techno war or this this production model of war got
    its big push in the fifties because after world war two when we had
    to hydrogen bomb atomic bomb newsletter the hydrogen bomb the russians didn’t it seemed clear restaurant mastery of
    the world was just unsurpassed we could not be challenged between the russians had the bomb we
    were in a situation of potentially mutual destruction where they could
    destroy our industrial apparatus then this may be americans feel good but so the question came as how can we
    develop our form of warfare too into exercise our power in the world without threatening nuclear war in the idea developed by doctor henry
    kissinger it with the time was a professor of
    political science at harvard we what’s called limited before and the idea was because our economy was
    so big and powerful we could have guns and butter butter
    m_t_v_’s in popcorn in drive-ins poured hula hoops for the americans at
    home event limited war for an indefinite period of time that
    they were all because we were so much richer we we just got the other side
    bankrupt and there was a period where it’s certainly guerrilla movements of
    the national liberation lives were allegedly said cuban
    revolution in nineteen fifty nine a network third-world revolutionary movement to
    outline of the western the opposite side of the french and british empire could
    deteriorate worldwide sitting behind yet not a classic case of the vietnam have
    been a french colony will prolong crosses a revolt soviet noticeably it was ready we had
    our theory for limited war we had our apparatus in
    place at the time vietnam’s was uh… well by the time difference had been
    thrown out can you give us a brief at history uh… vietnam a nurse scrabble burst into chinese and the
    french et cetera leading up to american intervention certainly the word vietnam initially
    came seventeen newman yet and it was a uh… uh… part of china that weaponry break off it’s like chinese
    immigrated anna quindlen pulmonary racially-based ingrid and tried to ukraine claim independence chinese amperage would invade it now
    hold the country for several hundred years it is amazing grows up riders we’re booked by the
    chinese after chinese within invading colder for another fifteen hundred years
    limited means would throw them out and hold on for fifty years this is the struggle between vietnam and
    china for vietnamese attendance went on for
    hundreds and hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of years finally a bit kind of vietnamese had i repeat china they were improbable we thought in them because of the time of the west
    was expanding and france was looking for a way to get
    the china for the uh… spiced ratings and so on
    ended up taking vietnam so perhaps took a vietnam’s economy in
    the eighteen nineties vietnamese often run against the french
    were making earnings are not they just kept on putting with the new
    world war two the communist uh… especially headed back which you
    may remember million chapin pepto organized better they fought against the japanese and then after declared their
    independence in forty five and ironically american uh…
    intelligence operatives are supported that effort extensively and putting them as i understand it look
    at that time the united states as a model to developers country not to the
    soviet union position was that he had paid off whatever he had tempe
    ideologically otr soviet union and that he was a free agent was not getting any
    assistance and that the american over the
    declaration of independence it stated time period this policy there’s a far better possible that a lot at the bottom of the market’s leaflet
    and good at that part of the nationalist and a democrat to some extent so there are certainly a national osama
    how much a democrat i’m not i’d i wouldn’t prize-winner lip service there was no
    values that walton trailer but certainly an actual club and they got to be amazed
    if he did the french in fifty four after eight years of extensive work fare stand to grow up
    there into court impressed understand the war in vietnam was one country if you’d be intended to be divided into
    three administrators owned by the french but work there was going on all free when the war ended in fifty four the
    country look like a checkerboard celebration in march tom gjelten the
    soviet union or some french cities held in the south other areas held by the uh… by the company’s communist more than seven hundred evenings this
    was only checkerboard been at the geneva peace talks in
    nineteen fifty four there was a land swap vietnamese forces move north french
    consolidated their forces in the south awhile is drawing a provisional
    administrative boundary nada national boundary not political boundary
    administrators on a boundary the idea was the country would be
    divided for two years now with the international election two fifty six there were no such an order uh…
    elections united states meredith would support understand this idea of
    north vietnam as a separate country saturday’s south vietnam was wrong there was no more from south vietnam as
    two separate countries that was uh… uh… obstet there was a checkerboard at the end at fifty four they got they
    got changed that had happened at least out to be
    getting the resistance struggle women the grill twenty eight fifty four the vietcong himself we’re told to put down their guns and
    that they were going to engage in political struggle for two years in preparation for fifty
    six elections out that became extremely dangerous uh… dam demand the americans printout immediately went after and honey down
    most of the communist leftist democrats nationalist meridian and his family will
    get numb pretty much a dictatorship um… annexed by midnight for the late fifties the local communist entangled miller and socialist
    in democratic apparatus was taking casualties so badly doubt they had to renew the armed
    struggle to survive excessive bleeding and decide on
    congress put pressure on the north former communist party to like reopen the military front and have a joint political and military
    strategy as opposed to simply trying to wait for international uh… intervention are killed by the united
    nations or something so that that’s the origin of reserves to
    the heart of the best response to this day for your response is quite simple verses
    up wearing the green berets had originally
    been formed a parachute into eastern europe uh… after to organize guerrilla movements in
    eastern europe cotton reformulated ads counterinsurgency experts and they
    were sent to vietnam by president kennedy in nineteen sixty euros on
    massive increase in c_i_a_ operations the whole idea colour workday remembered and counterinsurgency war criminal we
    failed at the bay of pigs in nineteen one sixty one and so the idea was we must become
    experts say fighting these world wars of national liberation and that we must have new warrior
    technicians who can intervene underdeveloped countries countries fix things and the green berets now were one
    branches fix-it men c_i_a_ operatives were another various logistics people we cannot
    economist well were others which memory understand the class structure of
    vietnam in support of rule society most of the people of landless peasants
    our own very small plots of land there under subsistence agriculture where a large part of the crop goes to
    the landlord asmara land owning cleverest p presents
    a buddhist with practiced elements of confucian isms well a small and an in-class like many of
    them at every p_g_ eastman north many have been catholic controls the nation’s wealth so d_m_ i’m the government d_m_ users in the army as
    a mechanism to collect lips and during the first war against the
    french debit card will be distributed the land to the peasantry so indium came to power in fifty four
    with the army in a naked is agents of the landlord to
    collect here’s a bachlorette notice intruding in total class polarization increased one more time adelphia cultivate part into
    evolutionary perspective exactly and then g_m_ had to use more more
    repression as a result of the dissatisfaction with
    the regression internet the nurses at the time that the get karke honors
    courses felt like they had to resort or something so this is why you made your statement
    in your book that the m had an army but given that he was not a government that’s right knowed it was no expected
    administration under the military administration deliveries to replace all
    forms of village council all forms of intermediary powers that any linkage to to below were destroyed instead our loyalty was
    from the potsdam yet the american escalation didn’t
    really dramatically accelerating talked again this
    fascination what brought about this dramatic acceleration and what you call type of
    work to vietnam will be able to go on and all the other
    vietnamese generals begin a power struggle among themselves consequently whatever government
    repressive apparatus t_m_ had collapsed desertion is increased radically defections um… yet communist became
    stronger and stronger by sixty-four american policymakers
    feared that there would be a provisional will be revolutionary government open provisional revolutionary government
    much in the countryside which we have lost i mean it’s good to say u_s_ forces lost or the french lost him forty five we lost again in fifty four we lost
    again sixty three sixty four we escalate kenya nothing escalated and pasted eaten
    not in the face of victory right massive defeating sixty-three and
    sixty-four broadband yemeni put u_s_ ground troops and sustained bombing of the north and
    want to try to sell versace’s reject why couldn’t you have to accept the decedent
    has a small corner of the world the united states has been unwilling to
    deal with communism as a political social economic movement instead if
    you’ve seen that we as americans are the natural beams of
    the world of capitalism is the national economic order and i’m in our system innocently the essence of feeling good nursing absence of nature therefore something very very different
    from ours is none other society within one
    compares differences in extremes with its own and so forth but instead intimidating presence where nature their
    entire nature or what i call the for another during world war two the soviet union did take over right after world war two
    did invading take over eastern europe the red army didn’t want to hold it as a
    buffer zone and they didn’t stop epic dictatorships there this became a model all-american views of communist and
    social severely cut americans did not understand it to a
    revolution they did not understand the chinese revolution in the forties that they were like
    millions upon millions of poor peasants who wanted land survive in a mouse a
    toner communist party offered in lance arrival
    where’s chiang kai-shek was a warlord who offered and nothing unable to see in total struggles for uh… socialism or communism or while you are unable to see even in
    cairo struggles for national independence against queen elizabeth the longest dividing to be an
    interesting and we have three guys who the bad guys
    they are looking for another day trying to move and so all forms of communism
    kit movements get scene in that so in this incident in particular limit in the world is not
    just a particular moving up toward poor country and it’s really one hundred
    poorly written on this matter and we had uh… a little bit smith
    there is still any movement is a sign of a
    global movement there are so you know if you’re poor
    peasants with vietnam that doesn’t mean just that they have
    little to a few more people have a few more honest instead that means the before and other monolithic machine his encroached one or
    step into each other step the rest of the world becomes a pair of
    this of course the dominant very sulekha contagious disease sort of that sort of
    like each country having school his treatment
    own culture in his own people intercept the world’s leading to shell i could just poured into the arson at
    this time once they get going to somehow i’m
    making a stigma minimal propel cognizant of victory it’s a billion adequate mechanistic anticrime
    initiative is a mechanistic framework of the world make enemies is for the other day are we doing it all
    construction but isn’t that also water two sides of
    this the other side of the people of the big decision makers dave’s
    foreign-policy establishment retirement looking at the world on a more realistic
    basis as uh… general maxwell taylor said in
    his book we have to keep an iron grip on the third world
    country because they’re poorer and they want which is in the riches would have
    to come from us so they look at any type of victories
    that unique as an he can such as in vietnam providing an example to other third
    world countries that if they can do it and get away with
    in vietnam they can get away with it in order to universal siddiqui vietnam’s
    universal sign of her national liberation victory everywhere
    defeated vietnam means that all liberation movements will give up
    their struggle suburb given the fact that i have uh…
    there is uh… that uh… that still caught back to the united states that have built up in the military
    machine bottled water given a mechanistic anti communism was motivated
    the foreign policy decisions i have the u_s_ foreign policy establishment and
    given the clots began sake of these government in vietnam there is almost
    inevitable that u_s_ involvement would intensify that this war was not an
    accident that is what i was not just uh… policy
    mistake that was a consequence basically u_s_ foreign policy u_s_
    industrial military uh… development since world war two
    that this was a test case this is where they test of whether she needs dot communism
    i really restriction together i am more than the crucial arguments on trying to like critique in my book is this notion that that we
    just made one mistake after another that nobody which really smart or breaking the bank
    just sort of slipped up you don’t go to war that where you go to
    work are far in advance in sixty four oh one johnson was making announcements about
    the gulf of time canon just sort of like i was surprised attack which it wasn’t uh… in and early sixty five when they were making goodness mister
    naked public domain which in two thousand more trips to vietnam they fully expected kissing two hundred
    thousand people bugging the sixty five and another hundred sixty two and a
    thousand sixty-six another hundred thousand are sixty seven with the est
    which were already there could be a ticket happening in the end but i had a bad it up and down towards a
    plan warfare plant escalation well let’s talk about the war itself and three others techno war actually worked out itself in the ground in the
    air by the use of helicopters the helicopter warren search-and-destroy can
    you describe the somehow they were tonight well not quite a bit there is general
    junio generals write books they’re kinda like academicians venita
    like like to publish in order to get poorer promoted at the hierarchy we
    normally don’t believe them but i think that way but it is stripped of his death
    by their actions justify their actions are used book is called shopping the
    combat engineers analysis to reinforce military just uh… notre judgment it’s
    published by putnam the army and in the first chapter yourself that we can compare a
    search-and-destroy operations in vietnam to an assembly line it was a pill angrily and what that
    could be objectivity unlike a world war two world war one would you have a
    continuous fight going on thousands of miles you have a major offensive is in a
    counter-offensive internal lol in vietnam it’s back re economist backyards united
    one full blast all but i think that’s the grand jury a
    problem how do you just allocate your resources given the fact that you’ve
    already decided to run an actual capability that that is bad and it is body count search-and-destroy means that settle somewhere between several hundred
    and several thousand american soldiers are going to search a block of countryside for viet cong or north vietnamese troops and they’re going to try to engage them
    in combat and of course and destroy whatever troops or whatever supplies
    they capture imperious strategic often sick meaning it’s a way that could put the
    viet cong weaker at the moment to hunt them down were hunters democratic the objective used to cure all the enemy so fast that we reach what’s called we called
    the crossover ports a general william westmoreland st the crossover point needs you’re killing me any faster then they can replace their cash or
    checks like you to drive the other side
    bankrupt un saludo a high-technology without
    helicopters are jet fighter bombers our tanks we don’t put condom up now that’s the theory the practice of search-and-destroy often
    turned out very differently in that part a sickly other factory will decide the routine operations and this routines we’re quite visible to
    the vietnamese for example we just didn’t also didn’t show up on
    emails into an area in began the search instead you had to like reconnaissance planes
    had to go over it artillery guns had to shoot smoke rounds
    into the jungle into the landing zone all the other artillery guns could side
    and so they could like fire protective artillery strikes around the landing
    zone if you really kind of unikom commander if you see a smoke when i’m coming up in
    the jungle while you know that the americans are
    getting ready to move on chat um… a helicopter assault there aren’t that many clears out of it
    clears in in nablus territory real swamps ordinary in jungle you can tell whether women’s
    own mazak so many times the viet cong commanders head of a very substantial advance notice upon women
    americans were going to begin operation consulate they have a choice do we run
    in height are doing a bit the americans we might the secular pushed way takes the landing
    zone the second and third whereas bring in
    more artillery if you’re a viet cong commander you get
    out your compass in your map you draw a circle of radius and on the
    map and that will tell you because you know
    the dominican artillery hunting five-millimeter howitzer has our two
    thousand your radius so you know that the americans will not
    much broader outside the range of their howitzers so you can tell where the americans are going to watch do you run and hide dignified this sort of thing kind of principle
    goes on the it’s in essence they knew where we work but we did not
    know where they work and they have the uh… they have been
    issued a very heavy initiative at that rate if you have to rain so if you have the military’s own
    statistics roughly three quarters of the battles in
    vietnam were initiated by the economy in the air meaning they endorsed u_s_ forces and can make a decision also most battles immediately in the economy
    in the a wanted them you need they could like initiate contact him
    break contact and methods are two crucial definitions
    of combat initiative and your other statistic that only a m to percent of the search-and-destroy
    missions did we actually may contact uh… or original contact
    with the vietnamese so was their choice the whole time and
    as i understand the soldiers themselves on the ground they didn’t like this
    because they’re the ones who would have to take the casualties first to lure the vietnamese into battle so that then they uh… americans with
    no word on the plane who worked on the artillery he sent out a patrolling in order to get
    an ambushed in order to market target with a smoke
    rocket from the helicopter or such so then the judge can come in and napalm in
    the area in other words you have to get ambushed before you can find the enemy you know when i began logan research i
    had a hint that i was going to find a very cavalier
    attitude towards work an idea of vietnamese later died i was surprised to understand the
    command attitude towards their own saulters but this think about it what kind of
    production model organic techno war either yes or no easiest one manager sir we have a draft we can replace all the
    calvo labor that we loose can be replaced and indeed it’s like migrant labor force
    chromosome alexei whereupon you bring an end per year when you have heard a death
    in chicago they were qy dot well not much but a lot of our
    other poor working-class twice the ideologues so what if they walk into an ambush we take some
    casualties that way but they will call in our airstrikes in colorado artillery
    fire will use our technology and to do to get the body count sorrow in essence the grant ritual bait they will be sent out on operations to being ambushed and that not agood wait to survive and welfare unites a movement it was suicide i was one of the worst patrols you could
    ever go ahead the purpose of it was four years walk up
    on charlie and for him to hit you and then for a hardware to wipe them out we were used as scapegoats to find out
    where they were there was no we were haley couldn’t find charlie any other
    way so the locals around into a whole bunch
    up mentally they could plastering than it had a big body count mahendra general
    gets another god damn metal in a big promotion uh… let’s also note again the highest officer routinely on the
    ground during vietnam was a captain the
    captain’s company commander company had at noticed about a hundred
    and forty people in it that would be at full strength most combat units never operate
    upholstery everyone above captains level battalion commanders demand of kcl
    commands four companies all battalion level officers beginning
    to gage commander several battalions divisions has several regiments
    abrogated all the rest of those toppers course for those commanders in
    helicopters trying at minimum of fifteen hundred
    feet because fifteen hundred feet is the
    maximum range of the fifty caliber machine gun when used as an antiaircraft
    weapons which until the latter part of the war with the largest any aircraft weapon
    that contact so the managers were relatively state in this process which is the workers who are suffering the occupational
    safety uh… after-dinner hazards on on the
    ground logistics taps in terms of the numbers in the body
    towns did they actually uh… immunologic
    succeed or where the costs greater than the benefit even in terms of the logic travel things happened for one all the american commanders in
    helicopters communicated in uncommitted english to their subordinate officers of ground
    troops the common in the a were able to buy american radios in the black market
    capture others they routinely listening to all the orders there are many stories keyboard appear calm hearing american
    orders from him taking actions to circumvent the share arrogance of nowhere in my helicopters we have all
    the stuff we don’t have to attempt unit to pay attention to her in the and
    end up costing american life span so that part didn’t work army took within a year so by late sixty six or so economy in the idea of how long it was
    going to take an american air strike to get there sometimes they can make a terrible
    miscalculation get caught up in open but in the state in the commander it could make a resort judgment how long he can
    stay in combat before he had to run like hell because the uh… air force of again
    look at the hearings are going to have to come and go after him so a lot of times embassies would be quite brief community
    would break off contact well we’ve mentioned body count a couple
    of times let’s get into that kind of whole framework of corruption and lies and cover-ups that are curtail it’s
    simple portland without so far successor worst trillion anybody can escrito try driving oversight bankrupt and his presume that uh… we humans does our was just on the
    gentleman that night your tenants are captain time and your
    captain kirk company commander sailor you’re under pressure under pressure to produce a body
    captains of carmel semicolon battalion commander if i don’t leave my quota my career’s over with obvi relieved of command if you really
    the combat command then you’re going to take it but the hierarchy is is gone saga squeeze you and back in some units it kind of where the informal rule was
    if you don’t meet your body count quota and we’re going to like they’re not
    going up to steal we’ll just need your help bring small ammount somewhat kuchma
    water but don’t expect you know you’ve got like produced goods and unify came back without a body count
    or at least prisoner and and get my hands to so i kept the patrol out like talk to uh… leading to many soldiers who were
    wounded they’re the ones i saw in japan and they told me that some units were
    given a quota for the week and if they didn’t get it but they were just sent right back out
    again uh… you’re under pressure we severe
    severe pressure would you do well you can do several things one you can just to get a bike you can just add up in the air just like
    a a say call up and have elected everyone in
    your unit kioto your entire class there you two
    para frame sixteen for about uh… for many common admit it and i’ll call up on the radio in the
    report that i have a your body count of thirty articulate five or something like that so you get in touch with a communal
    company chambers um… you call an air strike in calling
    artillery strike and the charming you nearby um… in you actually having kids when you
    find too many bodies well you know needed it if you’ve got to bodies and you’ve got
    three different units artillery air in a country of ours who is going to get the credit what if you don’t give credit to the
    artillery what do you think might happen what did he say you fired that munis does that sound like a large palestinian
    artillery commanders dry giving support to unite become sligo path that m around
    how those air force pilots might have to have a an inaugural solitude it in your interest to reward everyone inserts everyone is
    under the same system everyone reads body count well sure we give you fifty air force we give you
    fifteen gunships we give you get the autoimmune we on the ground uh… i’ve got five bodies and i’ve got five rifles
    were counting truck was a five persons killed so i guess is twenty five and while we were outstanding around
    with continuing coverage out i beg your pardon tim graves or count them too um… everybody park in body parts a we fine
    on my leg injury because sometimes really whitman air strikes a deal yet
    you can blow people smithereens unlike the warm everywhere everyone is nice
    discrete data yeah anne-marie award it’s quiet there are stories of poor people from
    different units had the fight over arms and legs to determine who is going to get the
    kill cal pregnant and of course they got the getting more
    pernicious because they would slaughter vietnamese
    civilians and include emini children women all people include them
    as part of the body count who should get clear on on asking about in some areas of the war whimper u_s_
    forces were fighting uniform north vietnamese troops too many civilian casualties a whole a whole lot of vietnam battles
    occurred wait inside the country where there were the economy a card and
    the villagers were off will very much the same people went home search and destroy the nations
    little-known stuckey limiting the moon solely killed everybody he’s happy to be standing alongside officer on the radio man said wexler we’ve got
    some children rounded up what do you want to do it coming officer says god damn it bring in
    a lot to do it and kill the bastards you ain’t got to god damn balls to kill
    a marine i’ll come down killed a bunch of myself marine said yes sir and hung up the phone at about two or three minutes later i
    heard a lot of automatic fire and a lot of children screaming hired babies crying angered children scream in her life search-and-destroy we support whereas if
    you say you new units burned down villages routinely um… continue going to be a legendary
    again and you see the brokers there’s only one in
    vietnam had about providing it you here in orange maybe maybe screaming
    try get somebody out there that maybe you just rather than a million uh… more people start to wet away from
    you and well if they weren’t community must
    be ready and so you shoot them in central running
    becomes a sign of anatomy we’ve been out for about three hours and i’m really haven’t seen anything was
    too hot but then i saw this figure of black
    pajamas running along up and he died about three hundred meters ahead and to the left a flow how you know i
    got what i mean i hollered ten o’clock even mine man i a matter of the warning to halt to
    regulations don’t lie dont lie so i got to learn me squeezed the trigger blackmun trying like a piece of paper
    and augusta win chlorine got stomped morgan shouted not shot dead natasha nukem when you reach the body and that’s a
    corp space up with my boot the long run uh… picked five to sixty meanwhile he says stupid goog when she ran for uh… we were run and a free-fire zone and we saw women a woman and child
    running across them that captain says well they’re they’re they’re running well free-fire zone they’re running the wrong and they’re
    the enemy so he shot him polls club opened up on the next morning we went out and we could see the cap of the child that was bloody and you can see where the mother dragged
    a child away prove separate they’re afraid they’re trying to survive and desperate situation but under high
    pressure to produce a body count so yes we got into sustained slaughter uh… it means villagers you go through the work in a man’s hands energy if he’s a true farmer he has campuses any pisa grew up he really fake farmer he doesn’t see you
    go when you look at the hands of those if he doesn’t have enough calluses when
    you called in the way he seemed to interrogation center would you look at the ankles a man he was a guerilla he must be and
    when that dana julian is any causal scratch where these are finally when you
    have something scratches so people will go american soldiers will go and look at ankles work is going to be actually a problem
    identified about nine months time to get much sleep so you can answer those are your eyes so u_s_ soldiers are going to look into
    the act of the vietnamese and try to send him an
    incoming banks they hadn’t been convention did he get hauled off when people in our country it was not our culture would not speak the language imbaba netware looking at war language culture history class structure
    this matter student didn’t matter what matters we had the hollywood minute
    didn’t well is that part of a helicopter gunship we had a
    rule about the use of the day steve actually
    met anyone taking dated action to be fired upon major explains why or even what was going to know where
    there is one answer that i recall where we flew over a large rice paddy and there were some people down they’re
    working on the rice paddy maybe dozens fifteen individuals and we passed over their heads but in taking action who would you tell
    the remembers amarendra hyder anything so we are covered by just a few feet off
    the ground among about two helicopters return on our police sirens and
    eliminated at least fighters they started to disperse instantly open up on this channel nine when i was six thirty in the evening and uh… still daylight and they said
    there was some greasy out there in the call on us so we fired out there until all seven of
    them wentworth comes back to us we killed
    seven rice farmers care in their homes they’re trying to make it back to the
    village seaweed set up to this uh… cook for
    you six p_m_ to six a_m_ himself he was up to them to be out of here by
    that time pale they didn’t carry any wrist watches
    they didn’t have any idea what i mean a lot so yes people got home away from traditional
    never came back uh… really villagers were brought into the
    ground and blown up and yes meaning it means men women children chickens water buffalo pigs complex often who will care often times you into
    village destroyed right shot everything hamburger crops across and alcohol use lieutenant and houses the only you know for people who treat
    you right when you walk through that billy jean do you hate you know they can be that’s not even if
    they can be read they won’t say nothing to eat and we expect him to run out the welcome
    those like at world war two type of stuff you know how do you do you know i
    havnt seems we step outside the door leads the
    captain radios them where under heavy contact and right away who who spent on jetstar
    come in and dropping them five hundred-pound bombs the whole villages
    were leveled and we go into the next election and that is search and destroyed all this was like a part of what you
    call the miracle worker it’s essentially if it’s getting to get a new jersey city in which hope when it is just orange hat documents
    call rules and gatien’s they’re supposed to specify when you can open up by when
    you can’t on civilians bother anyone used match at all new instead of other kind of rules have to
    let me say that they were under any okay at but the job that was one looks
    unusual containing the emmys wearing black uh… the heart was the enemy course all
    peasants that more that international address soto all kinds of the state rules that
    supposedly distinguish b imprint compo the army’s rules were wrong in that we
    just didn’t know the culture they were kind of like fabrications that americans
    invaded to try to make themselves feel
    legitimate about who got shot you know but honestly people saw through this and said look we listened to practices in the urban
    google disability and he’s just bc immediate means wish you were talking
    about insulting but also the factor of racism through
    like sudden death how much they would have done that they’ve been fighting
    turbo ites probably much less course for a chance to go to slopes
    planted tank one definition of the day vietnamese was their leaders if they’ve been napalm they were called
    crispy critters and made one minor went when we killed a pregnant woman we can do is to bc one soldier and one cadet now what you do is you know with all the
    friendly smith friendly vietnamese onto ships and taken out to the south china sea and then you bomb the country flag he asleep issued i’d like to burn the whole country down and then start again with americans bombed the schools and churches bombed
    iraq steals tuning showed the children in the courtyard is
    just what napalm candy too strafed apana kill the people dropped
    napalm and the square and get out early ever sunday n ketchum
    at the morning in prayer broke and it to the are being gather
    them all around they keep writing millimeter canon and mold the bastards
    and down there’s also capped a certain sadism not only in soldiers on the field but
    also intelligence people people who would collective years and fingers and even heads and even
    intelligence people with with admit that they really got off to beating up the uh… people they were interrogating if you don’t get nice bud thrill to do it when you look for some reason i wore
    them once many had made valiant efforts to try to
    talk about the covers a lot of some sort of warfare uh… over there he said his arm clearly a
    very strong statist dimensions a lot of right uh… in the field as well as killing a
    lot of rates followed by killings and relations when we do know women only before five of us we go into
    the village in take a girl and bring her out to be into the jungle we tell her to lie on the ground don’t
    scream otherwise weed killer immediately and uh… well how many regards there were well
    they did what they want to do it guys are a good mood they let her go anyone and killer how the girls were unconscious that’s a big band repeatedly raped and then after we got your raping and
    three of them g_i_s type and the players and eighty shot him in the girls vaginas negroes were bleeding from their mouths
    noses spaces at the jonas than the g_i_s uh… the plight of the
    exterior portion of the players they exploded inside the girls click their stomachs just exploded well one day i was driving back travel abroad and on about growth and a guy comes over to me and he says
    he needs some counseling and say why i look over and i see this girl when she
    strapped and she’s tied the two mistakes i don’t know what they’ve done to her
    before i got there well they poured gasoline all over the
    girl tabela why did it they let it and then they just doug dare and watched ur bernau it if you look at the body consistently
    see attached only thing that counts the body can attached but that’s what we
    were to punishments are distributed by if that’s your etc energy on command does it really care whether you survive recruiting in a world where anything
    goes it becomes a good times will talk to you
    all it was a rival or or to hold onto your ethics i think a good example of this oliver
    stone’s movie platoon which is currently in release which has a u_s_ military
    unit which severely defied uh… divided between one group who commits atrocities and others who
    thinks it’s a horrible or war situation and i think that’s a good with the good
    illustration of public on a dynamics that could mean the years illusions ep everyone is a killer or or or safe list its rejection in a structure wearer a significant component of your troops engage in such behavior
    but none of it so it seems that then you know we talk
    about coffee we talk about the line when you use that term atrocity it was an exception to a new law that’s
    not a good way to look at our world let me lie and atrocities we’re just business as
    usual in in a life seems a little
    well-organized in particular organized but certainly certainly mail i wasn’t really village
    in vietnam was burned out and everybody in sight we shot that is that that is
    that is not true at all who said that is precisely the reason
    ability on the ground war to distinguish between friend unfair obesity and peasant farmer the lead to the next dimension uh… at
    the world the participation program the fact that they weren’t able
    to tell who the enemy lads that they had to put out the whole country journey
    company if you can’t open from perot the needy populate the countryside him
    rudimentary few into concentration camps and retreat urban slums it’s not easy to be popular countryside
    for several major techniques were used to kill podi asian should be destroyed a
    third base of the country this is where wage in orange county agent orange in asian blue nationwide
    were sprayed on millions of acres of crop land uh… other millions of acres a force
    with affiliated so if it based on people have to work secondly certainly bottoming attacks on villages which were quite quite
    extensive discouraging courage people to move an employer actual search-and-destroy
    operations were villages sandwich everyone is killed others in
    which you should be surrounded village mood everyone out being burned at the
    village in mood in the middle east three minutes uh… millions and millions of years and
    hospitals worse yet too concentration camps into urban slums what’s so interesting is the american
    solicit progress this was our organization rural is bad berman is good so even though they have nothing it was brought into the uh… sees a
    sign of progress through bring vietnamese and where you could show them t_v_ and uh… and make them work in american uh… bases and so on and so forth was seen in setting up a more
    sophisticated job and being a peasant farmer this is also part i think senator i’m
    i’m not saying the enemy and a as uh… culture or as individuals or
    people the same time just as mirror images of urself like they’d bombing of north vietnam was
    forced her to mcveigh’s during their capacity to have consumer goods certainly interesting idea you would take the numeric restricted no getting scared about their hope that they would care about their way
    other than a dog in their ancestors grave in their life’s field to retrieve
    it instead simply just to have vishnu good have
    this close to surrender deliver the earlier but that in itself was just unmitigated
    good like people’s lives were not important part of the root of human
    dimension was completely lost listed america’s bid we can count ham a_t_t_’s reported this month how
    many hundreds and how they’re by i think that the war was applicable the vietnam in a way certainly hit exactly it could be in
    many ways to create a tremendous destruction but he could not stop a very powerful united people who trying to change the law that this will
    be a our topic then expelled them with that at a time for the day and next week we received
    the limitations of that the world white it failed in vietnam also discuss what’s
    wrong with the liberal and conservative interpretations in vietnam we’ll see
    what lessons we can drop couldn’t he had not experienced we also will talk about
    some other aspects of the vietnam war of the tet offensive for instance but uh… the big turning point in the
    world body revisionist historians particularly conservative said that it
    was an american victory whether there was it not also talk about
    this fascinating phenomenon which the
    american army refused to fight or many elements in our
    bed as a matter of fact they start attacking
    their own officers and uh… senior enlisted people phenomenon is and will conclude with a discussion of
    some of the parallels the central america of some of the
    failures of u_s_ policy in central america how
    they can be eliminated by the failures of the policy in vietnam so that thanks
    for coming tonight denies that he had a nice being informative discussion i will
    look forward through next week welcomed alternative use them for the
    second or two part series about the vietnam war bill gibson who wrote an incredible book
    about vietnam war called the perfect war technol war and his blood the perfect lloyd cutler
    war in vietnam was recently published by a blanket
    monthly press and itself i was there is an extremely good reviews it was
    favorably reviewed in the wall street journal curtis review described it as a
    perceptive coach insignificant and so far the best analysis of the main
    of america’s on the military defeat highly recommended gloria emerson in a
    review described the broadcast although many valuable books on the word fifty as
    records obtained an endurance there’s no work through the cheese but this does because he might just say this from our
    most comfortable life instead delusions william gibson
    should the honored and john stockwell describes his broadcast and all of my research on the subject
    that are not going to compare with doctor gibson’s perfect war her
    invaluable insights in the u_s_ methodology it’s hideous the results of the war
    tonight we’re going to talk about the things we didn’t cover um… we’re going to talk about tet the importance of appetite offensive we’re going to talk about cali united
    states army slot and and uh… they decide they were not a fight that
    war anymore we’re going to have an evaluation of the
    vietnam war how many how the people look at it from various aspects and will also take
    a final okay have we learned our lessons are we still biting fighting techno war and central america or at least planning
    to what is your interpretation of at the
    water we get involved in vietnam techno warming to fight wars production
    process the military became deeply impressed
    with big businesses contributions of world war two after world war two the military can
    decided that not only would like to supply operations be organized to a
    corporate alliance but that actual conduct the warfare will be organized
    while corporate lines the officer quoted managers they listed
    meeting with the workers the product was in the body count just is american business prided itself
    on high technology capital-intensive production systems so to our military have high-technology
    capital intensive work there to al produced we would kill more them and they would
    have us stats technolo why was it applied in vietnam because after world war two in the fifties the
    soviets had the atomic bomb they could be in destroy our economy aka base a pop our if we intervene
    militarily in the work in the world with too much force the argue clear was
    to fight limited war indefinitely and the third world we will use oddly just-in-time
    production system over there and ride to the other side bankrupt why vietnam beckons saw communism not is another cut the social
    organization is another culture as another political system but instead they saw americans it has to
    do it in the natural she died like in congress will support
    it other and alien kind of being the world was
    divided into super tuesday acts of people communist and non-communist and therefore if i get a good credit their side our
    side by the time the credit in these over to the creation
    of late fifties we had a period limited warrant act we had a conventional forces ready to go by the late fifties vietnam should be convenient load place to test out this new theory of warfare techno war and a place to drive before another
    batch kentucky but that’s not been fascinated
    in near a book about how a major part of the u_s_ supported a
    certain part of the war was to win the hearts and
    minds of the vietnamese through important u_s_ commodities olympia that
    u_s_ government actually put up the money to import these commodities and created
    the whole infrastructure and rather than win the hearts and minds
    out of the overwhelming majority of the vietnamese people the just created more
    corruption in a quality you want to talk about that aspect of your details just hard to
    us to realize how much money was poured into the country and so many ways if you’re a high vietnamese general crooner japanese government army positions well business positions and would most american aid was on the
    list for sale on the international market by
    the time in iraq the level of staffed unbelievably high in the only reason you
    decide whether to try to control with that the american government’s issue every
    decision by the officer corps as the price we
    have to pay for continuing the war so therefore in order to get something
    we choose the vietnamese people would have seemed more in more and more and there’s an element of truth in that
    but also the greater truth was that simply corruption became compounded and uh… the riches became became
    greater we’re talking about millions and millions upon hundreds of
    millions of dollars may or even currency manipulation currency fraud
    wasn’t gimmick if you knew how to play the game you could get rich simply by exchanging
    your money from from dollars to be esters to military scripting back again just nothing just by playing play with
    the rules a little bit that you didn’t including massive inflation admit little odd for most people got
    worse its what were your jobs available a few
    people on top were able to make money off this cluster
    stealing the american editor of the bottom of your jobs open for you you can work for the american she could
    work on the base you could be an interpreter maybe if you
    had minimal language skills resort remain hillerman there has been set up like a half
    million vietnamese women and gauge duke some kind of commercial sex prostitution massage parlors where ever
    you want to call it which grossed of there is hope multilevel herb sexual marketplace uh… threatening other drugs do drugs
    subject huge huge caroline importation coming from all places
    coming from laos and the c_i_a_ was running a warrant
    last winter the hills people and liberation
    government in order to buy it the leaders of the
    kills people by the way ocean government they had to acquiesce to the heroin
    trade tons of heroin were brought in a rare
    america planes and limit means air force planes we find in bangkok in other
    places in seoul on in in in two u_s_ soldiers in vietnam south you’re going to use them in the
    military leadership was also heavily involved narcotics business general and subsequent president of the
    republic of vietnam when band to ran one major operation welwyn county but i’m sure marshall premier and vice president ran another for orphans what could you do shoeshine business wasn’t so i think
    it’s had to make money on the side shining shoes was like a
    definition uh… going through garbage dumps job today dismal live in this new world in vietnam
    not a consumer paradiso and then the other hand you have the black market where as you say in your book you could
    buy a million by tank armored personnel carriers and of course viet cong where cabin on
    the template themselves whenever they need american goods they consider
    themselves out the problem the other aspect of the u_s_ policy well as anti-war part of their your most
    brilliant chapters in descriptions in your book of the magnitude in nature of
    the air war and vietnam who was mentally i guess
    directed against north vietnam do i discussed on elements of anymore therefore is a factory then clearly when you look at their
    their work we got the biggest back we may have
    nothing by american reasoning you looked at me
    shit given at the data first bombs dropped on the market not because they
    had such a small small industrial apparatus such a smoke number of bridges and things if you would think they would have just
    given up they didn’t um… they were willing to sacrifice their
    industrial apparatus billing to the chips or the massive mention casualties and indeed contrary to american mythology where the vietcong were simply
    to being totally supported from the north rectly eighty percent of supplies the viet cong
    used to even have been eighty percent supplies to india unusual raised himself
    a small number supplies were sent out it couldn’t be stopped no matter how hard the u_s_ bombed no matter how hard you escalated his
    campaigns no matter even after the close the
    pulitzer prize carmen distorted to systematically bombing the railroad
    lines between china and vietnam he couldn’t stop it the number of supplies wasn’t that great on that the other hand air worded mobilizing north vietnamese
    people to exit considerable degree uh… everyone had a job of one kind or
    another either repairing the railroad repairing
    the roads are taking over industry or working in agriculture so immobilized him consolidated that
    society too terry on much like to nazi attack on
    great britain consolidated british morale which is
    open on the other hand the people you say well well obama back
    to the stone age and we just practically dead most people don’t recognize yet united states air force and navy drop
    between eighteen fifty million tons of bombs and rockets on southeast asia or
    world war two united states dropped two point one million tons so the minimum s but then it’s about four times greater in world
    war two amigos at almost eight times greater than world war two and u_s_ motives nineteen sixty-seven
    report he has a party category summary the largest category in after vehicles
    is buildings when you listen to the report support
    observers on the ground with the report is just about any modern cstaylor brick
    structure over to to store all but one story because we’re going to look like targets
    unless there’s a lot of those which are just on a more hospitals a lot of more
    schools yes book and i was bomb back the stone age there’s no doubt about that but because they were not fighting a
    technolo at illegal implemented now we saw in the previous program where at this uh… production assembly line type of
    attitude resulted in date demand for body count or the land troops in the air war they also have production quotas but i’m
    not going to organization of this was right the unit of measurement it’s called a sortie want fight by one
    airplane and therefore squadrons queens therefore it behold large units have rates of production that they are
    supposed to me the navy the air force and indeed were
    incumbent in competition with each other to see you can quote you the most
    productive therefore the through the object was to
    fly into many nations as possible within a of finite period of time like a
    week or a month or whatever so relevant and pay attention to really
    what you were bombing or to pay attention to the safest way too protect your pilots in the way to
    minimize civilian casualties instead military war managers devise ways to maximize sori rates and consequently entered into serious irrational behavior they black and grey award where u_s_
    commander treated their own ground truth is expendable higher commensurate colleges expendable they would often be center missions alarm say looking for trucks in the
    middle of rain storms when it’s impossible to see trucks compiled into the ground you know you
    can even see the ground when by thinking about it but that keeps the saudi rahi hai or also say you’re supposed to you know
    which way we were given target it is the targets crimean but you still sing your planes up there
    every day five days in a robotic saxony murdered in order so that because that’s simply this like a factory you keep doing the
    same retained but we sure telegraphed punches not all that many targets in that area
    and i didn’t take too many smarts to figure out about where they have forces headed specially wen li headed american date after a day making them fly up to the target before
    making a good or not go decision on the weather that we already knew was not
    acceptable we turned over the target and came back
    again the next day to try again but this miracle pilots does it they died because the vietnamese clearly
    understood where the americans were from flying the same pattern everyday and
    they understood that and then we just keep coming so but often frequently vietnamese did was
    simply move more and more antiaircraft guns into an area that the americans for
    some reason one of the bomb in whatever happens american pilots and that means fighting
    uh… violations against you pick our kids
    surrounded by hundreds and hundreds of any aircraft weapons in in this way uh… by telegraphing are both countries uh… american pilots died i talked with a couple of the new
    apoplectic f_-four pilot to blame who told me to end up with a gun at
    recently and im before playing mission carrying a very small bomb load one pilot told me his goodness t_p_ was
    so mad we risk eight guys he said when we could have come to hold on one
    plane risking only two people and on the job better well then i have scheme or why did they
    send out four planes the pilot said and if i know blessed just to keep our sortie rate
    high but i’ll tell you this if they got and
    crime we know what you heard about this orgy
    business on an aircraft carrier consolation the navy pilots who told me
    that he could do a better job of the few eighty six is operating in the safety of
    darkness then with all those sky hawks kidding around the world wide load in
    daylight so i wouldn’t think possible appear that
    the maybe was trying to alps or t_v_ air force an air force was tried on sorting the
    navy my guys who were flying the sorties took a dim view of it and we had uh… incredible story in
    your book or about probably north vietnamese was actually
    bring down the american jets with handguns and rifles seems unbelievable arsonists in an advance group of american
    standpoint it is unbelievable in the acually c advanced technology
    system like a jet fighter bomber needs another advance technology like a sam
    missile not to bring it down and there is a lot of some interest in
    that but north vietnam underwent a tremendous
    social mobilization part of that mobilization group while
    giving almost every one of god me that there’s still a submachine gun
    arrive forever or light machine guns the entire society was organizes a giant
    in new york way any aircraft system emmett clark really low level vietnamese present were under
    instructions to simply get out in the field en masse
    lie down and shoot up in the act to try to provide barrage with make level altitudes unsafe to american pilots and
    it happened curly hair but by the pilots to report that several remaining planes were shot
    down an extremely low level by peasants what this means for them but level flight became so dangerous
    that they had to move higher are pretty consistently be picked up on radar is it just depends as could shoot down
    planes as that but they do not an air space to americans that made all their operations had more
    hazardous so social mobilization was able to
    compensate the technological inferiority there is another example of this uh…
    in the whole team and trail when the united states bill padding incredibly
    expensive electronic warfare area which the uh… they were able which mania uh… vietnamese in that little shins
    were able to overcome with barry simple tricks the joint chiefs of staff always wanted
    to invade north vietnam insipid takeover handle an ipod or have
    ground troops in laos there’s a place where between laos and thailand between uh…
    the south china sea in thailand something like thirty five miles or so for the effort is linden visual for justice for most
    magical line will keep before another out rivals bottom at the past cutting out literally let’s just uh… that was changed to
    expensive in terms of truth lies they stated that area with electronic sensors listening devices sizes the pickups
    metal sensors of various kinds uh… these devices internship radio
    signals to circling it that the aircraft intercept interest to computer banks in
    thailand in thailand intern organized air strikes over the trail the two things happen one the sensors woody collect uh… bags if you’re in honey entries tape recorders with cricket noises in
    which to try to mask the movement of trucks you find a sensor and you could just
    normal general knowledge is a tape of normal general knowledge is next to it uh… so you master sensors in one area where
    you actually seeing your troops in operations on the other and up so you get a taxing uh… you
    world convoy drivers truck drivers north vietnamese had sexual zagreb aids
    they had rocket players a lot of this is cabanas occurring at
    night so the attorneys would throw out explosives to make americans feel like they were doing something um… and americans into wanted to believe
    that they were destroying vietnamese truck convoys y pilots but we work on the basis of
    productivity their majors you lieutenant colonels
    most of them walked before congress will probably asylum or desperately want to
    be brigadier general they need to be productive therefore they wrote their tendency is
    to report is high destruction of a trucks as
    possible and it’s a big joke eventually became
    the enemy intelligence was that the next day when congress was
    flights would fly along with what she meant well they could never find the
    truck carcasses anywhere near the numbers that uh… the pilots reported destroyed so glad you began that deep in the
    laotian jungles the great truck either yeah and my truck you there
    was a monster that totally loved dead trucks midday meal is not
    only have to read every night if he got up in the day the skeletons a
    good bit drugs so that when the reconnaissance planes came out and in the morning there were simply be
    no records this is not the site and thousands
    trucks were destroyed that never to the extent necessary remember relatively few supplies which himself by
    american calculations something like twelve times a day was
    enough to support the warmest self you can put twelve times boxer mike tractor
    truck without any problem attachment to spare but even if you multiply it by figure fifteen or twenty fold stacy equity
    tractor trailer trucks a day approaching the entrails or forty pickups or whatever that still such a small number of people
    are very expensive air war has a hard time i cannot stop that level of supply for most of the military general because
    that is that the war whose memoir hewlett and documents seized by the indicated to the u_s_ really one most of
    the battles of the war that the u_s_ records yes light was on its way to
    victory and in particular there’s a right wing revisionist view that the
    u_s_ could’ve won the war at the time of the cat offensive at the u_s_ build up of maine courtney porsche units ground
    troops began in sixty five by the end of sixty seven we have someone over four hundred
    thousand at four hundred fifty thousand maybe in the past five hundred thousand
    christian country according to american records the official records kept in the
    pentagon and kept at military assistance commanded nam we just about destroyed altogether on
    trips they were all nearly decimated now why was that because of weapons were
    falsified perhaps we begin a strike that all that
    last time once you move into wars production
    process and the opposition managers lose their students at the devotee to
    their subordinates below answers for the fidelity the trip upward mobility just like in business where maybe go up you know
    up to the highlander is the main again that was a letter in the military the currency what that was to report the
    body count so everybody buck their body count date body counts were routine not that not exceptional any trouble they worry that the body casket getting
    hired uses the reports went up the chain of command a larger figures became well the first report i would send them was from the facts from the information
    we collect intent was objective that it would be if it could be now we founded and but uh… that would
    always come back doctored up from higher headquarters that was standard operating procedure when i was repeated historian there so the result is that the battle news was edited and revised until it was
    acceptable to the higher ups hail and in order to write open relies
    on our civil aid program such as increasing the fifteen english classes
    of three hundred to make it look good to the politicians and people back home and i’ve been ordered to raise the
    figures for food distribution and uh… refugee villages but i’ve also had retired battle reports the old meeting uh… certain facts uh… and thereby turning in north
    vietnam army victory over superior american forces into our u_s_ victory so our paper we had warren but in reality two things fired that was part one of our victory
    the second point was in nineteen sixty seven the american high command decided that viet cong guerrillas no
    longer existed because insulate the polish them on paper
    answered because just like american forces we don’t have any part-time
    guerrillas are full-time guerrillas and also to google rulers have to do to
    have tanks to guerrillas have helicopters to guerrillas have uh… heavy artillery they don’t have as much hardware as we
    did so they are clearly a threat to american
    units so several hundred thousand uh… viet cong guerrillas were abolished from what’s called the
    order battle so what you would eliminate the
    guerrillas on paper and then you charged so you have a hot lower total estimate uh… enemy forces can you have an inflated by uh…
    estimate of how many of those you’ve killed well it worked lyndon johnson desperately needed a
    political victory to follow sixty seven so he got your westward to come back and
    say we’re winning we’re winning the war student enter an interface three and that is that we are mop up for a
    couple of years and what was having a reality well reality the viet cong courses debated the local forces had expanded
    radically from nineteen sixty four three late nineteen sixty seven according to u_s_ figures they were only
    about two hundred thousand yahoo com but minimum c_i_a_ man started like
    going profiles a primary figure things he calculated about a half million with
    understand what that means at the c_i_a_ man is doubling hit the estimate but it seems to me they
    don’t have any idea at how many of them are on there but it means a double is probably the
    highest figure he can get away with and still will be listened to by anyone in reality the enemies gaining strength we have with the crew viet cong we have work at least dissipation still in fifty
    thousand troops here being sent south in the border zones along cambodian laotian
    borders and in sonar showed us that the other satisfy co-wrote the book of the country in the u_s_ strategic offensive failed
    of search-and-destroy the bombing operations had failed in late january early february nineteen
    sixty eight newark the display department viet cong
    forces attacked in mass simultaneously for the first time normally they fought they dispersed operations they were not andrea under that under no snow still first time in a
    simultaneous national tax the attack succeeded in driving one it we needed to pass occasional our
    audience involved in past occasional griffin m a countryside in the cities almost all of the vietnamese and
    american ground force units were driven out of the countryside back into the
    cities dip in the city’s mayor and some viet
    cong forces inner cities and i’ve saigon way uh… regional capitals and we began to to battle in the cities so what happens after a few weeks the viet cong withdrew from the cities their casualties were extremely high
    they had not anticipated that the americans with bombing and conduct
    artillery strikes inside the cities uh… but they did so i watch herself vietnam was reduced
    to rubble their casualties were high the americans in sap in the meantime
    units were gone from the countryside uh… desertion to be a massive and the economy which recruit many many many people now that they
    would know opposing forces in the countryside their political cadres were
    able to surface so they were weakened in many ways than
    the other hand they have achieved a decisive victory inviting their parents out of the countryside what is the regiment because american forces were able to kill many of the commandos in the
    economy troops inside the cities the americans have general westmoreland
    court victory uh… of course this ignores the fact that although he’s going to the economy out
    of the city’s he himself isn’t going to have a countryside and it’s made a
    mockery out of his own previous claims of victory um… also sparklers created many many people that they were far more and south vietnam than americans and
    willing to admit westmoreland and made a trip request for
    another two hundred thousand soldiers this week request within the city
    analysis were seriously what was found was that even within the production
    model of war if you would just come up at the same kind of what they would
    simply add more resources to do it still the viet cong around just to people in
    this out good fight on for another four or five
    years at least three years to four years and then with anymore or
    significant looked at least dissipation they could find on ten to twenty years and which he just we just could not
    drive the other side bankrupt and you’re saying that the north vietnamese army
    basically had participated nodded yes i did get marketers army did not because
    they don’t care the fact that most of the war they were quite a minimal over you
    consider the number of via car trips in proportion to the number of north
    feeling well that’s true depth up until sixty eight after sixty eight
    they entered the war in larger numbers sir uh… the car were getting worse certainly the concern to claim your vehicle took
    severe losses which it appeared to be stripped the claim that they were
    decimated indicated a spot in the claim that the americans onecare is false canisters remain healthy miracle war
    managers cities department stated their strategy
    was bankrupt and that there was no pac decree so this finally created ah…
    religiosity time somewhere in this period i try not to long after with this a break in their self delusion that
    techno war would win every hotmail here is a serious problem that people don’t
    understand it american television news began to bite from the late nineteen
    sixty eight on began report the idea that the war was winding down and that we were on our way out just not true this is a false statement you should never believe it’s when you
    look at the casualty figures how many american soldiers were killed
    from sixty-five to sixty-eight for sixty three sixty seven and then you take sixty eight when you look sixty nine crew seventy
    three the sixty nine three seventy three just
    about is within a couple of hundred is high is the number of kill sixty doctor sixty-seven so-called week
    search-and-destroy continued way way on internal until old mate seventy-one what was that then
    they finally convinced the u_s_ foreign policy is that was for
    the u_s_ public that vietnam could be one plummeted sixty eight on american military began to wickham progressively more restaurants
    and bars certainly bible eight sixty nine seventy is inactive revolt against
    his commanders remembered at seventy five percent of
    the battles in vietnam where new shit about the enemy of the average american
    grunge band used to have the that most people combat troops pennies to didi
    walking an ambitious most mainline fairly quickly that while
    they were walking an ambush is that their generals were getting medals and
    they were safe in helicopters runs on and so forth uh… subpoenaed to begin what’s called
    fragment ragging means you take a fragmentation grenade and you
    put it at your superior whether it’s a non-commissioned officer
    arjun or a battalion or captain or whatever it was a way to tell higher command not to treat ground troops’ lives frivolously that
    they would not pursue aggressively pursue dangers combat
    situations simply in order to make a visit to make
    his superiors look good okay let me tell you had workweek start
    having more calls which is like uh… dole will at
    midnight everybody you know if it starts open inspiring screaming books on the
    wire books on the wiring barbed wire fences you know and then you try to kill any of the
    lifers that he didn’t like so we tried to get to see all couple of
    times machine-gun one time he was uh… rack took nine holes his cock nine
    bullet holes but you don’t go out of it and got away with that’d be shipment so
    we couldn’t check weapons they use your name so they’d be throwing grenades at the
    wiring yelling and shopping books on my wired brooks and they’d blow the siren
    and then run around and have to guide to be facing outward shooting men the other
    half would be waiting for a wife her to come out of his pet yeah i’ve seen them told officers executed five or six times just put a price on his head makes one accusing gets the money next time he was out on a mission that everybody knew it was good they just wait to humans and the right position and he estimates run quite high and it
    was the official i’m accounts about six hundred fifty faking incidents and real reasons to doubt that because i
    think quite small and sure there are a lot of network reporter all of course
    because no no commander wants to have when you say it’s like i said my my
    moment for a grenade at me we’ll try to shoot me i mean how do i do a good on your record
    either get promoted up that there is a great leader when you’re reporting that there were
    people are shooting at you no i’m sure the records are not the
    figures must be substantially higher this totally inadequate pulls the bonnie
    alexander contracts her particularly unpopular officers but
    there’s also certified and felt mutilation a-level too people would not desperate if they were
    just uh… do disoriented and they were not being
    cared for by the command of the actual operations often while slaughter of
    uh… innocence suicide rates a fairly high standing up until apartheid is one
    payments um… cartoon book by uh… banning tech forster it shows a picture of a man oversold
    regarding metal rock with his trigger finger in the air looking for the
    million-dollar weren’t feeling like expose this nice index finger shot off he could get out of the worst or you
    don’t take your malaria pills um… we’re going to do therefore remove the kosher passionately
    area there are many many ways out or people shooting themselves in the lots and lots of stories of self
    mutilation or you do if your friend and algebra fran decided will be twice analytically days mission and he’s had a
    premonition of death which is taken very very seriously all
    combat soldiers are deeply superstitious sometimes issued or u_s_ you could use
    to add your friend not none of our place but it with him enough to get them out you described by the work its way you cannot fight a war where people are are you going to search you avoid i’ll tell you avoid that uh… but that
    is a very prevalent than himself thirteen destroyed searching the void
    and as you do you go out and you keep playing nuclear war you try like to go
    out and you know smoke some dopamine thanks radio reports or he gently try not to engage the enemy we talked about everyday told the guys felt the same way reduced more accomplishing anything back some guys reselling depressed and
    disgusted that he was killed themselves some guys were taken hand grenades and and blown themselves away they couldn’t take the strain anymore cop who’s really heavy i don’t think a lot of the stuff was
    reported do you guys would just kill themselves they are made probably send stats home with a guy who was killed or missing-in-action did the antiwar movement called
    clinton’s saulters in creating a sense of what they were
    they were doing was wrong that they would victims that are making mistakes
    that have impact you think that it’s going to live com coffeehouse g_i_
    coffeehouse mimicking anti-woman try to send a copy houses near u_s_ bases to uh… permit literature thanks but obviously when you read soldiers memoirs and novels refusing to talk about the anti-war
    movement very much it’s not to say there was an influence but they talk about we hacking to the situation of warfare that there and the one and uh… um… enemy in with the moral qualms and
    moral qualms intercede on the battlefield but one of the credentials
    of the anti-war movement nobody would be the last five years ago
    i did not come in once it was stated that the u_s_ was going to
    withdraw eventually that made it more difficult there was one place in your book where
    he said that this actually it was a class war class warfare that was going
    on that vitals are black soldiers clerked for fatherhood bragging ripple let’s remember who went to vietnam after world war two the u_s_ military
    decided that too many college-educated men have been killed danger of this was
    that it was going to hurt the scientific base of the country decided thanks chris
    over the country was for we couldn’t have the next generation of
    weapons so the idea to this deployment of the
    college deferment was to keep the cool alive what this meant was remember this is an
    era of very few student loans very few scholarships and so forth it meant that the sons of the middle
    class could go to college where the sounds of the working class too the military in the military itself military needs vast numbers of
    white-collar skills so if you had any kind of like uh…
    clerical skills like middle class people do often do typing filing someone you
    could ease more readily yet uh… and unarmed combat job what this translated into is that what
    you study got them to the corner who is in your infantry units armor artillery they were overwhelmed they were
    disproportionately minorities in the were white who were whites poor urban life so we had a a working-class uh… largely working-class military combat military whereas a more middle class anti-war movement more middle-class
    logistic apparatus inherent in the military so the class
    revolt a clash about not one cor revolution we’re not talking to voters
    now but it is sort of like uh… it was
    revoked against the manager yes if not in our interest exploded in new zealand
    yes and yet and it certainly would among black soldiers there do they they were
    definitely influence but my carmen racial consciousness and critical
    consciousness but prepare now and where many of the type signs of
    bonding signs of you know that scanning special handshakes on so forth i would be a value a plane that media
    handling the amount and and now i’ve spent a lot of time looking at the
    tapes and i have pushed closed if i could finish my outline i was going to
    write a book about television news covers the water started to think well
    what was not on the news for me but i saw in this country i wrote this
    other book critic war was on the news is a lot of pictures and helicopters a
    lot of pictures objects a lot of pictures of tanks a lot of
    hardware and wish techno what was the major
    representation to visual representation along with his today that these these
    please presentation to the people weapons i love my favorite when a_b_c_ show a_b_c_ series where at the first one outings may see
    the battleship new jersey that ocean new jersey just been recon
    mission in sixty nine and we see it here’s the sixteen each
    gun dealers is john thirty-foot balanced at the camera looks down a guy starts
    talking about you to two hundred fifty-pound projectile sixty miles had broken thirty two feet of reinforced
    concrete amanda had at the other way at least thirty two miles sixty feet we push them back again if
    the two identity or kill radius it simply i committed a corresponding to
    a salesperson and i i think i should buy two more the
    battleship new jersey analysis is currently a m believe and in the film patterns in other
    correspondent angel and uh… the bank of the river it’s about the bbc frankly offline trash
    can and he remember the uh… roadrunner rockets mineral that want to cut it was
    always getting something from acme rocket company that i was kinda fucked
    up trash can on a stick with the kind of
    like trying on top of it exactly what this rocket look like was obviously
    have a homemade crude rocket end of the contrast of subletting seems
    like american victory so insured because we love our technical
    superiority court within a point out the vehicle on the fires that rocket
    knows exactly what he’s shooting it was a battleship new jersey there where they may not where it’s much more fun so that it would be pissed off people
    sold out people ought not to bring many dead
    people who were very few ended they have the death conditioners was much like a
    warmer the elections number will go on three-star body count each week which shared we were always winning we saw one
    village one village was born in nineteen sixty five dash yet and again the kind of course bonnie
    guidance of air travel uh… mail i appeared as its is remember
    did not come from the news and it didn’t come from a normal networks a came from
    a veteran who tried hard to get the moves out their little coverage of messages came
    on ordinary language of the war groups
    slopes land bank more american news correspondent ever
    talked about those terms of what they meant it simply did not occur in status very
    much official perspective waco and got critical from sixty eight on a case where you
    would see reports about failed technology indication cutesy stories about tragic
    american deaths it was like a human interest tragedy
    become permanent of criticism rather than any kind of explanatory notion of what i would not succeed bill let’s talk about a valuation of the
    vietnam war a lot of people written books about a historian generals and
    etcetera west coast image who’s just come back to
    where we start to disappoint by nasa says the u_s_ head to get out
    who couldn’t fight when i read it wouldn’t do it in the
    morning you could read it moved to the air force campaigns but it was campaigns
    have their problems to you can hold plan with airplanes silly money to the south vietnamese they
    were corrupt they’ve just had more maybe crap it so we would hate it my analysis and you know if it was
    defeated and that that’s that’s the stamp on to
    the question is how have the historians of a novelist uh… so on treated this tragic of
    american desi the conditional path as a liberal
    interpretation that is it’s just a strategy it’s just kind of a wrong out there
    somewhere and lacking suspect were all sorts of small mistakes are more
    mimicking smallness moments later schlesinger lovers i think it would be
    the most famous the classical case stanley cornell’s book learning p_b_s_
    series most recent example the commotion presley’s not an
    explanation you know twenty years a small mistakes doesn’t explain a war that has a very clear structure which is my argument at the structural contradictions about men who work there
    and in its disillusioning failure the second school the most prominent
    right now is the cutest lost because a self-imposed restraints so bizarre experience of military term often used in joint chiefs of staff
    documents called for escalated air war and vision is gprs they should have invaded north
    vietnam in nineteen sixty six and taken handle an ipod course telecom of that other one of
    those persons who had those guns firing again shooting against aircraft the jet fighter pilots they were also
    organized and prepared for invasions argument you why do you know emission
    factor north vietnamese didn’t have any troops himself that was one of the major
    reasons it wasn’t that they didn’t want to help
    their comrades in their southern comment it which which were being held back any part of our project the home front
    against a possible american invasion stucco into jail the plan for a year to fighting this
    invasions let local militia and regional forces fight for the first dated two
    days so once the americans are tired after twenty four to forty eight hours
    across the conduct damen north vietnamese army waiting to
    see and we did this notion that the u_s_
    could’ve had a successful invasion thus far o’neill fantasy unworthy of any kind of
    serious consideration and that they had been expeditionary
    force in handling high phone we still that would change the class structure in
    south vietnam that would change the fact that you had a peasant renewal in
    atlanta that you want to do this to wanted uh… self determination letter
    in capital and he warned that the whole country
    were national unification ’cause the whole basis of the culture was growing
    up before debater and that’s all they don’t all their
    lives for two thousand years first throughout the chinese to french and now the american soldier it would
    have changed at the self-imposed restrain still this fall will have we learned anything
    fence line we you’ve point out they total corruption and self-delusion of the
    military and the civilian leaders throughout this first of all thank you naked wages
    technol war and secondly having uh… not paying attention to
    being realities which like uh… try to sleep up from the
    intelligence field suppressing any intelligence that would
    uh… contrary to the contrary to what they wanted on it still in that thing motivating n do where you probably think
    you applying it to you well i have a couple questions certainly
    there was one example which has been a tip and we just barely took it even though
    there was a minimum opposition most of the u_s_ special forces command as bit
    the dust in various operations governor various mishaps one kind or another also the military’s analysis is well not only
    do we fight with one hand tied behind our back a week or two slightly more
    rapid escalation so honduras has been prepared a series
    of airfields and ports have been prepared in honduras in order to bring forty fifty thousand
    troops into battle within a week um… they had to the subtleties fortress and they still have million military had
    the vision that they could probably take when i won a few other places and a
    couple weeks rather than an extensive central america war which was escalate tremendously because the nicaraguan
    today i have no choice except to expand the war outside nicaragua to make the
    battlefield bigger the battlefields bigger than united
    states has to disperse its troops it’s this virtues are dispersed kit cheap decree activated them back to vietnam but i’d
    like to have one other thing i have not learned a thing with an author most feminist anger many veterans of
    course when you have sooo mail certainly don’t want to see this they’re
    probably parts of the military inverse mornin positions we don’t want to see a
    major escalation but then we’re on track for another kind of of major
    intervention whether or not will be since the iran artwork crisis has
    emerged that may be off for a while i don’t know
    but they’re certainly philippines there’s another growing insurgency there um… the chair of the chances for another
    major intervention in another series of self delusions are very very high because the people
    that officer corps who were successful in vietnam or the people who were in
    charge now the people who would be dissonance the to him for lieutenant colonels and
    majors who would be the risk of repulsed they got out they reside most of it ironically the arm yourself recognize
    this nineteen seventy war college study which indicated ah… that there was a significant difference
    between the ideal army values such as honesty integrity bravery justice and
    responsibility and the real values which are practiced
    by the military inorder to promote career advancement here is the studies conclusion the present climate does not appear to
    be self-correcting the human drives for success and
    recognition by singers sustained if not inflamed and by the
    system that rewards and management which cater to media personal success at the expense of moral and epochal
    values would appear to only be perpetuated by the current environment the fact alone that the leaders of the
    future by those who survived and excelled within the rules of the present
    system militates in part against any self
    starting incremental return toward the practical application of ideal army
    values and in the final reason and that the
    problem of learning is that there are cultural reasons that
    make the american people want to believe the self-reproach restrain school and that is we are used to petition the
    cowboy who comes and stays a society against the enemies and the power structure cannot defend
    itself the idea of a week authority that has to
    be saved by a warrior shows that in many places in american cultures in the
    western into detective you have the detective
    you know is outside the law all the super man in the nasty danger figures of
    the twenties and thirties certainly are able to portal criminals legal authorities cannot uh… but also that is that the police
    technology cannot self-serving embarrassed to talk to that if we have
    enough technological military force we can help
    the win the war if you have people it’s hard not to
    believe in your hardware americans don’t worry about social relations they don’t
    learn about class structure everyday in the newspaper or about cultural history every daily
    newspaper they learn about what’s for sale then part of the lesson of vietnam
    concerning the limits of at the water the situations in which technolo but
    well i but it cannot achieve victory they can destroy lenny can destroy
    people but he can’t create a government cranky recreate a culture it can create a society and this is another thing we try to do
    in vietnam to oppose the model of the consumer
    society are then add american-style suppose democracy would it be elections
    in situations where these just couldn’t work it did work in a way you know what you
    have people can become corrupted they did get into their consular under some
    things but it just doesn’t have a stable society it
    doesn’t builder dad will people willing to die for that
    society that was a hope i’ll let you have to be a crappy vietnamese that what
    it looks like things we know they were willing to go out and if insight on the
    gap are not biggest did they bought their tickets
    out united states that the patrons were divided that just collect and jess four are getting rid of the
    landlord to local oppressors here to make perfect sense to them and there’s been this problem the
    so-called vietnam syndrome which are leaders have been complaining about all
    these years sensitive there was a fitness in the land quickly if i lost the will to fight yet and uh… but it looks like the american public had a clearer picture of what uh… the war was all
    about them the than the leaders but uh… acute how would you expect
    that can do you think they were overcoming that vietnam syndrome now so
    that they can but i don’t think the american public ever had an idea what
    with raw images knew something was wrong and it wasn’t getting better contracting a leader fighting this may be easier for people to believe the
    self-imposed restrain school to believe that we lost because we didn’t fight
    hard enough um… for the package that the package proctor
    cultures presented here a bit of the warrior imagery is well mined grammars
    strong on the rise because many classical war movies made in several
    kind of very warm and he’s made um… it’s definitely a war culture how people go clearly though there’s there’s still a
    resistance there still a certain level which disaster vietnam detached in at
    least on people’s memories either merrill lynch say they’ll have
    understanding of why it failed a welder structural reasons there is a fear that it will happen again

    Now Hiring For All Positions | HW Hunter Ram of the West Truck Center | Lancaster, CA
    Articles, Blog

    Now Hiring For All Positions | HW Hunter Ram of the West Truck Center | Lancaster, CA

    August 27, 2019

    Ram of the West, the largest Ram truck center in America, is nearing completion And HW Hunter is currently hiring for nearly all positions HW Hunter’s Ram of the West is the number one selling Ram truck dealer in Los Angeles county. And this new state-of-the-art facility will position us for even more growth. Our new facility is being built from the ground up for the truck customer The center will be equipped with wider parking spaces, heavy duty lifts, oversized work bays with easy access, and the latest in technological and diagnostic equipment. The facility will also include a custom-made car wash, wide enough to accommodate dually trucks. Ram of the West will have one of the largest Ram truck inventories in the western United States, including a tremendous selection of commercial and upfitted vehicles. Trucks will be displayed across the seven acre property and at our 40,000 square foot facility. connected to a deluxe showroom, big enough to display over a dozen trucks. The parts center will expand on our already successful retail and wholesale operation and will include its own parking and entrance to accommodate parts customers. The department will also include an extensive truck accessories display. As we recruit for expansion, we’re looking for honest, hardworking, motivated people. Automotive experience is preferred for most positions, but we’re willing to train qualified candidates. Because we are doubling our service capacities, service technicians are especially needed. Chrysler certification is recommended, however we are willing to train those promising individuals. Entry-level technician programs available. HW Hunter provides opportunity for not only career growth but advancement. Myself, for example. I started as a service cashier and have moved myself up to the Service Director. If you’d like that career opportunity, I’d love to talk to you. Here at Hunter, we offer an outstanding benefits package, including a matching 401k and comprehensive health plan. We pride ourselves on developing an environment for career growth with great incentives and competitive pay. I myself have grown with the company over the past fourteen years. I started as a salesman, then advanced to Sales Manager, and am now honored to be the General Manager. Here at HW Hunter, community support is a very important aspect of everything we do. We believe that we have to give back to the community where we work and help the people who support us. We’re proud to serve in a community that provides a high quality of life, with a completely transformed downtown area with a performing arts center, sports complexes, and lots of opportunities for family fun and entertainment. The Antelope Valley is currently poised for exponential growth with the expansion of the aerospace industry. It’s also one of the last affordable places to live in the state of California. Housing is incredible value compared to other areas in Los Angeles County. And when you see all that Lancaster has to offer, we believe that you’ll agree as well. Our company was founded right here in Lancaster by my grandfather and has been family owned and operated since 1944. We’ve been successful because of our dedicated employees, our faithful customers, and commitment to our community. We’re proud that we have over thirty employees that have been with us for over ten years. If you’re interested in joining the Hunter team on this exciting adventure, please apply at Thank you. HW Hunter is a drug-free environment and equal opportunity employer.

    Donation Decisions: An Inside Look
    Articles, Blog

    Donation Decisions: An Inside Look

    August 26, 2019

    [ Matt Anderson ] I’m Matt Anderson.
    I’m standing in one of the collection storage spaces at the Minnesota
    Historical Society. Since its establishment in 1849, the Society
    has collected objects, books, maps, fine art, posters, manuscript materials
    and government records. While some materials, government records for
    example, come into our holdings on fixed schedules set by government
    agencies, much of what we have comes to us in the form of donations
    from the public. Space, time and resources are limited and acquiring
    an item into the collection isn’t quite as simple as taking it and putting it into
    a display case or onto a storage shelf. Several steps are involved. The typical
    donation begins when a donor submits an on line form about the object.
    The curator reviews the form and can also make a decision then and there.
    But if the object has an interesting story, if it isn’t duplicated in the
    existing collection, if it’s in good condition and if it has strong ties
    to the State of Minnesota, then arrangements will be made to
    bring the item to the History Center. During the meeting the curator asks
    the donor for information about the object and then issues a temporary
    deposit receipt which the donor signs. This form gives the Society temporary
    custody of the object while it’s evaluated. After meeting with the
    donor, the curator may conduct additional research or compare the
    item with other pieces in the collection. If the object still has strong potential,
    then it’s taken to the acquisitions committee for formal approval.
    This committee consisting of curators, librarians, exhibit developers and other
    specialists, listens as the curator makes the case for the object,
    explaining its story, its significance, how it compliments other materials
    in the Society’s holdings and how it might be used for exhibit or study
    purposes. The committee then debates over and votes on the item.
    If a majority is in favor, then the object will become a part of the collection.
    After the positive vote, the curator writes a catalogue record for the object
    noting what it is, how it was used, the nature of its significance and the name
    and contact information of the donor. The curator then sends a deed of gift
    form to the donor. This form transfers legal ownership for the object to
    the Minnesota Historical Society. The donor signs the paper and the
    returned document is placed into the Society’s permanent file.
    The collections manager then assigns a permanent accession
    number to the object and passes it on to a volunteer who labels the item
    with that number. This identification number follows the object forever
    and ties it to its computer catalogue record and its paper file. A photograph
    of the object is then taken both for inventory purposes and for use in
    the Society’s public re-assessable web-based catalogue. Finally, the
    collections manager finds a permanent home for the object among the shelves
    and cabinets in the climate controlled storage rooms. There, the new
    acquisition stays safe and secure until needed for research or exhibit
    purposes. As you can see, a good deal of careful thought goes into deciding
    what we take for the permanent collection and the typical donation
    passes through many hands. We take these steps to ensure that the
    collection is of high quality and that limited space and resources are used
    prudently. Not everything can be added to our holdings but the process helps
    to ensure that those items we do take will be available to future generations
    as they explore Minnesota’s past.

    Watch Model Railroad Video | DVD Gift for Children and Grandchildren | James Coffey
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    Watch Model Railroad Video | DVD Gift for Children and Grandchildren | James Coffey

    August 26, 2019

    Train leaving for Anaheim, Azusa, and Cucamonga. Everyone have your tickets ready, please, ’cause here they come… clickity-clack down the track It’s Lots and Lots of Toy Trains! Little toy train coming down the track Houses, farms and little toy shacks Little puff of smoke coming out the stack Hear those cars going clickity clack Lots of little toy trains Some old things just never change like Lots & Lots Of Little Toy Trains Through the tunnel and down the line Pass the station and the railroad sign Over the hills and through the pines Here she comes a-right on time Lots of little toy trains Some old things just never change like Lots & Lots Of Little Toy Trains Little trains fast and little trains slow Little trains high and little trains low Hear that little train whistle blow Watch them come and watch them go Lots of little toy trains Some old things just never change like Lots & Lots Of Little Toy Trains Some old things just never change like Lots & Lots Of Little Toy Trains Captions by

    Commercial Railroad Worker 30 V1   Terry Crouppen   816 777 7777 and 913 777 7777
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    Commercial Railroad Worker 30 V1 Terry Crouppen 816 777 7777 and 913 777 7777

    August 26, 2019

    Men and women doing dangerous jobs built the
    railroads, and railroads built America. My law firm, Brown and Crouppen, helps injured
    railroad workers get the compensation they deserve. See, we don’t work for the railroads.
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