Browsing Tag: documentary

    04. Intriguing Bombay – Tramways of Bombay
    Articles, Blog

    04. Intriguing Bombay – Tramways of Bombay

    September 6, 2019


    By the mid 19th century Bombay was emerging as a major port and still it was a pedestrian city following the growth of cotton trade and textile mills and with the introduction of railways in 1853 Bombay was slowly becoming a metropolis Now Bombay was connected with the rest of the nation but local commute still remained a problem especially due to the heavy fares and… the relative inconvenience of train schedules In 1859 what could be called as the first local… transport was introduced in the form of Horse drawn Omnibus modeled after the one in London however there are very few records that would suggest that this was of any convenience to the locals In 1864 an American firm proposed to construct and operate horse driven trams in Bombay but since they were American it took a little while from the British to accept them it was in 1873 that Bombay Tramway company was founded and on 9 May 1874, the first tram was opened to public The first Tram ran between Colaba and Pydhonie And within the first week of its run more than 3000 passengers had travelled on 294 trips Pulled by Arabian horses these trams were an immediate success By 1905 the tramlines were covering length and breadth of Bombay between Colaba and Lalbaug it was also in 1905 that Bombay Tramway Company had to hand over its operations to Bombay Electric Supply and Transport company or Bombay Electric Supply and Tramways company as it was known back then and we know it popularly from its acronym B.E.S.T. In 1907, with the advancement in technology the electric tram was introduced The welcome to this new mode of transport was incredible there was so much excitement in the crowd that on the first day itself a man fell from the tram and lost his leg over the years, the crowd kept increasing to the extent, where in 1920 BEST had to introduce a double-decker Tram By 1935, the tramlines had reached till King’s Circle With the growing population of commuters BEST thought of introducing a simultaneous mode of transport in the form of motor buses in 1926 Slowly the popularity of trams began to diminish In the 1950s when the trams started incurring losses BEST decided to close certain non-viable routes As the years passed by, the routes continued to be closed till there was only one left between Dadar and Bori Bunder On 31st March 1964 a tram pack to its capacity ran for the last time hence ending the era of tramways in Bombay ok so we are in the BEST museum and these are the benches from the Trams that used to run across Bombay now there’s something interesting about these trams, so if… the tram is travelling in that direction as you can see all the backrests are in this direction so that you can sit this way What if, the tram is going in the opposite direction all you have to do… is turn this around… and enjoy the ride

    Chapter 1 | The Gilded Age | American Experience | PBS
    Articles, Blog

    Chapter 1 | The Gilded Age | American Experience | PBS

    September 2, 2019


    ♪ ♪ (kids shouting) NARRATOR: A vicious cold snap hit New York in the first week
    of February 1897, but nothing could slow
    the preparations for the impending revelry. The city’s wealthiest citizens
    were readying themselves for one of the most anticipated
    balls in the nation’s history– an extravagant exclamation point on what would come to be known as the Gilded Age. REBECCA EDWARDS: During the Gilded Age, Americans feel quite certainly
    that they are the vanguard of civilization and progress. This is an enormous period of opportunity,
    and possibility, and hope. NARRATOR:
    No group felt more confident about the future than the guests
    who would gather for the party at the luxurious
    Waldorf Hotel. The evening’s total price tag,
    according to newspaper reports, was enough to feed nearly a
    thousand working-class families for a full year. ♪ ♪ Defenders noted
    that the ball stood to benefit the entire city. Critics begged to differ. “With all the people,”
    warned one minister, “who have to lie awake nights
    contriving “to spend their time and their
    money, and all the others “who lie awake wondering
    how they may get food, there is danger in the air.” It was a fractious time in which
    a sense of desperation amidst growing wealth
    was emerging. EDWARD O’DONNELL: Increasingly workers
    begin to say, “If I as, as a member
    of this society “lack the ability to pay my
    bills, and to feed my family “then I am not a free citizen
    of a healthy republic. “I’m something, something else, something that the Founding
    Fathers would not recognize.” (whistle blows) RICHARD JOHN: The magnitude of the late
    19th-century transformation of American society
    is hard to exaggerate. It was as if you woke up
    in one country and you went to bed in another. ♪ ♪ NARRATOR:
    Thirty years after the Civil War, America had transformed into an economic powerhouse, but the transformation had
    created stark new divides in wealth, standing,
    and opportunity. STEVE FRASER: It’s shocking for people to see a country developing before them that is increasingly
    clearly divided into the haves and have-nots. NELL IRVIN PAINTER:
    Gilded is not golden. Gilded has the sense of a patina
    covering something else. It’s the shiny exterior
    and the rot underneath. NARRATOR: By the time New York’s elite
    gathered at Waldorf ballroom, the richest 4,000 families
    in the country, less than one percent
    of all Americans, had scooped up nearly
    as much treasure as the other 11.6 million
    families combined. “We are the rich,”
    one partygoer remarked. “We own America;
    we got it, God knows how, “but we intend to keep it
    if we can.” There is this fight over what is America’s
    collective self-identity. Who are we? Are we two nations,
    the poor and the wealthy, or are we one nation where everybody has a chance
    to succeed? ♪ ♪ DAVID NASAW: When this nation comes out of the Civil War, we are still a nation divided
    by regions. There’s very little
    national market. If you need a pair of shoes, you don’t get it from a factory
    a hundred miles away. You get it from
    the local shoemaker. (birds squawking) PAINTER:
    Life was much, much more local, much more what was going on
    right around you, what your neighbors were doing,
    what your friends were doing, what your enemies were doing,
    and how you were doing on a day-to-day basis. H.W. BRANDS:
    America had been founded, its political system
    had been founded, for a country of farmers, but it was becoming a nation
    of industrialists. It was becoming a nation
    of urban workers. It was becoming a nation
    of cities. (train chugging) Railroads knit the entire
    country together in a way that hadn’t existed
    before. So now merchants, manufacturers,
    industrialists can think nationally. You don’t have to think simply
    in terms of your local market. If you have a good idea, if you have a good procedure
    for producing something, you can think of selling your
    goods all over the country. (train clacking on tracks) NARRATOR: By the early 1880s the nation’s
    largest corporation, the Pennsylvania Railroad, carried more than
    two million tons of industrial and consumer goods
    every year. Steel left mills in Pittsburgh for destinations
    around the country; so too did refined oil
    from Cleveland, factory-made furniture
    from Cincinnati, and harvesters from Chicago. (train steam hissing) Railroads moved coal from
    Wyoming, timber from Oregon, silver from Nevada and Colorado,
    and copper from Montana. ♪ ♪ Tens of thousands of young men
    and women from farm families could hop on the train to go
    where the jobs were: the newly industrializing
    cities. Former slaves and their children
    joined the urban migration, bound for new opportunities
    in Memphis, Atlanta, Richmond, or as far north as Philadelphia
    and New York. The hope is for equality, and
    for first-class citizenship, and to be a part of
    what is happening in terms of progress and change. They’re trying to make
    the democracy and the country work for them. FRASER: Progress is part
    of the American credo and has been almost from
    the beginning of the nation. Americans prided themselves on their inventiveness,
    their ingenuity, their entrepreneurial
    get-up-and-go. GIDDINGS: Progress is thought of
    as inevitable. It’s divinely inspired. There’s a pastor who talked about these
    technological innovations as God’s tools to make
    a more perfect society. ♪ ♪ And so it becomes almost
    a spiritual idea, this industrial spirit. (birds chirping) ♪ ♪ (horse hooves clomping) NARRATOR: One of the most innovative
    entrepreneurs of the day was Andrew Carnegie. He owned a stable
    full of fine-blooded horses and enjoyed taking long rides
    through Central Park. (horse whinnies) ♪ ♪ In the spring of 1881 he was a
    man in the saddle in all ways, having just consolidated his growing manufacturing
    enterprises under a single banner:
    Carnegie Brothers & Company. Some days Carnegie would ride
    out of the park and head north on upper
    Broadway. Other days he would ride
    all the way to the High Bridge, where traffic loosened and
    he could open up to a gallop along the banks
    of the Harlem River. In the few hours he was out
    riding through New York his blast furnaces 300 miles
    to the west produced more than
    60 tons of steel, and earned him about as much as the average American
    made in a year. This remarkable and novel fact
    made 45-year-old Andrew Carnegie the emblem of a new kind
    of American dream. ♪ ♪ Like John D. Rockefeller
    in the oil refining business and Cornelius Vanderbilt
    in railroads, Carnegie was riding a wave
    of industrialization — using new technology
    and mass production to secure enormous
    personal wealth. NASAW: What’s important to realize
    is that these men, they have visions. Carnegie, Rockefeller,
    the railroad barons — they don’t invent anything. They’re managers. JACKSON LEARS: Carnegie is one of the few
    American millionaires of this era or any other who can genuinely call himself
    a self-made man. He really does come
    from humble origins.

    Articles

    The 10,000 Calorie Sumo Wrestler Diet

    September 1, 2019


    Okay, let’s go. [LAUGH] My name
    is Byamba I am four time world
    sumo champion. Every day I eat lots
    of healthy food to stay strong. [SOUND]. [LAUGH] [SOUND] [MUSIC] In professional sumo,
    after the practice we eat rice and you know,
    like, before I have some fish but the main dish
    is, like, Chankonabe. There are a lot of
    vegetables, onion, green onion, ginger,
    mushrooms, eggs, lot of meats, fish too. The meat has a lot
    of calories, right? Right? So that means I think
    we eat a lot so that means more than
    10,000 calories. If you wanna be a Sumo
    wrestler, there has to, trying to hard to like,
    practice, you know? And then after that, body’s gonna be tired,
    right? And then they has
    to eat healthy and taking a lot of protein. So Chankonabe’s
    the right things to eat. If they’re just
    practicing a little bit and they eating junk
    food, I mean you know, there’s no balance
    on the body so. Chanko makes me stronger. [LAUGH] I used to make
    the Chankonabe every day in Japan for five years. I make Chanko 1,800 to
    2,000 times in my life. I was born in
    Mongolia and then when I was six,
    then I moved in Japan for a long I started doing
    professional sumo. When I was 16, from
    Japan, the grand champion in all of Corneil was
    Camptono Magoya and then he picked one guy,
    that was me. And when I went to
    Japan I was like, everything’s new for me. The first morning there,
    I went to watch the Sumo practice and I was
    shocked because two of the wrestlers, when
    they smashed together, their heads collided,
    and one guy’s tooth was embedded in the forehead
    of his opponent. So I immediately
    thought I better start training
    right away to get better to be able
    to beat these guys. A couple free weeks,
    you know, and then I’d start winning
    some matches and after, for a good while,
    then I liked the sport. I actually, I love this. In professional Sumo, the grand champion
    is like God. I love Sumo! In Chanko you can add
    any vegetables you want. Ginger is showa
    in Japanese.>>What about Mongolian?>>Tanga.
    >>Never stop eating a champ,
    champ, not a champ. [LAUGH] I never stop eating Chanko
    because I love it. Probably all my life
    I’m gonna eat Chanko. It gives me a lot of
    protein and vitamins. When you practice a long
    time you lose a lot of sweat, right? That’s why you lose
    a lot of power, vitamins from your body. So you renew the vitamins
    from the Chanko. Americans like
    the chicken soup, right? But Chankonabe’s
    different. It’s a fish broth. [MUSIC] For this type of Chanko,
    meatball is the key. I mix the meat,
    vegetables, and eggs. Mix everything
    together and then make the meatballs. [SOUND] Squeeze it. [SOUND] [LAUGH]
    You got that? [LAUGH] It’s
    almost ready. It’s almost ready. Ready? [NOISE]
    So hungry right now. Instead of having
    vegetables as a salad, you can mix it
    in the soup. You can absorb a lot
    more vitamins and minerals from the soup. It’s in the broth. [MUSIC] Oh, I’m full right now. I have to go nap. Then after the nap,
    when I wakes up, I was like, feels like so
    stronger, you know? I can feel that
    everything, like you know, after
    the practice, eat, and the sleep, and
    the wake up. Oh my God I
    getting stronger. [SOUND] We using
    this spot for the sumo practice. So now we’re doing for
    seminar for three days in a row. Lot of wrestlers from
    the out of the state and Canada. I’m trying to teach
    the all of the guys. There, there was
    like 20 people.>>I’m Sonya. This is my husband
    Pierre, the fuzzy guy. We’re from Sacramento. So we drove up to
    work with Byamba and have a great time
    with the group.>>I’m trying to
    just get better and better every day. So with that I came to this camp which
    Byamba put on, so that way I could learn
    every other technique. Little things that I
    was doing right or doing wrong. And I can also bring
    it back to my club.>>He is a world
    champion, but I got to wrestle
    with him a bit, it’s been really good. We’ll just get going. We’re gonna do basically
    what we did yesterday for the intro. A couple people
    missed the intro.>>Sorry. [LAUGH].>>It’s okay. I didn’t,
    I’m not saying names. The Chanko will be at
    7:45 in Shin Sen Gumi. We’ll give you
    the address later.>>Shin Sen Gumi?>>Shin Sen Gumi, yeah.>>I tend to stick to a
    diet that’s high protein, high good
    beneficial fats. So, I’m trying to
    continuously fuel.>>I usually have about
    maybe an eight egg omelet, something
    like that. Load in maybe six
    to eight sausages. Maybe have three,
    four glasses of milk. Anything laying
    around I’ll eat.>>Chankonabe
    is fantastic.>>I’ve never had it, so it’s gonna be a first
    time experience.>>You coming tonight?>>Yeah.>>Yeah, hell yeah. [LAUGH].>>Really fun to teach
    for somebody, so I wanna shared for
    my experience. For everybody.>>[FOREIGN].>>Your too late
    on the charge, you have to be
    much faster, okay?>>Receiving. You’re receiving.>>Charge it!>>[INAUDIBLE].>>Ready?>>[INAUDIBLE].>>[NOISE] Huh! Huh! Argh! [APPLAUSE] They wants
    to learn, you know, I’m really happy to
    teach them, you know? [MUSIC] Anyway, after
    the practice, you know, I’m ready to eat
    Chankonabe for recover. Let’s go. [LAUGH] I’m hungry. I make the best
    Chankonabe in this country, but tonight we are all going
    to the Shin Sen Gumi. [MUSIC] Basically we’re planning
    to order pots of Chankonabe. Is that okay
    with everybody?>>Chanko. Chanko.>>There you go.>>Chanko.>>There you go.>>[FOREIGN]. [APPLAUSE]
    Let me taste first. [LAUGH].>>If you’re
    not used to it, it could taste slimey. [MUSIC] Mm, delicious. [MUSIC]>>Hold on, hold on. [MUSIC]>>It’s not about taste. It’s giving you good
    vitamins and protein. You know?>>Very good.>>Yeah. [CROSSTALK].>>First time and it’s
    squishy and delightful.>>I’m from Louisiana so we do a lot of gumbos and
    stuff, and to be honest with you,
    it reminds me of like, that down home
    type cooking.>>Really,
    really moist vegetables. And that spice to it,
    that cabbage is phenomenal with
    that spice. I mean obviously after
    you’ve spent the whole day trying to work
    yourself for three hours, and then having to sit
    and wait an hour for dinner to come
    here when you get something
    this big coming. You have all that
    anticipation, all that exhaustion from
    earlier in the day. It was worth it
    completely 100%. I totally [INAUDIBLE].>>He said his
    body fat when he was about 330 pounds,
    his body fat was 11%.>>Wow.>>When I was 18? 18 years old, yeah.>>Amazing.>>No no now it’s
    getting a little bit bigger [LAUGH].>>You wanna
    spoon from me?>>Thank you. Oh ho, who is this one? Good food.>>Finish it. Come on. Japanese people
    working so hard to put it
    in the ground. So you respect that. You have to eat
    everything, okay?>>Thank you
    >>Yeah. You don’t want to waste
    anything because there’s so much nutrition in
    there that you don’t want to throw it away. You want to absorb
    everything from the bowl. Beer is helpful too,
    not too much but [LAUGH]. How is [INAUDIBLE]?>>Really good.
    [APPLAUSE] [CROSSTALK].>>Everyone is happy? The national’s coming
    up and then U.S. Sumo Open, U.S. Sumo Open
    is coming up, too. So good luck for
    everybody, you know? [SOUND]. And then we have to
    practice tomorrow, too. Remember? [LAUGH].>>[INAUDIBLE].>>[LAUGH].>>[SOUND] So,
    we had a good practice. We got enough food. I gotta go to a nap. So, see you in U.S.
    Sumo open. [MUSIC]

    By train across Sri Lanka | DW Documentary
    Articles, Blog

    By train across Sri Lanka | DW Documentary

    September 1, 2019


    [Music] [Music] mainline railway is supposed to be the most beautiful line in the railway it’s of such-and-such a scenic beauty you cannot get this type of beauty anywhere in the world [Music] [Music] [Music] be it the pearl of the Indian Ocean or the teardrop in the sea both are true on sri lanka the entire island nation including its capital colombo is caught up in an atmosphere of change the civil war that lasted more than a quarter of a century ended in 2009 at the beginning of 2015 the people of sri lanka voted for more democracy in the form of a new president the island formerly known as salon is an idyllic holiday destination for tourists it’s best explored by train a train journey here is always also a journey into the country’s colonial past that much becomes clear before we start our journey at the Central Station in Colombo fort in the heart of the city we buy our tickets at a counter that has a nostalgic air they can then be checked by a friendly conductor this station building was modeled on Victorious station in Manchester the traces of the British colonial rulers are everywhere [Music] the British ruled between 1796 and 1948 things were different back then there are many problems we have the drivers and gas problems there in time they are not into the for their jobs and other other ways the workshop peoples also are not working at time not they are doing their work properly we’re in luck our train bound for badula is waiting already [Music] we set off a tough past eight we’re about to go on a train journey that’s been described as one of the most picturesque in Asia [Music] it will take us from Columbo to Ella in the highlands via candy a journey of around 270 kilometers a special trip on special tracks it was the islands first railway route and it’s still known as mainline the first 54 kilometer stretch to Amber Pusa is celebrating its hundred and fiftieth birthday this year maybe that’s where this train journey gets its charm and atmosphere it’s a train journey that’s always been significant to the people of Sri Lanka originally it was for transport of goods but they had the minimum passenger carriages as well very few passengers traveled but of course with the building of the railways very many in upcountry areas they always liked to travel by train to see go and see the sea see Beach first time in life for them to go and see the sea Beach they traveled by train through ela movie we crossed the Kalani one of Sri Lanka’s largest rivers and leave Colombo behind the entire trip costs between one euro fifty and third-class and eight euros in first-class Sri Lankans are very proud of their railway that I’m traveling alone and it’s quite safe for me I’ve taken the train ever since I was little it feels good you can breathe fresh air and see many things out the window such as mountains rivers and lakes I like that the Train is better than the bus you feel freer and the bus costs around twice as much there’s even a television in first class [Music] those who don’t like that can travel in third class for less money and with a little bit of luck experience some live music [Music] the musician Lou Shanta is actually a teacher but it’s often the case in sri lanka that young well-educated people don’t find a suitable job god please help me please help us please make us our country prosperous a country’s very cool extend the offer United extend er I mean helped existence to develop our country that is the that is the meaning of the song Sri Lanka is classed as a developing country many people live by agriculture often 50 euros a month must suffice for an entire family that’s not a lot here either 20% of the children are malnourished the gaps between town and country rich and poor are huge third class is correspondingly crowded some passengers aren’t happy about the status quo at all [Music] we want to know what it’s like in first class with the televisions we want to have the same services in third class we want improved comfort and greater security the people are dissatisfied with their economic situation that caused president Rajapaksa to be voted out at the last election we’re stopping in ramble karna is just a few minutes by tuk-tuk to Sri Lanka’s biggest tourist attraction [Music] the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage [Music] the daily bath in the Maya aurilla River is a sensation baby elephants and injured adults are nursed back to health here in pinna Willa [Music] this is Neela one of her founder members he is now about 60 years old was first brought in to opine novella in 1975 so in 1975 was the inception of this organization it started off with five baby elephants and he was brought in here as a baby now he’s a very big one and he has fathered about five babies for us we have his daughters and sons with us right now we are housing about 77 elephants all together there are four baby elephants making the tourists happy here at the moment they are bottle-fed six times a day getting up to seven liters of milk the animals are clearly happy some of them have been brought from the jungle some of them have been born here the six elephants are kept separate they have become sick because of certain accidents like train accidents and sometimes fights within the jungle so we keep them here treat them and give them a good life we start ascending the plateau an ox cart takes 12 days for this laborious journey by train it’s around 9 hours building the railway line took place under severe conditions many of the 3,000 workers died of malaria and cholera mainline goes through very rough country it goes through ravines and George’s and cuts cutting cuttings and fillings and embankments and tunneling they are afforded to tunnels from Colombo to Basel it was tedious work in the time the time of construction and the labor was not cooperative and we had no mechanization new modern I raw no kanata no kind of modern a modernized equipment for drilling on laying the tracks all by human labour so it was difficult however the soil that proved so tiresome during the construction of the railway line harbors treasures too there are lots of different gemstones in the ground [Music] they adorn the crowns of monarchs and the jewelry of adored women as a result Sri Lanka has a long and lucrative tradition of gold smithery these days it’s mostly for tourists that brings in good money a goldsmith earns around 200 euros a month James came into the limelight of human life because each and every gem carries a power to heal certain disease this most medical medical medication at the beginning even though now it has become a fashionable thing or in this mud type thing sapphires in many different colors the design is also made in Sri Lanka [Music] we’re about to reach candy we’ve travelled 130 kilometers in three and a half hours the climate is significantly more pleasant at 500 meters candy was once the capital of the single E’s kings and the epitome of single ease culture the kings were able to defend their independence from the colonial powers for centuries here the station was opened as far back as 1867 the blue water lily Sri Lanka’s national flower is sold here it’s often used as a sacrificial gift at Buddhist temples one of the most significant in the whole of Sri Lanka Sri de la da Malaga WA the temple of the sacred tooth the most important Buddhist relic in Sri Lanka is kept here the Buddha’s upper-left cuspid a significant symbol of national pride people come from all around the world to attend the daily services they donate and they pray [Music] the 19 minute puja starts at half past nine the word means something like worship and is an important ritual in everyday Buddhist life according to legend the sacred tooth is said to store the Buddha’s spiritual strength this belief also turned this religious relic into a political instrument of power for the single East Kings Sri Lanka was ruled by kings there were seven royal ruling period in 1815 the British conquered candy and with it the temple of the sacred tooth as an important symbol of power and Sri Lanka pradhan deep initiative patiently waiting outside the chamber where the relic is housed [Music] visitors only get to see a container the tooth isn’t on display it’s said to be housed in an ivory capsule which is in turn encased in six further containers it’s thanks to the temple that candy is on UNESCO’s List of World Heritage Sites there’s a further spectacle worth watching right next to the temple in the late afternoon as a rod on your batters bats otherwise known as flying foxes are getting comfortable candy is also known for its dance performances these men and women are just getting ready for one the tradition dates back to the time of the last kings of candy ah nice and with this dance troupe has performed since 1932 in the past the dance was for the entertainment of the king if the king was sick the dance was used to cure him we even had healing festivals today the dances are mostly for the tourists why d’ya Watty comes from a long line of dancers the dancing tradition is passed on from generation to generation [Music] the training is tough and starts every day of 5:00 in the morning performances take place all year-round with very little time off the performances consist of up to 11 different items balancing these discs is called the Rabanne dance [Music] the performance lasts for about an hour [Music] we’ve left candy behind [Music] the mountain landscape has some visual treats in store for us other treats or waiters on the train Neil Amy sells small snacks in the carriages he’s done this for many years it provides a living for his family he has three children [Music] I’d prepare the food at home and bring it to the Train I’ve been doing this for 20 years vada is a small snack you take 2 or 3 pieces I make a living doing this my regulars like my pure vibe that’s why I always bring freshly baked goods I have a permit and I’m allowed to sell it on the train the passengers liked it too we’re gradually getting used to the gentle rocking of the Train the women’s colorful clothes strikers again and again the mainline snakes its way higher and higher up the plateau [Applause] the working population up here mainly the women are employed in the many textile companies their goods are Sri Lanka’s most important industrial export [Applause] with wages at just fifty euros a month manual labor is no luxury and it’s cheap compared to purchasing a loom the women get to pick the colors we tend to use strong bright colors in a day you can weave a sarong that’s around 2 meters long the thread is spun on the spindle they’ve made themselves the thin yarn of the sarong is very water absorbent it’s made of cotton and very pleasant on the skin silk is less practical in the mountains where it rains a lot a cotton sarong is better [Music] we’re apparently really lucky with the weather today we’re told on the train that there hasn’t been a single day without rain up here in two and a half years [Music] [Music] the British originally built the railway line to transport tea from the mountains to the port of Columbo at first tea was merely a substitute for coffee which had been affected by a fungus coffee rust the British recruited Highland Tamils from southern India as cheap labor [Music] [Music] to this day tea is harvested on the unimaginably large area of 2,000 210 square kilometers a safe job for many we work on the plantations picking tea leaves we thank our president for that it’s good work the income from the tea plantation made the former salon the favorite colony of the British in those days the tea pickers only got rice as wages today they get a bit more than 3 euros a day working from sunrise to sunset but that’s not something they like to talk about this is where the famous salon tea comes from we’re in one of the countless tea factories and we’re proudly told what makes it special young tender subtly maybe the better portion of the leaf and the coarse stalks and the metroid leaf can be the substandard material where you have less chemical compounds where the young leaf is concerned they have the better quality and the flavor by the way of chemical compound the caffeine amino acids polyphenol and some aromatics and essential oil are very rich when the leaf is young a hundred people work in the helper T Factory which is around a hundred years old after the tea leaves are dried they’re broken up by being rolled and shaken after that they’re fermented and dried the next step is to sort the tea by size sri lanka is one of the world’s biggest tea exporters during the founding years the construction of the railway line had to keep up with the opening of new tea plantations in the highlands [Music] the railway has long since lost the significance it had in those days this time for the mainland was during the time of the British when they were transporting the produce and the tea is being produced over there with the changeover to road transport not a pound of tea had been transported by train today these days only around 1% of goods are transported by rail mr. Yan occur has made sure for the past 33 years that everything runs smoothly I’m the senior conductor on the train during the whole trip which makes me responsible for the lives of the passengers and for the railway property for everything that happens on the way [Music] a token is just being handed over it’s in this brass ring covered in leather it ensures safety on this single track route and has done since 1901 when I pass on the token the train driver has the permission to travel to the next station I have to ring four times to get this token that’s how they know at the next station that a train is coming they ring four times in response and block that token that unlocks my token I can get it out and give it to the next train which can then travel safely to the next station [Music] [Music] the token is unlocked and given to the train driver on the next train [Music] unfortunately there are no longer any train tracks from nanu Oriya station to the famous hill station of nuwara eliya the writer hermann hesse of Steppenwolf fame had an enjoyable stay here in 1911 it’s pleasantly fresh at a height of nineteen hundred meters the British called the small town little England and indeed we can picture Miss Marple posting a letter here time seems to have stood still since 1876 in the time-honored Hill Club in those days the plantation owners relaxed here over a game of billiards the laundry might be drying there today but in those days that’s where the colonial rulers watched horse races everything was to be like a home away from home it’s rare for horse races to take place here these days [Music] things follow a slower pace on the racetracks these days another relic from the British period Sri Lanka’s most sophisticated Golf Club actually this was started by the old British planters and and they kept on looking after it very well like it was the it was not mainly for commercial activity this is maintained like a mayor members club because the because it was maintained like a members Club it was not so commercially oriented people started loving this place so it’s more than the tourist is actually the members who used to come to the pavilion and also to play golf as I say the survival I mean limited and also the people around this place they started loving this place visitors need temporary club membership to play the 18 hole course the club has shaped the life of Sri Lanka’s highest town for the past 125 years entire families used to live here even children were born on club premises well can it be many white gentlemen lifts on the plantations back then they came here to pass their tongue when I was between 10 and 15 I worked for them as a cabman and was allowed to play – that’s how I started in 1971 I became free golf champion of Sri Lanka [Music] we’re back at nanu Orias station we listen to the music of Clarence V Govardhana the Sri Lankan King of Pop now long dead [Music] a change of vehicle we participate in an inspection on a trolley of course the token is a must on this trip to maintaining the railway is quite elaborate work in Sri Lanka particularly up here in the mountains I generally help the senior railway staff in their monitoring work the trolley is used for maintenance and if there’s been a derailment or a landslide it takes railway staff to the sea the heavy rainfall during the wet season causes a lot of damage to the track then it has to be fixed [Music] [Music] we visit a British manor house but a slightly higher altitude it houses a monastery these days sent Benedict’s father Michael has run it for 22 years he runs the school for the novices and takes care of the property too [Music] the fruit being chopped up here ready to make jam is called an elephant apple or wood apple [Music] we started this damn industry for the maintenance of the house in the beginning we started with the marmalade and strawberry jam and guava jelly so these three varieties we started in the beginning but later we develop into different other items and still we are continuing what we started in the beginning for almost 50 years now a long-standing tradition lunch is being prepared at the same time the fruits are also used as medicine before they ripen sixty-year-old Chandra is a master of his field he has stirred and stirred and stirred ever since he was 13 if I take the jam off the fire at the right time it will last for years you can keep it for up to six years there’s a big demand for it despite the large quantity I make there’s nothing left over it’s the jams consistency that determines the right time here – everything’s done by hand Chandra produces up to a thousand jars every season [Music] the Train heads into the mountains on the main line twice a day unfortunately the weather’s becoming increasingly British [Music] the total length of Sri Lanka’s rail network is around 1,500 kilometers the gauge is wider than the regular standard gauge it is thousand six hundred and seventy six millimeters engage or five feet six inches in feet and inches it is known as the broad gauge railway because they are the ideal situation for transport of wood is the broadest gauge because they can bring more load so they they have to delayed the religious LED broad gauge here in Chile’s lon India Pakistan Bangladesh it’s ideal for transporting tea the token is ready the next station is Patti Paula [Music] at 1891 meters it’s real anchors highest station time has a different dimension up here the employees have to expect a number of difficulties appear roads can wash away it can rain sometimes we have dew or Frost in the morning saw animals get in the way of the Train such as the Sri Lankan tiger or wild boar or deer summers they can cause problems that take them we haven’t seen any animals and it’s no surprise in this weather but at last we reach the highlight of our trip quite literally thousand eight and eighty one meter height here at the railway summit here in particular which is supposed to be a Guinness world of records it is given John Marshall’s Book of Guinness world of records feats facts and fix of railways it is given at the highest point reached on a broad gauge railway it’s also quite inhospitable [Music] we’re 224 kilometers from Colombo now the further away we are from the islands capital the fewer passengers there are on the train towards the afternoon our limbs become tired we notice the altitude we deserve a bit of relaxation the region around ala is known for its spa facilities the hard-working tea pickers can only dream of visiting them [Music] you have to bring some time with you when you come here a relaxing Ayurveda massage takes 80 minutes [Music] speciation it’s a special massage all 107 vital spots that improves blood flow which influences the organs of insulting Aparna it gives you a lot of energy same blood circulation [Music] the Indian art of healing has a long-standing tradition on sri lanka to [Music] [Applause] the holistic approach of Ayurveda and a calming view of nature [Music] the steam bath with healing herbs is also good for relaxation it reduces cholesterol levels cuts weight and cleanses the skin [Music] it’s paradise [Music] we are completely relaxed on our final leg to Ella [Music] this stretch is definitely one of the most attractive in the whole of Asia that’s why it’s best to think about its future mainline should continue as a heretic railway and it’ll be by the it might be handed over to the UNESCO for conversion as a heritage railway and then again as a tourist railway I never say I don’t say that it should be stopped for the local passengers the local passenger service should be maintained but whereas for tourism they must develop this area further a good idea because that would secure the continued existence of the main line allowing travelers from all over to discover a new world in just nine hours [Music] [Music] [Music]

    Lawine! Was tun?
    Articles, Blog

    Lawine! Was tun?

    August 30, 2019


    AVALANCHE! What to do? To prepare for the dangers of avalanches on your skiing trip, you should stay on the marked ski runs. Nope, not doing it. Also you should listen for noise under the snow, which indicate danger. Nope, not doing it. And you should always take someone with you. Nope, not doing it? If you are in a avalanche try getting out to the side. Nope, not doing it. Perform swim moves. Nope, not doing it. When the avalanche comes to a stop, form a cavity with your hands in front of your mouth and nose. Nope, not doing it. Stay on the run or you’ll be run over. …or at least take a location transmitter and a avalanche airbag.

    Documentary on Halleck St. (U.S. 231) Railroad Crossing
    Articles, Blog

    Documentary on Halleck St. (U.S. 231) Railroad Crossing

    August 30, 2019


    Hey guys. UltraJoosh here, and I’m going to give you a short documentary of the Halleck Street railroad crossing. I do apologize if the video is kinda muffling me out so I’ll try to talk a little loud. Alright. So, the way I’m facing right now is north. West. South. And there’s east. I’ll show you this. You may be wondering, “What the heck is this here for?” Well, there’s a street going right through here. This is 8th Place. There’s the bell that you heard in “NS Freight Train”. If you didn’t see it, please watch it. And, there’s the south gate right over there. There’s the signal for 8th Street on the opposite side of the tracks. So, I’ll show you the tracks, too. I apologize if the camera’s a little shaky, because I’m walking. Here it is. There’s east and there’s west. Looks like a WC Hayes bell. And, that’s basically it. This is UltraJoosh here and I am out.

    Articles

    This Rail Maintenance Crew Has Plenty on its Plate

    August 28, 2019


    NARRATOR: It took 13
    years and $10.5 billion to build the track
    infrastructure between Madrid and Barcelona. During the day, there
    are so many trains using the high speed
    lines that crews only have a narrow window
    to repair the tracks and power lines at night. [MUSIC PLAYING] Maintenance manager
    Jorge [INAUDIBLE] oversees work on the railbed. [SPEAKING SPANISH] INTERPRETER: This
    machine simulates the passing of some 50,000
    tons between the axles. It allows the ballast
    to be perfectly set. NARRATOR: The machine is called
    a dynamic rail stabilizer. It vibrates the crushed
    rock bedding so it settles evenly under the railway ties. That improves the
    stability of the rails and aligns the track
    for a smoother ride. At the same time, the
    electrical crew checks for bad or broken connections. [SPEAKING SPANISH] INTERPRETER: The
    most complicated things are the power failures
    when the contact line snaps. If it suffers an excessive
    voltage, or if a bird knocks it, or the suspension wire
    falls, the line would be cut, and there could be no train
    traffic for up to 24 hours. NARRATOR: The metal power
    lines and tension wires expand and contract
    with temperature changes so couplings can work loose. INTERPRETER: They are
    going to unscrew a turret and get access to the pole, the
    brackets, and the insulators. We have to check that there
    are no elements that might fall off or become
    loose, because that could cause a serious incident. NARRATOR: Crews inspect
    nearly two miles of track and power lines every shift.

    Röyksopp & Robyn “Monument” (Music Video)
    Articles, Blog

    Röyksopp & Robyn “Monument” (Music Video)

    August 27, 2019


    Make a space
    For my body Dig a hole
    Push the sides apart This is what
    I’m controlling It’s a moat
    The inside that I carve This will be my monument
    This will be a beacon when I’m gone Gone, gone
    When I’m gone So that when the moment comes,
    I can say I did it all with love Love, love
    All with love Make a cast
    Of my body Pull back out,
    So that I can see Let go of
    How you knew me Let go of
    What I used to be I will let this monument
    Represent a moment of my life Life, life
    Of my life Make a cast
    Of my body Pull back out,
    So that I can see Let go of
    How you knew me Let go of
    What I used to be

    Knocking Out The Hejaz Railway I THE GREAT WAR Week 195
    Articles, Blog

    Knocking Out The Hejaz Railway I THE GREAT WAR Week 195

    August 27, 2019


    The Hejaz Railway was a vital supply and communications line for the Ottoman Empire, connecting Damascus and Medina, and this week, Lawrence of Arabia and the forces of the Arab Revolt take a big chunk of it. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. Last week Germany had renewed its Western
    Front offensives as Operation Georgette, the battle of La Lys, began. It was an immediate success, and by the end
    of the week the Germans were just 8 km from Hazebrouck, their target, with the channel
    ports beyond. The Ottomans were advancing in the Caucasus,
    and there was scandal in the Central Powers when the Sixtus Affair came to light – that
    Emperor Karl had considered selling out his German ally. His Foreign Minister Count Czernin was replaced
    this week. One other thing that I mentioned last week
    actually happens this week: Ferdinand Foch is placed in overall control of all Allied
    armies. He ordered the defense of Hazebrouck to be
    as near as possible to the eastern edge of the Nieppe Forest. By now, they had a pretty solid barrier in
    front of the railway town, but Georgette had now changed its objective – it was now the
    Mount Kemmel – Mount des Cats ridge the Germans wanted to take. Still, by the 14th, they were being increasingly
    disappointed. The left wing of the 6th army, like last week,
    made no progress at Festubert and Givenchy. The attackers wanted to call the attack off,
    and German Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff agreed said okay – they would instead attack
    the 17th, north of the Nieppe Forest. The British were really worried about losing
    the channel ports at Calais and Boulogne. There were substitute ports like Le Havre
    and Cherbourg, but they were further away and out of range for smaller ships. “Using larger ships would slow down the
    flow of supplies, but would make it impossible to continue to maintain the blockade at Dover,
    the key anchor in the antisubmarine defense” (German 1918 Offensives) On the 15th, to free up forces to fight in
    the Lys valley, the British pulled back their line north of Ypres, giving up all the territory
    won for a quarter of a million casualties at the Battle of Passchendaele last fall. On the 17th came the new German attack, whose
    objective was to separate the British and Belgians. The attacks could have cut off the Ypres Salient
    had they succeeded, but by evening they had failed, with the Belgians driving the Germans
    back almost to their starting positions. The attack was called off at the end of the
    week, and Operation Georgette had basically turned into a battle of attrition. Ludendorff had the strategic imperative of
    defeating the British to win the war – that’s what he thought would do it, and German Chief
    of Staff Paul von Hindenburg had even written in his memoirs (Offensives), “The attack against the British northern
    wing remained the focal point of our operations. I believed the war would be decided if this
    attack was successful. If we reached the channel coast, we could
    lay our hands directly on Britain’s vital arteries. In so doing, we would not only be in the most
    favorable position conceivable for interrupting her maritime communications, but our heaviest
    artillery would be able to bring a segment of the south coast of Britain under fire.” The Germans weren’t the only Central Power
    trying to advance this week. The Ottomans were on the move against the
    Armenians heading toward the Caucasus. Basically by force of circumstances, and not
    true planning, the Armenian forces were better concentrated by now than before, though. Their roughly 15,000 men could actually do
    something against the 25-30,000 Ottomans advancing on them. The Ottomans attacked on the line between
    Novo-Selim and Agadeve on the 19th. Now, here the Armenians had around 9,000 rifles
    on a front of 40 km, so it was spread pretty thin. Still, though the attackers took a mountain
    overlooking Agadeve, fierce counterattacks pushed them back. But by the end of the day, as Turkish reserves
    arrived, the Armenians were in retreat toward Benliahmet. General Lebedinski, in overall command of
    the defenders, was fairly optimistic about continued resistance and told this to the
    Armenian National Assembly at Alexandropol, which voted in favor of continuing the struggle. Thing is, the Transcaucasian Diet, representing
    the Transcaucasian Federation, trying to negotiate peace with the Ottomans in Trabzon, had a
    bit of a different attitude. They had wanted to accept the Ottoman ultimatum
    for territory we saw a couple weeks ago, and they had been telegraphed authority to do
    so from Tiflis, but the telegram must have been delayed or something, because that was
    on the 10th, and on the 12th, the Ottoman commander of the forces approaching Batum
    sent another ultimatum, to surrender the fortress and surrounding area. When the Diet got this new ultimatum, they
    changed their minds and rejected it, so now from the 14th, there was officially a state
    of war, though the commander of Batum fortress did, in fact, surrender. Further to the south there was action in Palestine. On April 13th, there was an attack by the
    Arab Revolt on Simna, west of Maan. After capturing the outpost, they attacked
    Maan station just east of the town two days later. Taking Maan would prevent the Ottomans from
    making flanking attacks on British General Edmund Allenby’s army. Maan though, was strongly fortified with machine
    guns posts and the attackers were forced to withdraw after two days, taking heavy casualties. The British then attacked the Hejaz Railway
    near Tell Shahm, south of Maan, using armored cars, the Egyptian Camel Corps, and tribesmen. The attack was a big success, taking the station
    and destroying hundreds of meters of rail and the bridges there. Lawrence of Arabia was part of all of these
    attacks, laying bricks of gun cotton to the rails and lighting the fuses. The attackers then turned south to the next
    station, Wadi Rethem. (Setting the desert on fire) “Relying on
    the invincibility of the cars again – to small arms fire at least – (Lieutenant-Colonel Alan)
    Dawnay ordered one car forward to the station, which was then demolished with explosive. Its battered remains can still be seen today
    among the sands – the color of old mustard – on the very south of Jordan.” The Times would report the destruction or
    occupation of 53 miles of the railway, a pretty big feat, though both that paper and the War
    office gave credit solely to the men of the Arab Revolt. And as those small attacks continued, Austrian
    Emperor Karl was now planning a big one. I said last week that his Foreign Minister
    Count Czernin was dismissed this week – the 14th – by Karl over the Sixtus Affair. Before his fall, though, he had recommended
    a new offensive against Italy in the late spring, and Karl had agreed, possibly hoping
    it would restore his standing in Germany, damaged by the affair. The Germans would actually insist on the offensive
    in return for food shipments, and German High Command liked the idea as a support for German
    Western Front attacks. For AH, it was a chance to capture some much-needed
    supplies, make Rome negotiate, and have some say in what they saw as impending German victory. They were even going to use similar methods
    of attack to the German ones of Operation Michael, and since they were now getting a
    lot of prisoners of war returned from Russia, who’d left the war, they were bringing their
    army back up to strength and figured they’d attack before Italy could recover any more
    from its defeat last November. And here are a bunch of notes to end the week. On the 14th, French PM Georges Clemenceau
    says France does not recognize the current Russian Bolshevik government. On the 15th, Germans report the occupation
    of Helsinki. Also on the 15th, Greek troops cross Struma
    River and occupy villages in the Seres district on the Macedonian Front, and at the end of
    the week on that front, the Italians attacked at Cerna Bend, but they were repulsed. On April 18th in Britain, the Third Military
    Service Bill receives royal assent. It’s supposed to be the last manpower measure
    of the war. The military age is raised to 50 and if necessary
    to 55. Returned POWs and those who’ve completed
    tours of duty are liable to further service. A national emergency may be declared and all
    exemptions to service withdrawn. And that was the week. The Germans trying and failing to push the
    British back to the Channel, the Armenians being pushed back by the Ottomans in eastern
    Anatolia, but the Ottomans losing in Palestine, and Austria making plans for a renewed offensive
    against Italy. Funny, I said at the beginning of the year
    that Austria-Hungary had decided it would make no new offensives this year, but the
    situation had changed. With Russia out of the war, hundreds of thousands
    of prisoners were returning to their Empire, restoring the army. Thing is, the empire was still starving and
    desperately needed to get or take resources and munitions from someone, and the nations
    of the empire were now demanding autonomy; Karl really needed this – not for a glorious
    victory in battle, not even to win the war, but just for mere survival. That’s how far the Habsburg Empire had fallen. By the way, this time 100 years ago, the Royal
    Air Force was now just a little over two weeks old. Our friend Bismarck explores the foundation
    of this independent Air Force on his channel about military aviation history right here
    – and we highly recommend that you check it out. Our Patreon supporter is Dhruv Kapoor – thank
    you for your ongoing support on Patreon – we could not make this show without you. Don’t forget to subscribe, see you next
    time.

    CAIRO’s Beloved Metro
    Articles, Blog

    CAIRO’s Beloved Metro

    August 26, 2019


    Hi, I’m Karin, and welcome to Our Human Planet. Cairo may be congested and confusing, but it does have one thing that few African countries can boast about. A metro system. The metro is universally loved. It has saved the city from complete paralysis. When it gets hot, the population escapes underground. In this often chaotic city, the metro is something of a miracle. Efficient and orderly, Egyptians often say it’s the only thing in Cairo that never breaks down. Even in the middle of a revolution. It’s extremely inexpensive – a metro ride costs one Egyptian pound about sixteen cents and best of all it’s air conditioned. Almost 4 million people ride Cairo’s subways every day. It’s one of only two metro systems
    in all of Africa. On every train the fourth and fifth cars are reserved for women. It’s meant to protect them from sexual harassment and it’s made the subway one of the safest forms of transport in Egypt. Though the women can push just as hard as the men. Mostly they chat comfortably with each other, or read the Koran. Though they do insist their carriage smells much better than the men’s.