Browsing Tag: education

    Take a Field Trip to the Grocery Store | KidVision Pre-K
    Articles, Blog

    Take a Field Trip to the Grocery Store | KidVision Pre-K

    August 29, 2019


    – [Announcer] This module is sponsored by the Children’s Services
    Council of Broward County. (upbeat pop music) – Today we’re at Whole Foods to find out about healthy
    foods and a balanced diet. Let’s go. Hi.
    – Hi! – I’m Penny.
    – Hi Penny. – And these are the KidVision VPK kids and we’re here to find out
    about the USDA food plate. – Awesome, I’m Vanessa,
    welcome to Whole Foods Market. I’ve got a shopping cart. Why don’t we go find some
    healthy items for our plate? – Going shopping! Here we go, here we go. Where are we? – We are in the produce department. So, here we are with all of our fruits. – How do we know we’re
    making healthy food choices? – Well, that’s a good question. When half of our plate
    is fruits and vegetables, we know we’ve made good choices. We want to make sure that we’re getting all the colors of the
    rainbow on that plate. Take a peak around and see what fruits we have that make the color of the rainbow. – What color is this? – [Both Children] Orange. – Orange, and what color are the grapes? – Green. – [Penny] Green! – [Vanessa] And how about that? – What are these?
    – Red. – Red strawberries. So, this is like the
    colors of the rainbow. If you eat the colors of
    the rainbow every day, you’ll be nice and healthy and you’ll be making healthy food choices. Should we bring some of this,
    put it in our shopping cart? Yes, which one would you like? Ah, I guess we’re gonna take some oranges, oh, nice oranges. And we need the green grapes, red strawberries. (upbeat pop music) Should we go from here to the vegetables? – Absolutely.
    – Okay. (upbeat pop music) – So, vegetables come
    in pretty colors, too. Look at the orange on these carrots. Would you like to take one? Let’s see how if we can
    tell how fresh they are. – And look at these nice, red radishes. Those are nice, right? Yeah, let’s put those in. So, fresh is best, right? – Absolutely. – And how can you tell if something is fresh and ready to eat? – So, we want to look at it, we’re gonna use our senses, right? So, first, we’ll look at
    it, does it look fresh? – Yes. – It’s got the nice, fresh, green tops. And we can smell it. Smells like a carrot. – Oh, it does smell like a carrot. – We want to make sure when we snap it, that it’s nice and crisp. That will tell us that it’s fresh. Are you ready? – Did you hear it? – Ah!
    – Ah, I heard mine too! – Mine too. – And finally, we can taste it. – [All] Mm. – These are fresh. – They are fresh, right from the garden. – That’s terrific. Should we put these in our shopping cart? (upbeat pop music) So, we did fruits, we did vegetables, and now we’re going to the dairy aisle. – Okay, let’s go! Here we are. We can see butter and milk. These are dairy items. – That’s great. Wow, I see there’s
    different kinds of milk. Could you read us the labels? – Sure, so we have whole milk, two percent reduced fat milk, one percent low fat milk, and skim milk, which is fat free. – Which milk to you like best? – Whole milk.
    (cow mooing) – You like whole milk? Good, so let’s put that in our cart. Good, that’s great. So, let’s keep going
    along the dairy aisle. (upbeat pop music) There’s all kinds of
    things in the dairy aisle. Look, there’s yogurt. – Cottage cheese, cream cheese. – Look, there’s american
    cheese, all kinds of cheese. Oh, and I see ahead of
    us another food group, the protein group. – So, let’s head on over
    to the seafood counter. – [Penny] Excellent. (upbeat pop music) – Protein makes up a quarter of our plate. Fish is one type of protein. Beans, meat, eggs and nuts, those are other types of protein. – Protein is weighed by the
    pound, it’s sold by the pound. – It is. So, we can look and see
    how much the fish weigh, how much do the shrimp weigh. Let’s see, what do you think they weigh? Let’s check it out. – Let’s see, let’s see
    if they’ll weigh a fish. – Wow!
    – I wanna eat– – That’s a big fish. Let’s see how much it weighs. It’s 1.67 pounds. I don’t think that we
    need that much fish today, so why don’t we pick up a smaller, we’ll pick up a shrimp
    platter for our lunch. – That’s a good source of protein. What other proteins do we have here? – There’s so many. So many from the sea, lobster,
    shrimp, crab and scallops. There’s also different types of meat. We have lamb, chicken, turkey, those are all sources of protein, as well. (upbeat pop music) Let’s head over to the grains
    so we can complete our plate. – It smells like fresh bread. – So, here we are. We’re gonna pick up the
    last item for our plate, which is grains. Bread can be made from many
    different types of grains like wheat, there’s rye, we have sourdough breads
    and cereal breads, we even have breads made
    from quinoa and rice. – So, grains can be many things. It could be rice and cereals and breads. So, grains are part of our food plate. (upbeat pop music) Do you want to grab a bread? Now let’s make sure we
    have all the food groups. – [Vanessa] So, we have our grains. – [Penny] We have grains. – [Vanessa] We have our vegetables. – [Penny] Vegetables. – [Female Child] Protein! – [Vanessa] Our protein, wonderful. And our dairy and our fruits. – And if we eat all five
    food groups every day, we’re gonna have a
    balanced, nutritious diet. And it will be a rainbow
    of different colors. And what’s at the end of the rainbow? – [Both Children] A pot of gold! – Gold, and if you eat
    the rainbow every day, what is that pot of gold? – [All] Healthy body! – So you want to make sure you eat lots of different types of foods and all of the food groups every day. – Like carrots. – Like carrots, that’s wonderful. Thank you so much. – You’re so welcome. – We’re gonna check out, say goodbye. – Well, thanks for shopping today. I’ll see you again soon in the aisles. – You will. Thank you for showing us Whole Foods. – You’re very welcome. (upbeat pop music)

    Fenggang Yang on Christian Growth in China
    Articles, Blog

    Fenggang Yang on Christian Growth in China

    August 29, 2019


    – Well good afternoon everyone. Thanks for coming out. I’m Tom Landy, I’m the Director
    of the McFarland Center for Religion, Ethics and Culture. The McFarland Center sponsors
    lectures, conferences, programs, other special events that impact questions
    of meaning, morality, and mutual obligation on campus. You can find all of our programs online at holycross.edu/mcfarlandcenter,
    including today’s talk. So we’ll be so good you’ll want to go back and tell your friends to watch to it and that will be online
    in a couple of days. One of the McFarland
    Center’s major initiatives, Catholics and Cultures, explores
    Catholic life and practice around the globe. I’m happy to point out that our website, catholicsandcultures.org will cross a great threshold this week. We’re just on the cusp of
    one million page views, which excites me, about half
    of those in the last year. So we’ve been around for about four years and it keeps growing, so far at a mathematically
    exponential rate. I don’t know how far that can keep going. I’m happy about that. And we have a scholarly
    journal that we launched a year and a half ago called
    the Journal of Global Catholicism and that’s about to pass
    5,000 page downloads, which is pretty good
    for scholarly journal. So I’m happy about both
    of those of things. Among the 25 or so countries
    featured on the site, so far, I’ve had the pleasure to
    make a few visits to China with a good friend and
    document religious life there around Shanghai and rural
    areas of Hebei outside Beijing and minority villages in
    southwest Hunan province. The state of Christianity
    in China is often difficult for outsiders to comprehend. In terms of shear numbers
    Christianity is flourishing to a degree that no
    one could have imagined, 10, 15, certainly 20 years ago, despite a turbulent history of religious suppression and persecution. And even today, there
    are continued stories of church closings and
    persecution that go on. Despite all that, some
    predict that China may have the world’s largest population of Christians by the year 2030. So how is that possible? I’m grateful today to have
    America’s foremost authority on Christianity in China
    explore this with us. Fenggang Yang is professor of sociology and Founding Director of
    the Center for Religion and Chinese Society at Purdue University. His research focuses on
    the sociology of religion, religious change in China, and on immigrant religion
    in the United States. Professor Yang’s newest book,
    which is due out very soon, which I hoped he might bring,
    he hoped he might bring, and I’d hoped we’d have it for today, but is a really interesting book. It’s Brill’s Atlas of Religion in China, Social and Geographical Context, and it really breaks down,
    from what I understand, a look at China from a global perspective and I think that’s going to
    be a tremendous contribution. He’s author of Religion in China, Survival and Revival Under Communist Rule and Chinese Christians in America, Conversion, Assimilation,
    and Adhesive Identities. He’s co-edited more than 10 books and he’s Founding Editor
    of the Review of Religion in Chinese Society. Professor Yang was elected
    and served as President of the Society for the
    Scientific Study of Religion and currently serves
    as the first President of the East Asian Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. His media interviews have appeared on NPR, The New York Times, Washington
    Post, Los Angeles Times, USA Today, Time, The
    Economist, CNN, and BBC. He’s here with his wife Joann. Please to have her here and introduce her. And his talk today is one of
    the Deitchman Family Lectures on Religion and Modernity. We’re grateful to John
    Deitchman and his family who’ve made it possible for us to do that. So please join me in
    welcoming Fenggang Yang. (audience applauds) – Thank you. Thank you Tom for the very
    generous introduction. Thank you for the invitation
    and for making this possible. And thank you all for being here to hear me talking about
    the Christian growth in China. I allude this to the
    New Roman Empire idea, is about four years ago when
    I visited Italy in Milan, I met a professor. And when I talked with him, his studies of the ancient Roman Empire and the first thing he said to me is, I think China is the New
    Roman Empire, the U.S. is not. And you know thinking
    about Christianity grow out of a pagan environment, that’s more like China
    today, rather than the U.S. The U.S. was started with the Puritans and immigrants from Europe
    who were already Christian. So this was the idea, starting from there. And when we decided to about the topic, we didn’t
    know what would happen in the coming weeks. And just four weeks ago, there’s the agreement
    between Vatican and China. That’s kind of a breakthrough. Finally China and Vatican
    reached certain agreement, even though nobody knows
    what’s in the agreement. It’s not public. But we do know this last
    week two bishops from China went to Rome for the Bishop’s
    Conference, Bishop’s Synod. And two Bishops from
    China, for the first time, were able to travel
    formally, openly, rather than doing anything underground. And these two Bishops, it
    happens to be one from Chengde, Hebei Province, that’s my Province. I’m from Hebei Province. There are many Catholics
    in Hebei Province. Perhaps a quarter of all Catholics
    reside in Hebei Province. And the other Bishop is from
    Shaanbei, Shaanxi Province. Used to be Yan’an Diocese, now they want it to be Yulin Diocese. He happened to be someone who went to the Catholic University of
    America to study sociology and I got my PhD in sociology from the Catholic University of America, so we know each other. So it’s really interesting
    to see things happening between China and Vatican
    and the churches in China and some of the people that
    I really know in person. So it’s a very interesting thing, very interesting development. Now today, on this topic, for those who know about
    Chinese Christianity, the history of it, you know
    the history can trace back very long time ago, but we will not focus on that. We start with the continuous
    presence for this time. That’s when Matteo
    Ricci and another Jesuit who went to China in the late 16th Century and made a successful mission. And Matteo Ricci is a very
    famous scholar in China, highly respected, and he
    managed to get to China, go to the mainland and traveled northward, eventually walked into Beijing and met with the Ming Emperor and he was allowed to stay in the capital. And eventually he died in
    Beijing, buried in Beijing. What’s interesting is, his tomb is in the cemetery, is in the Communist Party
    School of Beijing City. So if you want to visit
    Matteo Ricci’s tomb, you have to pass the
    gate of the Party School, the Communist Party School. And actually it is a site many
    people would make a visit. And now we have a Jesuit Pope. It’s meaningful, I’ll say more about that. Then the Protestant presence
    starts about 200 years ago. Without talking too much
    about before the PRC, the People’s Republic of China that’s established in 1949 by
    the Chinese Communist Party. And quickly around that time, when then communists took
    power in mainland China, not including Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan and there were about
    three million Catholics, now give or take 300,000. Some scholars say there were 3.3 million. The Chinese Communist Party said oh there were only 2.7 million Catholics. There is some disagreement. And the Protestants, it’s about a million. In other words, the Christians
    around 1950 in China, every three Catholics there
    would be one Protestant. Now what happened in China? For the first 30 years, there were suppression and
    eradication of religion. The first 15 years there
    are increased suppression of all religions, not just Christianity, but also Buddhism, Taoism,
    Islam, or folk religion. Then in 1966, when the
    Cultural Revolution started, all religious sites were closed down. It’s eradication. There was no single
    church, temple, or mosque open for religious service
    for the Chinese for 13 years. From 1966 to 1979, all were closed down. But starting in 1979 when the
    new regime, Deng Xiaoping, the new leader. Under the new leadership he changed the direction of the party from political struggles
    to economic development. Deng says yeah we could allow religions to reopen their sites. And since 1979, the
    policy overall, I call it, Toleration with Restrictions. There is greater tolerance
    of religion since 1979, but there are always restrictions, sometimes more, sometimes less, sometimes restrictions are not enforced, but they are always there. And also some historians
    who have studied China find that about a half
    a million Christians really died of unnatural death, meaning it could be imprisoned, tortured, and maybe starved to
    death in the 1980s, 1960s. Half a million disappeared. Even though that so many people died, but the number of Catholics from 1950 to 1980 stayed about the same. Started with three million in 1950 and by 1980, around that time, when the Chinese Communist Party released a document called the
    Document Number 19 of 1982, that is a very important document that set the new tone or the
    basis for the religious policy, the Toleration with Restriction policy. That has been in place
    since then, since 1982. And in that document it says there were three million Catholics now. In other words, even though there was no church open for 13 years, the number of Catholics
    remained about the same. And then, since then
    there’s a gradual increase. By 2010, there are different counts and the Chinese government said in 2010 there were 5.3 million Catholics. That’s an increase from three million. But an institute, a Catholic
    Institute of Holy Spirit in Hong Kong, they studied carefully, examining each diocese and find that there may be
    about 12 million Catholics. So, more than two times more. Yeah, it’s more than two times of the government number. Then there are others who say, there’s some international
    missionary organizations who watch, monitor
    churches in China closely, they said well actually there could be as many as 20 million Catholics in China. Then the Pew Research Center in 2011 released a report of global Christianity. They says well let’s do
    a conservative estimate, based on the information we know, based on surveys and also
    some regional studies, case studies, they came out with a number of nine million Catholics
    in China in 2010. The Protestant start with one million or less than one million. It reached three million, the same number as Catholics in 1980. From there the growth pick up. In 1990, there are 4.5
    million Protestants. In 2000, 10 million, in 2010, 23 million. These are official numbers
    from the China government. The latest from the Chinese government is that 38 million Protestant. This is in the white paper on religion that was released in April this year. So it’s somewhere, 38 million
    almost 40 million Protestants, but these numbers are only
    those adult Protestants attending officially approved churches. And those who are not
    baptized, who are under 18, or who attend non-approved churches, that’s what we usually call
    house churches are not included in the government number. And outside estimates, outside China, there are again the international
    missionary organizations often say there are at least
    80 million Protestants in 2010. And Catholics Protestant together, there should be more than 100
    million Christians in China. And there is a Center for the
    Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell that published the Atlas of Global Christianity and the last one was published in 2009 that had that number. There is a very influential
    book called Operation World. It’s very popular among
    Evangelical Christians that also have the number of a 100 million Christians in China. There are several other ones. Even some internal conversation or talks by high officials of China might have said there are more than 100 million Christians in China. That’s Christianity Today, the magazine, that’s popular among Protestant Christians based in the Chicago area. They had a report in 2008 that the Director of the
    Religious Affairs Bureau in China Mr. Ye Xiaowen, said in
    some internal conversation, internal conference meetings that there were more than
    130 million Christians. That’s a big threat to them. All right, so there’s a different number. But you know scholars
    tend to be conservative. We tend to say you know, you have to be able to verify. The scholars projection, not projection, their estimate, they all start in 1980 with three million. That’s perhaps pretty
    close to the reality. But by time 1990, there were 20 million rather than only 3.5 million Protestant. And by the year 2000 there
    should be over 50 million instead of 10 million as
    the government counted. In other words most
    Protestants do not belong to the official church, the so called Three-Self Churches. Most of the people attend house churches. That’s probably true, even though you may not
    hear different stories, especially from those
    scholars mostly aligned with the government position. Again, the Pew Research
    Center’s report in 2011, that in 2010 in China, probably you know conservative estimate, there would be 58 million Protestant plus nine million Catholic. That’s a conservative estimate. And totally together that would be 5% of the Chinese population. 5%, that’s still small. That’s not a majority,
    it’s a very small minority. But what’s interesting is, if 58 million is a solid estimate, if we take that number, we can see the growth
    in the last 30 years, from 1980 to 2010. The annual average growth rate, and it’s accumulated,
    a compound growth rate it’s more than 10%. Annual, what does that mean? It means every 100 Christians this year, you will find 10 new
    believers within this year. Next year you will have 110, then you will find another
    11 to add the flock. And so that’s the 10
    percent annual growth. If we take the earlier years, earlier three decades into
    account, the growth rate is 7%. That’s modest. Most people would say yeah, actually the churches have been growing much faster than this, but there are years that not growing. There are churches that
    don’t grow that fast. On average this is the situation. And we did a big survey in 2007 and those estimates are
    from mostly church sources or government censored. And then we tried to do social service to find out whether we can
    get close to the numbers that we get from other sources. And with more than 7,000
    cases in the survey, we estimated that there
    3.2% of people openly admit that they are Christian. You know the surveys
    you respond to stranger. Would you tell a stranger
    what you believe? Well in the U.S. of course, everyone is, well most people are very
    open about their faith. But this is not the case in China. If you were a Christian there could an act of
    consequences in the public if you admit that. So not everyone openly
    admit to be Christian if they are Christian. So there’s at least 3.2% openly Christian. Then there are peoples, we also asked many other questions. One of the questions is, you know are a set things. There are Guan Yu,
    Buddha, Laozi, and Jesus. Do you believe in Jesus? Right that’s another way to get people. And we find there are
    2.7%, additional 2.7% admit that they believe in Jesus. In China when you say
    you believe in Jesus, actually I think the
    wording is Jesus Christ, that’s pretty specific. Unlike in this culture, everyone knows about Jesus Christ. But in China, it’s not in the textbook, it’s not in their daily conversation. If you admit that you
    know about Jesus Christ, know about, that may be a hint that you are somehow
    close to Christianity. There are also those people who said oh you know I don’t
    believe in Jesus Christ. I am not a Christian, but I sometimes read the
    Bible, go to the church, even pray to God. Are they Christian? Together there’s three types of people, there are adding together is
    about 7%, 7.1% in the survey. So when the Pew Research estimate is only 5% of Christian in China, we know it’s a conservative estimate. Probably it’s very hard to
    say there are fewer than 5% of Christian in China today. There are different ways to get this. Self-identified Christians, 33.5 million, self-identified plus those
    who believe in the existence of Jesus Christ is 61.8 million. Then if you add those who
    have some Christian practice, the number increase to 74.5 million. Then if you just say do
    you believe in Shangdi? Well for those know Chinese, you know that even
    though Shangdi the word, it means God, or supreme God, this word came from
    ancient Chinese classics, but nowadays if you see Shangdi, most likely you are referring to the Christian understanding of God. We did not have the world
    (speaking foreign language) in the survey. That’s a big mistake, we realize. There maybe Catholic
    who don’t say Shangdi, but they would say
    (speaking foreign language). That’s the Catholic way of saying God. But together there are 85 million people, say yeah I believe in God. Now about the growth in the coming years. It depends on what have happened in the last almost 70 years. What are the social factors
    or spiritual factors for the Christian growth in China? This is very remarkable
    growth, very rapid growth. It has not happened
    that often in the world or in human history. Occasionally you will hear
    rapid growth here or there. For example, in the 1960s to the 1990s Christianity grow very
    fast in South Korea. You know from about 5% reached totally, Catholics, Protestant together, nowadays about 30% of the population. And the growth happened in three
    decade, 1960s to the 1990s. In ancient Roman Empire Christianity grow, expanded remarkably in the fourth century, third and fourth century. Before that, there are very obscure, small minorities in the empire. So people, believers would
    see it’s all by God’s power, whether you grow or not. As a sociologist we look
    at the social factors for the growth. What have happened in China? I think there are major social processes, large scale changes in China. The market transition
    since 1978, urbanization. You know I grew up in a village. When I grew up in China,
    more than 80% of the people are in the rural, were in the rural areas. Nowadays, about 60% are in
    the urban areas already. The percentage does not really, may not make you realize
    how large the scale is. It’s the entire U.S. population moved from rural to
    urban within two decade. That’s the scale in China. There are 300 to 500 million people became urban residence in
    the last 30 years or so. Huge change. Villages are torn down, become high rise apartment buildings. And we know the high speed rail built and many of the places
    they go through villages, the villages disappear. Now it’s all become urban places. And so urbanization, migration. There are at least 200
    million to 300 million are called the floating population. That is, they go to the
    coastal provinces to find jobs, but they return home
    for the spring festival, the Chinese New Year. 200 million to 300 million traveling back and forth every year. And then many also simply
    settle in the urban areas. Family structure changed. You know, I have five
    brothers, so six siblings. That’s my generation. I’m the fifth one, so I
    have four older brothers. But the younger one, only one child or two child, two children. Family structure changed dramatically within a generation. And now we have now some
    surveys of Chinese students recently in the U.S. We find more than 80% of
    the student from China don’t have a sibling. It’s very different. I know what a sibling is. But no sibling, that’s the change. Community structure changed. I grew up in a commune. In the rural areas it was commune. And in the urban areas is the work unit. Like you belong to the work unit, from birth to death,
    everything was taken care of, but now it’s not. It’s market economy. You find a job. It’s separate from everything else. So it’s a community structure changed. China is very well
    connected with the world. There are many foreigners work in China. And another factor is the social anomie. If you visit China you will
    hear people talking about all the moral issues,
    moral problems, crisis. There are many incidences
    often in the news or social media talk about
    those terrible thing happening. Like old people walking
    across the street and fell. Nobody dare to rescue, to help, because the helper can
    be sued and pay fine. There are lot similar kind
    of moral issues in society. All this factors, all of this, I think are in favor of Christian growth. Christianity is a response to the changes and to the problems in Chinese society. Many Chinese are open
    to the Christian message because of the social, structural changes and also the facing the
    moral crisis in society. Other factors for Christian growth. In the early history, the
    history of early church in the Roman Empire, there were some plagues, the epidemics. And after every epidemic
    the proportion of Christians become higher, because Christians
    take care of each other and the death rate during those plagues is much lower than the pagans. Anyway so this, really one
    of the natural disasters happened actually, it’s often
    the church become stronger. And that somehow is the case in China too. In 2003 there was the SARS. How many of you remember SARS? Okay, it was very scary. But what’s interesting, you know, that’s a is an epidemic, is a contamination, how do you say that? The disease was spread very fast. It’s better not to be
    interacting with people, not in contact with anyone in order to be away from
    the virus or bacteria. What’s interesting is, around 2003, many so called house
    churches in urban areas, they used to be small, family gatherings, and suddenly they become
    large congregation. And these are the so called
    house churches today in China, with like several dozens
    or several hundred people, gather on Sunday for worship service, but they still call
    themselves house churches. And they become public in several cities in 2003 or 2004 or 2005,
    around those few years. Then in 2008 there was the
    Sichuan Earthquake, huge. All right the magnitude is
    more than 8.2 or something. All right, it’s devastating. What’s interesting is, in Sichuan Province
    there are many Christians and of course others too,
    poured in, in service to help the disaster relief. And many Christians went
    there, do their work. There’s the political factors effecting the continuous growth of
    Christianity in China. That is, if you have a policy that maintain the current
    level of control or restriction or you increase the
    suppression, more persecution, more like the Cultural Revolution before, or another thing could happen is China, the government can change. The Communist Party could
    collapse, who knows. That’s another possibility
    we can entertain, even though that’s very
    less likely to happen. The Chinese Communist Party
    is very strong in China. But you know thinking about possibilities. With these three possibilities, or more likely the more
    restriction and persecution, there’s two possibilities. We can see what would happen
    in the coming decades in China. Assuming the major social
    processes don’t change much, you know there’s still
    continuous urbanization, migration, and family
    structure is not easy to change with all that we can do some projection to look at what could
    happen in the coming decade. If we follow the 10% growth rate that has happened since 1980 or we use a lower rate that’s
    come from 1950 to 2010, and that includes some years,
    very intense suppression, even eradication, no
    one can publicly gather for worship service, even include that, that would be on average, there’s
    still 7% growth each year. So from 2010 to 2050, this is the growth potential. The 10% growth is simply too fast, by 2040 every Chinese
    would become Christian. I think that’s simply beyond imagination. And so we can take that
    off from the table. By 7%, yeah, you know this is more modest, there are intense suppression
    sometimes, or some areas. With 7% increase, Protestants alone, by 2020 there would be
    more than 140 million. By 2030, it could be 16% of the Chinese population
    become Christian. 2040, if the growth
    continues it would reach 33%. 2050, two-third of the population. I think this is simply beyond imagination. When I first did this
    projection, I did not believe it. It took a very long time, and asked around, asked many people, eventually I said, you
    know I cannot deny this, if the growth continue, if
    people still evangelize, if the social processes still, you know that what’s are in place will continue to be in place, this would be the situation. In the U.S. there are about
    150 million Protestant and China could catch that
    number around 2020, or 2022. And all Christians in the
    U.S., Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox Christians
    together is about 225 million in 2014 according to
    the Pew Research Center. You know, Protestant alone in China could reach that number by 2030. That’s only 12 years from now. And there are also the Catholics. The Catholics of course,
    they have continuous growth. Even though we start with nine million, the conservative estimate,
    and with the lower rate, that’s by the government
    numbers for the year 1980 or starting from 1950
    and the growth is 1.9%, it still increase and up
    to 18 million in 2050. Or we can say this way, in 2020 there could be 10
    to 13 million Catholics. In 2030 there would be 13
    to 18 million Catholics by those two growth possibilities. And so if you add Catholics
    to the number of Protestant, there’s almost no doubt by 2030, there will be more Christians
    in China than in the U.S. This is what happened in
    the ancient Roman Empire, Rodney Stark is a sociologist of religion, he has this famous book on
    the rise of Christianity. And he did calculation based
    on all available materials. He find that the growth is
    very much followed a rate, an annual rate of 3.4%. And you know starting with
    the year 40 and up to 350. That’s the growth of the
    numbers in the second column, or in proportion of the population. And also for those who know the history, the Roman Empire start, you
    know had persecutions all along, but in 2003 there was
    the great persecution, the Emperors had the edict, says you know all empire wide we need to get rid of Christian. But by then, it’s only, perhaps around 10% of the
    population or less are Christian. It’s already too late. The Great Persecution in the Roman Empire only lasted for 10 years. By 313 the Edict of Milan, Emperor Constantine said let’s stop. There’s no way we can
    get rid of Christians, so he changed the policy
    and allowed freedom for Christians. And so here, I am sociologist, if something happened once,
    there may be a pattern that could be repeated. So I wonder whether
    five to 10% in an Empire could be the critical threshold. If it’s less you can
    still get rid of them. But it’s passing 5% or 10%
    it’s simply very hard to eradicate Christianity in the society. This is different from a small country. Empire means there’s
    diversity, cultural diversity, regional differences. When some Christians
    suffering in on province they can escape to another province, so they simply make the uniform policy imposed in the whole empire very unlikely. This is the map of the Roman Empire in the beginning of the fourth century. You know, only in Asia Minor perhaps there are majority Christian
    in that local area, some part of Africa. But in the vast land or the coastlines, not many Christians. It’s not so easy to find
    that many Christians. But that’s the beginning of
    dramatic change happened. Constantine even had to convert to Christianity, the Emperor. China, this is the map we
    made, Protestant Churches. They are scattered all around. Actually only one province
    we did not have a record of a Protestant church. That’s the Tibetan autonomous region, even though there are
    actually Protestant churches in there too. But based on data we don’t have that here. But otherwise you can see,
    it’s scattered around. And this a map of all five religions that the Chinese government recognize. The yellow is the Buddhist temples, that they are the largest
    member in the county, the predominant religion. And the pink counties
    where the Catholic Church is number one, the largest number of religious sites are Catholic churches. And then there are Daoist, the blue, and Islamic mosques, the green, and then the Protestant churches the red. You can see in many counties, the Protestant church has already become the largest member of all religious sites. In some counties the Catholic
    church is the largest number. Another thing, in the Roman Empire, the Roman’s build those
    roads, highways at that time. It’s mostly for military purposes, and secondly it’s for commercial or trade. But Christians used those roads
    to spread Christianity fast. And what’s going on in China? This is from official map. Is in 2016, the high speed rail. How many of you have
    taken high speed train? Okay, that’s very good. It’s really fast. You know, in the past, from
    Beijing to Shanghai takes more than 10 hours. It’s a whole night or more than that. Now it’s what, four hours? (coughs) It’s just make travel
    so easy around China. There are also those highways, those drive paved ways. These are only railroads. And those are the things,
    you know, technical, economic development
    that makes it impossible to stop the Christian growth. Christians will use this
    technology for evangelism. Now what’s the current situation overall. Well there have been great revivals in the last several decades, four decades in many areas suddenly
    there are new churches and new gathering, but at the same time there
    have been great persecutions. Yeah, people still can be
    imprisoned because of faith. Yes it still happens, even though it’s not, you know there are many
    prisoners in China. They are imprisoned for, they would say, oh they
    have some economic crime. But there are, one case
    for example, in 2003 there was a very famous case in Beijing, a pastor who was sentenced
    for several years, I don’t remember exact how many years, but his crime was running
    a non-approved business. But his business was
    distributing the Bible. He print some Christian
    books and distribute them. It was not for profit, but he was sentenced for economic crime. So there are similar cases. So persecutions still happens. And also some people may lose their jobs if they are known as Christian, especially if you work in the government and if you a professor,
    university professor. Actually now it is there
    are many professors who are Christian in China. They are known. But sometimes if you have a personal enemy or your supervisor does not like you, the Christian faith can
    be the reason to get you. So like in Fujian Province, there are several cases of
    university professors lost jobs because of the Christian faith. Recently there are campaign
    in Zhejiang Province and all high school, middle school, elementary school teachers
    have to fill out a form to declare your faith. If you are Christian,
    there’s a possibility that you may lose your job. So great persecution and also in spite of those
    persecutions and restrictions, Christianity has continued to grow. And not only grow in China, there are some Christians
    in China are ambitious. They said, we have been the receivers of mission, evangelism. Now we need to take the bait and carry on evangelistic missions to the
    other parts of the world. So there is a movement called the 2030. A few house church leaders
    started this movement. They said by the year 2030, we want to send out 20,000
    Chinese missionaries to do cross cultural missions. Many already in Central Asia working or in Southeast Asia, or in Africa. So this movement already started. In Zhejiang Province, a few years ago there was a big campaign. The Party Secretary of Zhejiang Province, just simply hated the cross. He did not like the cross. He saw so many crosses
    in Zhejiang Province, too shiny, red, you know very big. He said is this the Communist world or the world of the cross? He started this campaign
    to take down all crosses on church rooftops. And there were several thousand churches in Zhejiang Province. And after two and half years, about a third of all churches,
    their crosses are taken down. And many people hurt during the process, because many Christians
    tried to protect the crosses and a few were jailed for their actions. But this is, Zhejiang is
    just south of Shanghai if you want to know where this are. South of Shanghai, that province, there are many churches nowadays. This is Wenzhou, that’s
    a very well known area with a lot of Christian churches. And Christian churches I know in Wenzhou, in Zhejian Province, Fujian
    Province, Jiangsu Province, Anhui, Hunan, you know those areas have higher number of churches. But also many in Northeastern China, some in Yunnan Province, that you visited. This is one way to show that. And this is the called
    Back to Jerusalem Movement. They want to carry the
    good news, the Gospel, back to Jerusalem. And once they complete that world end. (audience member speaks in the background) Yes are Uyghurs, are Muslims. The mission started in the 1940s and they began travel westward. It’s a immigrant evangelism
    that the church would commission like a few families. You move westward, as western as possible,
    settle there, evangelize, and then plant churches, move on. And a group of them moved
    from the coastal areas to Xinjiang and settled there. That’s why there are churches there. And then in 1949 the could not move further west, they stopped. Many people settled in those area. This line is interesting. This is from Google Globe and looking there are movement
    from coastal areas of China to Xinjiang to Jerusalem. What happens if Pope
    Francis, going the other way and if he walks to Beijing? What will happen to the world? I think it’s hard to imagine but exciting to think
    about that possibility. Washington Post had an article, report about the Chinese
    ambition of building railroad. Actually this, actual
    train from eastern of China and went to Madrid, the longest rail train
    journey in the world. It actually happened already. And iPhones are made in China. You know that, we often, if
    you order it ships from China. With this train, it saves a lot of money for the company. It can lower the price significantly, because by flight it still costs more than by taking train. And that they can distribute
    in many European countries. And China had this ambition of so called One Belt One Road initiative. Want to link with Africa and Europe. Yeah, I don’t want to
    get into that too much. I want to finish quickly. Interestingly, no matter if this is for military consideration,
    for economic consideration, no matter Christians
    consider this as opportunity of evangelism. There are already Chinese
    Christian churches and organizations in
    many parts of the world. Not by people from the PRC, but by the Chinese who have
    been spread all around the world in the last century or so. Very much like the Jews were
    scattered in the Roman Empire. And think about early churches. Where are the early churches? They often, the apostles went to those Jewish communities in the hasbara. From there they established churches. And China is really increasing the capacity physically, materially and you know China now is the country that prints the most Bible. In 1987 the first copy of the
    Bible was printed in China. Only you know, ’87, that’s 30 years ago. In 1989, October, about a
    million copy were printed. In ’95 in July 10 million copies. This is a celebration of 10 million copies of the Bible printed. 2007, end of 2007, 50 million printed. 2012, 100 million printed. And the latest that I could find was in July of 2016, 150
    million Bibles printed in China. There’s a great need
    for the Bible in China. Many people want a copy, even if they are not
    Christian or Christian yet. So with all the capacity
    ready for evangelism. So I’m wrapping up. Napoleon once said this,
    you know let China sleep. (laughs) Don’t make it awake. “When China wakes up,
    the world will shake.” You know as consumers we
    know the economic impact of China’s awakening. I think nowadays it’s not so easy to totally avoid made in China stuff. But is this really the economic wakening that will shake the world? Or is that the political awakening? Now has the challenge today,
    the U.S. face with China, the Chinese model or the U.S. model. The Washington Consensus
    or Shanghai Consensus? That already the world has felt
    the challenge China propose. But that’s from the official side, the economic and political are all from the Communist Party State. How about the people? Christianity is not something the Chinese government support. To the contrary, the Chinese government try to suppress Christianity, but if the growth
    continues as I project it, it will shake the world. So it’s really, I feel we’re
    lucky to live in this era. Watching what’s happening
    is like a big book on voting, on opening,
    and watching the changes. I have been documenting all the changes of religions in China, not only Christianity but
    also watching other religion. So this is the latest
    book the Atlas of Religion with all the five religions documented. In addition to the five religions, we also talk about folk religion and those forbidden
    religion, the black market, and also the red market, the
    official approved religion, and also many in the
    gray market of religion. So exciting time to do
    research on religion in China. I have been ready, feel there’s great
    opportunity for scholars. Thank you. (audience applauds) Sure yeah. – [Tom] Questions? Karen. – [Karen] Thank you very much. I have several questions, but persecution is not new in China. Established religion was
    persecuted in traditional China, because religion was considered
    a source of rebellion. So that goes way back in time. Also, from what I know, people don’t always make a
    distinction when they declare themselves part of the
    religious organization. They practice Buddhism
    or Taoism in their lives and so when ask people
    if they believe in Jesus, does that mean they won’t
    have a Buddhist Priest at their funeral or they
    won’t believe in Daoism at some point in their lives? Because that’s the characteristic
    of Chinese religion. It always has been and I’m wondering if that’s still the case. – So that’s two questions
    about the authorities, traditional China, the Imperial China always
    worry about different religions and try to suppress. So it’s not new, that’s true. But the Communist China
    is somewhat different because it’s openly declared
    this as atheist ideology as the official orthodox ideology. If you are a Communist Party member, you have to declare to be atheist. For some years the rule
    was not enforced, so laxed, but in the last five
    years since Xi Jinping, there’s a clear rule, you have to declare to be atheist otherwise
    you can lose your position, lose your party membership. So this somewhat different from
    previous dynasties in China. So there’s ideology struggle in there. About the Chinese religiosity, Chinese traditional way of being religion. Yeah, very few Chinese in old China would have a exclusive religious identity. I’m Buddhist, so I only go to
    Buddhist temples, very rare. Only those dedicated, if you become monks or nuns,
    perhaps you’re more exclusive in your religious identity or belonging. Most people they don’t care that much. They would go to different
    temples for different need. But I would say, that’s
    a pre-modern pattern of being religious. Increasingly, if you
    ask Chinese Christians, especially Protestant, Chinese Protestant tend to
    be conservative in theology. They make a strong point
    that we are Christian, I don’t do all the other religious thing. Even answers to worship,
    it’s a big controversy, the Chinese church face. Once you become a convert can you still kneel down in front of your parents and ancestors? That’s a big thing, the
    churches keep talking about it. It’s a struggle. Some pastors trying to say you know, it’s perhaps it’s not worship, it’s a veneration of ancestors. It’s not religious, but more cultural. You know, that’s Matteo Ricci approach, is when you do rituals
    at the Confucius Temples you’re not worshiping Confucius
    but you’re venerating, showing your respect. But we know what happened
    to that teaching, right? When the Pope said you cannot do this, then the Chinese Emperor said, oh if you do not allow
    Catholics in China do this, then you should leave, right? So after many years of struggles nowadays Christians tend to emphasize
    exclusive identity. They try hard to get
    rid of other practices. But this is not only Christian. It has happened to Buddhists too. In Buddhism there’s called (speaking foreign language) movement. Orthodox Buddhist faith,
    they try to get rid of folk religion, especially
    ancestor worship part and this has been a campaign
    since the 1930s, 1940s, but especially in Taiwan, especially the (speaking foreign language) tradition in Taiwan. They clearly said, if you’re Buddhist, you should be Buddhist, you should not do the folk religious
    thing, ancestor worship. So I see this is not as one religion thing or Western religion thing,
    it’s a modern thing. If you do not distinguish
    your own religion, why would people come to you? So it’s an organizational understanding. It’s better to be
    differentiated from others in order to be able to
    have a market share. But when we estimate
    the number of Christians we have to take this into consideration. Most people actually don’t, they may say I’m Buddhist,
    but I’m not religious. I’m Buddhist, I’m atheist. You will see people say that. But you know, we have to use multiple matters to say, yeah, you know there are
    even those 7% of people have some either some beliefs or practice, we say, yeah, let’s count
    it as 5% instead of 7%. Okay, thank you. – When I saw the chart of the quote from the Protestant churches, I assume that most of
    them are evangelical. Why do you think the Evangelical movement has grown so much quicker
    than Roman Catholic? – Yes, that’s a very good question. First of all, the Chinese Evangelicals are not necessarily the same
    as American Evangelical. So the common theme is that
    they emphasize the evangelism. As long as you’re Christian, you have to evangelize,
    that’s the great commission, if you become Christian. So that’s really the Protestant idea. It starts with Martin Luther
    and everyone is a priest. Not only the priests, the priests, but every believer is a priest, so you are obligated to evangelize. In China, this broad evangelical category would include Pentecostals, Charismatics, and Reform Theology, Presbyteriantism. Actually the Reform tradition in China has become a main trend, a popular, in the urban house
    churches in recent years. They are very strong
    anti-Pentecostal, Charismatic type. Anyway, so overall the Protestant, I think there are several
    factors for their faster growth than the Catholic. First is the suppression
    of Catholic church is much severe than the Protestant. Why? Because the Catholic
    hierarchy is so similar to the Communist hierarchy. It’s direct power challenge. And also the Catholics
    are loyal to the Pope who resides in the Vatican. The Holy See is another state. It’s loyal to another state, and the Communist Party
    wants all Chinese citizen express their loyalty to
    China, to the Communist Party. The Protestants, they
    don’t have a foreign state to express they’re loyalty. They can cut off their ties with all foreign bodies, but
    they still can be considered good Protestants, but it’s
    hard to be a Catholic that way. So there’s a greater suppression
    on the Catholic church. Actually for many years, to become a Bishop in the Catholic Church, it’s not really a good thing. Because at the moment of becoming Bishop, you could be missing. You know, nobody can find you anymore. No official sentence, but
    the punishment is severe. So there’s organizational
    reason for the less growth. You know, when you are
    suppressed more severely, it is hard to grow. And then the Catholics, not as active as
    Protestants in evangelism, that’s another factor. The third factor, in the
    past, the Catholic growth, especially from 1900 to 1950, that first half of the 20th Century, the growth is often by family. If the father, grandfather convert, the whole family become Catholic. And Catholic families tend
    to have many children. But now that advantage disappear. All married couples could
    only have one child, so Catholics or Protestant
    or Atheist all the same. So loss that advantage. So that, another possible factor is, Catholic Churches have strongholds in rural area, in villages and they persist. But, the growth happens
    more so in the urban areas, as far as I can tell. You know the larger house
    church congregations, really since 2003, is like fire really spreading. And those are Protestant churches. And so whether the Catholic theology has already adjusted to
    this new urban development, that’s issue. Finally another thing is the divide between underground and
    above ground church. That’s also holding the church back. You know, because in some
    regions, it’s some Diocese, there are three Diocese overlapping. So like in Jiangxi for example, there can be three
    Bishop claiming authority of the same place. Why? Because the old Dioceses were decided in the 1940s by Vatican. Then since 1949, early 1950s, they cutoff the ties with the Vatican and the Chinese, China has adjusted the administrative
    districts so many times, so now the official church in China obey the official administrative order. Like, I’m from Chengde, Hebei, and Chengde is the Diocese, but the old, 1940s
    Diocese in Shijiazhuang. So there’s a Bishop Shijiazhuang, there’s a Bishop of Chengde. Both Bishops claim the same territory. You know, if you are ordinary Catholic, you know see them, fine,
    they’re both fine people, but which way should I go. I think this internal
    struggle also hurt the church. Perhaps that’s a strongest motivation for the Vatican-China agreement trying to reconcile the above
    ground, underground church, reduce conflict, internal conflict. So that’s why the Vatican
    has repeatedly emphasized this is for pastoral purposes, not for any political reason
    to reach this agreement. (audience member talking quietly) Yeah, they are underground,
    is quote by quote. You know it’s really secret. The underground churches
    simply are those churches under the Bishops who refuse to join the China Catholic Patriotic Association. You know, almost everyone
    knows they are Catholic and this a Catholic leader, maybe not recognized as Bishop,
    but at least is the Priest. They do things in open, but
    they are called underground, rather than any secret. And also many, more than there’s of the above ground official Catholic Church Bishops already have become
    recognized by the Holy See. That is even though they are above ground, they have no problem with Vatican. So only there are seven, there were seven Bishops, that the Chinese government
    made them Bishops, the Vatican refused to recognize them. Now the new agreement is
    to accept all the seven into the legitimate Episcopal
    Ecclesiastic system. But there are 30 underground Bishops that the Chinese
    government has not admitted into the official church. That’s one of the things
    to watch, what will happen to those 30 underground
    Bishops, their fate. – [Audience Member] Well
    recently I’ve been rereading a French translation of St. Augustine and when I saw your lecture, it was just a coincidence that he also draws the picture of
    the planet during that time and at one point he talks about the incredible abuses
    that Augustine had seen executed against the Christian minority. And that was what drove him to the church. And so with the abuses
    that are happening in China and then knowing that it probably increases the Christian growth, do you see the government
    changing at all on that? Even though they see the abuses
    helps Christian population? – I don’t think the Communist leaders understand religious dynamics. Right now there is the new campaign to suppress the churches. Right now, it’s still
    going on in Hunan Province, in Jiangxi Province, in several provinces. The government still come to take down the crosses on rooftops. Some churches totally demolished. A few resistant pastors have been jailed. They haven’t learned the lesson from the Cultural Revolution
    when many people were tortured but they… You know, the martyr, what’s the saying? The martyr is the seed
    of growth of the church. – Blood of martyrs.
    – Yeah blood of the martyrs. – So even though religious studies has been restored in China
    for about four decades, I was one of them in the
    1980s, they still don’t get it, don’t get this religious dynamics. – [Audience Member] I just want to make two more points is that, at that same time, late fourth century, Empress Justina had recruited mercenaries into the Imperial Army
    which enabled the barbarians and the pagans to enter
    into the empire peacefully and corrode it from within. So they were everywhere. They were appointed in
    very strategic posts. So do you see that kind of thing happening either in the United States through much more subtle
    ways, maybe through elections and appointments of non-Christian, you know, so called maybe, you know I don’t want to be (mumbles) about the Aryans, they’re
    not mercenaries, but still, do you see that kind of thing happening where it can corrode
    something from the inside? – Yeah, I certainly have
    seen many Christians express that concern. They are maybe already in our midst. There are the authorities already have some secret operation. Actually in the Catholic
    Patriotic Association and in the Protestant Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee there are always people saying, oh one of the leaders was
    active Communist Party member in the disguise of a priest or a pastor. Actually, among the Protestants, at least two of them were totally exposed. During the Cultural Revolution, a pastor in Shanghai, Li Chuwen he was very well recognized pastor. His preaching was very,
    pretty good, very good. Many people like his sermons. But when the Red Guards came to, called the struggle meetings, he could not take that any longer. He said wait a minute I’m
    actually a Communist Party member. So his membership was exposed, so the Party had to take
    him away from the church and put him aside for a couple of years, then gave him a government position. Eventually Li Chuwen became the
    representative in Hong Kong, representative of China,
    mainland China in Hong Kong. So his history all known in China. So he was a secret Party
    member, Communist Party member. And there another one was a
    CASS vice-president, Zhao Fusan. Zhao Fusan used to be
    a Christian, a pastor. He was a leader in the
    Three-Self Patriotic Committee of Beijing Municipality. But in the 1960s he was
    recruited to be a researcher in the Institute of World Religions and eventually he became
    a vice-president of CASS, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Then he… You know, you change as a scholar is fine, but then he had meetings for
    (speaking foreign language) those internal party operations. He became open as a
    Communist Party member. But what’s interesting is,
    Zhao Fusan left China in 1989 when a student movement, the Tiananmen Square incident happened, when the tanks rolled on Tiananmen Square and Zhao Fusan, he was visiting
    either in the U.S. or France he refused to go back to China. So he was (speaking foreign language), he was removed from CASS, but in his later years, at
    least a close friend of him in a article said, he
    reconciled with Christ. He might be a true Communist Party member, but before his death, he
    became a real Christian. So even those mercenaries, those people mixed into the church, you know everyone has the
    possibility of conversion. (audience member talking quietly) – [Tom] Can I just (mumbles) time for one or two more
    questions from others. So I just want to, go ahead please. – [Female Audience Member]
    So when you talked about the new growth of Christian in China when the social structure doesn’t change. But I from Zhejiang Province
    Province and I’m Catholic and this summer when I went back home, I realized that they
    set out a metal detector and you have to swipe
    your ID to go into church and people who are under 18 years old cannot go to church anymore. And I think that’s not
    only in Zhejiang (mumble). But that really concerns me, because a year ago it wasn’t like that. When I was little I played in church. So does that change your
    vision of (mumbles)? – I know that has been happening and also if it happens
    in Zhejiang Province, the technology can be easily
    transported to other provinces. But in spite of those
    increased restrictions, I think the growth will continue Because what happened in
    the Cultural Revolution? When some priests were actually in jail or in labor camps, you cannot
    openly see your priests, adults, not only children but adults. But even in that situation and after the Cultural Revolution and many people reemerged
    as loyal Catholics or loyal Christians. So now, yes, there are
    the increased persecution, restrictions, we know that, but the level is still quite modest. I’m sorry to say that for those who are under the persecution, but compared with the Cultural Revolution, right now the measures of persecution is still very modest, very… Yeah, there are not
    that many people jailed for their faith, yet. It could happen. I think the persecution could increase, intensify in the coming years, especially under Emperor Xi. (laughs) But I think Christians will survive. – So thanks for giving us a talk and I’m just wondering (speaker drowned out by background noise) So there was people in the
    rural area who maybe Christian but basically the Christian they believe is not the same as what we are. It’s like they’re believing like a very different Jesus. So do you like count them
    as like Christian or not? Because they (mumbles)
    believe in the Jesus, but basically they are not. – Yeah if you were a
    theologian or priest or pastor you have your own
    standards to say who can be considered true Christian and who can be considered not true Christian. First of all, as a sociologist, I don’t make that distinction. Second, on the theological level, you know Christianity
    is a universal message, but it’s given cultures
    manifest in different ways. So there’s indigenization. That happened in Christians
    in many countries. You know, I spent some time in Italy, I see those Italian Catholics, they do have some things
    that I don’t know there are Christian thing, but
    more perhaps is really, yeah I know the pagan word
    (speaking foreign language) so politically correct way to express it, but they do have
    alternative spiritualties, put that way. But they have been Catholics
    overall for 2,000 years and you cannot expect Chinese
    Catholics do the same thing as Italian Catholics do. The Chinese speak Chinese. The Chinese language carries a message that you need to do this hermeneutics. You know you can’t deal with
    certain ambiguous thing. But, I’m a Protestant Christian. And for me the Bible says clearly as long as you openly
    admit you follow Christ, you’re a Christian. Nothing else. Yeah, you may have additional
    beliefs or practices, but those are not as essential
    as accepting Jesus Christ, the sole criteria. Ever since Pope Francis,
    he became the Pope I wrote an article in Chinese and also got onto Voice
    of America TV interview, I said, you know, I can imagine this Pope could visit Beijing when the China and Holy See diplomatic
    relationship reestablished. I think the significance
    of a visit by Pope Francis to Beijing can be more significant than the visit of Richard
    Nixon to China in 1972. President Nixon’s visit to China changed world politics, but if Pope Francis visits China, that will change world politics,
    economy, and spirituality. (audience member talking
    in the background) I think he would love, he would do anything to do that. So clearly, he has said
    this so openly, repeatedly, and made actual effort to do. The current agreement, the Vatican side made so many
    compromises, it’s so clear. And the Chinese side, at least so far, look like they have the
    holding ground, not giving in. But still the Pope is so positive, so optimistic about the relationship. I think it could happen. I also made bold prediction. Sociologists don’t talk about the future, we talk about the past, but I think if U.S., China
    relations get worse and worse, now we are really at that tipping point, the relationship can get really bad. But the worse the relationship
    between China and the U.S., perhaps the better chance for the Pope Francis to visit China, if China wants to really
    stay as part of the world, rather than become isolated
    from the rest of the world. So things are really, many things people may try and may plan, politically, economically, but there’s something spiritual, beyond all the political economic factors. It’s amazing to find what’s
    going on in that realm. – Thank you very much.
    – Thank you. (audience applauds) Thank you.

    Anyone Can Be a Math Person Once They Know the Best Learning Techniques | Po-Shen Loh
    Articles, Blog

    Anyone Can Be a Math Person Once They Know the Best Learning Techniques | Po-Shen Loh

    August 28, 2019


    I think that everyone in the world could be
    a math person if they wanted to. The keyword though, I want to say, is if they
    wanted to. That said, I do think that everyone in America
    could benefit from having that mathematical background in reasoning just to help everyone
    make very good decisions. And here I’m distinguishing already between
    math as people usually conceive of it, and decision making and analysis, which is actually
    what I think math is. So, for example, I don’t think that being
    a math person means that you can recite the formulas between the sines, cosines, tangents
    and to use logarithms and exponentials interchangeably. That’s not necessarily what I think everyone
    should try to concentrate to understand. The main things to concentrate to understand
    are the mathematical principles of reasoning. But let me go back to these sines, cosines
    and logarithms. Well actually they do have value. What they are is that they are ways to show
    you how these basic building blocks of reasoning can be used to deduce surprising things or
    difficult things. In some sense they’re like the historical
    coverages of the triumphs of mathematics, so one cannot just talk abstractly about “yes
    let’s talk about mathematical logic”, it’s actually quite useful to have case studies
    or stories, which are these famous theorems. Now, I actually think that these are accessible
    to everyone. I think that actually one reason mathematics
    is difficult to understand is actually because of that network of prerequisites. You see, math is one of these strange subjects
    for which the concepts are chained in sequences of dependencies. When you have long chains there are very few
    starting points—very few things I need to memorize. I don’t need to memorize, for example, all
    these things in history such as “when was the war of 1812?” Well actually I know that one, because that’s
    a math fact—it was 1812—but I can’t tell you a lot of other facts, which are just purely
    memorized. In mathematics you have very few that you
    memorize and the rest you deduce as you go through, and this chain of deductions is actually
    what’s critical. Now, let me contrast that with other subjects
    like say history. History doesn’t have this long chain, in fact
    if you fully understand the war of 1812 that’s great, and it is true that that will influence
    perhaps your understanding later of the women’s movement, but it won’t to be as absolutely
    prerequisite. In the sense that if you think about the concepts
    I actually think that history has more concepts than mathematics; it’s just that they’re spread
    out broader and they don’t depend on each other as strongly. So, for example, if you miss a week you will
    miss the understanding of one unit, but that won’t stop you from understanding all of the
    rest of the components. So that’s actually the difference between
    math and other subjects in my head. Math has fewer concepts but they’re chained
    deeper. And because of the way that we usually learn
    when you had deep chains it’s very fragile because you lose any one link—meaning if
    you miss a few concepts along the chain you can actually be completely lost. If, for example, you’re sick for a week, or
    if your mind is somewhere else for a week, you might make a hole in your prerequisites. And the way that education often works where
    it’s almost like riding a train from a beginning to an end, well it’s such that if you have
    a hole somewhere in your track the train is not going to pass that hole. Now, I think that the way to help to address
    this is to provide a way for everyone to learn at their own pace and in fact to fill in the
    holes whenever they are sensed. And I actually feel like if everyone was able
    to pick up every one of those prerequisites as necessary, filling in any gap they have,
    mathematics would change from being the hardest subject to the easiest subject. I think everyone is a math person, and all
    that one has to do is to go through the chain and fill in all the gaps, and you will understand
    it better than all the other subjects actually.

    Introduction to Level Crossings – Network Rail engineering education (4 of 15)
    Articles, Blog

    Introduction to Level Crossings – Network Rail engineering education (4 of 15)

    August 28, 2019


    [train passing] ♪ background music ♪ Britain’s rail network is a marvel of engineering. Travel by train is quick, efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable. At Network Rail we manage the Rail Infrastructure by using cutting edge technology and employ exacting safety standards. Rail is the safest form of transport in Britain and we’re continually trying to make it even safer. This film looks at one of the biggest challenges we face in keeping the network safe: Level Crossings. Years ago, when the rail network was being built rail engineers couldn’t afford to build bridges or tunnels at every point the rails crossed a road. So instead they created level crossings places which allowed vehicles, pedestrians and animals to cross over railway lines. We now have around 7000 level crossings in the UK. Most of them are private crossings or footpaths but about 1 in 5 are on public roads. Level crossings come in all shapes and sizes. From a walkway over the railway, to crossings that need a telephone to get permission to cross, to busy town-centre crossings with thousands of cars and pedestrians passing through each day. The traditional form of road crossing on British railways consisted of hinged gates. These prevented road traffic from crossing when closed and stopped animals escaping from the road to the railway. Many still exist today. This one is a staff operated crossing. The crossing is protected by barriers across both sides of the road. This type of crossing closes the road for typically 2 minutes as it is necessary to prove the crossing is clear before allowing the signals to clear and if the crossing isn’t clear to leave enough time to stop the train before it reaches the level crossing. Slow opening and closing mean traffic delays. Many gated crossings have been replaced by lifting barriers which are easier to mechanise. These can come in different forms. Full barriers consist of barriers each side of the track which block the entire width of the road. They’re used in busy areas where road traffic is high. In order to avoid vehicles being trapped when the barriers go down these crossings are remotely monitored by signallers using CCTV. At automatic half-barrier crossings, the barriers block off each side of the road separately. As the train approaches, it triggers the automated level crossing controllers. An amber light shines and twin red lights flash, warning drivers to halt. An alarm sounds for pedestrians. A short time after the lights come on, the barriers fall on the left hand side of the road on each side, usually 9-12 seconds before the train arrives. Signals tell drivers to keep the crossing clear and if the lights continue to flash after the train has passed, it means another train is approaching. A phone on both sides of the crossing can be used to contact a signaller in an emergency, or if the driver has a large or slow-moving vehicle that needs to cross. Automated half-barrier crossings keep road traffic delays to a minimum. However, there is no time to stop the train if the crossing is occupied. With automated half-barriers motorists are less likely to be stranded between barriers and be unable to exit. But cases where impatient motorists have driven around the barriers have caused safety concerns. In fact, level crossings as a whole are the biggest safety challenge that we face at Network Rail. In 2010 there were 3,466 recorded incidents of misuse or error. There were 7 collisions between vehicles and trains and more than 100 near-misses. That’s over two a week. Level crossings are designed to be safe when used correctly. Misuse by pedestrians or motorists leads to extreme danger for themselves, users of the level crossing and people on the train. We want a safe and reliable railway, so we’ve a programme in place to reduce level crossing risk across the country. But we need the public to be aware of the need for more responsible behaviour. We hope you can help.

    How to Mail a Letter |  Post Office Field Trip | KidVision Pre-K
    Articles, Blog

    How to Mail a Letter | Post Office Field Trip | KidVision Pre-K

    August 28, 2019


    – [Teacher] This module is sponsored by A D Henderson Foundation. (playful music) – We are at the post
    office to mail a letter and find out what happens to it. Where do we mail our letter? – In the mail box. – Who can tell me why
    this is called a mailbox? – It’s a box and you put mail in it. – That’s right, because it’s
    a box and you put mail in it. This is a compound word,
    it’s called mail box. So what would the letter be called if we put it in the box? Mail. And this is the box. But why can’t we mail our letters? – There’s no stamp. – There’s no stamp. So let’s go inside and get a stamp so we can put our letters in the.. – Mailbox. – Perfect. Let’s go. Thank you. – Hi, welcome to the post office. May I help you? – Yes, I’m Penny, and
    these are the KidVision VPK Kids, and we have letters
    we would like to mail, but we need stamps. – Okay, I’m going to
    take you over to Gladys. She has some fun stamps for you to mail your letters out today. – Okay, thank you. Thank you. – Good morning. – Good morning. – My name is Gladys. How can I help you? – We need stamps. – We need stamps, but we wanna make sure that our address is correct. What is on the address of the envelope? – Let me read your return address here. Name, address, and zip code. And here, where it’s going to. Name, address, and zip code. Let me see the other ones. – Everyone check.
    – Um hum. – Check your letters. Make sure you have your name, your street address, your city, state, and your zip code. So what are we missing? – [Kids] Stamps. – [Penny] Our stamps. – [Gladys] We need one stamp, and we’re going to put it on our envelope. – Where does the stamp go? – Just peel, right here. – [Penny] It goes on the
    empty corner of the envelope, that’s correct. Can you put your stamp
    on the empty corner? – [Gladys] Just peel this down. – [Kid] Do we have to rip the stamp out? – [Penny] Yes, it’s stickers. Stamps are stickers. You’re doing a good job of peeling it. – [Kid] I want one of those. – So stamps look different even though they’re the same amount? – Yes, the same amount, yes. – [Penny] And why does it cost money to mail a letter? – Because we have expenses to cover. – The money that you
    pay to buy a stamp helps pay all the workers and
    keeps the facilities open so that we can have a post office. And now, what happens next? – Next, we’re gonna put it in here and gonna take it to the mailbox. – Penny and the kids,
    I’m gonna introduce you to Billy, who’s a letter carrier here. – Hi Billy. – Good morning Penny. Good morning children. Thanks for coming into
    the postal service today. I’d like to tell you all about my job. This route here is number thirty-seven. So anything that goes
    to route thirty-seven, comes to me. I have letters, and we call these flats. And I also have many
    different sizes of boxes and packages. Like this package right here, or a parcel. What shape is this? – Rectangle.
    – A rectangle. – All right. Sometimes, we also have
    packages like this. – What shape is that? – A cylinder.
    – A cylinder. – Good job kids. Can you tell me what shape is that letter? – Rectangle.
    – It’s a rectangle. And I see he’s got some.. These magazines are called flats. Why do you think they’re called flats? – Because they’re flat. – Because they’re flat. And what shape is that? – A rectangle? – It’s a rectangle, good job. – And then this all goes into the case. I put it all together, Then I go to my packages, and I line my packages up. And I pull all the mail down, and I load it in this hamper. And then I roll this
    hamper out to my truck. Let’s go outside. – [Penny] Okay. – And I’ll load up my parcels. (happy music) – Okay, here we are. Out at my mail truck. As you can see, there’s a big eagle emblem on the back of the truck. And this tells you that this vehicle is with the United States Postal Service. So when you see this vehicle, you know the mailman
    is in the neighborhood. I wear a special uniform, special shoes that protect my ankles in case I step in a
    hole, or step on a rock and I would twist my ankle. This way I don’t hurt it. I always have to have white socks with nice, bright colored stripes. I have to have blue pants
    with a stripe down the side. And a blue shirt. I always have to have
    my identification badge on so people know who
    I am when I’m out there delivering the mail. And I also have the insignia right here. And my hat, but because I
    work outside in the sun, I always like to switch
    my hat when I get outside, and I put this sun hat
    on to keep my face out of the sun so that I don’t get sunburned. – Look inside. How do you organize your letters when you put them in the mail truck? – I load them up in a nice, straight line all the way to the back of the cabin. These packages are called SPRS.. – SPRS – Because they’re not in a regular box, and they’re not flat. They’re a different shape. They’re not a letter or a magazine. I take my packages, and the package I’m
    going to deliver first, I put in the front of the cabin. And the packages I’m gonna deliver last, I put in the back of the cabin. I’ve already put all my letters and my flats together in separate bundles. This is First Street, this is Second Street, and this is Third Street. So as I park at each block, I can just take the mail for the section of the route that I’m going to deliver. And I deliver to the
    same addresses every day. So I get to know all my customers. They become like family to me. And it really makes me feel good that I can make my customers
    happy on a daily basis. I’m gonna load these
    last packages and SPRS into my vehicle, so I can get ready to go out and deliver to all my customers. – Thank you very much. It was very nice to meet a mail carrier. – Thank you Penny. It was my pleasure. You too children, you’ve
    been wonderful today. Thank you so much for
    coming to the post office. – That’s terrific. Thank you very much for telling us about the post office. – No problem, than you for coming, Penny and the kids, and any time you’re in the area, feel free
    to stop by and visit. – Bye bye packages. – Bye.
    – Bye. (playful music)

    Why Cities Are Where They Are
    Articles, Blog

    Why Cities Are Where They Are

    August 27, 2019


    This is a Wendover Productions video made
    possible by Squarespace. Make your next move with a beautiful website
    from Squarespace. The Cumberland valley is home to six towns
    lying between Hagerstown, Maryland and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania— Greencastle, Chambersburg,
    Shippensburg, Newville, Carlisle, and Mecanicsburg. What’s exceptional about these small Pennsylvania
    towns is that they’re each almost exactly 10 miles from each other. The distances deviate by no more than a mile
    from this rule. This isn’t a coincidence and this isn’t
    planned. Drawing equal sized radii around each town
    shows you their spheres of influence. Assuming each town has the exact same shops
    and services, rational people will just go to whichever town is closest to buy or sell
    goods. Towns ten miles apart mean that nobody has
    to travel more than five miles to reach a town. Each one of these towns was founded before
    the formation of the United States, so that means that, of course, nobody had cars and
    pretty much everybody walked everywhere. 10 miles, or 5 miles each way, is about the
    distance a person can comfortably walk in a day with enough time to buy or sell goods
    at a central market. Back in this era before cars, a 5 mile radius
    was essentially the largest possible commuter zone to small agricultural towns and therefore
    having towns ten miles apart was the most efficient possible use of rural land. When you get a chance, take a look at map
    of a rural area that existed before cars. You’ll see that the distance between medium-sized
    towns is almost always somewhere between about 10 to 15 miles. Because the Cumberland valley is a valley,
    towns really could only develop in a line, but in most cases towns develop in all directions. This is what the ten mile rule looks like
    going out in all directions. Each of these points is a town and the hexagon
    around it is the area from which people will go to the town. In the real world, each of these towns probably
    has a small grocery store, a pharmacy, a bank, and maybe a restaurant. Since everybody uses these services, there
    doesn’t have to be many people in a towns sphere of influence in order to sustain these
    shops. But where do you put something more specialized,
    like a mechanic. People only need to go the mechanic every
    once in a while so you need more people to sustain one mechanics shop than one grocery
    store. Well, some of these small towns develop into
    larger towns with more people that can support more specialized shops and services. Putting these larger towns with more specialized
    shops closer together would be unsustainable since there wouldn’t be enough people going
    to those shops but putting them farther apart would be inefficient since there’s land
    that people would not go to a city from. This happens once or twice more until you
    have cities. These cities have the largest spheres of influence
    and the most specialized shops. You of course still have grocery stores and
    pharmacies in cities, but you also have things like luxury car dealerships, brain surgery
    centers, and airports. The city’s sphere of influence is enormous
    because people will travel hundreds of miles to buy an expensive car or get brain surgery
    or fly from an airport. Think about it within a city. How far would you walk to buy a latte. Probably only a few blocks and that’s why
    you see Starbucks or other coffee shops on almost every block. Since almost everyone buys coffee, you only
    need a few blocks of people to sustain one coffee shop. But how far would you walk to buy a MacBook? Probably quite far since its a infrequent
    and substantial purchase. That’s why Apple stores are rather rare
    even in cities. You need an enormous amount of people to sustain
    one Apple store and we can actually figure out roughly how many. In Connecticut, the Trumbull Apple Store is
    about 20 miles away from the New Haven store to the north-east and the Stamford store to
    the south-west. In the 10 mile radius around the Trumbull
    Apple Store there are about half a million inhabitants which tells us that you need about
    half a million people to sustain one Apple store. We can compare that to the Starbucks’ of
    lower Manhattan which are spread out at an average distance of about 600 feet. Drawing a 300 foot radius around one Starbucks
    in lower Manhattan covers around 6,000 people which means that one Starbucks needs 6,000
    people to sustain it. Of course both Connecticut and New York are
    places with higher than average incomes which means less people are needed to sustain one
    Starbucks or Apple Store. The numbers would be very different in, say,
    rural Kansas, but since each store generally only builds in areas with higher-than-average
    incomes this gives a good sense of how many people Apple and Starbucks looks for in an
    area before opening up a store. So, our model shows where cities should be,
    but its not like this in reality. This is the most efficient spread of cities
    if you’re assuming that the cities are on a perfectly flat plane with no geographic
    features, no social influences, no variability of income, equal distribution of resources—essentially
    assuming the world is one homogeneous place… which its not. In reality, of course, our world has an enormous
    effect on where and why cities develop. To start out, let’s cut this down to one
    city on a flat, featureless plane for simplicity. What affects the location of cities more than
    anything is water. If we put an ocean on one side of our isotropic
    plane, our city will almost certainly locate near it. Oceans have always been and still are what
    connects the world. There’s no other means of transport that
    can move such enormous amounts of cargo for so little. Any city needs to be economically efficient
    to grow and it will cost more to bring goods to a city that’s 1000 miles inland than
    one right by the ocean. Just look at Europe. 6 of the 10 largest European cities are within
    100 miles of the coast. But oceans aren’t the only bodies of water
    to affect cities. Rivers are just as or perhaps even more influential. Milan, the 19th largest European city, is
    the largest to not be either directly on the ocean or on a river, and even then its only
    15 miles from a river and 75 miles from the ocean. Until the last century or so, cities could
    not survive without direct water access. If you need more proof, 14 of the 15 largest
    cities in the world are within a few dozen miles of the ocean. Perhaps the most obvious attractor for cities
    is resources, so going back to our isotropic plane, putting natural resources anywhere
    on this map will draw cities near it. Cities that existed before the last century
    or so generally sprung up right near the resources, much like Pittsburgh, since they acted as
    manufacturing and transportation hubs for those resources, but more recently new resource
    dependent cities don’t need to be as close to the resources themselves. New transportation technologies can bring
    the resources from their source. Just look at Dubai. Of course the UAE has enormous oil deposits,
    but they’re much closer to Abu Dhabi and the South-West than Dubai. In 1900, Dubai had 10,000 residents, less
    than half that of Carlisle, Pennsylvania—one of the farming towns we talked about at the
    beginning. That only grew to 40,000 by 1960, but today
    its known worldwide and has more than 2.5 million residents. It was able to grow at this enormous rate—even
    faster than Abu Dhabi—since it cemented itself as the economic and administrative
    hub for the oil industries of the region. Another geographic feature that we can add
    to the plane is mountains. Now, mountains don’t always have a uniform
    affect on cities. Mexico City, Bogota, and Addis Ababa are all
    enormous cities at elevations above 7,000 feet. Mountains do make transport and trade difficult,
    but they also provide protection. Many ancient cities grew in these locations
    since they were easy to protect, which left more time to focus on growing the city, but
    mountains can also hinder development. For quite a while, the United States could
    not develop west of the Appalachian mountains. They just served as an enormous barrier. In 1800, the average center of population
    for the entire United States was here even though the US had sovereignty over this entire
    area. Of course technology eventually conquered
    this barrier and moved the mean population center all the way out to Missouri today,
    but if the Appalachian mountains didn’t exist American history and geography would
    be completely different. We would have seen urban development much
    earlier in the mid-west. But mountains can have another effect. You see, coal, silver, gold, and other mineral
    deposits are all often located in mountainous regions, and, just like Dubai, cities can
    develop in less hospitable and easy places due to resources. The economic advantage of exploiting the resources
    overpowers the economic disadvantage of being in an inhospitable location. Denver, Colorado grew 650% between 1870 and
    1880 with the opening of a railroad branch connecting with the transcontinental railroad. It served as an access point to transportation
    to the gold miners in the rockies. So mountains can either push cities away or
    bring them nearer—it really just depends on the circumstance. Let’s exchange our isotropic plane for a
    world map. Where should cities be on here? Well, our world’s cities are not necessarily
    all in the most geographically efficient locations. While there is a certain level of natural
    selection that grows the efficiently placed cities and shrinks the inefficiently placed
    cities, humans are not always able to put cities in the most efficient locations. Let’s put up the 224 cities in the world
    with a population over 2 million. You can immediately see some patterns. Putting up the equator, you can see a clear
    divide. Only 32 of these cities lie in the southern
    hemisphere. One might think this is because there is so
    much more land in the northern hemisphere, but that’s not entirely true. You see, the southern hemisphere still has
    32% of the world’s land, but only has 14% of the world’s large cities. There’s clearly a higher density of cities
    in the northern hemisphere. You can pretty much trace this all back to
    Europe and Asia. The first large civilizations and empires
    were on these two continents even though the human race likely originated in Africa. There’s hundreds of different theories on
    why civilizations succeeded in some places and failed in others, but one of the more
    plausible and interesting theories is that Europe and Asia succeeded because they’re
    wide instead of tall. The very shape of the continents may have
    changed the course of human history. You see, when a continent is wide, you have
    a ton of land with roughly the same climate. Climate tends to change when you go north
    and south rather than east and west as a nature of how the earth rotates around the sun. Much of the success of early civilizations
    had to do with the domestication of plants and animals and the corresponding technology. When expanding horizontally, the climate is
    similar enough that an empire can use the same successful plants and animals, while
    expanding vertically requires the domestication of new plants and animals. If a civilization started in central-america,
    for example, there would be very little land on the continent with a similar climate and
    their expansion would be severely limited. In Europe and Asia, on the other hand, theres
    thousands upon thousands and miles of similar climate that can be reached just by traveling
    east or west. There’s evidence to back this up. Just look at the maps of the four largest
    early empires—the Qing Dynasty, the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, and the
    Mongol empire. They were all in Eurasia and they all expanded
    horizontally. When some of the more modern empires expanded,
    they had the technology to do so overseas. The three major modern empires were the British,
    Spanish, and French empires—each of which came from relatively similar climates. A major reason why America was able to succeed
    is because all the agriculture from Europe worked there. Climatically, Europe and America are nearly
    identical. The majority of developed colonized countries
    are in the northern hemisphere just because they were closest to Europe, but formerly
    British countries like South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand are all highly developed and
    in the Southern Hemisphere. Their success over more northern countries
    in the southern hemisphere can also be partially attributed to their greater climate similarity
    to Europe. Let’s ask one more question. If our world only had one city, where would
    it logically be? Well if you take the location of every person
    in the world and average it out, you come to south-central Asia. That means that this general region is the
    optimum place to live on the planet, but where more specifically should our world city go. Well, this region is already in the Northern
    Hemisphere and in Eurasia, so we’ve already covered those two criteria. We want a place within a hundred of so miles
    of the ocean, on a navigable river, near mountains with rich mineral deposits—the single best
    place for a city on earth just might be… Dhaka, Bangladesh. Every geographic model and theory says that
    there is no better place on earth to put a city than here. There’s evidence to back this up: Dhaka
    is between the 4th and 18th largest metropolitan area on earth depending on how you define
    metropolitan area, and Bangladesh is the sixth densest country on earth—there are 161 million
    people living in an area about the size of England. History has affected geography enough that
    the largest and most advanced civilizations are not all in South-Central Asia, but if
    we started all over again, did humanity a second time, every geographic model says that
    this region could be the origin and central point of human civilization. I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Productions
    video. This video was made possible by my amazing,
    brand new sponsor, Squarespace. Squarespace is an all-in-one platform to make
    your beautiful, professional website. Months before Squarespace signed on to sponsor
    Wendover Productions, I used them to make my website—WendoverProductions.com. Now, I wasn’t looking for anything fancy. I just wanted to make sure that nobody else
    got their hands on the WendoverProductions.com domain and also to create a great-looking
    landing page. This way, I can give people one link that
    goes to all my different social accounts. I know that most of you guys are smart, upstart,
    entrepreneurial people that want to make your mark and what’s so much more professional
    than a LinkedIn or Twitter or Facebook account is a standalone website and its cheaper than
    you’d think, especially because if you sign up using the link squarespace.com/wendover
    and use the code “Wendover” in your order, you’ll get 10% off. This is hopefully the beginning of a long
    and prosperous relationship between Wendover Productions and Squarespace. They’re really committed to helping independent
    creators like me and perhaps you make great things, so definitley take a look at what
    they have to offer and make your next move with Squarespace. You can support Wendover Productions by contributing
    on Patreon where 100% of the funds go right back into the channel. I even release expense reports at the end
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    like early access to videos, stickers, hand-written letters, and most recently, t-shirts. You can also order a t-shirt by itself for
    only $20 through DFTBA. The link is here and also in the description. Other than that, please make sure to follow
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    Highlights: “Jobs for Everyone!”
    Articles, Blog

    Highlights: “Jobs for Everyone!”

    August 27, 2019


    JAN PERRY: You can’t talk
    about economic development without talking about
    building blocks for community. That includes the jobs, the
    investment, the housing, the access to public
    transportation. LA Live and Staples used to be. Miles and miles and
    miles of parking. There was a more
    than $15 billion in private investment made to
    develop what you see here now. It created 90,000 net new
    jobs, both in construction and permanent jobs. These were jobs that
    did not exist before. That’s $52 million of net new
    tax revenues over the next 20 years. Now, it wasn’t an accident. It became a policy
    many years ago to try to take
    buildings that were empty or underutilized through
    an adaptive reuse ordinance. And it created this opportunity
    to take these buildings that were underutilized or empty
    and convert them into housing. Over 17,000 units of
    market rate housing was created in this manner. 6,000 of those units
    were affordable units. It all started with
    good public policy. We made those provisions
    for affordable housing to stimulate affordable
    housing development. We created the Affordable
    and Supportive Housing trust fund to be able to fund that. Thousands of affordable
    housing units have already been built
    and created and preserved through solid policy
    making and will be retained as affordable
    housing units for the next 55 years. All of this activity translates
    into net new job potential. Because when you do
    investment right, it will translate
    into more investment. And it has an exponential
    growth affect. South Los Angeles
    continues to be one of the areas of highest
    unemployment in the nation. There are about 750,000 people
    in this city who have not gotten past the ninth grade. And many of those individuals
    cannot read or write beyond a grade-school level. And yet, many of the jobs
    that we have in this market call for a skilled worker. We target young people who have
    dropped out of high school. We focus on them and
    provide them with wrap around services in an integrated
    service delivery model. At the centers,
    clients are assessed for job training programs. Many are reconnected
    to education centers for the development
    of new job skills. And we focus on vets,
    homeless, and also people who have had engagement
    with the criminal justice system. We’ve recognized the need
    to address employment at all ends of the
    economic spectrum. And so we know that success is
    going to bring more success. It’s a combination of good
    policy, good economics, good job training,
    and education. That leaves nobody behind. It is so much better to trian
    people and put them back to work than continue to step
    over them on the sidewalk.

    Articles

    Schwerer Gustav – Rail Super Gun (Behemoth)

    August 26, 2019


    The Schwerer Gustav, Rail Super Gun, World War 2. The Schwerer Gustav was the largest artillery gun ever made. Before the second World War had started, Hitler required a devastating weapon for the invasion of France that could destroy the Maginot Line penetrating at several layers of concrete and steel The Schwerer Gustav was designed in 1934 by the German Arms manufacturer, Krupp. This giant railway gun weighed 1350 tons and had an overall length of 47 point three meters or 155 feet two inches it was mounted on a railway chassis running on specially constructed tracks and had to be Disassembled and assembled to set up even a set of outer tracks were required for the cranes to achieve this its barrel length was 32 and a half meters or 168 inches and could only move up or down at an elevation of 48 degrees with horizontal targeting achieved by a curved tracks the weapon caliber was 80 centimeters or 31 inches and the heavy concrete piercing or High-explosive shells weighed seven tons making them the largest and heaviest shells of any artillery piece in the world The gun could fire over a range of 47 kilometers or 29 miles After a number of shells were fired the barrel would wear away and need replacing the artillery gun required a staggering number of crew 250 crewmen were required to assemble the gun which took three and a half days while 2,500 crewmen were needed to lay the tracks Flak battalions were also a necessity to protect the gun from air attacks as it was highly visible due to its size The Schwerer Gustav would be constructed throughout the 30s But it would not enter service until 1941 there for missing the French invasion the gun would be transported to the Eastern Front and used at the siege of Sevastopol where 4,000 men were required to set it up in position It fired 300 shells at several enemy positions including Soviet fortresses and ammunition magazines After this the Schwerer Gustav was transported to Leningrad, but the attack was canceled It is unknown whether there was a second gun constructed or whether it was a nickname by the German artillery crew but in 1942 Dora as it became known was operational at Stalingrad, but withdrawn by the Germans During 1942 the Germans proposed to construct a new version of the gun mounted on a self-propelled platform that could move without Railway tracks called the landcruiser P. 1500 monster, however the idea was eventually scrapped as The war was coming to an end the Schwerer Gustav some sources say, was destroyed by the Germans to prevent capture on the 14th of April 1945 and it’s ruins studied by Soviet specialists Overall the Schwerer Gustav was quite an impractical weapon demanding a large number of crew and setup to become operational Subscribe for more World War 2 videos get your copy of simple history World War 2 today Thank you guys for all your support on the simple history YouTube channel if you enjoyed please consider visiting our patreon page there You can show us your support for the channel by donating and make a huge difference in what we’re able to create for you Plus you can get early access on upcoming videos, so let’s keep it growing, and thank you for being part of this amazing community

    Articles

    The Soldier who fought in 3 Armies

    August 26, 2019


    It was October 18th, 1965… the outdated South Vietnam Air Force H-34 helicopter… hugged tightly to the mountainous terrain
    of the Phước Sơn District of Vietnam. As the French and Americans had found this reliable… but old workhorse was not well suited for frontline combat duty… due to its low speed and large silhouette. But maybe most significantly of all… its magnesium skin was prone to very intense and deadly fires if hit. Despite their best efforts… rescue teams could not locate the downed helicopter… and its crew… or the Special Forces soldiers on board. It was not until over 30 years later… that the crash site of the helicopter was found. It was concluded that the helicopter had crashed into the side of a mountain while flying nap of the Earth Among the remains retrieved at the site… was that of an American officer
    who was the team leader of the mission. He was Captain Larry Thorne… the US Military advisor
    who had also been in World War II. A commander in the German Waffen-SS… and a Finnish Army First Lieutenant. He was a highly decorated soldier… and his awards included
    the German Iron Cross 2nd Class… and American Legion of Merit medal… and the highest of Finnish awards: The Mannerheim Cross. Well, he wasn’t originally an American… nor was his name Larry Thorne. In fact… his real name was Lauri Törni. And he was born in Viipuri, Finland… on May 28th, 1919. Just two years before his birth… the Russian Empire had collapsed… allowing Finland to emerge
    as a new independent nation. Lauri’s hometown found itself
    on the very border with the Soviet Union… and over the next two decades… the Soviet Union became more and more
    interested in annexing Finland. In 1938… Lauri joined the Finnish 4th Independent
    Jaeger Infantry Battalion at the age of 19. This wasn’t an ordinary unit… It was a Sissi unit who were experts at sabotage and guerrilla warfare… as well as long-range reconnaissance. They were often considered an elite unit and their job was to penetrate deep behind enemy lines often gathering intelligence… operating from concealed positions. Sometimes, they would carry out roadside ambushes even being used to hunt down and destroy enemies special forces. He would soon need these skills
    as just a year later in 1939. The Soviet Union carried out an unprovoked attack on Finland… called the Winter War. Lauri’s battalion was based at Kiviniemi when the war started… tasked with protecting the strategically important Leningrad-Kirov railroad line. Once it was realised that the Red Army
    was poring over the Finnish-Soviet border… Lauri’s battalion redeployed and moved forward to defend the massive lake at Ladoga. The lake was the largest in Europe… and had been shared by the Finnish and the Soviet Union since 1918… and had always been an area of high tension between the two nations. The Red Army attacked the area with overwhelming numbers… but they were ill-equipped. Lacking adequate winter equipment… their tanks were also still painted olive green… and their infantry were still wearing brown coats… as their camouflaged winter clothing had yet to arrive. Lauri’s Battalion pushed back and surrounded a large number of Red Army troops… that lamenting on the northern part of the lake. Both Lauri’s Battalion and the winter weather in the form of frostbite… inflicted huge casualties on the
    Red Army divisions that circled there. Lauri took command the defence of Sugar Loaf Hill… a hill that had to be held against the enemy forces in order to maintain Finnish reinforcements. The Finnish headquarters couldn’t contact the defenders… So Lauri using his skis… stealthily moved past the Soviet positions… re-establishing communications. Lauri then took command of a group of demoralised Swedish-speaking Finns… defending a key position, conveying orders through gestures and shouting and punches… because he didn’t speak Swedish. Lauri’s courageous performance during this engagement came to the attention of his commanding officers… and he was promoted to Second Lieutenant… But it was ultimately to no avail for it was a short and bloody war lasting just over a hundred days. In the end, Finland was forced to concede 11% of its territory. But it was a hollow victory for the Soviet Union… they were thrown out of the League of Nations. Their casualties had been truly staggering and many including… Adolf Hitler, now viewed the Soviet Armed Forces
    as a weak and ineffective force. In June, 1941… Lauri went to train with the Waffen-SS in Austria for seven weeks… to gain further Specialist skills… as by now, Nazi Germany was a strong ally of Finland. During training, he wore a Waffen-SS uniform… and was given the rank of Untersturmführer or Junior Storm Leader. Ignorant of the political implications… his swearing of the oath of loyalty even after death would lay haunt him in the years to come. Much to Lauri’s distress… his hometown was now on the Soviet side of the border… as was the whole Lake Ladoga region he had fought so hard to protect… even his barracks at Kiviniemi were all now in Soviet hands. On June 22nd, 1941… the Germans launched “Operation Barbarossa” with a surprise attack on the Soviet Union. Three days later the Finnish attack too –
    in what became known as the Continuation War. Lauri was back in Finland… put in charge of an armoured unit consisting of captured Soviet tanks and armoured cars. Finland would not take part in Germany’s road to conquest… only advancing as far as its previous territories lost during the Winter War. On March 23rd, 1942… Lauri was skiing behind enemy lines when he skied over a friendly shrapnel mine… while trying to capture enemy prisoners. He was hospitalised but eventually recovered and instead of going on home leave… He went AWOL back to the front. By this time, the conflict had fallen into static trench style warfare… and Lauri’s Unit was tasked with counter-guerrilla… and counter reconnaissance against Soviet special units that were behind enemy lines. Later, this would move into aggressive actions as they infiltrated behind Soviet lines themselves… taking on Red Army Headquarters and communication sites. Laurie impressed his superiors, and in January 1943… he was given the chance by his senior officers… to take command of a deep strike infantry unit that later became known as… With the promise of better rations and more active combat during what had become trench warfare… He received countless keen volunteers… with a strict criteria for aggressiveness, physical stamina and good marksmanship. He rejected those that were unfit and picked the best men. They would take part in sabotage… capturing prisoners… and intelligence gathering behind Soviet lines. In one mission… Lauri’s Unit used rowing boats to get into place… They ambushed a Soviet truck and obtained a bag of Intel. Then, when a second truck came out of nowhere… moved into close combat using puukko knives and axes. More Red Army troops reinforced the position… while Lauri’s Raiders escaped into the forest stealthily sneaking past Soviet patrols Eventually making it back to the boats. Lauri had made sure that every man knew the enemy Intel, in case only one of them made it out alive. The Unit would succeed in several hit and run skirmishes… operating from a base camp that was deep in Soviet territory. They also learned to use the enemy weapons which created confusion during engagements… and made ammo plentiful as they were operating deep in Red Army territory. Lauri and his men soon gained a
    formidable reputation for bravery and mayhem… to the extent that the Soviets put a bounty of three million Finnish marks on his head as they feared him so much. By June, 1944… the war was all but lost for the Finnish despite victory after victory against the Soviet Union… They were simply too outnumbered. For his outstanding bravery and leadership during the battle… Lauri was awarded the Mannerheim Cross
    on July 9th, 1944. In September, 1944… the Finnish brokered the best deal it could with the Soviet Union and in effect the war ended Most of the Finnish Army was demobilizing, including Lauri who was by now a Captain. So… by November, 1944… Lauri found himself a civilian… unemployed… and his country forced into a humiliating armistice. Once again, they had to concede territory and pay the Soviet Union reparation… as well as this, key members of the Finnish war were put on trial. Lauri joined the Finnish Resistance who formed in the event that the Soviets tried to completely occupy Finland. He went to Germany for training in early 1945, with the intention of returning to train the resistance… but ended up joining the German Army. He had secretly boarded a u-boat when had taken the alias of “Lauri Laine”… to hide the fact that he was involving himself with the Germans. During his training… the German front in the east collapsed and the Red Army were on the borders of Germany. With no ships left, Lauri couldn’t return to Finland… so he figured he could fight the Soviets by joining a ragtag band of Germans and was given the rank of a Captain. Lauri used the same tactics that he had used so successfully against the Soviets in Finland. He was also joined by a fellow Finn… an officer named Solmu Korpela. Soon… he had gained a reputation for bravery and his men loyally followed him… even though his grasp of the German language was poor. By March, 1945… The German Army was defeated. Lauri and his men were fighting for their lives… decided to head west while they still could… this was to avoid the terrible fate of falling into the hands of the Red Army. After VE Day… Lauri and his men found themselves behind German lines. Once again, Lauri performed a remarkable feat… he led his unit into Western Germany… and he surrendered with his men to the British at Lübeck. By doing so… the Finn had saved himself and the men of his unit from years of captivity in Siberia. Lauri ended up being put in a
    Prisoner of War camp in Lübeck, Germany. He feared that he would be turned over to the Soviets because of his role in the Continuation War… or they would discover his involvement in the Waffen-SS. A few months later in June 1945… He escaped the camp with Solmu Korpela… and made his way back to Finland. He was arrested this time by the Finnish State Police… but shortly escaped from them too… Lauri was then arrested again in June, 1946… and tried for treason for joining the German army when Finland had signed a peace treaty with the Soviets… He was sentenced to six years in prison. During his time in prison…. He had made several escape attempts which all ended in failure. His last one used a grappling hook made from
    bed-sheets and scrap from the metal shop. He was finally pardoned by the Finnish President in December 1948 and released. Unhappy and disillusioned… Lauri went to Sweden in 1949… under the false name of “Elino Morsky”. He ended up in Venezuela and in 1950… found work on a Swedish cargo ship: the MS Skagen. A few months later, when it was off the coast of Alabama… he jumped ship and swam ashore. He was reduced to doing carpentry and cleaning jobs and in 1953… he was granted a residence visa. In 1954, at the age of 35… He joined the US Army, adopting the name “Larry Thorne”. Even though he was a recruit… his experience stood out vastly compared to the other men. His natural leadership abilities gained him rapid promotion… and he was made a First Lieutenant in 1957… and then a Captain in 1960. He had been stationed in West Germany from 1958 to 1962… during this time… he got in trouble when he got into a bar fight. A fellow Finnish officer pulled some strings and he got Larry transferred to the 10th Special Forces Group. He was able to use his experience to teach skiing… survival mountaineering and guerrilla tactics. and learned new skills himself in Airborne School In January, 1962… Larry was sent to the Zagros Mountains of Iran in command of his team… where he successfully completed his mission to destroy the top secret material in a crashed US plane. Then in 1963… he was sent to South Vietnam to assist in the formation of local CIDG (Civilian Irregular Defence Group) Units In one particular vicious firefight at Tịnh Biên near the Cambodian border… he was awarded two Purple Hearts and a Bronze Star for bravery. The Việt Cộng attacked his base in force and breached the outer perimeter almost overrunning the area. It wasn’t for his determination, The base would have been lost It is said that in Robin Moore’s book:
    “The Green Berets”… Captain Steve Kornie is based on Larry Thorne. When he returned to the United States, instead of retiring to a desk job… Larry volunteered for a second tour of duty. During his second tour of duty on October 18th, 1965… Larry was put in command of a top-secret Special Forces Unit called MACV-SOG
    (Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group). Trying to locate Việt Cộng turnaround points along the Hồ Chí Minh Trail… when his helicopter crashed in the mountains, he was killed. His remains went undiscovered for over 30 years. Lauri earned the Distinguished Flying Cross and was promoted to Major posthumously. His name is honoured on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington DC. And in 2003, his remains were brought back to America. He was buried with full military honours… at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Hey guys… check out this Simple History merch on teespring. There’s t-shirts, mugs, stickers,
    phone cases and much more. Link in the description below…

    Articles

    Man Who Got Hit With an Iron Rod Through His Head

    August 25, 2019


    When we hear about incredible survival stories,
    we are usually referring to people who got lost in the wild, such as the recent case
    of the ultra runner who was hit by a sandstorm in the Sahara and survived for 10 days eating
    lizards and scorpions and occasionally finding some liquid relief in the form of dew. Then there’s the guy who was swallowed by
    a sperm whale and lived to tell the tale or people who have taken as many as 20 bullets
    and survived. You might know that rapper 50 Cent took nine,
    and it didn’t hold him back for long. Or what about the curious case of the Frenchman
    who as we speak lives a functional life with 90 percent of his brain missing? Today we’ll talk about one of the greatest
    survivors in history, in this episode of The Infographics Show, Phineas Gage – How Did
    He Survive? Phineas Gage has been called “Neuroscience’s
    Most Famous Patient,” but who was he before he became a miracle of science? Not too much is known about his early life,
    only that he was born in New Hampshire, USA, in 1823 and had four siblings. It’s believed as a young man he was strong,
    tall, and handsome. Notes found from one of his doctors when Gage
    was 25 tell us he possessed “an iron will as well as an iron frame; a muscular system
    unusually well-developed‍.” This might have been a reason why later he
    would become a living legend. This strong and durable fellow started working
    on the railroads in his twenties and soon became a blasting foreman. The railroads, of course, met with resistance
    in the form of nature, and sometimes rocks needed to be blasted away. To do this, you packed them with explosives,
    but the packing itself was a hard job. To do that, you usually bore a deep hole in
    the rock and filled it with explosives. Once you had drilled the hole, you then put
    in the dynamite, but to make sure you really destroyed the rock from inside out, you then
    had to pack other materials (often clay or sand) firmly into the hole. To do this, the tool of choice was a tamping
    iron, which is basically an iron rod. On the fateful day of September 13, 1848,
    this was the job of Phineas Gage when working on destroying rocks near Cavendish in Vermont. As the story goes, Gage was looking behind
    him where men were working. As he was about to speak, his tamping iron
    hit the rock, causing a spark. The explosives went off, and that tamping
    iron set off like a rocket in the direction of Gage’s head. The measurements of the tamping iron were
    as follows: 1 1⁄4 inches (3.2 cm) in diameter, 3 feet 7 inches (1.1 m) long, and 13 1⁄4
    pounds (6.0 kg) in weight. That’s about half the length of a javelin
    and almost the weight of three crowbars. It’s not something you want plunged into
    your face at high speed. The tamping iron went up through his jaw,
    past his cheekbone, behind his left eye, through the left side of his brain, and out of the
    top of his skull. It’s said it was travelling with such a
    velocity that the tamping iron ended up some 80 feet (25 meters) away, now adorned with
    blood and bits of brain. Talk about an extreme form of lobotomy. But this strapping young man seemed to take
    the accident well, or should we say he took it on the chin well. While he did convulse, it’s said he soon
    sat up and talked, and within 30 minutes with a bit of help, he made it to a chair. It was there where he met with a physician
    called Edward H. Williams, who it’s said was subsequently given “one of the great
    understatements of medical history.” That line was the injured man saying, “Doctor,
    here is business enough for you.” The doctor later wrote, “The top of the
    head appeared somewhat like an inverted funnel, as if some wedge-shaped body had passed from
    below upward. Mr. Gage, during the time I was examining
    this wound, was relating the manner in which he was injured to the bystanders. I did not believe Mr. Gage’s statement at
    that time, but thought he was deceived.” He was telling the truth, and to the doctor’s
    astonishment, he added a bit more. He said after the incident he had vomited,
    but the strain of that vomiting had emitted bits of brain out of the top of his head. Gage’s wounds were cleaned. Some of his bones were reattached, while the
    holes were left partially open to allow for drainage. But what about Gage’s mental state? Well, he was treated in the following months
    by a Doctor John Martyn Harlow. Harlow first remarked on the patient’s state
    the first few nights, writing, “Mind clear. Constant agitation of his legs, being alternately
    retracted and extended like the shafts of a fulling mill. Says he ‘does not care to see his friends,
    as he shall be at work in a few days.’” As for his personality, many changes would
    happen as often happens to people who have suffered very serious brain trauma. The damage done, wrote the doctor, had seriously
    affected Gage’s “intellectual faculties and animal propensities,” and at times he
    wasn’t just very rude to his friends but on occasion he would utter “the grossest
    profanity.” His mother said he couldn’t remember a few
    things, but it wasn’t all that notable. Still, even though he could at times say the
    most horrible things to a person’s face, it didn’t stop him from working. However, the railroad where he had previously
    worked didn’t want him back despite him being a model foreman. So much for gratitude. The Smithsonian tells us that Gage, who became
    blind in one eye, later did some stable work in New Hampshire but even traveled as far
    as Chile to drive coaches. We guess horses were okay with being cursed
    at. Nonetheless, the wound proved too much for
    Gage, and at the age of 36 he died from seizures related to his injury. If anything good came of this, it is that
    medical science gained valuable information as to how brain injuries can cause changes
    in personality. Reports say that Gage’s friends said he
    was no longer the same person, not even close. Once a man of mild and polite temperament,
    he became an “ill-tempered, shiftless drunk.” Other medical reports talk about how childish
    and animalistic he became but also that he was incredibly whimsical. One doctor wrote that Gage was, “impatient
    of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinate,
    yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operations, which are no sooner
    arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible.” If there is some vocabulary you don’t understand
    in that, it basically means Gage’s opinions or plans could turn on a dime. We should add that some other sources suggest
    that over time his behavior did improve, which gives some hope to people who have suffered
    traumatic brain injury. Regardless, doctors learned that even with
    a significant part of the brain gone someone could complete tasks and live a relatively
    normal life. Okay, so Gage lost some of his inhibitions
    and could be impulsive, but he knew how to drive a carriage and not crash it. Even today, the story of Gage is still important
    when doctors discuss what role the frontal lobes play and how they are significant in
    terms of our behavior and personality. Why he survived is up for debate, but it’s
    thought that the fact he was already a very strong man played a part. Also important was the fact the object was
    sharp and made a clean exit through his skull. This lessened the shock to the organ inside. He was also fortunate that the brain could
    drain, and he suffered no dangerous infections. Another reason, wrote a doctor, was, “The
    portion of the brain traversed was, for several reasons, the best fitted of any part of the
    cerebral substance to sustain the injury.” In other words, if you’re gonna lose some
    brain, lose that bit. He was lucky, though, for sure. According to a story in the Baltimore Sun
    in 2018, about 20,000 Americans are shot in the head each year and die, which includes
    suicide. We are told if you get a bullet in the head,
    there is a 5 percent chance of survival, with only 3 percent of those people going on to
    live a fully functional life. If you want to see that famous skull as well
    as the iron rod that did the damage, you should visit the Warren Anatomical Museum on the
    Harvard Medical School campus. Gage had given the bar to science, what he
    called “my iron bar” but later demanded it back, saying it was his “constant companion.” After he died, science took it back again
    along with Gage’s skull. So, what do you think of this story? Do you know someone else who survived something
    equally atrocious? Let us know in the comments. Also, be sure to check out our other video
    called Why 2019 will be a horrible year. Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
    forget to like, share and subscribe. See you next time!