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    The Third Industrial Revolution: A Radical New Sharing Economy

    August 24, 2019


    “The value of information does not survive the moment
    in which it was new. It lives only at that moment; it has to surrender to it
    completely and explain itself to it
    without losing any time.” “A story is different.
    It does not expend itself. It preserves and
    concentrates its strength and is capable of releasing it
    even after a long time.” — Walter Benjamin Vice Documentary Films
    IMPACT PRESENT THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION A RADICAL NEW SHARING ECONOMY The global economy is in crisis. Economists warn that we face
    another 20 years of declining productivity,
    slow growth, steep unemployment and increasing inequality. The economic downturn is fueling
    growing discontent toward governing institutions and spawning
    extreme political movements around the world. And now, after 200 years
    of industrial activity, scientists report that
    climate change is ravaging the planet,
    taking us into the sixth mass extinction
    of life on Earth. Where do we go from here? Jeremy Rifkin is
    an economic and social theorist and the author of
    over 20 books including “The Zero Marginal Cast Society,”
    “The Third Industrial Revolution,” and “The Empathic Civilization.” He is an advisor
    to the European Union and The People’s Republic of China, and a principal architect of their
    Third Industrial Revolution plans. Let me start on a very somber note. I hope it will end up being
    a liberating reflection. You’ll have to judge. GDP is slowing
    all over the world everywhere. And the reason is productivity
    has been declining for twenty years
    all over the world. The result: Unemployment
    is very high everywhere. And nowhere is it
    more pronounced than among the Millennial Generation
    coming into the workforce. Our economists tell us
    that we can look forward to slow productivity and slow growth
    for the next 20 years. And let me do the math for you: At the end of two
    industrial revolutions in the 19th and 20th century,
    here’s the equation: We have to admit that
    half the human race is far better off today than our ancestors were before
    we began this industrial experiment. Granted? Also we need to acknowledge
    that 40% of the human race are making $2 a day or less. And arguably they are worse off than their ancestors were before
    the Industrial experiment. And the final equation: The industrial era, while
    it’s benefited half the human race in detriment to
    the other half of the human race, the well-off, the
    very wealthy have done quite well. Today, the 62 wealthiest
    human beings in the world —we could put them in this
    little section of the room. The 62 wealthiest human beings
    in the world today their combined wealth
    equals the accumulated wealth of one half the human population
    living on Earth. Three and a half billion people. There’s something
    really dysfunctional about the way
    the human family is organizing its economic relationships
    on this Earth. It’s clear we’re in a long-term
    structural economic crisis at the end of the
    2nd Industrial Revolution. But now this industrial air
    has given rise to a much more profound crisis
    —an environmental crisis. We have spewed
    massive amounts of CO₂ and methane and nitrous oxide
    into the atmosphere of this planet to create this
    industrial way of life. And now we have so much CO₂, methane and nitrous oxide
    in the atmosphere that is blocking the sun’s heat
    from getting off the Earth. We are in real time climate change. This is no longer a theory. This is no longer
    looming on the horizon. This is no longer imminent. Climate change is now
    at the house, in the door. What’s terrifying
    about climate change —and unfortunately
    it’s never explained, because if it were explained, our human family would be
    justifiably terrified and motivated and driven
    to begin to transform this planet. Climate change changes
    the water cycles of the Earth. That’s what this is all about.
    It’s never explained. We’re the watery planet. Our satellite probes
    go to other planets and what’s the first thing
    we look for? Water. No water? Not interested! Recently they discovered what
    they think is dirty water on Mars and everybody is thrilled. Our ecosystems on Earth have
    developed over millions of years based on the water cycles, the cloud cycles that
    traverse them across the Earth. For every one degree that the
    temperature of the planet goes up because of industrial induced
    CO₂ emissions— For every one degree that the
    temperature goes up on this planet, the atmosphere is
    actually sucking up 7% more precipitation
    from the ground. The heat is forcing
    the precipitation into the clouds, so we’re getting
    more concentrated precipitation, more violent water events,
    but they’re more infrequent, throwing the entire water cycle
    of the Earth off kilter. More blockbuster winter snows. Eight feet in Boston
    at last season? My gosh! More dramatic spring floods —that flood in the Carolinas,
    remember? They said this flood only will
    occur once every thousand years. It’s the new normal. More prolonged summer droughts. My wife and I were in
    British Columbia and we’re coming into Vancouver. The pilot says, “We have
    some smoke coming in.” I turned to my wife and I said,
    “You mean smog?” No, he meant smoke. Wildfires from
    British Columbia to California. Summer droughts and wildfire. We have Category 3, 4, and 5
    hurricanes now —so dramatic that
    they’re destroying infrastructure and killing people
    all over the world. That hurricane that
    hit the Philippines— This was the most
    powerful hurricane ever recorded. This is the new normal. What I’m saying here
    is that climate change is dramatically changing
    the water cycles. They’re out an exponential curve. This is absolutely frightening. It’s terrifying. And, if you are a young millennial
    about to start a family— If you’re a parent here
    or a grandparent. I want you to listen to this. Our scientists now tell us
    that we are in the sixth extinction event of life on Earth. It doesn’t even make the headlines. This is the most dramatic story
    a human family has ever faced. There have been five
    mass extinction events on Earth in 450 million years. And each time the chemistry
    of the planet shifts very quickly —there’s what we call
    a turning point— and massive die out. And after the massive die out of life, it takes upwards of 10 million years to get new life back on Earth. Our scientists now tell us we are
    in the sixth extinction event This is not a model—
    we’re chronicling it in real time. And what they’re saying is that
    over the next seven decades —and many of you will
    be around for a lot of that, and your children will
    —in the next seven decades we could lose over half
    the species of life that now inhabits this
    little oasis in the universe. As my wife says,
    we just are not grasping the enormity of this moment. We might acknowledge
    climate change, but we’re going on
    as business as usual, with a little green washing. 99.5% of all the species
    that ever been on this planet have come and gone.
    Those are not good odds. And what’s interesting is,
    human beings— We’re the actual youngest species,
    we’re the babies. Anatomically modern humans have
    only been here about 200,000 years. There’s no guarantee
    we’re gonna make this. And the new studies
    that have just come out they’re even more terrifying
    because they’re seeing the freshwater melts in the Arctic, now
    in Greenland and now in Antarctica much quicker than we expected
    changing the ocean currents. And they’re talking about storms that are beyond
    anything we can imagine, that we’ve ever seen in human history
    by the end of this century. Talking about
    the major coastal cities, where much of our
    urban population is, underwater. This is not a century from now. This is in the lifetime of
    many young people who are four and five now
    and will be my age when we’re in full steam
    into this new era, this abyss. So what do we do? We need a new
    economic vision for the world. It has to be compelling. We needed a game plan
    to deploy that vision and it needs to be quick. It needs to move as quickly
    in the developing countries as in the industrialized nations. If we have any chance of arresting
    the worst of this climate change we’re gonna have to be off carbon
    in four decades everywhere. This is beyond anything we’re
    talking about at global conferences. How do we begin to tackle
    something of this magnitude? We need to step back and reflect on how the great economic
    paradigm shifts in history occur. If we know how they occur, we’re gonna get a road map here
    in this room and around the world, and we’re gonna get a compass that
    allow us to navigate a new journey to completely transform the way
    we handle life on Earth. CHAPTER ONE: The Great
    Economic Revolutions in History There have been at least seven major economic paradigm shifts
    in history, and they’re very interesting
    anthropologically because they share a common denominator. And that is at
    a certain moment of time three technologies emerge
    and converge to create what we call
    in engineering a general-purpose
    technology platform. That’s a fancy way of saying
    “a new infrastructure.” It fundamentally changes the way we manage power
    and move economic life. What are those three technologies? First, new
    communication technologies to allow us to more efficiently
    manage our economic activity. Second, new sources of energy to allow us to more efficiently
    power our economic activity. And third, new modes of mobility
    —transportation logistics— to allow us to more efficiently
    move the economic activity. So when communication revolutions
    join with new energy regimes, and new modes of transportation it does change the way we manage
    power and move economic life. It changes
    temporal spatial orientation. It changes our habitats. It allows us to integrate
    in larger units. It actually even changes
    consciousness and governance. Let me give you two examples: First Industrial Revolution,
    19th century. Second Industrial Revolution,
    20th century. The Brits took us into
    the first Industrial Revolution. And first there was
    a communication revolution. They invented
    steam-powered printing. No more manual print presses. Steam power printing
    was a big leap forward, because it allowed us to mass
    produce very cheap print quickly. Then, in the
    second half of the 19th century, the Brits lay out a telegraph
    system across the British Isles. Steam power printing and the telegraph: those communication technologies
    then converged with a completely new source of energy
    in Britain called coal. But how are they gonna
    take that coal and harvest it? They invented the steam engine. Then this is ingenious: They figured out that they should
    put the steam engine on rails, for locomotives,
    national transport and logistics. Urban life,
    the Industrial Revolution, steam power. Second Industrial Revolution:
    the United States. Centralized electricity and especially the telephone. I know we think
    the Internet’s a big deal, but a telephone
    was a really big deal. All of a sudden,
    people could communicate at vast distances
    at the speed of light. Later, radio and television. These communication technologies converge in the United States with
    a completely new energy source. Cheap Texas oil. Then, Henry Ford
    put everybody on the road with cars, buses, and trucks. Second Industrial Revolution changed the way we manage power
    and move economic life. That second Industrial Revolution
    took us through the 20th century. It took the whole world
    through the 20th century. And it peaked in July 2008. Hi! Welcome back to the show here:
    Oil! Oil! Oil! To $147 we went— Remember that month? In that month, Brent crude oil had a record price of $147 dollars
    on world markets and, when it hit that record price, the whole global economy shut down. Silence. Completely gone. That was the economic earthquake. The collapse of the
    financial markets 60 days later was the aftershock. Mayhem, carnage, and bloodbath. Call it what you want,
    but what we saw on global stock markets today
    was ill-disguised panic. Good evening.
    This was the day after what may someday be called
    Black Monday on Wall Street because it was perhaps
    the worst financial collapse since the Great Depression. Our policy leaders are
    still dealing with the aftershock, not the Earthquake. Why was it the Earthquake? Because the entire
    Industrial Revolution that we’ve gone through is all dependent on
    the carbon deposits of a previous period in history. You know, if we look back
    let’s say that we make it through this
    next period of history. I always wonder what will
    future generations think of us, maybe in a
    hundred thousand years from now. They’ll say,
    “Oh, yes, we remember them.” “There was
    the Bronze Age, the Iron Age.” “These were
    the fossil fuel people.” “They dug up the burial grounds
    of the Carboniferous era and created a short-lived dramatic
    and very dangerous civilization.” It’s all about fossil fuels. Our fertilizers and pesticides
    are made out of fossil fuels. Our construction materials
    are made out of fossil fuels. Most of our pharmaceutical products
    are made out of fossil fuels. Our synthetic fiber, our power, our transport, our heating lights— all made out of,
    moved by fossil fuels. When the price of oil
    goes over around $95 a barrel, all the other prices go up. When we get into the zone of
    around $115 a barrel, prices become so high,
    the purchasing power slows. This is the sunset
    of a great industrial era. Now you remember in 2009
    oil went down to 50 a barrel, because the economy had shut down. There was no activity. In 2010, we tried
    to regrow inventories, so oil prices started to go up
    all the other prices go up. In 2014 we hit a new peak of
    $114 or $115 a barrel. Purchasing power slowed down again. This is a convulsion of
    growth-shutdown, growth-shutdown. And the only reason oil went down in the last few years
    to $30 a barrel is now the fossil fuel industry
    is fighting among themselves. In the sunset. OPEC said, “We’re gonna keep
    the oil spigot open.” “We’re gonna
    flood the world with oil.” “And that’s gonna take
    the price down the $30 a barrel and wipe out our new competitors,
    the more exotic fossil fuels: shale gas in the US,
    tar sands in Canada.” Guess what? They wiped them out
    —only took a year and a half. Bankruptcies across the USA
    in the shale gas industry. And now tar sands in Canada. The pipeline’s not happening. And do you hear anybody talking
    about energy independent right now? It’s over! And, as soon as the
    bankruptcies complete themselves, the oil prices are now
    starting to go back up. But now we have failed states
    where there’s oil production. We have failed States. So this is a volatile,
    convulsive sunset over the next 40 to 50 years
    —an unstable world. Where do we head from here? Let me share an anecdote. When Angela Merkel became
    Chancellor of Germany, she asked me to come to Berlin in the first couple of weeks
    of her new government to help her address
    the question of how to grow the German economy
    on her watch. Now, remember:
    In terms of per capita Germany’s the most robust capitalist
    market economy in the world. When I got to Berlin, the first question I asked
    the new chancellor— I said, “Madam Chancellor how are
    you gonna grow the German economy when your businesses are plugged in
    to a platform, an infrastructure of centralized telecommunication, fossil fuel nuclear power, internal combustion,
    road rail water, and air transport —and that infrastructure
    peaked in its productivity, in Germany, years ago? CHAPTER TWO:
    The Science of Productivity. Let me talk about productivity. This is crucial. Our economists are lamenting. They’re asking, “Why’s productivity
    been declining for 20 years?” “We have all these new killer products
    coming out of Silicon Valley.” “Why is productivity declining?” I’m gonna share with you
    a dirty little secret in economics that economists
    don’t like to talk about. We used to believe that
    there are two factors that drive productivity
    in standard economic theory: Better machines and
    better performing workers. But when Robert Solow
    won the Nobel Prize for economic growth theory
    in the mid-1980s, he actually let
    the little secret out. He said,
    “We’ve got a problem here.” When we trace every single year of
    the Industrial Revolution these two factors
    —better machines, better workers— it only accounts for about
    14% of the productivity. So Robert Solow
    asked the big question: “Where does the other
    86% of productivity come from?” Don’t know. Moses Abramowitz,
    the former head of the American Economic Association said, “This is a measure of our ignorance.” Now wouldn’t you think
    economists would know where productivity comes from, because that’s the basis
    of the discipline? Here’s why they don’t know. When classical economic theory
    was penned in the late seventeen hundreds, the Vogue was Newton’s physics. Newton was the big guy in town. Everybody wanted to use
    Newton’s metaphor so they could be more scientific because he had discovered the laws
    that run the universe—supposedly. The economists also fell in line. For example, you know Newton’s law: “For every action there’s
    an equal and opposite reaction.” Adam Smith borrowed that metaphor for his invisible hand
    of supply and demand. “For every action on the supply side there’s an equal and opposite
    reaction on the demand side.” Newton’s law: “A body in motion
    stays in motion unless disrupted.” Baptiste Say borrowed that metaphor
    —the French economist. And he suggested that,
    “Well supply will stimulate demand, which will generate supply,
    which will stimulate demand —unless disrupted.” All of our economic theory, if
    you go back and take a look at it— it’s all based on Newton’s
    metaphors in physics. There’s only one problem with this: Newton’s physics has absolutely
    nothing to do with economics. Nothing. Nothing. economics is governed by the
    same laws that govern the universe, the solar system,
    the biosphere on Earth, and every single thing you and I
    do in our economic life while we’re here on this planet. Here are the two laws that govern
    everything in the universe, including our economy. The first law of Energy says: “All the energy in the universe
    is constant.” “Since the Big Bang,
    no new energy has been created.” “No energy has been destroyed
    since the Big Bang.” That’s the conservation law. The second law of energy
    says that’s true that the energy isn’t created
    or destroyed, but it always changes form,
    but only in one direction. From concentrated—the Big Bang—
    to dispersed through the galaxies. From hot to cooled off
    through the galaxies. From order to disorder.
    From available to unavailable. Entropy is a measure of the
    energy that’s still there, but not available to do useful work. There are three systems that
    we can talk about in thermodynamics: an open system that exchanges matter
    and energy with the outside world; a closed system, which exchanges
    energy with the outside world, but does an exchange matter; and an isolated system, which
    doesn’t exchange matter or energy with the outside world. The Earth in relation to the
    solar system and Sun is B. We get plenty of energy
    from the Sun, we don’t have to worry about this
    for billions of years. But in terms of the fixed matter
    on this planet we don’t have a lot of
    additional matter coming down here. We get a few meteorites,
    a little cosmic dust, but whatever we have
    in terms of fixed matter —which is a form of energy—has been
    here since we blew off the Sun and cooled off. All of you have smartphones
    on you right now and there are little granules
    of rare Earths in those phones. They’ve been here since
    the Earth has been here. That’s a form of energy
    as a material form. So here’s what
    economics is all about: We extract low entropy,
    available energy in nature —a rare Earth, a metallic ore,
    a fossil fuel— we extract it and then,
    through our value chains, we store it, we ship it, we produce
    goods and services from it, we consume it,
    we recycle it back to nature. Those are value chains. At every step of conversion,
    —when we take nature’s resources and move it through society—
    at every step of conversion we have to embed energy
    into that good or service to get it to the next stage
    of what it becomes. But we lose some energy in the
    process of that conversion. This is called
    “aggregate efficiency” in economics. Aggregate efficiency is the ratio
    of the potential work versus the actual useful work
    you actually embed in the good or service. Let me give you an example. Nature has the same
    economic conditions that we have in our human economy. If a lion chases down
    an antelope in the wild, then kills it, about 10-20% of the total energy
    that’s in that antelope gets embedded into the lion. The rest is heat
    lost in the conversion. That’s the aggregate efficiency. What does this have to do
    with my conversation with the Chancellor of Germany? She’s a physicist, you know,
    by background. So here’s what I said to her. We started the 2nd Industrial
    Revolution in 1905 in the USA with 3% aggregate efficiency. At every conversion of nature’s
    resources through the value chain, we lost about 97%—it didn’t
    get into the product or service. By 1990, the US got up to about
    14% aggregate efficiency. That was our ceiling
    —nothing’s changed since then. And I reported to the Chancellor that
    Germany got up to about 18.5% aggregate efficiency. That was their ceiling.
    Nothing’s changed. Anybody wanna guess
    which country led the world in aggregate efficiency? —China?
    —Japan? Japan! 20% aggregate efficiency,
    1990s, reached its ceiling. What I’m saying
    to the Chancellor is this: You can have market reforms,
    labor reforms, monetary reforms. You can create incentives
    for killer new products. You can try to create
    a million Steve Jobs. It won’t make
    a damn bit of difference. If your businesses
    are still plugged in to a 2nd Industrial Revolution
    infrastructure you can’t get above the ceiling of 20% aggregate efficiency
    anywhere in the world. Why is this important? A new generation of economists
    who happen to study physics have gone back and
    looked at the industrial record and they added
    a third factor to productivity: better machines, better workers,
    aggregate efficiency. The ratio—yes, it’s so obvious!
    The ratio of potential to useful work. When they put in that third factor, it accounts for
    much of the rest of productivity. Henry Ford could have told you this. In fact every engineer
    could have told you this. Every architect
    could have told you this. Every biologist
    could have told you this. Every chemist
    could have told you this. They all have to start
    their training in school by learning these two laws
    of energy that govern the universe. I teach in the oldest
    Business School in the world. I taught the
    advanced management program at the Wharton School for 15 years. Not a single business school
    in the world today, right now,
    requires that you learn about the 1st and 2nd laws
    of thermodynamics that govern economic activity. How shameful is this? So, in that first day
    with the Chancellor we discussed
    a 3rd Industrial Revolution: a new convergence of
    communication, energy and transportation to manage power and move Germany. At the end of the day,
    in a private session, the Chancellor said, “Mr. Rifkin, we will have this
    3rd Industrial Revolution here in Germany. CHAPTER THREE:
    A New Smart Infrastructure The communication internet
    is now mature. It’s been 25 years since
    the World Wide Web. We have digitalized communication. Now this communication
    internet is converging with a nascent, digitalized,
    renewable-energy internet. And now both those Internets
    are converging with a fledgling, automated, GPS,
    and very soon driverless road, rail, water,
    and air transport internet to create three Internets: communication internet, renewable energy internet, automated
    transportation-logistic internet. One super internet to manage,
    power, and move economic life. These three internets ride on top
    of a platform called the “Internet of Things.” We’re embedding sensors
    in all of our devices, as you know, so they can monitor
    real-time activity and then talk to other machines
    and talk to us. So we have sensors now
    in the agricultural fields and they’re actually monitoring
    the growth of crops the soil salinity,
    the moisture in the crops, etc. They’re sending that data. We have sensors now
    in the factories that are monitoring
    our economic data. We have sensors in smart homes monitoring how the energy
    is used in our buildings. We have sensors in smart vehicles,
    warehouses, smart roads. All of them collecting data. But where does that big data go? It goes to communication, energy,
    and transport Internets to manage, power,
    and move economic life. As this new system comes in it’s gonna be ubiquitous by 2030, connecting everything with
    everything with everyone. We are essentially creating
    an external prosthesis —a distributed nervous system— that’s gonna allow
    everyone on this planet, at very low cost, to begin directly engaging
    each other on a global Internet of Things and bypassing a lot of the
    vertical integrated organization and middlemen that kept us
    away from each other. We can have direct engagement now. This is the revolution. This evens the playing field. There’s been a long discussion
    among the Millennials— You started this:
    Occupy movements. Saying, “What about the 1%?
    The 99%?” Now we have a new platform. The Internet of Things platform
    is of a different nature than the platforms in the
    1st and 2nd Industrial Revolution. The new platform is really radical, because this 3rd
    Industrial Revolution platform is designed to be distributed,
    not centralized. It works best
    when it’s collaborative, and open and transparent,
    rather than closed and proprietary. And the benefits come when more
    and more people join the network and each of us
    contributes our talents, which benefits the network
    and then benefits us. It’s designed to be laterally scaled,
    not vertically integrated. And this is what moves us
    from the 1% of the 99% to a vast, vast expansion
    of social entrepreneurialism and global networks. That’s the upside. On the other hand, how do we
    deal with network neutrality? How do we ensure that everyone
    has equal access to this new
    Internet of Things platform, this 3rd Industrial Revolution? How do we make sure governments
    don’t purloin this platform for political purposes
    —it’s already beginning. How do we make sure
    that giant monopoly companies, some of them on the Internet, don’t use that data for their own
    commercial purposes at our expense? How do we ensure privacy
    when everyone’s connected? How do we ensure data security
    when everyone’s connected? How do we prevent cyber crime
    and cyber terrorism that could disrupt the system
    and take it down when everyone’s connected? This is the DarkNet, and what
    I’m saying to you today is that the DarkNet is as impressive
    as the opportunity of the BrightNet. And I would say that
    the next three generations, beginning with you and
    your children and grandchildren— You’re gonna be heavily engaged
    in a new political movement. And that movement is
    going to be to ensure against the DarkNet prevailing, and making sure that we all
    have equal access, so the human family can engage
    in a distributed nervous system and begin to have a vast expansion
    of social entrepreneurialism. This is the political struggle
    that starts with the Millennials, your children and grandchildren. This is an uphill battle. This is not a cakewalk. I’m not a technological determinist
    and I’m not a utopian. Technology just enables,
    then the question is, How will that journey end? It’s a big question mark right now. But let’s assume,
    for the sake of this afternoon, that we’re gonna be able
    to deal with all the complexities of the DarkNet
    —and it’s a big challenge. Here’s what this Internet of Things
    platform provides. Let’s say here at Brooklyn
    you’re a SME —small and medium-sized enterprise,
    or cooperative, or nonprofit. You can go up on this nascent
    Internet of Things platform that’s already emerging. It’s not theoretical. And you can have
    a transparent picture of all the economic data
    flowing through the world —if it stays network neutral. The power here is enormous. We think Snowden was a big deal? Now all the economic data
    is gonna be open to everyone, not just a few government secrets. But in a network neutral world you’re gonna be able to go up
    on this platform and have a completely transparent
    picture of all the data. You can go up on the platform
    and cut your big data on your value chain
    out from the noise. Then, you can mine your big data
    with analytics. Then you can create your own
    algorithms and apps. They’ll allow you to dramatically
    increase your aggregate efficiency at every step of conversion
    on your value chain. And, as you do that, dramatically
    increase your productivity, dramatically reduce
    your ecological footprint, and dramatically
    plunge your marginal cost. Some of those marginal costs
    are gonna get so low —they head to zero marginal cost. And when they hit near
    zero marginal cost, it gives rise to a completely
    new economic system. CHAPTER FOUR: Zero Marginal Cost
    and the Rise of the Sharing Economy. In economic theory,
    the optimum market is where you sell at marginal cost. Marginal cost is after fixed costs. Once you pay for
    whatever the technology is. The marginal cost is
    what it costs to produce a unit. Classical economic theory,
    we’ve always said that the most optimum market is
    where you sell at marginal cost. Here’s the problem we
    never expected a technology revolution
    —digital revolution— that would be so powerful
    in its potential productivity that it could actually reduce
    the marginal cost for some goods and services
    to near zero. Meaning there’s no longer
    a profit margin and you can produce goods
    and services for each other beyond the market
    in the sharing economy for nearly free. This sharing economy
    didn’t come out of the blue. Capitalism gave birth
    to the sharing economy. Let me be clear: As muddy as
    the sharing economy is, it’s the first
    new economic system to enter onto the world stage since capitalism and socialism
    in the 19th century. It’s a remarkable historical event. This is already happening. Zero marginal cost phenomena
    is not theoretical. It’s been how many years since
    Napster—the file-sharing service? About 17 years? 17 years! Well, this little file-sharing
    service started a revolution. We have 3 billion people
    right now on the internet —and now the Internet of Things— who are actually producing
    and sharing virtual goods at near zero marginal cost
    beyond the market, disrupting entire industries. We have young people that are
    producing their own music. And what does it cost to have a little technology,
    a little machine that allows you studio-quality music when
    you wanna record in your home? And then,
    whether you send that music to one person on the web or a billion— It’s zero marginal costs. You just need a service provider
    to keep your power up. I was surprised when that
    Korean performance artist a couple years ago— A billion people
    went to his website! Zero marginal cost. We have millions of young people,
    any given day, who are producing their own
    YouTube videos. Take a little video,
    put it up on the web, a billion people can see it. Zero marginal cost. We have people producing their own
    news blogs and social media. Near zero marginal cost. We have millions of people
    contributing to Wikipedia and constructing the knowledge
    of the world on a non-profit website for free. This is the most improbable
    experiment I could ever imagine. I don’t know how Jimmy Wales
    came up with this. I would have said,
    “This cannot succeed!” Adam Smith said,
    “Each individual pursues their own self-interest
    and never cares about the public good.” But in pursuing their self-interest and not giving a damn
    about the public good— By pursuing their self-interest,
    the society is better off. I always thought
    it was a little dubious, but that’s how we grew up. But apparently, none of the
    Millennials have read Adam Smith. Because, for example,
    in Wikipedia you’re all freely giving your talent, putting things up on Wikipedia, constructing the knowledge
    of the world. You’ve democratized knowledge
    in less than 15 years and the accuracy is… Now: Book publishing. What’s happening? People are creating
    their own free eBooks. My new book came out
    on the Pirate Bays before we could publish
    in our languages and —God bless them—
    they were ranking it before Amazon could even touch it. We have 6 million
    college students taking massive open online college courses
    taught by the best professors at the best universities.
    They’re getting college credits. It’s free! You can’t win here.
    You Millennials have won. Unless we outlaw
    all the technology, we’ve got to find
    a way to live with it and find value with it. Entire industries
    have been disrupted in the 17 years since Napster. The music industry has shrunk. Television has declined ’cause everyone’s producing
    their own YouTube videos. You’re all producers
    sharing with each other. Newspapers and magazines
    have gone out of business with social blogs. But thousands of
    new enterprises have emerged. Not just Google, Facebook, and
    Twitter—all of these are new. But thousands of
    startup enterprises —profit and nonprofit— they’re creating the platforms, they’re creating the apps, they’re creating the connectivity, they’re using the
    analytics and the data. It’s a revolution! Well, we thought
    there’d be a firewall here. And certainly we could understand how zero marginal cost
    brought on by digitalization would affect the virtual world, but we didn’t think
    it would move over the firewall to the physical world. What I’m saying, with the zero marginal cost society is that firewall is broken now —it’s called the Internet of Things—
    completely gone. We have millions of people now producing their own
    renewable energy, right now,
    at near zero marginal cost. Free! And now,
    as we move to car sharing, and as we move to
    driverless transportation, we’re gonna see
    the marginal cost plunge toward near zero
    in transport logistics in the next 20 years. Let’s go back to Germany. What’s happened in the 10 years since that first conversation
    with the Chancellor? We are now in Germany at 32% of all the electricity power
    in Germany now is solar and wind, right now.
    In ten years. And this is a northern country
    —doesn’t have a lot of Sun. We’re gonna be 35%
    of the electricity, solar and wind, by 2020— We’re gonna be 100%
    renewable energy by 2040. Absolutely! And what’s interesting is
    the fixed cost of introducing the solar technology
    and the wind turbines and the geothermal heat pumps— Solar and wind are
    on an exponential curve, just like computers! When I was a kid
    in the 1940s and 50s, there’s only a few computers. They cost millions of dollars. And the chairman of IBM
    at the time said, “We probably will need
    a total of seven computers.” “Maybe seven!” It was just an optimistic forecast. We did not anticipate
    exponential curves in computer chips. Moore’s law. So all of a sudden,
    Intel figures out that their engineers are doubling
    the capacity on that chip every two years.
    This is still going on. So, even if you’re making
    $2 dollars a day, everyone’s going to be connected
    to the Internet of Things within less than 15 to 20 years. And the cost—the fixed costs
    are gonna be as cheap as your cell phones in 20 years. Everyone’s gonna produce
    their own green electricity. These exponential curves
    are not going away. You know how much
    a solar watt used to cost? $78 dollars to generate
    one watt solar in 1978. You know how much it costs
    to generate one watt solar today? Not $78 dollars; 50 cents. It’s gonna be 35 cents
    in 18 months from now. This is really moving quick. And this is what you’re not told
    here in the United States by the energy companies. We have power and utility companies —some of them in my group,
    Global Group— and they’re quietly, right now, buying long-term 20-year contracts for solar and wind electricity
    in Europe and America, quietly right now,
    for 4 cents a kilowatt hour. And the Berkeley National Labs, government labs just announced they’re generating
    wind and solar— I think it’s somewhere between 2.8 and 3.5 cents a kilowatt hour. It’s over actually for
    fossil fuel and nuclear. And the next big bubble
    —I will tell you now— is gonna be the 100 trillion
    dollars in stranded assets in the fossil fuel industry. This is gonna make
    the subprime mortgage look like the small-time game. Because we’re moving
    toward parity and then solar and wind
    are getting cheaper and cheaper. That’s what’s going on
    behind the scenes, right now. But what’s interesting in Germany, once you pay
    the fixed cost for your solar panel and wind turbine— The marginal cost of producing
    the energy in Germany today? It’s zero! The Sun has not sent us
    a bill in Germany. The wind hasn’t invoiced us. The geothermal heat has not
    come to us with a bill. It’s free! So what happens when
    German businesses can plug in to a communication internet
    that then converges with an energy internet and we digitalize
    the electricity grid, so everyone can produce
    their own solar and wind, and either use it off-grid
    or sell it back to the grid? What happens
    when companies plug in to an energy internet where the cost of the energy
    is near zero marginal cost. Think about when they have
    to move across their value chain, and at each step of conversion
    on their value chain, their energy cost is near zero. How does any 2nd
    Industrial Revolution country compete with that? And it’s not big Germany only —little Denmark’s done this. Anybody can do this. Who’s producing all the new energy? In Germany, there are four
    major power companies: MBW, RWE, E.On and Vattenfall —these giant, global,
    vertically integrated companies. And, frankly, we thought
    they were invincible. What’s happened to them in 10 years is what happened
    to the music industry, television, newspapers, magazine,
    and book publishing. Thousands of small players
    have come together in electricity cooperatives. Farmers, small businesses,
    neighborhood associations. All of them went to the banks
    and got loans —these electricity cooperatives— and every bank
    was completely fine about giving them the loans.
    Why? Because they knew that
    the energy they generated would get a premium price when
    they sell it back to the market. Nobody was turned down. They’re creating
    all the new energy. This is power to the people —literally and figuratively—
    power to the people. What happened to the big 4
    power companies? They’re producing less than
    7% of the new power. And they acknowledge
    they’re out of the game. Why? To their credit,
    they were the most efficient means to produce and distribute
    centralized power —fossil fuel and nuclear power,
    vertical integration. But the new energies— They require
    millions of small players connecting where they are
    in collecting. You have to collect the Sun
    everywhere in little amounts. And the wind everywhere
    where you are. And the geothermal heat
    everywhere where it is. And you—We reward cooperatives
    who laterally scale and join together in networks. Big companies can’t put
    all these players together. The players come together in their own regions of cooperation,
    and they join together. It is power to the people. Does this mean this is the end
    of the energy companies? Not necessarily. Many will go out of business.
    Some will not. About seven years ago, the EON—one of the
    giant four companies— they asked if I would debate
    their Chairman, Mr. Tyson, but in a neutral country,
    the Netherlands. We had a three-hour debate. you’re not leaving
    the 2nd Industrial Revolution And I said to him, “Look, tomorrow morning. But you also have to be
    in the 3rd Industrial Revolution tomorrow morning, because you have a
    25, 30-year transition to get from the 2nd to the 3rd
    and find new value. And I said in the new system, it operates quite differently
    than the old system. In the new
    3rd Industrial Revolution you make more money by selling
    less and less and less electricity. I said, what you do is, you set up partnerships
    with thousands of enterprises. And you help manage the energy
    flow through their value chains. You help them with their big data. You help them mine
    that big data with the analytics. You help them with their
    algorithms and apps. Dramatically increase
    their productivity. In return, those thousands
    of enterprises will share their gains back
    with the power companies. It’s called
    “performance contracts.” We’re now doing it,
    and guess what? Last year, the chairman of Eon —took him 7 years— they’re moving to
    renewable energies and they want to help manage parts of the energy internet
    with energy services. EDF, the great nuclear power,
    in France has joined our group. We’re doing
    the whole build-out of the 3rd Industrial Revolution
    in parts of Europe: in northern France,
    the Netherlands, Luxemburg… And EDF said, “We’re with you.” They’re on the ground
    helping lay this out. They’re not leaving
    nuclear tomorrow, but they see that
    the handwriting is on the wall. So the companies
    that don’t go there; we don’t need them. It’s not just Europe; now China. When President Xi came in to power
    with Premier Li— Premier Li announced that he —and I was pleased—
    he announced he’d read my book,The Third Industrial Revolution.He put out a public announcement.
    I’d never met him. I never even been to China. And he instructed
    the central government of China to begin looking at these themes
    that I’m laying out to you to move China to
    a 3rd Industrial Revolution. There mindful in China. They lost the whole
    1st Industrial Revolution. They missed almost all the
    2nd Industrial Revolution and came it in the tail
    in the last 10 years. And they said, “We’re not gonna
    lose the 3rd Industrial Revolution.” “We wanna collaborate with the
    3rd Industrial Revolution.” And they said,
    “Be among the leaders.” To show you how fast they move, I’ve been shuttling back and forth,
    but after the first visit —it was about eleven weeks later. The chairman of the state grid, which is the largest electricity grid
    in the world, announced an $82 billion dollar,
    four-year commitment to digitalize the Chinese grid so the millions of Chinese people could produce their own solar
    and wind in their local communities and share it back
    on an energy internet. That started this year, yeah. Watch Europe. Watch China. The coming together
    of the communication internet, with the renewable energy internet gives rise to the automated,
    GPS, driverless, transportation logistics internet. We built the whole global economy
    in the 2nd Industrial Revolution around car ownership. That’s what this was all about. You’ve thrown us a curve.
    You really have. Apparently you don’t wanna
    own cars anymore. This is Grandma and Grandpa. They got two cars
    sitting in the driveway cleaning and waxing them
    every few weeks, and they’re never used. Or they’re at the office 90%
    of the day never used. You don’t wanna own cars. You want access to mobility and
    car sharing networks, not ownership of
    cars in markets, correct? So there’s a problem here. The problem is
    for every car shared in car sharing
    in the sharing economy, we’re eliminating 15 cars. This is both the problem
    and the opportunity. Larry burns was the former
    Vice President of General Motors until a few years ago, now he’s a professor
    at the University of Michigan. So Larry just did a study
    —very revealing. He studied Ann Arbor, Michigan. We can eliminate 80% of vehicles
    with better mobility, cheaper. Now let’s
    extrapolate Larry’s study. We’ve got a billion cars,
    buses, and trucks choking us in traffic
    around the world. They’re the 3rd major cause
    of global warming emissions. The number 1 cause of global
    warming emissions is buildings. But in Europe, we’re now
    retrofitting those buildings, transforming into
    micro power plants and big data centers off carbon. Anybody know what the
    number 2 cause of climate change, global warming emissions are
    by industrial activity? Number 1 is buildings
    —we always talk about it. Number 3 is transport.
    What’s number 2? —Consumption of meat
    —Meat, meat, meat. We have 1.3 billion cows. They take up about 23%
    of the land mass of the Earth. I love cows,
    but the methane they produce is a major contributor
    to global warming, —much more powerful than CO₂— and then,
    when we pasture those animals, we have the fertilizers
    that emit nitrous oxide. And it goes on and on. And I should say that,
    without mentioning names, even some of the
    prophetic voices in the climate change debate
    will never mention this. Because they do not want
    to antagonize people and even suggest that
    we may wanna change our diet and move down the food chain so that we can live healthy, respect our fellow creatures, and at the same time
    mitigate climate change. So, you never hear
    this in the debate. Never! Number 3 is transport. So, if Larry’s right
    —Larry Burns— we’re gonna eliminate probably
    80% of the vehicles in the world in the next two generations because the Millennials,
    your children, and grandchildren are never going to own cars again. This I know. And the remaining
    200 million vehicles— They’re gonna be electric. They’re gonna be fuel-cell driven. They’re gonna be operated by
    near zero marginal cost renewable energy. This is already happening. They’re gonna be 3D printed, with composite recycled materials
    at low marginal cost. They’re gonna be driverless. This is already happening. This gets to the question of, “Is this the end of the world
    for transportation companies?” Not necessarily. But they have to change
    their business model while they’re still in the
    2nd Industrial Revolution, selling cars, buses, and trucks. They have to move to the
    3rd Industrial Revolution, where they help
    manage vast networks along with all the other players. This is a very cool thing that
    happened about six weeks ago. Daimler asked me to join them— Daimler invented the
    internal combustion engine. So I’m always mindful
    they’re a step ahead. And the chairman of Daimler Trucks brought together 350 journalists
    from around the world in Germany asked me to come in— I laid out the same story
    we’re talking about here. And then the chairman
    of Daimler Trucks —he’s one of the eight
    board of directors— He announced that Daimler
    is in a new business. And that is logistics,
    on the transportation internet. And he announced that Daimler
    had equipped, in the last three years,
    300,000 trucks full of sensors. —300,000 vehicles, and they’re on the roads now. These are what I call “big data,”
    “mobile big data centers.” And these trucks
    are collecting data all across the transport corridors
    of Europe, on traffic flows,
    weather conditions, availability of warehouses… All of the data you would need
    if you’re a small business, a large business,
    or just a home owner, to be able to increase
    your aggregate efficiencies and productivity,
    reduce your ecological footprint, and anytime you’re involved in
    moving shipments from A to B. Then this is
    what’s really interesting. He dimed the lights
    and they went to a helicopter feed, live on the German Expressway. And the helicopter zooms in
    on these three trucks on the German Expressway, and then they went right into
    the cab of the trucks and the drivers are waving and
    talking to everybody in the room. And the chairman of
    Daimler Trucks said, “Okay, gentlemen.
    Take your hands off the wheel. Take your feet off the pedals.” All of a sudden, the drivers
    became software analysts. No longer drivers. They were software analysts
    monitoring the data. The trucks then started
    to platoon together, automated, into a mobile data, almost a train
    going down the highways, collecting data. So they’re providing the data,
    and then the analytics, so that you will have apps, so that you can find ways to increase your
    aggregate efficiency and be a player in the system. Smart! How do we finance this?
    How do we pay for this? CHAPTER FIVE:
    Financing the Transition We are laying out a plan in Europe
    called “Digital Europe,” “Smart Europe.” And working with the
    European Commission, we’re building this out
    over the next 10 years. But the big question is, “How do we pay
    for this infrastructure, region after region,
    across all of Europe to connect us in a digital world, where we can begin
    to enjoy the new opportunities?” So the question came up in Brussels
    and I said, “We’ve got all the money we need.” Problem’s not the money; it’s
    what we’re doing with the money. I’ll give you an example—
    in America is the same situation. In Europe, we spent 741 billion equivalent US dollars
    on infrastructure in 2012. One year alone. That’s just a bad
    recession year, typical. The problem is what we spent it on. We spent the money on an old
    2nd Industrial Revolution platform. Remember what I said
    to Chancellor Merkel? and we peaked in the productivity 20 years ago at 20% ceiling, and we can’t get
    anything more out of it. We’re stalled, which stalls the economy, stalls the smart startups, stalls the entrepreneurial expansion. So I said, if we simply
    reprioritize our investments, spend some of it patching up
    the old infrastructure —we don’t want it to collapse— but we prioritize, so part of those funds each year
    go to each region, so that they can begin
    to build out and scale up a 3rd Industrial Revolution
    infrastructure. With an
    Internet of Things platform, we will be there in 30 years. This year, we reprioritized
    our funding at the EU and, beginning in January
    of next year, regions across the EU
    will secure EU funding, leverage against private equity, and each region will
    customize and build out, like Wi-Fi, their plan
    and then connect up region to region to region. We call it “Digital Europe.” We have a similar plan called
    “China Internet Plus” across the regions of China. Where’s the US here? CHAPTER SIX: TWO GENERATIONS
    OF MASS EMPLOYMENT The coming together
    of this revolution will involve every industry: telecom, cable, ICT,
    consumer electronics, transport, logistics,
    construction, and real estate —all the retrofitting— all the industries are involved. And it means work. What I’m suggesting here is that we have one last surge
    of massive employment involving semi-skilled, unskilled
    professional and conceptual labor. We have to build out
    this smart infrastructure. Robots aren’t gonna do this. We have to take the entire energy
    complex of the United States. Think of all the infrastructure and all the technology,
    all those stranded assets. We have to convert all of that infrastructure
    from fossil fuel, nuclear to distributed renewable energy. We have to retrofit
    every building in the USA. That’s what
    we’re gonna do in Europe. Because you can’t install the renewable technologies
    until the buildings are efficient. That means huge jobs
    for energy service companies and for the construction
    and real estate industry. Robots won’t put in the insulation, and the new windows, and the doors. And then we have to install all
    the renewable energy technology. Human beings have to
    install that technology, and all the smart technologies
    that monitors the equipment, and puts in the
    digital advanced meters. We have to take the entire
    electricity grid of the USA, which is dumb, servo mechanical,
    embarrassing —it’s 60 years old;
    it barely functions. And we have to transform
    the entire electricity grid to smart, digital so that we can
    manage these three internets. This is gonna require
    professional talent and unskilled and skilled labor
    for two generations. We have to take the entire
    transportation grid of the USA and turn it from dumb to smart
    road, rail, water and air. Who’s going to install
    the thousands of charging stations in all the buildings? Fuel cell outlets?
    Smart sensors? This requires human beings. This means two generations of work
    and guess what? It’s financed by the payback
    of the energy savings. You don’t have to have huge
    government involvement here. You simply have to
    have the enablement, so energy service companies
    can be set up, and we transform every building
    in the USA to a node. These nodes then connect, and they are the big data centers. They are the micro power plants. They are the transport hubs
    with electric charging stations. The nodes connect like Wi-Fi
    and all those nodes, those buildings
    —homes, offices, factory— that’s your Internet of Things. That’s a huge job
    for the construction industry and you pay back
    by the energy savings. You can’t default on the loans. But the technology
    doesn’t do it alone. We have to change consciousness. I’m only guardedly hopeful. You know, I’m not naive;
    I’m guardedly hopeful. I think that what I’ve said
    is really a tough challenge. But I’m guardedly hopeful because human beings are the most
    social creature on this planet. When we get the story right,
    we move quickly. I’m always amazed
    when I fly and I see electricity grids
    across continents, and highways and urban centers. And I think, “My God!
    That was all done in 50, 60 years?” It’s amazing! When we get the story,
    we move quick. We’re a very social creature. They’re coming together,
    these three Internet’s —communication, energy
    and transport internets on top of
    an Internet of Things platform. It changes the way
    we think about life. CHAPTER SEVEN:
    A New Consciousness for a New Era Let me give you the best example. We’ve got millennial parents now
    that are sharing toys on these millennial websites, where you go up and
    you pay a subscription fee, one time and you’re in the system. Then you can get a toy
    —any kind of toy you want— by age category,
    and give it to your child. This is creating
    the real revolution. The parent traditionally
    brings home a toy. And they say to the daughter,
    “This is not Christmas.” “Santa Claus
    didn’t get you this toy.” “We bought this toy at a store
    and we’re giving this toy to you.” “This is your property.” “This is not your brother’s toy,
    and this is not your sister’s toy.” “This is your toy.” “You need to take responsibility
    for it and take care of it.” “What did mom and dad
    just say to me?” The first thing I caught is, “This isn’t
    my brother and sister’s toy.” That’s pretty relevant. Now, status, power, negotiability. “I’ll never let
    my siblings ever use this, unless they pay the price.” They’re learning possession
    of property and markets. There’s nothing wrong with that. But now, on these
    toy-sharing websites, parents are
    bringing home these toys —and pretty soon they’re gonna
    come in a driverless drone at near zero marginal cost. Now the parents are
    giving this toy and saying, “Another little child
    played with this toy, and she had a lot of fun with it and she really took good care of it ’cause she knew one day
    you’d want to play with the toy.” “And we hope you
    take good care of it ’cause one day another child
    will wanna play with the toy.” What the child is learning now
    is this toys not a possession, it’s not status, it’s not power,
    it’s not negotiable. It’s simply access to an experience
    for a moment of time, then another child gets to use it. They’re learning how to be
    part of a circular economy, where we distribute things
    in the sharing economy over and over and over. Nothing goes to the landfill. I like a system where you have
    both opportunities. There’s nothing wrong
    with being property. There’s nothing wrong
    with having possessions and some status, but it’s also
    nice to have another option where part of her life
    is being able to access an experience in time, and
    then share it with someone else. I don’t think capitalism
    is gonna disappear, but I think it’s gonna find value
    by creating a relationship, so that it finds value with the child that gave birth
    through the sharing economy. And, right here in this room,
    you are already in two economic systems
    day to day right here in Brooklyn. Part of the day,
    you’re in the market. You’re sellers, you’re buyers, you’re owners, you’re workers, you’re producing goods
    and services for each other for a profit in the marketplace, and you have property. But part of the day
    you’re in the sharing economy. You’re sharing virtual goods,
    entertainment, news, social blogs, Wikipedia. And now energy and car sharing. And, while it has
    capitalist parts to it, it’s also a sharing economy
    where you can reduce the cost. And, by 2050, we will have
    two mature systems: part of the day, capitalist market, with a profit margin producing
    and selling to each other; part of the day
    in the sharing economy beyond the market, freely producing goods and services
    for each other. That’s already started. That is not gonna go away. Your generation is moving
    from ownership to access, from markets to networks, from consumerism to sustainability, from market capital
    to social capital. Does this all sound familiar? It’s a revolution. None of this is being taught
    in the schools, by the way. That’s why this is
    really a revolution. And there are three things
    that I’ve noticed that give me some guarded hope. There’s a basic change going on
    with you people in this room. It’s strange to older people. There’s a change in the way
    you define freedom. The way you define power. And the way you define community. And these changes really
    suggest the real revolution. For my generation,
    and generations before me, freedom was very simple,
    since the Enlightenment. To be free,
    in Enlightenment perspective, is to be an autonomous agent. To be self-sufficient.
    To be independent. To be not beholden to others. To be an island to oneself, so that one can have freedom
    as exclusivity. For the millennial generation
    that grew up on the Internet, autonomy is death. Being an island to oneself
    is death. Because for your generation you ask the question, “How can I flourish
    to the full extent of my possibilities
    here on the planet?” And it’s clear
    that your answer to that is “I flourish to the extent
    that I’m embedded in network after network, after network; community after community,
    where I can share my talents. And those talents
    can benefit the network and come back to benefit myself. I’m free because I have access.” And, for you,
    freedom is not exclusivity. It’s not being an autonomous agent. It’s inclusivity. It’s access to others in networks. Do I have this right? This is very alien to our generation. We may have to change
    all the constitutions in the world. This is a completely
    different idea about freedom. You have a different sensibility
    about power, which makes the older generation
    very nervous. We essentially believe that power
    always has to be a pyramid. It goes from the top down.
    That is power. There’s no other way
    to define power. It’s a pyramid
    —from the one to the many. But young people
    that grew up on the Internet— It’s strange because you grew up
    thinking that power has to do with the networks
    you’re engaged in. For you, power is not vertical;
    it’s lateral. For you, power is being a mesh
    in network after network where you benefit each other. Open source. This is so strange
    to our older generation. We do not have
    this notion of power. It makes no sense to us, actually. But it makes total sense to you. And, finally,
    I think most importantly, we’re seeing a change in the way a younger generation perceives
    identity to community. I grew up in a post Westphalian
    world, the nation-state. We were very clear on community. That is, each individual is born
    to be an autonomous agent and we’re each sovereign. We are each a sovereign
    to ourselves. And each of us
    as a sovereign to ourselves— We compete with
    other sovereign individuals, in the marketplace, for scarce resources,
    in a zero-sum game. Our nations represent us
    because they are sovereigns. And they represent all the
    millions of individual citizens who are sovereigns
    against other nations. And each nation then competes
    with every other nation for scarce resources in the
    marketplace of the battlefield in a zero-sum game. That’s the post Westphalia
    nation-state world. Here’s my question: Does anyone here believe that we’re gonna be able to address climate change and
    bring the human family together and take our responsibility
    for our fellow creatures in the Earth we live in
    with that worldview? Anybody? What we’re beginning to see
    with Millennials —and I don’t wanna
    overstretch this— but I’m beginning to sense a shift from geopolitics
    to biosphere consciousness. Just beginning to see it. I hope it doesn’t go away.
    I don’t think it will. The biosphere is that 19 km
    from the stratosphere to the ocean, where all life
    and all the chemicals on the planet interact to maintain
    the ecosystems, the biology of the Earth. We’re getting 14-year olds
    coming home with biosphere consciousness. They’re becoming
    the biosphere police. We got young people coming home
    and saying to their father, “Why are you using so much water
    here while you’re shaving?” “Can’t we turn it off
    once in a while?” “We’re wasting the water.” They’re saying to their parents, “Why is the little red light
    on on the TV?” “We haven’t been in that room
    for three weeks!” Wasting electricity… They’re saying to their parents, “Why are there two cars
    in the driveway?” “Why can’t we at least
    car share one?” They’re saying to their parents, And this is the one
    I’m particularly fond of. It brings a smile to me. We actually have young people
    coming home and, at dinnertime,
    they’re asking their parents where the hamburger came from
    on the table. Yes, I’m sure some of you
    have this experience. They’re saying,
    “Did that hamburger come from a rain forest?” “Did they have to destroy the trees
    for four little inches of topsoil, which only gives you
    three years of grazing, so that that cow
    could become my hamburger?” And when those trees are destroyed
    for the topsoil to graze the cow for the hamburger, the kids are
    smart enough to understand —the high school kids— that those trees harbor rare
    species of plant and animal life that only live in those canopies.
    They go extinct. And then they connect the dots. If the trees disappear for the soil to graze the cow
    for the hamburger, those trees are not there to absorb
    CO₂ from industrial emissions. And that means the
    temperature the planet goes up. So then, a mother cannot feed
    her children if she’s on the farm, because she’s getting
    spring floods, summer droughts, and wildfires
    because of the hamburger. These kids are learning
    ecological footprint. Junior high school. And they’re coming home. They’re beginning to understand
    that everything each of us does, all day long,
    even when we’re sleeping, intimately affects
    some other human being, some other creature, and the planet we live in. This is so alien to the way
    your previous generations grew up. You’re beginning to
    connect the dots and say, “We live in an indivisible
    biosphere community; there’s no escape.” “This isn’t just academic:
    our well-being depends on the well-being of the whole
    system and all the creatures in it. We have young people
    who are beginning to extend their empathic concern
    to the rest of the human family, because you’re all skyping
    on global classrooms. Heck—a billion of you on Facebook. That’s the largest fictional family
    in history! And what’s promising to me
    is that part of this generation is also beginning to
    empathize with our fellow creatures. Not just the polar bears
    and the penguins on the poles, but all of our fellow creatures.
    And I gotta tell you, my wife and I are into animal rights
    and animal protection. Our fellow creatures
    have a right to be here. We do not have a right
    to end existence for them. This is their planet,
    as well as our planet. So I think we’re beginning to see
    a shift the notion of freedom. How we perceive power,
    our sense of community. We’re heading to a biosphere frame. This is all good. Let me be clear on why
    I’ve been doing this work. I’m terrified about climate change. I began working on energy issues—
    it was in 1973. And wrote a book, “Entropy
    on Climate Change,” in 1980. I thought we had more time. I did not anticipate
    the feedback loops. We couldn’t even see them
    until they came, and then each feedback
    decreased ten more on an exponential curve.
    And we just didn’t see it. We thought linear. Now we’re really scared. I’m gonna tell you,
    we are really really scared. ‘Cause now we’re in a runaway
    exponential curve on the water cycles.
    We didn’t see it. The fortunate thing is,
    we now have a new infrastructure paradigm
    —a 3rd Industrial Revolution. That can allow us
    to move off carbon quickly, in three decades. We have the technology
    that allows us to do this, because zero marginal cost
    is the ultimate metric for reducing ecological footprint. If people equipped
    with a little technology are constantly finding
    new analytics and apps to increase
    their aggregate efficiency at whatever value chain they’re in, it means we’re using
    less of the Earth and getting more out of it. In other words, more
    of the energy and materials gets into the product,
    less is lost. Then, if what we do produce
    is shared —share the cars, share the homes
    share the toys— we’re distributing a
    circular economy over and over. Nothing needs to go
    to the landfill. Every resource is
    always there for us. If we move to the energy internet,
    there’s no reason why everyone on this planet
    shouldn’t be producing their own green electricity,
    right where they are at very low cost
    in 25 years from now, on this exponential curve, and sharing across
    continental energy Internets. And if we go to a car sharing,
    driverless transport grid, we can eliminate
    80% of those vehicles that have taken
    a big hunk of the Earth to put online. This is a plan
    and what we’ve done— a lot of businesses are working
    with us around the world on this— and we say to people,
    “If you have another plan, step forward and tell us
    what it might be to address climate change
    and move the economy.” And I always get silence. ‘Cause the only other plan
    is to stay where we are and that’s taking us
    to an economic crisis and an environmental abyss. But here’s what I’d like to do: I’m gonna turn it over to you. Let’s think about your sensibilities and find out if we can
    come to some common ground on how we can begin to move this
    from this little room out to all the larger communities
    and networks are in. Is that a deal? Who wants to start? Hello, my name is Lena. And my question will be related to
    technological unemployment. What is your take on that? We are moving to
    an automated world. There’s no doubt about it. However, as I said during the talk, we’ve got two generations of
    massive employment, that’s clear,
    to lay out this infrastructure. That’s gonna require
    millions and millions of jobs. We know this on the ground
    as we’re laying this out in Europe right now. It’s a huge amount of jobs. Robots can’t do it.
    AI can’t do it. This is infrastructure shift. However, as this smart digital
    economy and society moves in, it can be run by very small
    supervisory workforces with analytics, big data,
    algorithms and apps —that’s why we call it
    “smart world,” “smart society,” “smart economy.” Then, what do we do
    once we have the smart society in and it’s automated,
    running by analytics? We’re not gonna pay people
    just to do nothing. We already know
    where the employment is going. And that is, as we continue to automate
    the market economy, employment is shifting to
    the nonprofit social economy and the sharing economy
    —we already know that. The nonprofit sector
    is the fastest growing employment sector right now
    in the world. It’s about 9.5, 10% of the
    American employment— paid employments and nonprofit. Why is it heading there? Because, in the social economy,
    the nonprofit economy, and large sections
    of the sharing economy, social capital is as important
    as market capital. And, in this realm —the nonprofit realm,
    the social economy, the sharing economy— it requires human beings
    engaged with other human beings. Machines aren’t only supplemental. We will never have a robot raising a child and interacting
    with them in a childcare center to develop their brain.
    It’s never gonna happen. They may bring the lunch to the kid
    —the robot— but it’s gonna require human beings
    working with those children. And whether it’s
    in parts of healthcare and the knowledge industries,
    in cultural areas, humans with humans. The only other question is, how does this sector
    survive financially? Johns Hopkins University does a study of nonprofits
    in 40 countries every few years. And guess what they found: Over half the income for nonprofits which are one of the
    biggest employers now, comes with fees for services. If you’re doing health research,
    you set up a health clinic. You get fees for services and then you can continue
    to do your nonprofit research. If we get any
    of this transition right, we automate the market, we move to social capital where we can use our minds
    much more expansively, so we can learn to live
    as a human family and steward each other
    steward our fellow creatures, steward the Earth. That’s a much more noble mission. I believe that in order to
    create a better tomorrow, we also need to look at
    rehabilitating our psychology. Yeah, I’m in agreement with you. You know, and I have to say,
    our academic disciplines —I’m gonna step on more toes. The academic disciplines in
    our school systems are so moribund. It’s dysfunctional. We have an internet generation
    that lives one way of life in terms of their mind
    outside the classroom, and another inside the classroom. In the classroom, for example,
    when we think about education, the first thing we realize is the classroom looks a little bit
    like a factory. These big, giant institutions. And the kid comes in there
    in 1st grade —a little boy or girl— and they immediately realize there’s a central authority
    of the teacher, they have to be silent, if they share knowledge
    with each other it’s called cheating,
    and they’re expelled. And they learn that
    their mission is to be efficient, but only in the sense of being
    able to have the skills they need to follow orders and
    tend the machinery of the Industrial Revolution. Yet, an internet generation
    out of school— You’re all sharing knowledge. The whole point of the Internet is
    to share your talents and skills, open-source,
    no intellectual property and begin to crowdsource the
    knowledge of the world together. That is so different than
    what you’re getting in school. So let me say one thing about this. You know what we’re doing
    in northern industrial France? All 7 universities
    have come together and 200 high schools, and the universities are led by
    Catholic University of Lille. Here’s what they’ve done: all faculty now teach
    interdisciplinary so that you learn various perspectives and there’s more than one way
    to look at things and you have to
    share a common language. No silence. Secondly, all the students now
    are put into modules, in teams,
    and they work with their teams and the students have to
    teach each other. The teacher becomes
    a facilitator and a guide, but the students have to
    teach each other. If they share knowledge,
    it’s good—it’s not cheating. Then they learn that
    knowledge is not power and something one possesses
    at the expense of the other. Knowledge is the shared experience
    you have as a social being. And the learning now is clinical. What’s the good of learning if theory isn’t
    brought together with practice? So their learning is clinical. They’ve taken service-learning,
    which you all did here, and they’ve elevated to pedagogy. So whatever you’re learning, you have to apply it
    with your fellow citizens in the neighborhoods
    where these universities are. How do you like that? Catholic University of Lille. That’s the revolution. I believe in the Darwinian theory of humanity being
    more Darwinian than utopian. What would you do about
    basically corruption and fraud? Let me be very clear:
    I am an anti-utopian. If you read my books,
    I don’t believe in utopias. I don’t like utopias.
    I think utopia is are dangerous. Our human spirit,
    the empathic spirit, is designed to show compassion
    to our frailties —our precarious existence. An empathic world is
    never a utopian world. Utopias are
    worlds that are perfect. There’s no mortality, there’s no pain,
    there’s no suffering, and every moment is perfect. There’s no such world. I looked through history
    and it says that the most civilized societies are the ones that can
    move empathy to larger reigns. And there’s a history of that,
    of empathy. So I like an empathic world where we understand
    each other’s frailties, we show compassion with
    each other’s desires to flourish, we reach out to each other
    —and we do this every day. And when someone that we know
    is in joy, or pain, or suffering— We do this with our fellow
    creatures that are in trouble. It’s the empathy that runs
    day to day life, not utopias. And I think George Frederick Hegel
    got it right. He wrote a little passage
    that I read 40 years ago. He said, “Happiness are
    the blank pages of history, because they are
    the periods of harmony.” I thought, “What does that mean?” Over and over
    I kept thinking of it. Well, he’s right because,
    when you read historians and you read their view of history, you think we’re pretty
    pathological creatures. because historians always chronicle the mayhem,
    the genocides, the wars, the redress of
    social grievances because those moments
    are extraordinary, not ordinary. They imprint a stamp on us,
    they move us to fright and flight because they’re so extraordinary
    their remembered for generations. But when you then chronicle
    all of history as if it’s a series of these very very
    dysfunctional episodes in life, you get a pretty dire picture
    of the human race, correct? Happiness of the
    blank periods in history, where most of us, as we evolve our empathic concerns
    to larger social units, our day-to-day life is
    reaching out to each other in some ways to help,
    to show our concern, to provide our compassion. It’s not the few
    —we do this as the multitudes. I’ll give you an example:
    Cooperatives. You never hear about
    cooperatives in business school. There are banking cooperatives,
    and housing cooperatives, and agricultural cooperatives
    instruction cooperatives. In some countries
    they’re the largest banks. They’re the social housing. It’s never mentioned
    in business school, because it’s a different form. It’s people coming together
    and sharing their destiny. This is the true sharing economy:
    Cooperatives. And that’s why
    they’re the engine, the vehicle for the new sharing economy. But they’re never mentioned. Societies that are able to nurture
    the empathic sensitivities that are in our neural circuitry are the ones that don’t have
    to worry as much about the secondary drives, which are brutality, and corruption, and all
    the bad things that go with them. So I have a little bit
    better picture in my mind of the evolution
    of the human race. What I’m suggesting is
    the next stage is biosphere consciousness. As we begin to see climate change
    impacting our entire community, and there’s nowhere to escape, we begin to realize
    we’re part of that community. And so we’re getting
    our younger generations beginning to empathize with our fellow human beings
    and our fellow creatures in one biosphere. This is a hopeful narrative
    of the human race, with all the
    dark periods in between. So I hope you leave
    with that message— At least I believe that
    the history the human race is to overcome,
    and to transcend ourselves, and to empathize
    in larger social units until we see ourselves as part
    of one life force on the planet. I’m Tony. I think you might be
    coming up against something with these new corporate agreements
    that they want to force on us: TPP, TTIPS and so on. But they do seem to contain
    provisions that would put corporations that are
    at an advantage over governments —over elected governments. Well, let me give you
    a counter pose: There’s another kind of
    agreement emerging with very different politics. President Xi and Premier Li
    introduced an idea called “Belt One…” “Belt One Road”
    —the Belt and Road initiative. This is a very different initiative
    because here’s the US trying to isolate
    —if you will—China with its specific agreements;
    corporate led. And the belt road initiative
    is the idea of resurrecting the old Silk Road,
    from Shanghai to Rotterdam. But it requires a
    different sensibility. Originally it was designed
    just to get a railroad across the hinterlands, crossing
    the stands all the way into Europe and The Mediterranean, a route around the southern edge,
    and Italy. But then it quickly
    escalated to a conversation— Wait a minute!
    Europe’s doing “Digital Europe,” the Internet of Things platform, 3rd Industrial Revolution,
    and that— It not only will be in the EU,
    but our partnership regions in the Mediterranean. That’s a billion people market: 500 million in the Union, 500 million in
    our partnership regions in the Mediterranean
    and North Africa. China has a similar plan that
    we’ve worked with with them. It’s identical, called
    “China Internet Plus.” So the conversation quickly
    went to, “Wait a minute! Europe is China’s
    largest trading partner. China is Europe’s
    second largest trading partner. How about a belt road initiative
    from Shanghai to Rotterdam? That’s now in deep conversation, but it requires
    a different sensibility. No one can control the Internet of Things platforms
    centrally, because it’s designed
    to be distributed— that’s the resiliency
    of the system. And so that, if anyone power or any nation
    across the region, you know, is going to
    try to control it from the top, you can’t do it
    because you can go off-grid. And I think all
    the parties are aware of this. And in my dealings
    in Beijing, in Brussels, in Berlin, they’re aware that
    this is a new partnership. It requires collaboration.
    You gotta share. You gotta share best practices. You gotta share
    the science and technology. You gotta get over the suspicion— Everyone benefits in a network. That’s the—it’s not geopolitics. It isn’t, “We control. We close.
    And then we overpower you.” It doesn’t work in
    an Internet of Things world. You have to have it borderless.
    It has to be open. It has to allow you
    to have a distributed ability to go off and on
    when you want, and have block chains. So, I think this belt Road initiative
    is quite interesting because it may not just be for Eurasia. This may be a vision that would be,
    for a millennial generation, a vision that could move
    from the Americas, from Canada and the United States
    down to Chile— then you have really a distributed biosphere infrastructure revolution, not a traditional
    geopolitical revolution. And, therefore, it requires
    everyone to be involved, because everyone’s a player. My name is Denille.
    How do you see your vision and what you’ve been talking about
    affecting large food systems in industrialized countries,
    as well as developing countries? You know how much energy
    the agricultural system uses? About a third of their cost
    —our energy costs. The fertilizers;
    those are fossil fuels. The pesticides;
    those are fossil fuels. The machinery;
    it’s all run by fossil fuels. The packaging, the plastics;
    it’s made out of fossil fuels. The water that they
    have to bring in to irrigate, the electricity grids; run by
    fossil fuel and nuclear power to move the water. So, if you wanna
    take a look at agriculture, it is a huge player.
    Not only that: The fertilizers
    emit nitrous oxides, which are much more potent
    in terms of their impact than CO₂. You know that 40%—I believe it is— of the land that’s used
    for agriculture in the world today is to grow feed for animals? It takes at least 8 pounds of feed
    to create 1 pound of beef. That makes the transport industry
    look like super efficient. It’s the most inefficient system
    we know on the food chain. If you look at pure injustice, you’d have to say the shift
    to a feed grain animal culture and a chemical farming culture
    for pasturing animals is one of the great injustices
    in the history of the world. Some of us live high up
    on the food chain; the rest are denied
    access to the land. We got to turn that around so, in Europe, we are interested
    in organic agriculture. We’re interested in moving from
    pesticides and chemical agriculture to ecological agriculture, where we learn to live with
    the surrounding flora and fauna, and we find ways to encourage
    the flora and fauna to be able to be compatible
    with what we’re growing. In the old chemical world,
    if it moves, kill it. Everything surrounding your crops
    should be killed. So we live in a chemical wasteland
    across the agricultural fields with runoff poisoning our water. It sounds shameful. So we wanna move
    to organic agriculture. We had mechanical agriculture
    in the 1st Industrial Revolution. It started late
    1st Industrial Revolution. We had chemical agriculture
    in the 2nd Industrial Revolution. We need to have smart, organic,
    ecological agriculture in the 3rd Industrial Revolution, and we have to bring back
    regional and local agriculture that supports local communities. It’s absurd to ship
    a tomato around the world. Ridiculous! Hi, I’m Rochelle. I was wondering if you could talk
    a little bit about water. And how water plays into this
    decentralized vision. How the privatization of water
    plays out. I was just hoping
    you could speak to that. There’s only a small amount
    of water on this planet that’s available for human reuse. Less than 1%;
    the rest is not available. There is a deep nexus between
    energy and water that’s never, just never explained. You have to have energy
    to move water. And that is that 8% of all the
    energy we generate in the world —power—
    goes to extracting water, treating water, moving it
    through pipelines in water, and recycling the waste. But you need water
    to move energy. This isn’t well known. And, that is,
    the energy industry uses— Over half of all the water we use
    goes to the power industries. Of all industries, over half. And this will surprise you: In France,
    which is 80% nuclear power, you know how much
    of the water they use for cooling off nuclear reactors
    in France? Almost 50% of all the
    fresh water consumed in France goes to cooling
    the nuclear reactors. Yeah, and when the
    water comes back, it’s heated. So it’s dehydrating ecosystems
    that are already facing drought for their agriculture. And now, sometimes
    the water is so hot because of climate change
    in the summer, they can’t even use it
    to cool the nuclear reactors and they have to
    slow down the electricity. So what’s the nexus? We have to begin to create
    a new plan, so that people get control
    over their water in a distributed system that
    brings water together with energy. I’ll give you an example of why: If the electricity grid is disrupted
    —let’s say one of the transformers, big electricity transformers,
    either through cyber crimes, cyber terrorism,
    or natural disaster goes down and your power goes down—
    there’s no water. We’re dead in three weeks.
    That’s how vulnerable system is. That’s why we have
    to build in resilience by keeping it so distributed. So what do we do? I’m in Hauts-de-France
    a couple of weeks ago. This little startup— They’ve taken a whole
    social housing complex, huge housing complex. They took the whole roof
    and turned it into a cistern. Why did they do that? Because the water falls,
    and as it falls, it generates electricity
    in a turbine. So they’re using for electricity,
    but now we’re saying, “Use it as a cistern.” So if the power grid goes out
    and you can’t get water, you’re dead in a couple of weeks. You have the water right built-in
    to your home office and factory, on the roofs or nearby,
    you can share it in a cooperative. And then that water can be used,
    potable for fresh water. And then we’re now talking
    with companies about… With housing,
    that you can take the water, use it for your toilet water, and you will be able to recycle it
    right back on site. So you can go distributed
    and decentralized when the real power grid goes out. They key to maintaining this system
    is it’s distributed. If anything happens
    in one part of the system, you can go off. Well distributed and decentralized,
    and share your water, share your energy. So water and energy go together,
    and you’ve just hit —and I’m glad you said this— something that has really come to
    the top of the agenda for us now: How do we create a
    distributed water internet to go side-by-side
    with the energy internet? Very cool thinking. My name is Elizabeth and
    I just have a question for underdeveloped countries. How do they play a part in this
    whole 3rd Industrial Revolution? Can they sort of skip the gun, because they don’t have
    an established infrastructure? Yeah, you just answered
    the question I was about to answer. Very good!
    Well here’s what we realize, just what you said. What we finally realized is
    in the developing world, their liability is their key asset. Their liability is:
    they have no infrastructure. That’s their asset. Because, it’s easy to build
    virgin infrastructure, with new codes and regulations
    from scratch, than to take an old infrastructure with old codes and regulations
    and transform it. So what we’re learning
    in the developing world is this can move more quickly. We saw the opportunity
    that the developing world can leapfrog right past the 1st and 2nd
    Industrial Revolution into the 3rd. So the United Nations
    has now embraced the 3rd Industrial Revolution narrative that we’ve just
    talked about tonight. The biggest problem
    in the developing world: No electricity. Ban Ki-moon has made this
    his pledge: Universal electricity. We got a billion people
    that have no electricity. They’re in the dark. We have 40% of the human race
    with infrequent, not reliable electricity. And what keeps women
    enslaved in this world? It’s no electricity. And what we see
    with these big families, in these patriarchal,
    brutal conditions, and male-oriented cultures?
    No electricity. Why? Because, with no electricity,
    women are the slaves, the children of the slaves,
    more children, more hands on deck that can actually
    carry the energy load. We forget the relationship
    between electricity and freeing women in the West. Women were the slaves
    at the hearth until electricity came in. Electricity freed women
    from that slavery, if you will, to go to school
    beyond the first 5 grades, and then electricity
    created new skills that didn’t require
    upper-body strength, but up here. Electricity revolution created
    all sorts of new skills. And, when that happened, as women became more educated
    and more independent, and had the new skills
    of the 2nd Industrial Revolution? Fewer babies. You can give out
    millions of condoms; it’ll make no difference, until you bring electricity
    into the developing world, free the women,
    and you have them get educated, and have them be recognized
    as half the human race. And what’s interesting
    is the women are setting up these micro grids—a lot of it. So, you see it in rural Africa,
    they go into a village —it’s happening in India, too—
    and small startups. They come in, they lease
    a solar panel on each roof. They give you a lease, and
    then they give you a cell phone. This is happening all across rural
    India and now sub-Sahara Africa. But instead of a big centralized grid
    then you go village, to village, to village and you create micro grids
    that are laterally scaled. This is going to take off
    very, very quickly—it already is. This is the smart social entrepreneurs
    of the next generation. This is why I’m really pleased
    to see this happen. It brings confidence
    that we can do better. I’m Ray, and I’ve been thinking
    during your whole talk about how do we overcome monopoly? We have to worry about
    a new kind of monopoly. Now, I’m gonna be honest with you:
    I love Google! It is the magic box! I’m now so lazy that
    anything that comes up, especially in my age,
    I ask the magic box. It is a great research engine.
    However, when everybody needs Google,
    and it’s the only research engine, and it’s our window
    to the research we need, it starts to look like
    a global monopoly, and it starts to look like
    a public utility. What did we do
    with successful businesses that had a product line
    that was so important that everybody needed it,
    and it was a public good. What did we do in
    the 2nd Industrial Revolution with the telephone industry? We, in America—
    In other parts of the world, the government
    took over a lot of it— but in America we kept them
    in the private sphere, like AT&T, but we regulated them as utilities. And we did this across
    the electricity utilities, the many of the power utilities.
    We regulated them. I think it’s naive to believe
    that we won’t do this. The Millennials and your children—
    This is the new political movement. You’re gonna be asking the question: How do we get the best
    out of these new enterprises, but they have to be regulated
    as public goods, in the realm, so that we all we all ensure
    that we get equal access, that we have some control
    over our creative content and data, may be through block chains, and that we’re able
    to secure our privacy, etc. Facebook? Same thing. When the whole human family
    has to come together on Facebook to communicate with each other,
    it’s a great service, but it looks like a public good,
    it’s a utility. And we’re gonna have to have
    some kind of global authorities to regulate them.
    Does this make sense? This is the politics of your generation. This is the politics of the new
    3rd Industrial Revolution. Hi, I’m Carlin. In the words
    of your Wharton alumni, how do we make America great again? Let me say something
    to take us from another corner. President Obama
    wanted a green economy. He spent billions and billions
    of dollars of our tax money for a green economy,
    and we don’t have a green economy. Why did this happen? Because the mentality
    here in this country is all we need to do is
    use tax money to incentivize, ’cause we want a million Steve Jobs. So, what happened
    with President Obama is he would incentivize, give
    some money to a solar factory here, a battery factory over there…
    Incentivize. But you can’t start with that. You have to start with incentivizing
    the infrastructure itself, which requires everybody
    coming together. Now, he made
    a very famous statement during his second
    presidential campaign, which got to the heart of it. You may recall that
    he was speaking of small businesses and he made an offhanded comment
    saying, “You didn’t build that.” Remember this comment?
    It went viral: “You didn’t build that.” And they went they went nuts. He was referring to infrastructure, and he was trying to say
    the infrastructure comes first. Then you can create
    your new businesses with it. The problem is, they went viral
    because the small business said, “No, we create America!
    It’s the entrepreneurial spirit!” We’ve actually so
    dummy down our country that we actually have no idea how businesses feed off
    the infrastructure that come from public-private partnerships: government, industry,
    and civil society. Who do they think
    created the public school systems, so that we could train
    the workforces? Private businesses didn’t do that. Who laid out the interstate highways
    with tax money? You think private businesses will
    lay out an interstate highway system with no lights from coast-to-coast? Who under wrote all the pipelines
    that had to bring in the electricity, the gas and
    the telephone industry? On and on and on…
    In fact, let’s look at Steve Jobs! The fact is that most of the research
    that went into his smartphone was government-funded research;
    he marketed the product! But we’ve so dummy down that half the country or more
    doesn’t want the government to do anything—
    They don’t even want the government. This is the failure of the USA. We do not have a
    social market economy. Europe does;
    other parts of the world do. But, in America,
    we have this whole idea that it’s just
    the entrepreneurial spirit. Let the companies rule,
    let the marketplace reign. This is our death now. Because, if we can’t work together
    in each county, in each state with business, civil society,
    and academia, to lay out this platform and create the regulations codes
    and standards, then the new businesses come,
    then the new models plug in. So what I’m saying is,
    look to the infrastructure. And your millennial generation, it’s up to you now to bring this
    sense of a social market economy back into the dialogue. We need government,
    we need business, we need the civil society, we need public capital,
    we need private capital, and we need social capital. All three equal players
    at the table. So, here’s
    what I will say in closing: I know you get frustrated
    and sometimes you think, “My Gosh, it’s going too slow!” But now’s the time
    to redouble your efforts. We all have to
    really come together. We’ve got one generation
    —yours— to lay down this new consciousness,
    this biosphere for consciousness. Your responsibility to carry this on is the weight that
    no generations had in history. I don’t know of
    any period in history where one generation was
    called upon to save the species. And, if you believe
    this is really happening, and it is, this is actually the responsibility
    of the Millennials in this room. We now have, I think,
    potentially a road map and a compass. It’s gonna be up to
    the younger generations now. This is the digital revolution. You are the digital revolution.
    It’s your turn. It seems to me,
    if the millennial generation is ready to create this
    new digitally connected world, it helps us create peace between
    economy and society and the balance for the planet.
    It should be now. And what you have to do is
    you have to join together in the virtual world,
    in the physical world, on the ground, in the communities, both in the infrastructure
    and the politics, and the social engagement. You got to make this happen. I’ll give you one little mission: How long is it gonna take
    for a millennial generation to prepare a bill of particulars
    for a declaration of human responsibilities
    and stewardship of our human race, our fellow creatures
    in the planet we live in? And then you have
    a billion young people in a cohort in Facebook,
    and they’re all declaring this, then you’re at the table. You’re at the table,
    virtually and physically, and then a billion people strong, you should be able to do this
    in a very short period of time. This doesn’t take
    a lot of organizing. Then you’re at the table,
    with the new potential monopolies. You’re at the table
    with the governments who would purloined
    this for their own ends. You’re at the table
    with the special interests —they want to drag us back
    to the 2nd Industrial Revolution. Come to the table.
    Make it happen. Pass on this legacy, so when your grandchildren
    look back at you they can say you did the right thing: You helped replenish the planet, got us off carbon, helped show our proper respect
    to generations not yet here, including our fellow creatures. Thank you. Good night. Join us. —Hi.
    —Hi, I’m Kelsey. I study Design and Technology.
    What I wanted to say is that— —You’re at Parsons?
    —No, SVA. But, like,
    the real problem is that, a lot of people
    who have this passion and who, like,
    really do care about this stuff— We’re getting purchased out, and… —Yeah.
    —So, the real thing is, like, everyone doesn’t have
    the same enemies. Like, the people who really care, like, they’re going
    to be purchased, and they’re going to end up
    working for someone, somewhere, and they’re gonna feel like
    they have to compromise. Yeah, I understand…
    Well, it’s a delicate game every day. You know, as you get older
    you have to think about what is— Life goes really quickly. And, if one doesn’t have
    the commitment at 25, you’re not gonna have it at 50. And, this time,
    we need a generation that can stay close to the mission
    all the way through their life, and pass it on to the kids. And I understand how
    difficult this is. Believe me. Hi! Thanks for coming. Thank you so much for this
    —very enlightening. —My pleasure.
    —Is there any recommendations on how to get more involved
    at a local level? Brooklyn’s ideal.
    Brooklyn should be the place. Absolutely! This is where
    a lot of the startups are. I 100% agree with you. I interviewed like 30 people
    for the documentary I worked on, including Global Dryden,
    and they all are optimistic long-term. I’m only guardedly hopeful
    that demographics is on our side. It’s called “the Millennials.” Millennial generation
    is more sustainable, more ecological oriented,
    but I think it’s an uphill battle. As Thomas Paine said, “Every generation must recreate
    the world anew.” The digital generation;
    you’re there. Do it! You don’t need to look back
    at those who are our history. Look to the future of
    what you want for your children. —Hi! How are you?
    —I just wanna shake your hand. Thanks for coming. So, zero marginal cost is possible
    if the data centers are for free. —Yeah.
    —We need it! Well, you have, you know—
    it’s Wikipedia. They do nonprofit,
    they get contributions, it’s tough, but they make it
    because enough people believe in it. Or you look at Blah Blah Car Etsy. They’ve done it with
    a little bit commissions. Look at Patagonia—
    they’ve become a benefit company. And they say—
    There are eight or nine states that passed legislation now saying, “Look, if you’re a benefit company, profits don’t have to be
    a first motive; therefore you won’t risk
    hostile takeovers. So there’s a lot of stuff moving,
    but it’s difficult. So are you—
    I encourage you to do that. Take some risk.
    Don’t sell out. That’s what I’m saying.

    White Earth – New Day Films – Children, Youth, & Families, Environment & Sustainability
    Articles, Blog

    White Earth – New Day Films – Children, Youth, & Families, Environment & Sustainability

    August 23, 2019


    [wind rushing] -I moved here in the summer. [chuckles] Whenever it came
    to be wintertime, I was like, wow, this is awesome. And then I was like,
    wow, this is horrible. [dramatic music] My dad is building a
    pad for the oil fields. All I know is he sits in
    a bumpy bulldozer all day. -I’ve lived in North
    Dakota all my life. Lately, there’s been a lot of
    new people coming and coming, and it just doesn’t stop. -My dad works in an oil company. Right now, we’re sleeping
    in a little room together, and it’s really crowded. -Burn the methane into the air. They say it’s so efficient. [makes goofy noises,
    then giggles] [train crossing warning bells,
    music grows tense] [train horn blasts,
    wheels scrape tracks]

    Articles

    World’s Most Dangerous Roads – Congo

    August 22, 2019


    Every day somewhere in the world normal people risk their lives. Just getting from point A to point B in far-off countries and isolated forgotten villages our camera crews follow the journeys of those brave enough to travel on the world’s toughest most dangerous and deadliest roads Buckle up for a hell ride. This is deadliest journeys Kameena is a ghost station in the south of Congo There has been no train service for five months and now it’s running again the train left Lubin Bashi the nation’s second-largest city five days ago and No one knows when it will arrive in Congo it has to be said that’s the way things work or not in this country the train runs when it can This particular train that everyone is waiting for has a surprising name the Huron Dell or the swallow in English Word of its arrival spreads like wildfire and it’s the so-called Bush Telegraph that has helped pass on the rumor It’s the cheapest train in Congo and stops at every station Much like an omnibus and so it attracts huge crowds of passengers Half of them are street vendors and At every stop even in the remotest villages the station becomes an instant market But there’s not much time for selling the trains already packed You need to be quick to get a seat Clemmie has been riding this train for 20 years and knows the drill well Come see Barry Cadden a Vedic only the self emphasizes the decision deduction a polyp or principle new sant rampal a koti Sette see reality. Let’s monks a pie Yantra Yada, Kali Yoshida Clea Bo Alan Turia on a from a discrete period the father Schanke before the bazaar than the poo The decisive alone is it so they set for Sonic as I said a big? People crammed into whatever space they can find Nearly two thousand people all together three times the officially permitted capacity For those who weren’t able to find a place or who can’t afford a ticket There’s always the roof Separability gonna vomit revoir italia : brawny w In the very heart of the continent the Democratic Republic of Congo is the largest nation in Africa the hero and L crosses half the country from lubumbashi the capital of can tag a tool a bow and Is the only link between the country’s most remote villages? 1600 kilometers across one of Africa’s last wild frontiers But in the Congo any travel involves problems Looks like my job on the Roads may be in a terrible state and the trains bursting at the seams, but nothing seems to dampen the spirits of these Congolese They’ve learned to make do whatever the circumstances sometimes even at the risk of their lives by train Bicycle or on foot the Congolese have little choice The here on Dell has been around for 50 years The old engine was bought secondhand in South Africa A relay of 10 train drivers is needed to cover the 1600 kilometer long journey 63 year old mr. Milan go As one of the hardest parts of the trip 120 trouble ridden kilometers Set Sankar Olivia Dallas NSA Plan F a tremendous area already officer cutter Lafayette The service unto eternity Mr. Molango is the master on board and Supplements is income by allowing ten or so passengers to travel in the driver’s cabin It’s as close to first-class as it gets on the train Back in second class the challenge is to avoid stepping on someone as you try to move about the carriage With something Clement can’t get used to Lapa deposit on passenger seat. She said PT Usha top of a Symetra true No, siree commemorate the personal Sanka system cote de l’autre coté s tank uses a lot of x this will gue stress on the second Party, ma their condition. This is on deplorable Everyone has his or her baggage half a dozen each at least Yaba Edison Tompa metallically say pork on a mealy crew alone on a say the expose le kala patthar Paulo On elephants on Thruway Hello panelists all deeply say pastor chef Sookie play Allah knows about the silver Markieff attended This is the occasional miracle no Cunha my cinema my cinema I’m a sissy complicate co2 Keeaumoku devaraja beaucoup de Cali SEPA nibla from a promising The Train seems full of booby traps Seba to elicit a sulphur a Casas a deferment SAP a fatal mistake Appellate a shot cancer suave argon laser a facility tombe a super-fast malarkey Last year these snares maimed several passengers And those in third class risk their lives up here on the roof As the trains movement could knock them off Is an Abundance of select a Nuuanu iconography so moku Array is a mob a race a baby San Juan del Sur Wakaba. Circus. WOM Rita. Lococo above the man and Armani Botticelli but one go way back to God without a weaver. Oh Come on, I got a guy man Therefore what about the Ramayana atomism? Babbitt? Raggedy Sokka? The day before this young man fell from the roof By some miracle. He escaped unscathed with just a cut on his cheek His fellow-travellers up here on 3rd class have to remain alert lack of attention could be fatal The danger comes not just from above but also from the sides even At a moderate speed of 30 kilometers an hour a tree branch can cut like a machete Boadicea dollars, there’s another We skip this report Other forms of transport exist, but are hardly in any better condition Fuck you This track which runs alongside the railway is national route 1 a major road through Congo running from laboum Bashi to Kinshasa the capital It’s a vital root for the economy 2300 kilometers of impassable tracks and the rainy season Willie drives for an NGO And he’s on his way to pick up aid workers in kameena on the only road in town It hasn’t been repaired for over two decades and every year it gets worse Tanana barabara monona atop Azadi Moto, Gary. Yay. I cannot ratio as a comma Okinawa so, I cannot a Tissot minge Jia. Mushy Moo with a racy Willy is used to it, but overloaded small trucks like this one are a common sight. He dreads being stuck behind them You need to stop It is the solidarity among the drivers that drives in the poor roads of the jungle because when you help them you might also get stuck ahead whether because you are out of fuel or you have a flat tire, you help them out, it is the duty of the drivers in this journey On the railway tracks the Huron Dell is halfway to labo When mr. Milan go has to break suddenly a Man and his family are on the tracks by waving a red scarf He’s been able to stop the train at this tiny village in the middle of the brush He says there’s good reason for doing so While the woman climbs on board the other villagers make the most of the situation But Mr. Molango doesn’t want to take everyone and decides to start up again It’s often like this hard work for little pay the equivalent of barely $100 a month Mr. Molango is not just poorly paid. He is in fact rarely paid Don’t all shelter at the one Responsibly wallet cfirkus all Jekyll Caparo 80 months of pay almost seven years of work seven years of back pay that mr. Melago will never receive To survive. He depends on tips from the passengers and with his wife he cultivates a small plot of land Right now though, his main concern is the state of the tracks He has to reduce speed to less than 10 kilometers an hour at this point. The rails are not really aligned anymore Mr. Solis advantage and it’s like that for several miles The ballast Attacks are – yeah Accidents are frequent Alongside the track are the remains of a train that didn’t slow down It derailed and killed 76 people Never gonna tear The junk us support position le marché on this issue livable The tacos deserve operate tissue champagne today Yes, let’s see He said it’s one constellated enough for the final party to born suffered suffered On board the Heron Dell the danger has now passed the Rails are straight again, but just when everything seems to be more or less normal Mr. Milonga has to deal with another problem. He can feel that the train is losing speed Eventually it comes to a complete stop The fact that it does so in the middle of a village is no coincidence Mr. Molango believes it was sabotage and he suspects it’s the vendors who are responsible in Congo They’re known as traffickers Google inaudible contrecoup Transat jefra knife Kristina party Lori for Cal camp or complete The circle elevate the response today, which was a baby Those who stopped the Train know what they’re doing and they also know that the repair is quite simple Other breakdowns are more complicated and Trains are usually repaired in a station By young gay is in charge of maintenance, but he has only a few spare parts for repairs One is a parody majira for educational reasons Consultative news of all definitely, right The other parts have to come from South Africa and Can take up to three months to arrive during which time the train doesn’t run The Huron Dells for stop is a boon to many The local salesmen have no other means of making any money In these remote villages people survived on the equivalent of $1 a day It’s the passengers though who reap the biggest profit They survive off the small trade the Train provides and every time it stops they have the chance to do some business Victor’s been riding the Huron Dell for ten years on this trip He’s selling soldering irons the next time he’ll sell something else either way the Train provides him with a living And to confirm a to total abilities in my lads Ebisu palapa Kotinagulu Palpable. Mysamma chair NAB super pay traffic emotionless robot and trend Asuka motion Ebisu Nozzoli’s a banna banna banna Hakata. Katana move mom yet rabisu Finally 20 minutes later The train has been fixed Victor’s happy at the business. He’s been able to conduct having managed to sell his entire stock of soldering irons He’s keen to get back in the compartment where his wife Gabriella is waiting Since they were married she has never left his side In this isolated village victor believes the Traveling Salesman provide a vital social link To very sellable Oh noona trafficker no freaking Once again the Train begins to slow down Another train is heading in their direction Oh, yeah It’s a delicate maneuver because the train in front will have to use the abandoned track The wheels might slide on the grass and derail the Train A mechanic is spreading sand on the rails to help it along The danger is over both trains resume their journeys The oncoming train is transporting cargo and has no passengers apart from a few clandestine travellers – here on Dell – continues along its way There’s just another 900 kilometers to get to labo the final destination By traveling day and night and allowing for stops and repairs It should arrive by the morning of the eighth day You

    Who was D.B. Cooper? Top 5 Suspects
    Articles, Blog

    Who was D.B. Cooper? Top 5 Suspects

    August 22, 2019


    From one of history’s most daring heists
    to several potential suspects, join us today as we ask the question: Who was DB Cooper? The identity of DB Cooper remains one of the
    most captivating mysteries in US law enforcement. His hijacking of a Boeing 727, in the early
    1970s, is the only case of unsolved air piracy in the history of commercial aviation. The outline of DB Cooper’s heist is well-known. Shortly after the plane took off, he handed
    a note to the flight attendant. Cooper told her that he had a bomb in his
    briefcase, which he opened enough to reveal wiring, a battery and eight red cylinders. He asked for $200,000, four parachutes and
    a refuelling. Once the plane landed and his demands were
    met, the 36 passengers were released. None of them had been hurt and the plane’s
    delay had been explained to them as a mechanical problem. As per Cooper’s orders and instructions
    the plane took off again with only him and four crew members on it. At one point, Cooper told the crew members
    to remain in the cockpit. He then took the money, opened an airstair
    and parachuted out of the plane in mid-air. Despite an FBI manhunt and an extensive investigation,
    his identity was never confirmed. Many believe Cooper didn’t survive the jump,
    but his remains were never found. 15 copycat hijackings were subsequently attempted
    in 1972, but they were all unsuccessful. Number 5 Walter R. Reca
    There is considerable circumstantial evidence linking Michigan-native Walter R. Reca to
    the DB Cooper case. He was a military veteran and a member of
    the Michigan Parachute Team. In 2008, he confessed that he was DB Cooper
    to his friend and fellow expert parachuter, Carl Laurin, in a recorded conversation. Reca allowed him to tape their phone conversations
    about the hijacking, which produced new details about what had happened. Laurin also got permission from Reca to share
    his story, which he did, after his death in 2014. Laurin concluded that Reca had landed near
    Cle Elum, Washington. He met a man who’d given Reca a ride on
    the night he’d supposedly parachuted out of the airplane. The man, a Cle Elum native, recognized Reca
    from a photo Laurin sent him. Laurin took all the information he had to
    Principal Media, who hired consultants to make sure it hadn’t been tampered with. The media outlet released a documentary, which
    tracks the investigation, in July 2018. Before we move on, answer this question. What’s the only piece of evidence conclusively
    linked to DB Cooper to have been found outside the aircraft?
    a. a portion of the ransom money
    b. his suit c. bomb components
    d. his fountain pen Let us know what you think in the comments
    section below and stay tuned to find out the right answer. Number 4 Richard Floyd McCoy Jr
    Richard McCoy Junior authored the best-known DB Cooper copycat hijacking. In April 1972, he used a paperweight that
    looked like a hand grenade and an empty handgun to take control of a United Airlines flight
    from Denver to San Francisco. He asked for $500,000 in cash and four parachutes. Once the airplane was back in the sky, he
    jumped out over Provo, Utah. He was subsequently caught and given a 45-year
    sentence. Then, in 1974, McCoy Jr and several others
    broke out of Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary by crashing a garbage truck through the main
    gate. Three months later he was found and killed
    in a shootout with the FBI. When the rumors started flowing, he neither
    confirmed nor denied being DB Cooper. There were a number of people who believed
    so, including the FBI agent who killed him. Upon shooting McCoy Jr, he said “I shot
    DB Cooper at the same time”. On November 24, 1971, a man who’d only identified
    himself as “Dan Copper” took control of the Boeing 727-100 in the airspace between
    Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington. The alias DB Cooper, which eventually stuck,
    was actually the result of a news miscommunication. Cooper was described as being in his mid-forties,
    of medium height and build. Composite sketches of his face are, so far,
    the only source of identification. He wore loafers, a black raincoat, a neatly
    pressed dark suit and a collared shirt with a clip-on tie. DNA was recovered from his tie but it’s
    still uncertain if the samples do indeed belong to Cooper. Before revealing he had a bomb, he sat at
    the rear of the passenger cabin, lit a cigarette and ordered a bourbon and soda. Throughout the heist, those who interacted
    with Cooper described him as calm and composed. One flight attendant described him as polite
    and well-spoken while another said he “seemed rather nice” and added that he was “never
    cruel or nasty”. After refuelling at Seattle-Tacoma Airport,
    Cooper gave his flight plan to the crew. It was a southeast course towards Mexico City
    at minimum airspeed and an altitude of 10,000 feet. His landing zone was initially believed to
    have been at the southernmost point of Mount St. Helens, near an artificial lake, but further
    analysis placed it in the drainage area of the Washougal River. Number 3 William J. Smith
    William J. Smith was a World War II Navy veteran who would’ve been 43 at the time of the
    hijacking. Research gathered by an US Army data analyst
    point to him being DB Cooper. After the war was over, Smith worked for a
    railroad company, which, in 1970, suffered crippling bankruptcy. It’s believed that Smith developed a grudge
    against the transportation industry and corporate establishment and thus plotted the hijacking. He’d gone to high-school with a Daniel Cooper,
    who was killed in WW II, and potentially served as an inspiration for his alias. He had the necessary training to jump out
    of the airplane as well as the knowledge to find railroad tracks and escape by hopping
    on a train. His resemblance to the sketches was described
    as “remarkable”. When approached by media outlets, the FBI
    refused to comment on Smith. Number 2 Kenneth Christiansen
    Kenneth Christiansen was proposed as a suspect by his brother, Lyle. The man did so after watching a DB Cooper
    documentary in 2003. While dying of cancer in 1994, Kenneth reportedly
    said to his brother there was something he should know but that he couldn’t tell him. After his death, his family found gold coins,
    a valuable stamp collection and over $200,000 in his bank account. However, it was later found that he’d sold
    off some land, which may have accounted for the large sum of money. Kenneth’s age matched the timeline but he
    was shorter and thinner than the Cooper descriptions. Nevertheless, there are a number of similarities
    to take into account. He was left-handed, a smoker, had a fondness
    for bourbon and had trained as a paratrooper in the army. One of the flight attendants also said that,
    from the descriptions she’d been shown, Kenneth resembled Cooper the best. He was hired to work as a mechanic for Northwest
    Orient Airlines, the company that operated the DB Cooper flight, in the 1950s. He had a folder full of Northwest Orient news
    clippings that started from about the time he was hired and oddly enough stopped right
    before the hijacking. He continued to work part-time for the company
    after 1971, but never added another clipping. So, what physical evidence found outside the
    aircraft has been decisively linked with DB Cooper? The right answer was a, a portion of the ransom
    money. In 1980, 8-year-old Brian Ingram found several
    packets of twenty-dollar bills, on a beachfront of the Columbia River, about 9 miles downstream
    from Vancouver, Washington. FBI technicians confirmed that they were part
    of the DB Cooper ransom money but no other bills have turned up since. Number 1 Robert Rackstraw
    Robert Rackstraw is another worthwhile DB Cooper candidate and a man that definitely
    had a taste for mischief. He was arrested in Iran, in 1978, on explosive
    possession and check fraud charges. While out on bail, he tried to fake his own
    death by recording a false mayday claiming he’d jumped out of an aircraft over Monterey
    Bay. Rackstraw had also served on an army helicopter
    crew during the Vietnam War and bore an uncanny resemblance to the DB Cooper sketches. However, he was eliminated as a suspect in
    1979, for lack of concrete evidence. Fresh reports emerged in 2016, in a new investigation
    which had allegedly obtained documents under the Freedom of Information Act. This included a coded letter from the 1971
    case that was partially deciphered and matched to three units Rackstraw had been a part of
    in the Army. When Rackstraw was approached by amateur investigators
    he said “I told everybody I was (the hijacker)”. However, he added that the admission had been
    a stunt. His death in July 2019 and the lack of a deathbed
    confession most likely means the mystery carries on. Thanks for watching! Suppose DB Cooper was still alive today and
    you had a chance to meet him, what would you ask him? Let us know in the comments section below!

    West Virginia:  The Road to Statehood – New
    Articles, Blog

    West Virginia: The Road to Statehood – New

    August 20, 2019


    Announcer: A production
    of WV Public Broadcasting. Support for West Virginia: The
    Road to Statehood is provided by Narrator: It began at home. In 1861, irreconcilable
    differences, over slavery, states’ rights and
    southern interests, drove the United States of
    America into what would be a long and bloody Civil War. As tensions flared, Albert
    Gallatin Jenkins resigned from the U.S. Congress. He returned home to
    Cabell County, Virginia, where as many as 80 slaves
    labored at his family’s 4,000-acre plantation. Jenkins then led his two older
    brothers to form a cavalry unit of 100 men loyal to the
    Confederate States of America. Karen Nance: He was very
    charismatic and a very good speaker and probably could
    convince a lot of people of a lot of things without
    a whole lot of effort, because he was that talented. Narrator: Riding northward,
    Jenkins and his Border Rangers rounded up citizens
    disloyal to Virginia. He would wreak havoc
    in the Old Dominion, one of the nation’s
    most conflicted states. Mark Snell: We know for
    a fact that about 20,000 Union soldiers came
    from West Virginia. And we know for a
    fact that about 20,000 Confederates came from what we now know as West Virginia. Earlier estimates said there
    was anywhere from 6-8,000, but recent scholarship has updated that number to about 20,000. So, if you look at it that way, it is got to be the most
    divided state in the nation. Narrator: Just as Virginia
    differed from states north and south of its borders,
    in its culture, economy, history and geography, there
    was much to divide the Commonwealth’s own people, east and west of the Allegheny Mountains. As a state scarred by generations of sectional strife, the Commonwealth of Virginia would painfully give birth to the state of West Virginia,
    a child of rebellion. Francis Pierpont grew up on a farm, in what is now Marion County, worked his way through college and became a lawyer.
    In the spring of 1861, he was sitting in his study at his Fairmont home. While Albert Gallatin Jenkins
    was defending the Confederacy, Pierpont was carefully
    examining the U.S. Constitution, trying to think of a way the western counties of Virginia could remain
    loyal to the Union. That’s when his wife Julia,
    an ardent abolitionist, suddenly heard her
    husband shout “Eureka! I have it! I have it!” What he had would change
    the face of Virginia. It would also change the lives
    of Julia and Francis Pierpont. Travis Henline: It’s not
    somethin’ that he wanted. He was not a politically
    ambitious person. He was a person put in a set of circumstances to which he reacted. Narrator: Like many others
    in northwestern Virginia, Pierpont ascribed to the
    Unionist philosophy that the United States offered, “the
    best government in the world, formed by our fathers and
    cemented with their blood”. At dawn, he left his study
    with a carefully worked-out plan, which would unavoidably
    place him at the center of a drama that would unfold during
    the next two years and result in the creation
    of the 35th state. ♪ (music ♪ Jack Dickinson: West
    Virginia’s road to statehood was definitely filled
    with potholes and bumps. It was not a smooth trip. And more than anything else,
    it caused a lot of emotional response all over the area,
    the area being Old Virginia and the new counties that
    formed West Virginia. Joe Geiger: Well, it is one of
    the most fascinating stories that there is, the
    creation of West Virginia. It takes a lot of twist and
    turns and I firmly believe that without the Civil War that West Virginia would not exist today. Narrator: One of the principle
    issues leading nation into the Civil War, in
    1861, was slavery. While slaveholding was
    practiced throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia, the
    nature of slavery in the west differed from
    that of the east. In 1860, nearly 4,000 white
    slaveholders, in the region, held title to between
    18 and 19,000 blacks. They were often put to work as farmers, craftsman and domestic servants. Many worked on large
    plantations in what is now the eastern panhandle
    of West Virginia. Unlike the 450,000 slaves,
    east of the Alleghenies, western slaves were not considered as vital to the region’s economy. Because whites and their
    slaves frequently worked together, Western blacks
    sometimes enjoyed a more amicable relationship
    with their owners. As a result, slaves were
    sometimes rewarded, for their performance and loyalty, with a measure of autonomy. Cicero Fain: It shows that black people were able to exploit their opportunities, but it also shows just how encapsulating slavery was, that I can still entrust you to go off on your own, because I know that you’ll be coming back! Narrator: Regardless
    of their situation, Western Virginia slaves
    were legal property. They could be bought, sold,
    leased and insured to protect owners’ investments. This was true in
    the Kanawha Valley, where significant numbers
    of slaves mined coal and supported the salt works.1860
    proved a crucial turning point, regarding slavery, with the most conflicted Presidential election in the Nation’s relatively brief history. Southern leaders were
    convinced the likely election of the Republican Party’s Abraham Lincoln, would no doubt, lead to unacceptable changethat would spark civil war. Geiger: Essentially, the way
    we had been able to avert civil war, up and
    to this point, is that we had
    arranged compromises. This state will come
    in as a free state. This state will come
    in as a slave state. And that was very important. Now you have a party that said, “We are not going to have any more slave states brought into the Union.” And the South recognized that
    this would be the political death knell for slavery that, eventually, they could legislate it out of existence and I think this was the great fear. Narrator: On Election
    Day, November 6, 1860, most of the western Virginia
    men going to the polls intended to keep
    the status quo. They split their votes evenly between Constitutional Union candidate John Bell and Southern Democrat John Breckinridge. Bell remained neutral
    regarding slavery, while determined to
    keep the Union intact. Breckinridge also wanted
    to preserve the Union, but recognized states’
    rights to secede. Each received
    about 22,000 votes, in what is now West Virginia. John Williams: They had
    different positions about the nature of government, and
    particularly the central government, but neither of
    the parties they voted for, Bell and Breckenridge, would
    interfere with slavery. Narrator: Stephen Douglas
    believed in allowing the people of a territory to
    decide whether to permit slavery in their communities. The Northern Democrat
    claimed 5,000 votes. Ultimately, Republican Abraham
    Lincoln won the presidency, but claimed less than 2,000
    votes, in all of Virginia, mostly in the
    northern panhandle. In response to Lincoln’s election, South Carolina became the first of 11 southern states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. Virginia, however, was slow
    to sever ties to the Union, largely because of its
    historic location and prominent role in American history. The state that had done so much to found the country was reluctant to leave it. But then, on April 12, 1861,
    Confederate forces bombarded Fort Sumter in Charleston,
    South Carolina. The Civil War had begun. 3 days later, President Lincoln called for 75,000 Union troops, including men from Virginia, to quell the rebellion. Throughout Virginia,
    passions flared. To grant the President’s request would mean going to war against
    a sister state. On April 17th,
    under these conditions, Virginia conventioneers, in Richmond, passed an Ordinance of Secession,
    88 to 55. However, the Ordinance could
    not become official until ratified by Virginia
    voters 6 weeks later. From what is now
    West Virginia, 9 delegates
    supported secession, while 29 voted to
    remain with the Union. Henline: There were delegates
    from northwestern Virginia, like John Jay Jackson,
    like John Carlile, and Waitman Willey, who voted
    against secession from the Union and because
    of those sentiments, they were pretty
    much run out of town. Some of them had to
    leave rather quickly. Narrator: After seeing a crowd
    outside his boardinghouse, brandishing a rope and
    threatening to hang him, Carlile headed home
    to Harrison County. There, he met with nearly
    1,200 Union loyalists, issuing the so-called Clarksburg Resolutions from the courthouse. Carlile called for
    northwestern representatives to convene, 3 weeks later,
    for a convention in Wheeling, in the northern panhandle
    county of Ohio. There, they would plot a future political course for the region, in the event Virginia voters ratified the Ordinance of Secession. 4 days later, April 26th,
    former Virginia Governor Joseph Johnston chaired a
    secessionist convention, at the very same
    courthouse in Clarksburg. Johnston called upon “the
    Southern Rights Men of Harrison County” to defend
    “those who know their rights and dare to maintain them”.
    The next day, Colonel Thomas J. Jackson,
    a Clarksburg native, received orders from Virginia Governor John Letcher. Jackson was to take command at
    Harper’s Ferry and organize what would become the
    renowned Stonewall Brigade. Then on May 13, 1861, western
    Virginians gathered for what became known as the First
    Wheeling Convention. More than 400 people packed
    into Wheeling’s Washington Hall. Many claimed to represent
    24 counties in northwestern Virginia. With no precedent
    to show the way, they acted largely on what
    they perceived their fellow western Virginians were thinking. Bob Bastress: They were not elected in representative fashion. Many of them were not elected in democratic fashion. Many of the counties included
    within the potential definition of the new state
    weren’t represented at all. Narrator: After addressing the issue of representation, delegates focused on
    the likely split of Virginia from the Union. Williams: Well, their goal
    was to figure out what to do. They knew they didn’t want to go along with secession, but what did that mean? Geiger: All the fireworks
    really start on the second day, on May 14th, when John
    Carlile stands up and calls for the creation of a new state, to be called New Virginia. Narrator: Presenting a flag reading “New Virginia, Now or Never”, Carlile invoked
    the memory of American Revolutionary Patrick Henry. Actor: “It is useless to cry
    peace when there is no peace; and I for one will repeat what
    was said by one of Virginia’s noblest sons and greatest statesmen, ‘Give me liberty or
    give me death!'” Geiger: The crowd, and you had a large crowd in attendance, stands up and calls for 3 cheers for New Virginia and 3 cheers
    for John Carlile. And you can tell what the
    sentiment of the people, who are in attendance,
    was at that time. Narrator: Carlile saw the
    mountains as an historic divider and a sufficient
    reason for a new state. Bastress: The Allegheny Mountains are such a formidable barrier that we don’t have anything to do with those folks. We’re different culturally,
    geographically, economically and politically
    and it makes sense. Narrator: Over the years,
    tension regarding taxation, representation, education,
    transportation and other internal improvements had
    driven a wedge between Virginians, east and
    west of the Alleghenies. And while changes to the
    Virginia Constitution, in 1851, addressed
    most grievances, many northwesterners still
    felt disenfranchised. Geiger: Relations between
    eastern and western Virginia in that, 10 years
    preceding the Civil War, were better than
    they had ever been. The Civil war comes and ruins
    that decade of reconciliation and it ruins those better
    relations between East and West. Narrator: While Francis
    Pierpont had joined John Carlile and others, urging
    western Virginians to remain loyal to the Union, the
    Fairmont attorney considered Carlyle’s early call for
    a new state premature. Henline: Pierpont urged caution. He was a conservative, when it came to the new statehood movement. He wanted to wait and see how
    things were going to transpire with the referendum, whereas folks like Carlile wanted immediate statehood. Narrator: While Waitman T. Willey would eventually
    support separation, the Monongalia County attorney
    considered Carlyle’s statehood proposal “altogether unwise”. Dickinson: He coined a new
    term called “triple treason”. He said, “This is a conflict
    against the State of Virginia, against the United States and against the Confederacy, all 3.” Geiger: What they end up doing
    is pass resolutions that call for the delegates to go back
    to their homes and to urge people to Vote against the
    Ordinance of Secession. However, if it does pass,
    then they will gather back in Wheeling. They’ll hold another
    convention, again, to determine what their
    next step will be. Narrator: Meanwhile, across
    the Ohio River from western Virginia, Union General George
    McClellan readied troops, should Virginia
    vote to secede. Returning from a
    fact-finding mission, Lieutenant Orlando Poe
    reported to McClellan “The western Virginians from the
    Kentucky line to Parkersburg are rotten, but loyal
    above the latter point.” On May 23, 1861, amid claims
    that western Virginia ballots were lost on their
    way to Richmond, the Ordinance to secede officially won Voters’ approval. An estimated 35,000 western
    Virginians voted against the measure to secede, while
    approximately 19,000 voted it. Geiger: Possibly half of the
    counties voted in favor of this Ordinance of Secession. It’s just that the other half of the counties had
    a lot more population. Narrator: 3 days after
    the secession vote, McClellan led federal troops
    into western Virginia, with soldiers landing in
    Parkersburg and Wheeling. Meanwhile, Governor Letcher
    ordered officers loyal to Virginia to recruit
    Confederate soldiers in Taylor County, an important
    transportation hub. At the same time, Francis
    Pierpont received a letter from his wife, Julia, in
    Fairmont, urging him, Carlile and fellow
    conventioneer John Burdett, of Taylor County,
    to stay in Wheeling. Actor: “Dear Frank, I hoped
    you would bring Sammie a hat, but now I think you had
    better stay where you are. I don’t want you to come home. There is a reward offered for Carlisle, Burdette, & yourself, of $500 for your heads,
    even in Wheeling. See to it you do
    not expose yourself. They say there are 900 men, secession soldiers, in Grafton. The Union men here are
    becoming very anxious.” – Julia Pierpont Narrator: On June 3, 1861, within 2 weeks of the election, nearly 4,000 Union soldiers under Colonel Benjamin F. Kelley easily defeated a Confederate force of 775 men, under Colonel George A. Porterfield. Commonly known as “the Philippi Races”, the battle in and around Philippi, southeast of Wheeling, in Barbour County, is considered the first land
    action of the Civil War. Such victories, while small in
    scope and with few casualties, helped secure northwestern
    Virginia for the Union. Snell: Most of your loyalists
    were in the northwest part, up in the northern panhandle,
    where Wheeling is today. And in order to preserve
    that part for the Union, it was important for Union troops to come in and secure victories there. Henline: There was
    definitely tension, apprehension and
    anxiety in Wheeling, even though we’re here in the
    comfy confines of this strip of land between Ohio
    and Pennsylvania. Geiger: They are committing treason against the state of Virginia! And if it weren’t for those
    military troops creating that buffer zone for these
    statehood makers, they might have been hanging from lampposts throughout Wheeling. Narrator: Emotions
    raged, for instance, when a supporter of the
    Confederacy’s president disrupted an address
    by John Carlile. Henline: A gentleman rides by
    on a horse and he yells out his support for
    Jefferson Davis. Now some folks in the
    crowd chase him down. They take him off his horse
    and they bring him back to the Custom House and a chant begins to stir in the crowd of “Hang him, hang him”
    and were it not for the intervention of the local sheriff this guy may have been strung up there on the spot. Narrator: On June 11th,
    delegates gathered for the Second Wheeling Convention,
    which moved to the U.S. District courtroom in the
    more spacious Custom House. Attorney Arthur Boreman, of Wood County, presided over 88 newly vetted delegates, representing 32 counties. Boreman declared, “We come
    here to carry out and execute, and it may be, to institute
    a government for ourselves”. The remark set the stage for
    Francis Pierpont’s plan to reorganize the
    government of Virginia. Taking the floor, John
    Carlile introduced the plan, a step-by-step, legal
    approach to dismemberment, a plan that could win the
    support of Washington. Geiger: According to the U.S. Constitution, in order for a new state to be created from an existing state, the existing state has to give its permission. Do we hop in a stagecoach and
    take a road trip to Richmond, through the Confederate lines
    and try to get John Letcher to sign off on this thing? No! Narrator: Instead, the body
    unveiled, on June 14th, the Declaration of the Rights
    of the People of Virginia, considered West Virginia’s
    Declaration of Independence. Henline: And in
    that declaration, the delegates call for
    a reorganization of the government of the
    Commonwealth, which of course, gives us the
    restored government. Among other things,
    they declare that those officeholders in Virginia, who
    have joined the Confederacy, have vacated their positions. And these gentlemen have seen
    fit to restore that government and fill those positions. So, that’s a very important
    document that came as part of that Second Wheeling
    Convention, in June 1861. Bastress: You could argue
    whether this fictionalized government could actually
    consent or whether the consent was a fiction in itself. The government was never voted on by the voters, even of the western counties; let alone the entire state of Virginia. Its only authority was what
    this rump group decided to give it in Wheeling. Narrator: Nevertheless,
    for the next 2 years, this group would act autonomously, without the consent of the Commonwealth government in Richmond. On June 19th, the Wheeling
    Conventioneers favored unanimously to establish what
    is known as the Restored, or Reorganized,
    Government of Virginia. Its legislative body included
    men chosen in Virginia’s recent election, who
    remained loyal to the Union. On June 20th, conventioneers
    unanimously elected Francis Pierpont to serve as governor. For all intents and purposes, Virginians were now subject to one of 2 governments, depending on which Army controlled a given area. One government,
    the Old Dominion, had aligned itself
    with the Confederacy. The other, the Restored
    Government of Virginia, remained loyal to the Union. Divided loyalties among
    friends and families, fueled the bloody, vicious
    guerilla warfare immediately confronting Governor
    Francis Pierpont. Snell: We’re talkin’, not just
    pullin’ people out of bed at nighttime and shootin’ them
    in the back of the head; we’re talkin’ about hackin’ people to bits with their swords, cuttin’ off heads, terrorizing in the middle of the night. It was horrible. Narrator: Pierpont himself was
    forced to periodically send his wife and children
    out of harm’s way, amid threats of
    kidnapping and worse. President Lincoln pledged
    “full protection” in western Virginia, upon receiving an appeal from Governor Pierpont. In it, he wrote, “The policy
    of the rebels is to exert their greatest force before frost, and it must be met by a corresponding vigor, and crushed out – Francis Pierpont. Henline: Folks look at that as Lincoln’s implicit recognition of the restored Government of Virginia as the legitimate
    government of Virginia. And indeed, Lincoln
    does provide that aid. Narrator: Pierpont also
    requested a strong military leader to put a stop to
    attacks by Confederate Colonel Albert Gallatin Jenkins
    and his Border Rangers. On his 31st birthday, Jenkins
    attacked a Union recruitment post in the Cabell County
    community of Guyandotte with a force of more than 700 cavalrymen. 98 recruits and civilians were captured in the name of Old Virginia. Nance: Her tactic in
    this area, early on, was to disrupt
    federal activities, tear up the railroad, raid
    these little recruitment camps that are tryin’ to recruit
    soldiers into the federal army. Narrator: Jenkins received
    a message in which the commanding officer of Wayne
    County’s Unionist home guards requested the return
    of seized property. Jenkins replied that he loathed such seizures. However…. Actor: “We have been compelled to pursue a different course at times as the only means of securing us against the aggressions upon private rights and private property, which has marked the conduct of many of your military commanders.” – Albert Gallatin Jenkins Narrator: Brigadier General
    William Rosecrans now commanded Union forces
    in western Virginia. The arrival of federal troops
    and establishment of a training camp and military
    prison transformed Wheeling into a military town. A dozen soldiers stood
    guard at the Custom House, where Federal District Judge
    John Jay Jackson, Junior, and Governor Pierpont each
    dealt with treason, murder, espionage and
    prisoners of war. Among the POWs were
    so-called “she rebels”, teenage girls, who slashed telegraph lines and passed weapons and Confederate messages. Henline: Daily, this man has
    stack of things on his desk to deal with about raising
    troops, supplying troops, about rebel movements
    in Western Virginia. He has to keep abreast
    of all these things. I don’t know how the man
    slept, I really don’t. Narrator: Meanwhile, Governor
    Pierpont’s wife, Julia, did her part for
    the war effort. Connie Rice: As far as welcoming soldiers into West Virginia, as far as trying to make shirts and food packages for soldiers, she was very patriotic and out there on the trenches working. Narrator: Julia Pierpont
    faced the realities of life, death and war,
    confronting women, throughout western Virginia,
    regardless of their loyalties. Rice: She’s one of those women, who experienced all the aspects of war.
    Her husband was gone. She had to do things herself. She couldn’t see him very much, because it was dangerous
    for him to come back. And then she had
    a child in 1860 and during the war in 1864,
    that child died. Narrator: Meanwhile, delegates
    gathered for the Second Wheeling Convention,
    on August 6, 1861, to debate the establishment
    of a new state. Calling for immediate action,
    John Carlile declared, “Cut the knot now.
    Apply the knife.” After 2 weeks of wrangling, delegates voted for dismemberment from Virginia. The new state would be called Kanawha and consist
    of 39 counties. Among these were several
    southern counties, considered economically advantageous for the new state. Williams: They wanted a larger
    amount of southern West Virginia territory than
    the Union then held, but the Union did hold,
    at least formally, most of the territory included in the dismemberment ordinance. Narrator: 7 counties
    were to be added, subject to voters’ approval. Henline: Our eastern panhandle counties, the reason we have that thumb that sticks out toward Washington, DC, was to protect the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad during the Civil War. The B&O Railroad was the main artery east to west and folks realized, very early, if they could not control and protect the B&O Railroad,
    they were gonna have a hard time of it in the war. Narrator: With the
    additional counties, the proposed state would
    extend well into Confederate territory, beyond the
    safety of what John Carlile originally envisioned. Geiger: If we had stuck to
    that outline of New Virginia as he proposed it, I don’t
    think there’d be anybody questioning West
    Virginia statehood, because he stuck to just those
    very northwestern counties that were most Union supporting of any in this area. Narrator: In late October,
    only a third of eligible, white male voters,
    representing the counties forming the proposed state of
    Kanawha, went to the polls, where they cast
    their voice votes. Williams: This was the
    Virginia tradition. It was considered unmanly
    to keep your Vote secret. Geiger: You walked into a room. You’d have election officials there, overseeing the election. They probably would have some piece of paper to do all the accounting and you would go up and you would verbally state your preference in front of soldiers in the midst
    of a civil war. Snell: The referendum vote
    was a fraud. It wasn’t truly a fair vote. If it would have been, it would have been a lot closer. It would’ve been
    right down the middle. Narrator: Officially,
    more than 18,000 voted in favor
    of the new state, while less than 800
    opposed the ordinance. This was due, in part, to the
    fact that many against the measure were away fighting
    for the Confederacy. Then, on November 26th,
    61 western Virginians, who remained loyal to the Union, gathered in Wheeling to draft a constitution for the new state of Kanawha. Despite the fact voters had
    approved the name Kanawha, delegates spent several days
    debating the state’s name. They ultimately settled
    on “West Virginia”. They addressed education,
    taxation and the court system, issues that had divided eastern and western Virginians. Delegates also debated
    whether to add as many as 32 counties
    to the original 39. After 10 days of debate,
    delegates voted to include 44 counties and let 6 others
    decide their own fate. Debate over
    slavery was heated. According to the 1860 census, more than 18,000 blacks remained in
    bondage in western Virginia. Along the bottomlands
    of the Ohio River, all but Jackson
    and Wirt Counties, boasted significant
    numbers of slaves. Slaves accounted for more than
    5% of the population of 10 counties and
    10% in 6 counties. In each of 27 counties there
    were more than 100 slaves. Many slaves remained with their families and communities. Some fought to defend the
    property of their masters against raiders
    and bushwhackers. Many other slaves managed
    to escape to freedom. Fain: What we see during the
    Civil War Era is massive out-migration. Kanawha County, Jefferson County, Greenbrier County: All these
    counties that had possessed more than 10% African-American population. They lose 22%, 18%. Narrator: At the same
    time, many slaveholders, loyal to the Union,
    as in Cabell County, were reconsidering the
    role of slavery in society. Nance: A lot of people here
    did believe in the Union and strongly believed
    in the Union. We would think,
    by the fact they actually emancipated slaves, that maybe that they were you know they weren’t abolitionists but maybe they had decided that slavery was not the right thing to do. Narrator: Many attending the
    constitutional convention, including Waitman T. Willey,
    had owned slaves. Delegates to the constitutional convention, considered the potential impact of West Virginia becoming a free state. They faced the same concerns
    that confronted the framers of the U.S. Constitution. Fain: Are we going to adhere
    to property rights or are we going to adhere to human
    rights and free the slaves, involve them in
    the body politic? And then the question
    is property rights. If we do free the slaves, isn’t our obligation to pay the owners? Geiger: What we end up
    with, in our constitutional convention, rather than
    a clause about gradual emancipation, is a clause that
    essentially says that no more African Americans,
    whether free or slave, will be permitted
    into West Virginia! Narrator: Finally,
    on February 18, 1862, delegates unanimously agreed
    upon the new constitution. 6 weeks later, the electorate
    ratified the measure. Nearly 19,000 reportedly
    approved the constitution with 500 opposing it. In May, a bill to admit
    West Virginia to the Union, based on the new
    state constitution, went before the U.S. Senate. There, Senators John Carlile and Waitman T. Willey represented the Restored Government of Virginia, as well as the Unionist Party. It soon became obvious that
    the Republican-controlled Senate would not pass a West
    Virginia statehood bill without language guaranteeing emancipation. As a result, Willey offered an amendment to assure gradual emancipation. Bastress: The original,
    proposed constitution included the provision, which just
    would’ve barred slaves and free blacks from
    coming into the state, so they had to substitute the
    Willey Amendment for that provision and they
    had to vote on that. Narrator: The Willey amendment
    would free any person born of slaves after July 4, 1863. Bastress: And if you were
    under the age of 10, at that time, you became free
    upon reaching 21 and if you were between 10 and 21, you
    became free when you reached 25. Geiger: And this will be enough to get the support of the U.S. Senate and it will pass the U.S. Senate by a vote of 23-17. Narrator: As for John Carlile,
    the man who raised the flag that read “New Virginia, Now or Never, ” he cut short his political career, when he unexpectedly opposed admission of West Virginia into the Union. He did so after the Senate insisted on language to emancipate slaves. Carlile argued that the
    federal government had no authority to dictate the terms
    of a new state constitution, once it was approved
    by the electorate. 5 months later, the U.S. House of Representatives, following contentious debate, approved the statehood bill, 96 to 55. 5 days later, it arrived at the White House. In a letter Governor Pierpont lobbied for presidential approval. Actor: “President Lincoln: I
    am in great hope you will sign the bill to make West
    Virginia a new State. The loyal troops from Virginia have their hearts set on it; the loyal people in the bounds of the new State have their hearts set on it; and if the bill fails God only know the result.” Geiger: Abraham Lincoln was not pleased to have the statehood bill on his desk. I think he was greatly distressed in fact. Narrator: While the president
    supported the Restored Government of Virginia, he
    feared conflicts over the constitutionality of
    a West Virginia. He also feared the combined
    political fallout that it and his pending Emancipation
    Proclamation might bring. Edward Bates, Lincoln’s highly
    respected attorney general, earnestly argued against
    West Virginia statehood. Dickinson: There’s no question whether the President or Congress can admit a state already established to the Union.
    That’s not the question. But what it has to be is that
    state already has to exist. The Congress has no
    ability to create a state, which is what
    you’re trying to do. You’re trying to create the state and admit it to the Union and that’s not how it works and this is not constitutional. Narrator: President Lincoln
    ultimately took the position that Union loyalists behind
    the Restored Government of Virginia represented
    the Commonwealth. They therefore held
    the right to birth the new state of West Virginia. On New Year’s Eve, 1862,
    Lincoln met with representatives of
    the Restored Government. Among them was U.S. Congressman Jacob Blair, of Wood County. He assured the President that
    the Willey Amendment would be incorporated into the West
    Virginia constitution. This would ensure an eventual
    end to slavery in the new state. Blair left the White House
    with the president’s assurance that he’d have a gift for the
    Congressman the next day. Geiger: Well, apparently,
    Jacob Blair goes to the White House before
    the doors are opened. So, he goes in through a window. Can you imagine doing that today, goin’ into the White House through a window? And then, Lincoln comes down
    to meet him and shows him the statehood bill
    with it signed. Narrator: The President said
    special wartime circumstances motivated him to
    sign the bill, an act that would never
    occur in peacetime. Geiger: Let’s remember the
    war could end at anytime. What happens to these people
    from western Virginia if the war ends tomorrow, Virginia
    comes back into the Union, how do you think they’re gonna
    be viewed by the soon to be true government of Virginia? Narrator: Brigadier General and former Virginia Governor Henry A. Wise found the actions of the men behind the statehood movement contemptible. Dickinson: He said, “This new
    state is the bastard child offspring of a
    political rape”. And that’s how he and several
    other people felt about this. Narrator: In the January 8,
    1863 edition of the Richmond Daily Dispatch, an
    editorialist declared that western Virginia was
    well worth the fighting. Dickinson: He says, “Virginia is to be in the future as Virginia was in the past. She is to be as she has
    been, the Old Dominion, full and perfect
    in all respects. It is better that this war should continue for an indefinite period of time
    than that Virginia shall be even partially dismembered.” Narrator: On April 20th, President Lincoln proclaimed that, in 60 days,
    West Virginia would become the Union’s 35th state. ♪ (music) ♪ The next day, 5,000 Confederates, mostly from western Virginia, launched a massive, two-pronged raid into the region. Generals William Jones and John Imboden were ordered to destroy B&O Railroad bridges and collect much-needed cattle and horses. Ambitious from the start, the
    generals also hoped to occupy western Virginia long enough to cripple the statehood movement. Imboden drove Union troops from the towns of Beverly and Buchannon. Jones attacked Rowlesburg and
    sent 400 cavalrymen north to Kingwood and Morgantown. At home at the time,
    Senator Waitman T. Willey joined thousands
    of fleeing loyalists. The news caused a
    frenzy in Wheeling. Citizens formed a home guard,
    banks moved their gold to safety and federal troops
    prepared to destroy supplies. Instead of marching
    north to Wheeling, the rebels went
    south to Fairmont. They arrived just a few days
    after Francis and Julia Pierpont hastily
    departed for Wheeling. [cannon & gun fire]
    Soldier yells “God Almighty” A large battle took place
    downtown as more than 1,000 rebels attacked
    from the east, forcing 300 Union troops and
    home guards to surrender. The Confederates also burned
    books from the Pierponts’ library outside their home,
    including the family Bible. Jones’ soldiers then
    blew up Fairmont’s 600-foot-long B&O Bridge. At this point, Jones and
    Imboden decided they didn’t have enough troops to attack
    the massing Union forces in Clarksburg. They bypassed that town
    and rested in Weston. There, secessionist ladies
    mended soldiers’ clothes, presented them with a flag and a parade was held in their honor. The raiders retreated
    east of the Alleghenies. They had destroyed
    26 B&O bridges, but within 2 weeks the
    trains were running again. Jones and Imboden also failed
    to stop progress along the road to West
    Virginia statehood. The next time any of
    these men returned home, they would find a different
    state than the one they had left – one officially,
    if not properly, ratified by the electorate,
    May 26th, 1863. One officer, stationed with
    Union troops in one of the interior counties, reported efforts to ensure ratification. Dickinson: And he wrote a
    letter that was published in the National Intelligencer
    newspaper in late 1863 that he had been ordered to prevent
    people from coming to the polls and voting against
    the new state constitution. Narrator: Intimidation played
    an important role in counties that had supplied the
    Confederacy entire companies. Dickinson: I can’t see that
    every single family in that county that sent, let’s say,
    200 boys off to the war 2 years earlier would all of a
    sudden vote against staying with Old Virginia and forming what was gonna become a Union state. Narrator: Regardless, the
    amended constitution was reportedly approved
    overwhelmingly, 28,000 to 572. Citizens returned to the
    polls, 2 days later, and elected the Constitution
    Union Party’s Arthur I. Boreman to serve as the first
    governor of West Virginia. The same day, citizens of
    Jefferson and Berkeley Counties voted to become
    part of West Virginia, which officially joined the
    Union as its 35th state on June 20th. Henline: Early on the
    day of June 20, 1863, all the officers of the
    Restored Government and those of the newly elected West
    Virginia government met at the McClure Hotel for breakfast. There is a 35-gun salute
    by the Union troops, 35 young girls sing “The
    Star-Spangled Banner”, the churches throughout Wheeling rang their bells for about 10 minutes. [sounds of many church bells] It’s important to note that
    when West Virginia becomes a new state, in the
    union of free states, there were still people in bondage in the state of West Virginia. So, essentially, when West
    Virginia becomes a new state in the Union, it is
    admitted as a slave state.” Narrator: Because President
    Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation only
    applied to rebel states, West Virginia slaves remained in bondage until February 1865. West Virginia’s joining the
    Union also failed to stop Confederate forces from
    skirmishing and wreaking havoc within the new
    state’s borders. In October 1863, for instance,
    rebels attacked a Union fort at Bulltown, in Braxton County, in an unsuccessful attempt to control strategic transportation routes. In November, federal
    soldiers decisively defeated Confederates at
    Droop Mountain, in Pocahontas County, in one
    of the largest battles fought on West Virginia
    soil, during the war. After this and other
    Union victories, federal forces regained
    control of the Greenbrier Valley, known for its
    southern sympathy. Never again would the Confederacy mount a major raid into West Virginia. Skirmishes and rebel attacks continued, however, as Confederates forced federal
    troops to abandon Harpers Ferry, on July 4, 1864. After 3 days of
    fighting, however, Union soldiers reclaimed
    Harpers Ferry and held on to it for the remainder
    of the war. As governor, Arthur Boreman
    came to consider Confederate-sympathizing bushwhackers to be West Virginia’s most
    serious threat. McNeill’s Rangers,
    for instance, seized Union supplies on the
    B&O Railroad and wreaked havoc in the Eastern
    Panhandle and beyond, even kidnapping high-ranking
    Union officers. After Boreman assumed his role
    as Governor of West Virginia, Francis Pierpont, in turn,
    as chief executive of the Restored Government
    of Virginia, relinquished authority over
    the counties comprising the new state and relocated to Alexandria. There, he governed Virginia counties controlled by the Union Army. When the war ended in 1865, the Pierponts moved to Richmond, where Francis served as Provisional Governor of Virginia. The state legislature, meanwhile, endeavored to repeal all laws previously passed under his administration. A military governor
    replaced Pierpont in 1868. Julia bravely maintained the
    graves of Union soldiers in Richmond’s Hollywood cemetery. When she started putting flowers on the memorials, former Confederate women started decorating southern graves. These events are believed by
    some historians to be the beginning
    of Memorial Day. After returning home to Fairmont, Francis was elected to the West Virginia House of Delegates. Pierpont, today, is considered
    the Father of West Virginia. He’s the only Virginia
    governor whose portrait is not found in the
    statehouse in Richmond. He’s also the only West Virginian represented in Statuary Hall at
    the U.S. Capitol. One of Francis Pierpont’s
    opponents during the war, Confederate Brigadier General
    Albert Jenkins was wounded and captured in battle
    on May 9,1864. The former U.S. Congressman died 12 days later. After the war, his brother
    Thomas’ widow struggled to maintain the
    family’s plantation. Susan Holderby Jenkins faced
    multiple lawsuits demanding payment for damage the Jenkins
    men had inflicted upon Union homes and property. The bitter and violent
    divisions between West Virginians didn’t end
    with the Civil War. Former Confederate soldiers
    lost the right to vote. State officials were attacked
    in southern counties and Union troops were deployed. Finally, in 1871, a new
    constitution was drafted and voting rights were granted to African Americans and ex-rebels. The process of healing
    had finally begun. In the first Governor’s
    Inaugural Address in the history of West Virginia,
    Arthur Boreman commemorated the birth of the 35th
    state, June 20, 1863. His words reflected the tragic
    division that Virginians, east and west of
    the Alleghenies, had experienced all along
    the road to statehood. Actor: “Now, after many long
    and weary years of insult and injustice, culminating
    on the part of the East, in an attempt to
    destroy the Government, we have the profound
    satisfaction of proclaiming to those around us that we are a
    separate state in the Union. Our State is the child
    of the rebellion.” ♪ (music) ♪ Support for West Virginia: The
    Road to Statehood is provided by A production of West Virginia Public Broadcasting.

    Watch a Train Run Through Thailand’s Most Dangerous Market
    Articles, Blog

    Watch a Train Run Through Thailand’s Most Dangerous Market

    August 20, 2019


    – [Narrator] Okay, just watch. Three, two, one. (horn blowing) This is Thailand’s Maeklong Market. (brakes squealing) About an hour south of Bangkok, every day beginning at
    6:20 in the morning, a train runs through
    Maeklong Railway Market, one of the largest produce and
    seafood markets in Thailand, through the stalls selling
    fruit, ice cream, fish, through everything. And if you’re wondering which came first, the market or the train,
    the answer is the market. The Maeklong Railway built
    a commuter train to Bangkok back in 1905. The track they laid ran
    right through the middle of this market, which had
    been around for decades. Rather than moving,
    the vendors stayed put, adjusting their business
    to the train times, eight times a day, seven days a week. (speaking Thai) – [Narrator] This system has
    been perfected over the years. With produce just inches
    from the train’s wheels, tourists and vendors wait
    as the train passes through. Then, everything goes back to normal, or at least as normal as an
    active train line market can be.

    Underground Railroad Station – History Revisited
    Articles, Blog

    Underground Railroad Station – History Revisited

    August 20, 2019


    see some blesses you know it is Imam
    underscore og I was checking out that dank alibi video and they’ve had some
    questions about that the Harriet Tubman and the whole just caught and the
    Underground Railroad no I’m Sam so I hashed around you know I
    know st. Louis is a no st. Louis it is a pretty big oh I’m trying to let y’all
    see all my personal business you know so st. Lewis is uh it’s got a lot of rich
    history here you know what I’m talking about
    especially being on the Mississippi you know what I mean oh so I went to check
    out some historical things at st. Louis and see what I could find and stay tuned it’s almost 600 miles from the eastern
    edge of Missouri to the border where Canada meets the United States that was
    the task ahead of thousands of enslaved people seeking freedom crossing Illinois
    was the first step we retraced that journey I’m supposed to have something to do a
    Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad watch Dan Calloway video
    talking about a train conductor and Brotherhood say some tracks talk about
    Harriet Tubman down by the river here in st. Louis so we’re gonna go check it out
    man and see if we get to the bottom of it the whole brain is on that side of
    the city and it leads down and under so everything you’re seeing right now
    okay there’s a hollowness underneath the ground
    there’s build railways open tunnels like a subway system this whole city is is hollow that the
    city was built on top of once what was the original city
    and once they once certain laws and shit became a certain way and certain things
    were declared certain things didn’t serve their purposes or their uses we’re
    gonna need soft fit so what are we gonna do with this shit alone we got the
    manpower to get rid of it cover it up these parking garages are built right
    over it which what’s left of what was the
    underground subway railway underground railroad so much was built up back then when we
    had cobblestone streets dirt roads muggers still using uh half of still
    automobiles and half was still you know horse buggies and shit but it still came
    up like a big city the one time I had that that I witnessed it and made it
    probably 150 feet into the entrance because because we it was mean a couple
    people when we walked the the railroad tracks that pre-existed there right
    there on the ground and they went down in beneath what we see here now and the
    tracks led down by the st. Patrick Center where that tree was and it was
    open because that was a big court you already once that’s the Ohio track station which is
    the bring me no Greyhound and the tracks led directly into an opening which is
    where their building is now I I know because I walked about seven or eight
    that were used in which are used in different ways now today I can hurry up and get clothes over here
    go straight you going is this a regular row you guess what it is it’s not
    advertised so people think oh we can’t be down here but this is public this is
    Poland drive through that and you’re gonna go on the other side of wall voice
    has no motor vehicle you’re gonna get on that real quick quick fast and I heard there’s a water
    station down here that was built this is over told the flood wall train tracks
    are on assignment and this is not no like a private place no no this is the
    Katy Trail bike trail leads from north south now as you can see looking at this
    map the Mississippi River is a natural border for the mason-dixon line so
    anybody who could make it right here to the River in Missouri if they could make
    it across the Mississippi to the other side then they would be able to gain
    their freedom because Illinois was a free state little did I know that I was
    about to be pulling up on a place very historical and not only st. Louis
    history but our history and the history of the Underground Railroad check this
    out sign is gone historic sign there was a
    plaque that said here that gave you you know a layout of the history on why this
    is right here also the how the flats dog was meeting a greeting coming and going
    and you know I’m saying making making their right way to freedom see these are
    the stairs there is the pad where the boat should make it as close as they
    could so people could get on and off but someone was right here to see you here
    too from and either across or down the river because obviously we have a kernel
    flow the great river I mean this is this is
    life it’s it’s history they can’t really they couldn’t really can cover it up so
    who’s gonna go out of their way and move all this shit so they let it sit – the
    rods just the T reads away like I said I’ve gone history that’s right here you
    know like I know there’s also another route this is north these things to them
    steps over there that they something to make sure I get out is
    because you know the plaques not there you see that this says freedom crossing
    visitor center obviously something
    and then on the painting on the wall you got Harriet something’s wrong
    someone did this period and they say respected still here yeah
    I just said resist the truth hands set crevices see the coat which
    represents the English with the tails see little heads that represent us and
    top I did what’s this right here Mary meet
    some freedom crossing onto Mississippi I’m sorry Sunday Historical Marker they
    have Lewis and Clark not only they make a little money off
    this shit yeah it’s something somebody not something this just blew my mind it
    was like an eerie feeling but now I got to get to the bottom of who was Mary
    Mitchell what is freedom crossing how could I live in st. Louis and never
    heard of any of this who is married Meacham what is freedom crossing no I
    made this video because I’m not gonna lie when my brother was like yo some
    spots we could go to that I know he’s associated with the Underground Railroad
    I’m like man it’s nigga don’t know what he talking about him like on a low you
    know what I mean like in st. Louis I would know that it would be historical
    you know I’m saying I would have been there before you know so it just goes to
    show you like it’s right under our nose we expect everybody to come out and just
    give us this history and tell us how we got here and you know how everything got
    to this point when really we got to dig and look but once we start looking the
    greatest spirit the most high is gonna open up away and he’s just gonna start
    lighting up your steps like Billie Jean video you know I’m talking about and
    that’s just how I felt you know at first it was a little frustrating going
    through the tunnel cuz I’m gonna oh you know where tunnel that but then you know
    it was closed down but then when we get to the freedom crossing I’m looking like
    ain’t no plaque here you know saying this could be anything probably the same
    thing you was thinking when you first saw it but then I see the freedom
    crossing wall then I see the painting painted then I see the historical marker
    and all this and it’s all starting to come together like Auto clues there cuz
    like I said we got the colonizers under investigation so you know we gotta find
    these clues to try to you know get an understanding of what really went on it
    blew my mind and burned like what I’m about to tell y’all it’s like it’s
    mind-blowing so check it out so Mary Meechum Mary meets him born 1801
    was an American evolutionist who with her husband John Barry Meacham helped
    enslaved people escape to freedom in the Underground Railroad and by purchasing
    their freedom so not only did they have their own freedom they was getting
    people freedom and this is why I’m trying to get you to understand that
    slavery was just having a job where won’t nobody let you quit you know
    saying and they just made a law like now you do make it’s fun to work forever
    it’s just like right now when you go to work you’ve got that man they won’t give
    me no days off it was just a hundred times worse you ain’t never get no day
    off that’s how they was trying to do it everybody wasn’t living under that you
    know I mean that system of oppression and this is what needs to be understood
    amongst our people just because your so-called Negro or person of color
    doesn’t mean that you came from slavery it’s same the marry meets him freedom
    crossing in st. Louis the first site in Missouri to be accepted in the National
    Park Service’s National Underground Railroad network to freedom what was
    named after her so well thank you Dan a man thank you because he say in the
    video he said well who were two other conductors if Harriet Tubman was a
    conductor you know to me so so because of watching that video because of his
    research now and because of media and on and now we know Mary Meacham Mary
    Meacham was another conductor you know what I’m saying and I listened it’s her
    early life Meacham was born into slavery in Kentucky while still enslaved she
    married John Barry Meacham who had already purchased his own freedom with
    money he had earned as a carpenter you understand me in 1815 marry me James
    owner took her to st. Louis Missouri her husband followed and purchased her
    freedom shortly afterwards so he followed his wife and he he bought her
    freedom you know say they bought her out her contract you know I’m saying it’s
    like these rappers right now walk around we sell
    you know Sam cuz they in the contract that they can’t get out of and this is
    what it was on a hundred of course I don’t want to like make it seem like
    it’s it’s less than what it is the Meacham’s ran a school for free and
    enslaved black people in in the first African Baptist Church okay so now he’s
    a minister but we already know it some highjacking gone he must have some type
    of affiliation but but check out what he doing though they ran a school for free
    and enslaved black people in in the first African Baptist Church which they
    later moved to a floating steamboat on the Mississippi River when the state of
    them when the state of Missouri banned education for blacks in 1847 they also
    used the proceeds from John Berry Meacham’s carpentry and barrel making
    business to purchase freedom for 20 enslaved individuals they buying people
    freedom you get money you know I mean and then you seen it beginning a video I
    showed a Cherokee cash now that’s under a brewery lymphs brewery and now I just
    realized that say that he he made barrels you know I’m saying some people
    try to attach the limp mansion to Underground Railroad and I’m still
    investigating that you know what I’m saying but I see that he make barrels
    and it was a beer company so they know I know they need barrels so they probably
    knew each other now check this out to say after John Barry Meacham died in
    1854 Mary Meacham continued running their home on 4th Street as a safe house
    my god I lived on 4th Street bruh that is crazy
    they say on May 21st 1855 after an attempt to ferry nine enslaved people
    across the Mississippi River to freedom in Illinois Meacham and a freedmen named
    Isaac were arrested for breaking the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 on May 24th
    1854 she was charged in court with slaves that while charges against Isaac
    were dropped now we already know cuz we hip to the legal system now if you and
    Isaac got jammed up and all the charges against Isaac got dropped Isaac is a
    snitch Isaac goes rat you know I’m Sam at the Missouri Republican reported on
    July 19th 1855 that Mary was tried by a jury and acquitted of at least one
    charge and the remaining charges were dropped
    okay so she don’t got arrested and that’s the spot you just saw in the
    video you know I’m saying and it’s crazy because as I was doing some research I’m
    gonna pull it up on put it on the screen this is the original painting you know
    what I’m saying before the one that we see that’s in the video that I got now
    and as you can see you know I’m saying it’s some slaves whatever they want to
    call them so-called Negroes I was gonna say to make this but I’m trying to clean
    up my act I still said it so it was some niggas in a boat you know I’m saying
    Dean you see the white boys on shore with the shotguns you know I’m saying
    because supposedly they were set up and when they got to the other side it was
    some slave Patrol you know I’m saying over there waiting to get him yeah check
    out this batch you know slave Patrol is this real yeah I think I just be talking
    you know I’m saying these actual facts you know you know I’m saying I know what
    I’m talking about but check it out is say she also was the
    president of the colored lady soldiers Aid Society in st. Louis now how many
    people in st. Louis from st. Louis and don’t know anything about this lady
    never heard of Mary Mitra or her husband John Bailey Meacham who had the freedom
    school you know about the floating freedom school on the Mississippi so
    when they tried to say oh y’all can’t have no yeah educate blacks in Missouri
    man he took it on he took it on the river you know I’m saying Thoreau Earle
    bro but anyway said she was president of the colored lady soldiers Aid Society in
    st. Louis this organization of free black women also called the colored
    ladies contraband Society was formed in 1863 to assist black Union soldiers and
    escaped slaves and st. Louis during the Civil War because blacks were not
    allowed to ride streetcars at the time the women negotiated with the streetcar
    company to ride the streetcar damn wheat so now you see she got the
    plug with the streetcars this all goes with the Underground Railroad or what
    name saying about it actually being a railroad about it actually being tracks
    and I investigated the videos what other brothers you know make and I take that
    information I build on it it’s somebody who can give me you know information
    that benefits me and I can use it to benefit others then that’s what we’re
    gonna do that’s what a building is and that’s what we’re doing is just proving
    them right and here here go follow of brothers working on a railroad you know
    I’m saying and you cuz you wonder who you like you think a whole train like me
    because I’m sneaking around in no train no nigga this put it on the screen this
    right here man you know Sam so you already know we the employees on the
    rail right on the railway system it’s just about having a plug bro come on man
    y’all smart I’m Sam so they all the way plugged in you know
    me she free and what they call them what they call colored ladies con contraband
    society they getting they smoke alone but the sad thing is is that they
    smuggling niggas and getting them to the other side of the river
    and man that’s just deep so it’s a lot more history man that I’m gonna go into
    you know I’m saying as far as researching what’s around me and I said
    to Jess you do that in York and you’re a city man wherever you were you know to
    me you start looking around man start piecing this together man to get out
    from in front of that computer I can get out here in the world man you know what
    I mean the answers the answers are there man and the truth is out here you
    already know what it is man too high for peace and supply walked on the water
    living the sky Imam in a squat old cheap follow me on Twitter
    mr. graham like comment subscribe all that flashy peace and blesses

    Your Guide to San Francisco | National Geographic
    Articles, Blog

    Your Guide to San Francisco | National Geographic

    August 20, 2019


    – [Narrator] San Francisco is a rush. A rush of art, flavors,
    history, and innovation. (funky rhythmic music) It’s all packed into a
    seven-by-seven-mile square, between the Pacific Ocean
    and the San Francisco Bay. The city has long attracted trailblazers and countercultures. The Gold Rush, immigration, beatniks, hippies, the LGBTQ community,
    and the tech industry have all fueled San
    Francisco’s enduring influence on American culture. If you’ve seen a movie
    set in San Francisco, you’ve probably seen Chinatown. The Dragon Gate arch at
    Grant Avenue and Bush Street tells visitors they’re entering
    America’s oldest Chinatown. In the mid-1800s, the
    lure of the Gold Rush and the availability of work
    building the Pacific Railroad, drew large numbers of Chinese
    immigrants to San Francisco. Today you can take in the
    scene on packed Grant Avenue, and head to Stockton Street for the authentic Chinatown experience. You can shop for traditional
    Chinese ingredients, sip a cup of fragrant jasmine
    tea, and eat at some of the best Chinese restaurants in the world. The Golden Gate Bridge might be the most iconic San Francisco landmark, but the massive Golden Gate Park is one of the most visited
    green spaces in the U.S. 20% larger than New York’s Central Park, it covers a thousand square acres in a near perfect rectangle, stretching from the oceanfront west, to the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood. It includes numerous gardens, the historic Conservatory of Flowers, and two world-class museums, the California Academy of Sciences, and the de Young Museum of Fine Art. It also has some pretty unusual
    residents for the big city, a herd of bison. Buffalo have lived in
    the park since the 1890s. And the tradition continues
    today with a small group of six bison that spend their days in a bucolic green pasture
    next to Spreckels Lake. Keep going west and you’ll
    find yourself at Ocean Beach. The top of the five-mile
    stretch of shoreline borders Lands End, a national
    park with otherworldly views on the Northwest coast of the city. You can also explore the modern
    ruins of the Sutro Baths. When they opened in 1896, it was the largest indoor
    swimming facility in the world. But the massive complex of
    saltwater pools, restaurants, games, and even a museum,
    burned to the ground in 1966. After you’ve climbed the crumbling walls, stairs, and tunnels, you can unwind at the historic
    Cliff House restaurant. Originally constructed in 1863, the resort has been rebuilt
    three times over the years. Today you can take in the panoramic views in one of the two restaurants that now occupy the
    neoclassical structure. The lure of the city by the bay goes so much deeper
    than its natural beauty. San Francisco’s diversity,
    artistic spirit, and innovative drive all make
    it a rich source of adventure for any free spirited traveler. (upbeat funky music)

    Eastern Front of WWII animated: 1941
    Articles, Blog

    Eastern Front of WWII animated: 1941

    August 19, 2019


    Europe summer 1941 Germany had secured most of Central and Western Europe with only Great Britain remaining defiant on the islands the only potential threat to Germany in Europe was its formal Ally the Soviet Union in order to break the stalemate with Britain and make Germany’s strategic position Indisputable Hitler decided to cripple the military capabilities of the Soviet Union and seize its natural resources Germany planned to achieve this goal by capturing most of the European part of the Soviet Union before the onset of winter 1941 the main attack would take place in the center and be directed towards Moscow with auxilliary attacks in the north and south By the middle of June 1941 the Germans had almost completed the preparations and the invasion was about to begin Meanwhile, the Soviet forces were unaware of what was coming and were ill-prepared to resist the German invasion first we’ll look at the southern sector the Soviets had deployed their strongest units in the south having 1 million and 200,000 men between the prepared marches and the Black Sea They were to be confronted by the Army Group South that was afraid flee the same strength The first objective of the axis troops was securing the western ukraine On June 22nd the invasion began The Soviets immediately gathered their armed forces and met the German spearhead with a massive counter-attack in the area of tube noir and Brody But due to the lack of combat readiness of the units involved it failed and the Soviets lost most of their tanks the German advance Continued and this created a threat to pincer comment to the Soviet troops in the south and they have to be withdrawn from the exposed position after the main attack had tied down the Soviet reserves the Axis forces in Romania joined the offensive the main Spearhead now made a dash towards the east and this made Soviet command think that the main German effort was directed towards Kiev however The Germans had stuck to their original plan and turned south when the so it’s realized the German intentions was already too late to withdraw their forces and the Germans encircled and destroyed many of the Soviet formations near the town of Amman the Soviets now abandoned Western Ukraine and retreated to the eastern bank of the river neva They deployed the first wave of freshly Mobilised troops to establish a strong defense on the river line and also cling to the port of Odessa at the same time Operations were being carried out in the north Where one and a half million German soldiers from army groups north and center were facing a million Soviet soldiers in the beginning of the invasion the Army Group center was to encircle Soviet forces at the Porter and then Advanced toward Smolensk and Moscow meanwhile Army Group North was to advance directly towards Leningrad threatening to trap the Soviet forces between them and the sea On June 22nd the Germans attacked the saw at Western Front was deployed forward and during the first days of the war the German forces encircled most of its formations near the towns of Bialystok and Minsk in the Baltics the Soviet Counter-attacks were defeated in the Battle of lasagna and then they attempted to pull back and establish a defensive line and Daugava River but the Germans reached the river before them and pushed onwards threatening the Soviet units in the West with encirclement at The same time Army Group centre had finished Encircling the Soviet Western Front and its infantry units began to reduce the pockets while its armored forces advanced eastwards almost unopposed The Soviets attempted to plug the gap by deploying most of their pre-war reserves to counter them But it was not enough and as the German offensive continued their armor broke through the Soviet lines and trapped these units near Smolensk by that time the first wave of Soviet mobilization was complete and the Soviets used these formations to block further German advance and attempted to free the encircled troops however the performance of these newly created units was lackluster and they were unable to liberate the pocket the Germans managed to close it up and Eliminate it the Germans had gained the upper hand in the central part of the front and now they were faced with two options They could continue the push towards Moscow immediately or secure the flanks of Army Group center first And then continue the offensive eastwards They decided to do the latter and the armored formations of Army Group center were sent to a neighboring army groups During this time battles had been raging in the north where Army Group North had failed to pull out lots Encirclements and their progress was slowed down by the Soviet counter-attacks and bad infrastructure nevertheless They were making slow but steady progress and after securing their left flank They reached the approaches to Leningrad when the help from Army Group center arrived They were able to perform the final push and cut off the land-based communications to the city Through the north Finland had entered the war against the Soviet Union and June 25th And the Finnish troops took advantage of the Soviet defeats by taking back the lands lost in the Winter War after that They established forward defensive positions between the lakes Even further north the Finnish and German troops attempted to capture the Soviet port city of borman’s and caught the Murmansk Railway in order to sever the allied supply route to the Soviet Union However, their attacks became bogged down in the rough terrain short of their objectives the front became static meanwhile, the other armored units of the Army Group centre were sent to help Army Group south the Soviets had anticipated that the Germans would continue their attack towards Moscow and concentrated their troops on this direction which allowed the German armored formations to push back the weaker Soviet units on their southern flank the German advance southwards Forced the Soviets to abandon their forward positions in the Pripet marshes to shorten the line In Ukraine the Soviet troops were occupying a strong defensive position With their flanks resting on the Dnieper River in the west and south and the marshes in the north yet the Panzers from Army Group centre were bypassing the marshes from the east and Advanced into the Soviet rear the Soviets thought that the Germans bear head was overextended and could be contained however Unbeknownst to them the armored formations of the Army Group south had secretly crossed the Dnieper from the south into a German Beachhead and now broke through towards north to link up with the spearhead as the group’s met most of the Soviet units in the central Ukraine became encircled 750 thousand men trapped in the pocket when the pocket had been liquidated the Soviet forces in Ukraine had been severely weakened After these operations, the flanks of Army Group center was secured But now the Germans didn’t have enough time to reach the objective Set in the beginning of the campaign and they decided to go for more limited goals in order to reach them They began a full-scale attack along the whole front in the south The Soviet resistance had been crippled with the recent encirclement and this allowed the Germans to carry out another encirclement trapping part of the Soviet forces on the coast of the Black Sea Then they pushed onwards and established their control over the resource-rich areas of the eastern, Ukraine and conquered the Crimean Peninsula With Soviets abandoning Odessa, but clinging on to the port of Sevastopol At the same time the German forces were pursuing their objectives in the north Their goal was to sever the remaining supply routes to Leningrad and link up with the Finnish forces The initial advance was successful and reached its first goal by cutting the railway lines supplying the city The main German effort was in the center all this time. The Soviets had anticipated an attack on Moscow and had deployed 1,250,000 mobilized troops to the sector during the German operations on the flanks They had even somewhat managed to bush Army Group centre back to improve their defensive perimeter But by the end of September the German army had finally returned to the center and proceeded to carry out the new attack once again Near the towns of be asthma and bryant’s the Soviet troops were encircled and this resulted in having the Soviet strength on the front after reducing the pockets The Germans closed their distance to Moscow then they attempted to encircle Moscow with a two-pronged attack But by that time the long advance had exhausted their offensive capabilities and the weather had become severely cold The Soviets managed to halt their advance and although they didn’t have large Superiority in numbers the Soviet proficiency in winter combat allowed them to carry out a counter-attack the Germans were forced to abandon their vulnerable forward positions on the flanks and pulled back in order to shorten the front line during the retreat they had to abandon some of Their heavy equipment at the same time the German attempt to cut off Leningrad had also failed and they had to retreat to their starting positions and the supply line to Leningrad was Restored in the south. The German advance was also checked by the Soviets forcing the Germans to abandon their forward positions in Rostov The first year of the war was over the Soviets had stopped the Germans far from their initial goals but at the great cost to their own military Capabilities the Red Army had been decimated and it would take a year or more to fully rebuild and we equipped the army The Germans wanted to use this window of opportunity And were sending most of their available forces to the Eastern Front to deliver a knockout punch in the following year 1942 would be the decisive year of the war

    Navajo Nation Divided Over Coal | Hidden Vote Ep. 2
    Articles, Blog

    Navajo Nation Divided Over Coal | Hidden Vote Ep. 2

    August 19, 2019


    (soft music) – I’m a member of
    the Navajo Nation. Full Navajo. What got my attention was
    when President Trump said that he would
    support coal mining, and he mentioned the
    lives of the coal miners and that’s what we’re
    talking about now. – How are you?
    – Good. – It is very important to
    represent Navajo people in the state office who
    comprise almost 50 percent of the plant workers. Trump’s stance on coal
    spoke loudly to the miners. They said openly that
    they changed their party because they finally
    felt someone heard them. I believe President Trump
    is taking our country in the right direction. There is a lot going
    on throughout the state that needs Navajo
    representation. The thinking of a lot
    of the legislators stops at the reservation line because, okay, the Navajos
    live out there, therefore it’s
    federal jurisdiction. Not so, we are still within
    the state of New Mexico. It wasn’t until the 1900s that
    companies started realizing there was a wealth of coal
    under our reservation. At that point, the
    Navajo Nation organized; we went into contract
    with these companies and the mines started. A huge amount of the Navajo
    Nation budget is result of the taxes coming
    from these plants, but because the opposition
    has determined that renewables are now the trend,
    coal has been kicked to the side and San Juan
    generating plant is closing. (soft music) If everyone would sit down, we’re gonna go ahead
    and get started. The purpose of this meeting
    is to get your input in regards to the closing of
    San Juan generating plant. Would you share some
    of your concerns? – We see the impacts. You’ve got places in
    West Virginia that
    are now ghost towns. – We are struggling
    trying to figure out what the next step is. – We did everything right. We cut the power plants in half and then we cleaned
    up the other half, so do we need to turn
    ourselves into a ghost town when all we need is some time? – We have a huge
    task ahead of us. When Obama was president,
    he made it his mission, he came right and said it, that all these plants
    were going to close. It’s a good position for
    him as an environmentalist, but what about the workers? And that’s who I’m
    concerned about. What about the families? – I’m Christina Jane Aspis
    and I’m an electrician for the coal mine. I’m full-blooded Navajo. If this power plant and mining
    goes away, coal goes away. We’re gonna be poor. We wouldn’t have
    a community here. It’s gonna be dead. I voted for Obama
    his first term, then the second
    term, I couldn’t. Seeing Hillary Clinton say that we’re gonna continue
    Obama’s agenda, I was like, she really doesn’t know. When Trump came out and said
    he supported coal miners, we were silently happy. I’m still registered a
    Democrat, but I voted for Trump. I don’t think there’s a true
    Democrat or a true Republican. I think it really comes
    down to where you’re at in your community or in life. – I see a lot of despair. I see families who
    are living in cars. and I bring this up to the
    state, and everyone says, “Aw, that’s too bad,” but
    that’s as far as it goes. We have a hearing with the
    Public Regulation Commission in Santa Fe, who are going
    to be hearing responses to the resource plan
    that PNM is presenting, and if they indeed are gonna
    be gone within five years, we want PNM to include
    a transition plan
    for the workforce. Part of your responsibility, and even though it’s not
    part of your business sense, is to assume some responsibility
    for the community. (indistinct crowd chatter) – So, let’s have a
    little bit of order. (speaking in Navajo) Welcome and introductions. Sharon and I, our family,
    they grew up together, so Sharon Clahchischilliage,
    Janene Yazzie, candidate for New Mexico
    Public Regulations Commission. – WeDinéneed new leadership. My name is Janene
    Natasha Yazzie. I’m a Democrat and
    I’m running for the New Mexico Public
    Regulation Commission for District four. I represent a new
    generation of leadership that looks at things from not
    only a cultural perspective, but also advocating against
    the environmental contamination that our communities
    have had to deal with, from the uranium, the coal,
    and the fracking industries. Vote for me June fifth. Janene Natasha Yazzie. (speaking in Navajo) – The original position
    of the environmentalist was very good, where they
    wanted the air clean, but then they went
    overboard with it. We still have people,
    like Navajo people, who are singing the song
    of 30, 40 years ago. – Trump’s policies on
    relaxing our hard won environmental regulations
    are absolutely abhorrent. The tribal nations have been
    fighting for generations for these environmental
    regulations to be put in place, because we’re dealing
    with the direct effects of the contamination
    from these industries, and to just have it (snaps
    fingers) lifted like that is completely unjust. – I told you I was
    Sharon Clahchischilliage, I’m from Ya-Ta-Hey, so
    I’m a Navajo. – I don’t know how any native
    could in good conscience support this president
    that we have. – When the plant closes,
    immediately we lose $22 million, because we’re
    losing close to 50 percent of our Native American workers. Everyone is advocating about
    the air, about the water. I’m not saying that
    isn’t important, but we can’t advocate for that if the workers
    aren’t working there. Do you get what
    I’m talking about? This resolution says, “PNM,
    don’t just turn out the lights and send them home.” The workforce have
    families to support, they have children to
    support, I need your help. If they vote in favor of it, then I take it to the
    PRC meeting on Monday to show we have the support
    of 33 Navajo Chapters. – [Announcer] All those
    in favor, raise your hand. 63 in favor. All those opposed. Zero. Let’s move on to the
    next legislation. (chanting) – I’ve prepared testimony
    for this hearing. The hope is that PNM
    changes their resource plan to include a transition plan. (chanting) – Environmental
    degradation is our focus and it just so happens
    that we’re having very important meetings
    happening in this building about influencing that. – Can I get a show
    of hands for people who are giving
    public comment today? Okay, great. So you’re our
    priority in terms of getting you in the building. – Coal burning still exerts
    an insidious effect on health. The worst impact is on children. Burning coal releases
    mercury, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides. This is immoral. We’re killing our kids. – We need to consciously
    think about what’s happening to mother earth. PNM is still
    proposing to exploit and destroy mother earth
    with their practices. They haven’t improved at all in how they are
    doing dirty business. Oil and gas is pulling up
    ancestral fossil fuels, but we can’t even survive, because of the
    nuclear environmental racism that’s happening,
    and PNM is part of that. – When we talk about dealing
    with environmental racism, it’s that our worldview
    and perspective is not considered as equal. So take away the corporate
    guns being held to our heads, false solutions of coal
    and nuclear are not wanted. Our leaders are
    not given a choice between their cultural
    values and beliefs, and jobs and living wages
    for their community, and that’s not a
    choice, it’s injustice. – [Sharon] There
    is a lot of merit to the environmental thinking; however, there is a very
    emotional component. – Please, I beg you. I’m
    sorry, but I’m very emotional. – Do you know who the
    emotion is coming from? The people who don’t
    live in San Juan County. Even the natives who
    were here today aren’t from San Juan County, and
    they’re stopping to think about who will be
    impacted by this. That’s my real concern. – I’m Patrick O’Connell. I’m employed by Public
    Service Company of New Mexico. – Is PNM Exhibit two
    true and accurate to the best of your knowledge? – [Patrick] Yes. The process of reaching
    the stipulated agreement in Case 13-00390-UT
    helped design the IRP, where we were looking at
    two primary scenarios. – This is very frustrating,
    because a tremendous amount of work has gone
    into this, when PNM, they have not been
    very forthright with us in the information
    they’ve been giving us. They’re really not
    wanting legislators
    participating at all. It goes back to what
    they continuously like-
    they don’t care for us. The bottom line just proves
    that the workers are correct, that no one cares about them. I will continue
    advocating for them, because I really
    feel it in my soul. It’s a tug at my soul. Not my heart, but my soul. – [Christina] I am
    very impressed with Representative Sharon
    Clahchischilliage. As a Navajo leader, she’s
    considered naat’a’í. That’s what you say in Navajo. She fights and I’m glad. That’s what we need. We need somebody with guts. We need somebody that’s
    bold, and common sense. – So, the election
    took place and I lost. It was very close. I know my team was
    very heartbroken. I think that there’s more
    people that are active and aware under the
    Trump administration, because we’ve seen
    how easy it is to have hard won environmental
    regulations, hard won rights just get stripped away. I think there’s been an
    end to this assumption that our government’s
    gonna protect us. It’s shifted the
    narrative to reveal that we need to protect ourselves. – It hurts me to see where
    we are right now as a people. I’m trying to get as
    much done as I can in my short span
    as a legislator, so that I can get the help
    that is needed, so needed, on the Navajo reservation
    and in my district. (soft music) – I have a very tough dilemma. I need to choose between
    a very bad Republican and a good person who
    happens to be a Democrat. Who should I vote for?