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    Silver Linings: The Early Days of Idaho’s Silver Valley
    Articles, Blog

    Silver Linings: The Early Days of Idaho’s Silver Valley

    August 13, 2019


    THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM IS A
    PRODUCTION OF KSPS PUBLIC TELEVISION AND IS
    MADE POSSIBLE BY THE FRIENDS OF SEVEN. (NARRATOR) IT IS KNOWN
    AS IDAHO’S SILVER VALLEY. IT COVER’S NO MORE THAN
    30 MILES SQUARE. YET IT’S BOUNDARIES ENCOMPASS ALL
    THE ELEMENTS THAT HAVE COME TO DEFINE THE
    AMERICAN FRONTIER. AND THE RICHES EXPORTED FROM
    ITS HEART. BUILT THE FOUNDATION FOR MODERN
    CIVILIZATION IN THE INLAND NORTHWEST. ALONG THIS VALLEY FLOOR
    INDUSTRIAL EMPIRES ROSE. THE RAILROADS. LOGGING.
    AND ESPECIALLY MINING USHERED IN THE 20TH
    CENTURY. AT ONE OF THE LAST OUTPOSTS OF THE
    WESTERN FRONTIER. YET DESPITE ITS RUGGED AND
    REMOTE LOCALE. A SILVER STAGE WAS SET HERE WHERE
    STORYLINES OF LAW VERSES FRONTIER JUSTICE. BIG
    BUSINESS VERSES LABOR. AND IMMIGRATION DISCRIMINATION
    WOULD UNFOLD. WITHIN THESE DEEP VALLEY
    WALLS THE PROSPECTORS . THE MINE OWNERS ALL PLAYED
    A PART . AS DID THE REST OF THE COLORFUL ROGUES
    THAT NOW PERSONIFY THE WEST. FAMED PINKERTON
    DETECTIVES. MURDEROUS ASSASSINS. WILY STORE
    KEEPS. AND MADAMS. ALL PLAYED THEIR ROLES
    TO PERFECTION. THE FINAL CHAPTER OF THEIR
    STORIES VARIES. BUT THE PLOT LINE THAT BROUGHT
    THEM ALL TOGETHER. WAS ALWAYS THEIR SEARCH
    FOR SILVER LININGS. IT WAS 1883 WHEN THE
    WHISPERED STILLNESS OF THIS REMOTE TERRITORY
    ROARED INTO A STAMPEDE. THAT’S WHEN IT BECAME
    PUBLIC THAT ANDREW J. PRICHARD HAD STRUCK GOLD
    ALONG A TRIBUTARY OF THE NORTH FORK OF THE COEUR
    D’ALENE RIVER REFERRED TO AS EAGLE CREEK. (AIKEN) CERTAINLY HE IS
    CREDITED WITH A LOT OF THE DISCOVERY. AND IT’S LIKE MOST RUSHES,
    THEY TRIED TO KEEP IT SECRET, AND NOT TELL
    ANYONE SO THAT THEY WOULDN’T HAVE ALL OF THIS
    COMPETITION, BUT IT’S THE KIND OF SECRET THAT’S
    ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO KEEP, AND SOMEONE WOULD SEND A
    LETTER TO SOMEONE ELSE, AND THEN WORD WOULD
    SPREAD, AND ALL OF A SUDDEN PEOPLE WOULD
    COME IN HUGE NUMBERS. (NARRATOR) BEFORE THEIR
    ARRIVAL. THE MOUNTAINS OF WHAT WOULD BECOME NORTH
    IDAHO HAD REMAINED LARGELY UNTOUCHED. MOST WHO HAD VENTURED HERE
    MERELY PASSED THROUGH. (AMONSON) BEFORE THE RUSH,
    THE AREA WAS ESSENTIALLY UNINHABITED. THERE WAS A SMALL AH,
    NUMBER OF NATIVE AMERICANS IN THE VICINITY OF THE
    CATALDO MISSION WHICH AH, WAS CONSTRUCTED
    BEGINNING 1850. (NARRATOR) COMPLETED IN
    1857 THE MISSION WAS THE AREA’S ONLY BEACON OF
    HUMAN INHABITATION OTHER THAN AN OCCASIONAL
    PROSPECTOR’S CABIN. EVEN SO .THERE ARE REPORTS
    THAT OTHERS HAD HAPPENED UPON GOLD IN THE AREA
    EVEN BEFORE PRICHARD. WHILE THE MINERAL STRIKES
    IN PIERCE . FLORENCE . IDAHO AND SILVER CITIES
    WERE IN FULL SWING IN THE EARLY 1860’S . CAPTAIN
    JOHN MULLEN WAS BUSY BUILDING A MILITARY WAGON
    TRIAL FROM FORT WALLA WALLA ON THE COLUMBIA
    TO FORT BENTON ALONG THE MISSOURI IN MONTANA. THIS 624-MILE TRAIL RAN
    RIGHT THROUGH WHAT WOULD BECOME THE SILVER VALLEY
    AND WAS NAMED AFTER ITS ARCHITECT . JOHN MULLEN. (AMONSON) THE STORY THERE
    IS FAIRLY WELL DOCUMENTED. IT’S ONE OF HIS, THE
    INDIVIDUALS FROM ONE OF HIS HUNTING PARTIES AH,
    DID FIND GOLD, DID BRING IT BACK AND HE WAS
    NOT WELL BELIEVED. AH, PEOPLE APPARENTLY HAD
    ASSUMED THAT MAYBE HE HAD TRADED THIS GOLD FROM AH,
    AH, OTHER PEOPLE COMING THROUGH, TRAPPERS OR,
    OR OTHER INDIVIDUALS. SO THAT WAS DOWNPLAYED,
    AND I THINK SOMEWHAT INTENTIONALLY BY JOHN
    MULLEN, BECAUSE AH, HE DIDN’T WANT TO LOOSE HIS
    ROAD BUILDING CREW TO A GOLD RUSH. STORIES LIKE THIS ARE NOT
    UNCOMMON IN THE SILVER VALLEY AND HISTORY CAN
    BE HARD TO SEPARATE FROM LORE. SO WHILE OTHERS MIGHT HAVE
    FOUND GOLD IN THE AREA EARLIER . IN THE ANNALS
    OF HISTORY IT IS ANDREW J. PRICHARD THAT IS CREDITED
    AS THE MAN WHO FIRST STRUCK IT RICH IN
    THE COEUR D’ALENE’S. IT CAN BE ARGUED THOUGH
    THAT THOSE WHO EXPERIENCED THE FIRST SIGNIFICANT
    FINANCIAL BENEFITS WORKED FOR THE RAILROADS. (BENNETT) THAT GOLD RUSH
    IS AS IT WAS CALLED WAS GREATLY SPARKED BY THE
    UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY WHICH HAD JUST COMPLETED
    A NEW RAIL LINE INTO THE VERY SMALL TOWN
    OF SPOKANE FALLS. AND TO PROMOTE PASSENGER
    TRAFFIC ON THEIR NEW RAILROAD, THEY PLASTERED
    THE WHOLE COUNTRY WITH, WITH THESE HANDBILLS
    TOUTING THE GREAT RICHES OF THE FABULOUS GOLD FIND
    IN THE CDA AND IT WORKED. 5000 PEOPLE WITHIN A YEAR
    POURED INTO THE MURRAY PRITCHARD AREA. (NARRATOR) HOWEVER THE
    RAILROAD DIDN’T REALLY GO TO WHERE THE RUSH WAS. ON THE MONTANA SIDE. THE
    TRACKS ENDED AT BELKNAP. THIS LEFT STAMPEDERS WITH
    MORE THAN 25 MILES OF ROAD LESS WILDERNESS AND A
    MOUNTAIN PASS TO TRAVERSE. THE CLOSEST JUNCTION ON
    THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS WAS AT RATHDRUM. THE OTHER MAJOR OBSTACLE
    STAMPEDERS HAD TO CONTEND WITH WAS THE WEATHER. (AIKEN) WELL, IT’S
    WINTERTIME AND THERE’S LOTS OF SNOW AND IT’S VERY
    COLD, AND SO, TRAVEL IS INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT,
    GETTING SUPPLIES IS VERY DIFFICULT, AND PROSPECTING
    IS VERY DIFFICULT. (NARRATOR) BUT NO ONE
    DARED WAIT FOR SPRING. FOR FEAR THAT THE BEST CLAIMS
    WOULD ALREADY BE STAKED. SO THOUSANDS OF STAMPEDERS
    OF ALL TYPES ENDURED THE ELEMENTS IN THE WINTER OF
    1883- 84 TO PARTICIPATE IN ONE OF LAST GOLD
    RUSHES IN THE WEST. (AMONSON) I THINK THERE
    WAS A MIX OF PEOPLE, CERTAINLY A NUMBER OF
    PEOPLE WHO HAD MAYBE PARTICIPATED IN
    EARLIER GOLD RUSHES. SO THEY HAD SOME IDEA WHAT
    THEY WERE FACED WITH, AND THEY BROUGHT IN SUPPLIES. BUT I STILL THINK THERE
    WERE QUITE A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO CAME IN, WHAT
    I CALL SOMEWHAT BLINDLY. THINKING THERE WAS GOING
    TO BE SO MUCH GOLD THERE, I JUST HAVE TO HAVE ENOUGH
    PACKED ON MY BACK TO, TO LAST ME FOR A FEW DAYS
    UNTIL I GET RICH, AND THEN I’LL BE ABLE TO
    SURVIVE JUST FINE. (NARRATOR) THE FIRST TOWN
    SET UP SO PEOPLE COULD SURVIVE THE WINTER
    WAS CALLED EAGLE CITY. (AIKEN) WELL, I COULD TELL
    YOU THAT THE TERM “CITY” APPLIED TO ANY PLACE IN N. ID IS SOMEWHAT A MISNOMER,
    AND CERTAINLY AN ATTEMPT TO EXAGGERATE ITS
    IMPORTANCE AND WHAT WE’RE REALLY TALKING
    ABOUT IS SOME TENTS. (NARRATOR) BESIDES THE
    PROSPECTORS THE ELEMENTS NECESSARY TO CREATE A BOOM
    TOWN ARE RELATIVELY FEW. (AIKEN) WHAT A MINING
    DISTRICT REQUIRES IS SOMEONE THAT COOKS FOOD,
    OR HAS FOOD AVAILABLE. AHM, GENERALLY WOMEN
    WHO PRACTICE THE OLDEST PROFESSION ARE OFTEN EARLY
    INHABITANTS, AND LAWYERS, WHO ALWAYS COME TO MINING
    DISTRICTS, BECAUSE ONCE PEOPLE START PLACING
    CLAIMS, THEN THEY HAVE ARGUMENTS ABOUT THEM. SO THOSE ARE THE, THE
    ELEMENTS OF ALL MINING DISTRICTS. (NARRATOR) AND THEY WERE
    ALL IN PLACE BY 1884 WHEN THE SPRING THAW REVEALS
    THAT MOST OF THE GOLD DEPOSITS ALONG THE NEWLY
    NAMED PRICHARD CREEK ARE BURIED AMONGST UPWARDS
    OF 25 FEET OF GRAVEL. IT’S CALLED PLACER GOLD
    BECAUSE IT’S NOT IN A VEIN . BUT MIXED IN FREELY WITH
    LOOSE ROCK LIKE THAT FOUND ALONG RIVER AND
    STREAM BEDS. THIS MEANS THAT MOST OF
    THE MINING IN 1884 AND 1885 IS CARRIED OUT ALONG
    TRIBUTARIES AND GULCHES. PLACER MINING IS HIGHLY
    DEPENDENT ON THE USE OF WATER. A RESOURCE THAT WAS
    OFTEN TOO ABUNDANT IN THE SPRING AND TOO
    SCARCE BY SUMMER. (NARRATOR) NEVER THE LESS.
    DREDGING BY HAND . WITH SLUICES AND EVEN WITH
    HYDRAULICS THE PROSPECTORS STRIPPED AWAY SOIL IN
    SEARCH OF THEIR FORTUNES. THE GOLD RUSH IN THE COEUR
    D’ALENE’S WAS SHORT LIVED . BUT MORE THAN HALF A
    MILLION DOLLARS OF THE PRECIOUS METAL WAS TAKEN
    FROM THE DISTRICT IN 1884 AND 85 BY THE LABOR
    INTENSE METHODS OF PLACER MINING. IT DIDN’T TAKE LONG FOR
    MURRAYVILLE. LATER KNOW AS MURRAY TO SURPASS EAGLE
    CITY AS THE LARGEST CONCENTRATION OF TENTS
    AND SHACKS THROWN UP ALONG PRICHARD CREEK. FOUNDED IN JANUARY OF
    1884. BY LATE SUMMER ITS POPULATION HAD
    BOOMED TO 25-HUNDRED. A VISITING JOURNALIST
    WRITING FOR CENTURY MAGAZINE DESCRIBED ITS
    HALF-MILE-LONG STREET. “A MORE UNATTRACTIVE PLACE
    THAN MURRAY I HAVE SELDOM SEEN. STUMPS AND HALF-CHARRED
    LOGS ENCUMBER THE STREETS, AND SERVE AS SEATS
    FOR THE INHABITANTS. CHAIRS CAN ONLY BE FOUND
    IN THE PRINCIPAL GAMBLING ESTABLISHMENTS. EVERY SECOND BUILDING IS A
    DRINKING SALOON. THE TOWN WAS FULL OF MEN OUT OF
    EMPLOYMENT AND OUT OF MONEY, WHO HUNG ABOUT THE
    SALOONS AND CURSED THE CAMP IN ALL STYLES OF
    PROFANITY KNOWN TO THE MINERS’ VOCABULARY.” (NARRATOR) UNSEEMLY OR NO.
    MURRAY WAS NOW THE LARGEST TOWN IN THE
    TERRITORIAL COUNTY. LESS THAN A YEAR LATER. IN
    1885. IT WOULD BECOME THE SHOSHONE COUNTY SEAT AND
    WOULD REMAIN SO FOR 13 YEARS. ITS HEYDAY WOULDN’T
    HAVE LASTED THAT LONG IF DISGRUNTLED GOLD MINERS
    HADN’T FOUND SOMETHING WITH AN EVEN
    BRIGHTER SHINE. (BENNETT) MAY 22 1884,
    JOHN CARTUN AND ALMEDA SEYMOUR WERE LEADING A
    PACK TRAIN ON THE OLD TRAIL THAT WENT FROM THE
    SOUTH FORK OF THE COEUR D’ALENE RIVER UP CANYON
    CREEK AS WE CALL IT NOW. THERE WAS NOTHING AT
    BURK THERE WAS NOTHING AT WALLACE AT THE TIME. PROBABLY ONE OF THOSE PACK
    ANIMALS KICKED LOOSE SOME ROCK AND WHEN THEY LOOKED
    AT THE ROCK THEY SAW THIS REAL SHINY MATERIAL ON IT,
    AND THAT SHINY MATERIAL IS THE MINERAL WE
    CALL GALENA. AND GALENA IS THE
    COMBINATION OF LEAD AND SULFUR AND IN THE COEUR
    D’ALENE CARRIES A LITTLE BIT OF SILVER IN IT AND
    THEY STAKED WHAT WAS CALLED THE TIGER MINE AND
    THAT WAS THE FIRST LOAD MINE AS IT IS CALLED
    WAS LOCATED IN THE COEUR D’ALENE DISTRICT. (NARRATOR) IT WAS THE
    GLIMMER OF GALENA THAT PUT THE COEUR D’ALENE’S
    PERMANENTLY ON THE MAP AS ONE OF RICHEST MINING
    REGIONS IN AMERICA. (BENNETT) AFTER THE
    INITIAL DISCOVERY BY CARTER SEYMOUR WITHIN A
    YEAR ALMOST EVERY DEPOSIT THAT WOULD BECOME A MAJOR
    MINE WITHIN THE CDA HAD BEEN DISCOVERED. THAT’S HOW GOOD
    THESE GUYS WERE. THEY HAD NO FORMAL
    GEOLOGIC TRAINING I AM A LITTLE EMBARRASSED TO SAY. UH, THEY FOUND LITERALLY
    EVERY THING THAT WAS GOING TO BECOME A MAJOR MINE. (NARRATOR) WITH NAMES
    LIKE THE POORMAN. STAR. STANDARD MAMMOTH. BLACK
    BEAR. SAN FRANCISCO AND GEM OF THE MOUNTAINS.
    THE QUARTZ LADEN MINERAL OUTCROPPINGS IN CANYON
    CREEK WERE CLAIMED. AND THE TOWN OF BURKE WAS
    OPENED FOR BUSINESS. NEAR MULLEN THE GOLD
    HUNTER. MORNING AND EVENING MINES WERE STAKED. FURTHER DOWN THE TRIAL .
    THE POLARIS CLAIM WHICH WOULD BECOME PART OF THE
    HECLA MINING COMPANY WAS JOINED BY A CLAIM
    CALLED THE YANKEE LODE. IT WOULD LATER BECOME PART
    OF THE FAMOUS SUNSHINE MINE. SOON THERE WOULD BE NEARLY
    A HUNDRED LOADS DISCOVERED IN THE DISTRICT. (NARRATOR) THE MOST
    LEGENDARY OF THESE DISCOVERIES INVOLVED A MAN
    AND A BURRO. AND IN THIS CASE THE DISCOVERY IS JUST
    THE BEGINNING OF A TAIL WHERE FACT AND LORE
    INTERTWINE AS A MATTER OF LAW. IN 1885. A THEN
    63-YEAR-OLD NOAH KELLOGG WAS SCRAPING BY DOING
    ODD JOBS AROUND MURRAY. (AMONSON) AND IN BETWEEN
    ONE OF THOSE ODD JOB TIMES IN HIS LIFE HE DECIDED
    HE WOULD LIKE TO DO SOME PROSPECTING. AND TALKED COOPER AND PECK
    INTO GIVING HIM WHAT THEY CALL A GRUB STAKE. (NARRATOR) GRUB STAKES
    WERE COMMON BETWEEN PROSPECTORS AND MERCHANT
    TYPES SUCH AS COOPER AND PECK. FOR FRONTING THE SUPPLIES
    THE INVESTORS WERE ENTITLED TO 50% OF ANY
    CLAIM KELLOGG MADE. (AIKEN) COOPER AND PECK
    DIDN’T THINK HE HAD MUCH OF A CHANCE OF FINDING
    ANYTHING, BUT THE WHOLE TOWN HAD KEPT AWAKE FOR
    SEVERAL EVENINGS AH, IN THE LAST MONTH OR SO
    WITH THIS JACKASS WHO WAS BRAYING LOUDLY. AND SO THEY SAID TO HIM,
    WE’LL GIVE YOU THIS GRUB STAKE IF YOU WILL TAKE
    THIS JACKASS WITH YOU AND GET HIM OUT OF TOWN SO
    WE CAN GET SOME SLEEP. (BENNETT) SUPPOSEDLY, UH,
    NOAH WOKE UP ONE MORNING AND HE HEARD THE JACKASS
    UH STANDING ON BRAYING ON THE THIS OUTCROP OF THIS
    FABULOUS ORE BODY WHICH WAS SHINING IN THE SUN’S
    LIGHT LIKE A MIRROR UH. IT’S AN OXIDIZED ORE BODY,
    WHICH WASN’T SHINING AT ALL BUT NEVERTHELESS
    A GREAT STORY. (AMONSON) I’M KIND OF
    INCLINED TO THINK, WELL YES THE JACKASS WAS
    INVOLVED, BUT AH, THE DEGREE OF INVOLVEMENT
    IS STILL IN QUESTION. THERE’S ONLY TWO, TWO
    LIVING THINGS THERE AH THAT CAME THERE FROM
    MURRAY, DISCOUNTING THE NORMAL WILDLIFE. AND THAT WAS THE JACKASS
    AND THAT WAS NOAH, SO, YOU KNOW, WHICHEVER, AND
    THERE’S ONLY ONE OF THEM THAT COULD TALK. AND AS IT TURNED OUT NOAH
    KELLOGG PROBABLY WISHED HE HADN’T TALKED EITHER. TELLING PEOPLE. EVEN IF
    IT WERE IN JEST. THAT THE JACKASS HAD LED HIM TO
    DISCOVER THE OUTCROPPING. COMPOUNDED THE SERIOUS
    LEGAL PROBLEMS KELLOGG SOON FACED. (AIKEN) HE HAD ACTUALLY,
    AHM, CLAIMED TWO CLAIMS, THE BUNKER HILL CLAIM
    AND THE SULLIVAN CLAIM. AND HE HAD CLAIMED THEM
    A HALF FOR HIMSELF AND A QUARTER EACH FOR HIS STORE
    KEEPS, COOPER AND PECK, BUT WHEN HE GOT BACK TO
    TOWN AND PEOPLE STARTED TO, HIS FRIENDS STARTED TO
    TALK TO HIM, THEY DECIDED THAT MAYBE THAT WASN’T
    SUCH A GOOD IDEA. SO AT LEAST ACCORDING
    TO THE STORY, THEY ALL HUSTLED BACK AHM, TO, TO
    WHAT BECAME WARDNER, AND CHANGED THE, THE CLAIMS TO
    REFLECT A DIFFERENT SET OF OF FOLKS. THE FRIENDS WERE NAMED
    PHIL O’ROURKE AND CORNELIUS SULLIVAN . AND
    THEIR NAMES APPEARED ON THE SECOND SET OF CLAIMS
    . WHICH CAME AS QUITE A SURPRISE TO COOPER AND PECK. (BENNETT) THEY SENT THEIR
    OWN MAN BACK DOWN INTO THE AREA TO SEE WHAT WAS GOING
    ON AND APPARENTLY THEY FOUND THE DISCARDED CLAIM
    NOTICE AND I LIKE TO SAY IT’S NOT GOOD TO LITTER
    NOW AND IT WASN’T GOOD TO LITTER BACK THEN. IT COULD GET
    YOU IN TROUBLE. AND THEY IMMEDIATELY
    SUED FOR A HALF OF THE OWNERSHIP OF THE OF
    THE BUNKER HILL MINE. (NARRATOR) COOPER AND
    PECK WERE AWARDED A HALF INTEREST IN THE BUNKER
    HILL CLAIM AND A FOURTH OF THE SULLIVAN CLAIM. THUS IS THE BEGINNING OF
    THE BIGGEST COMPANY TO EVER OPERATE IN
    THE DISTRICT. ITS HEYDAY HAS PASSED .
    BUT AT ITS PEAK THE BUNKER HILL WOULD EMPLOY ABOUT
    2700 HUNDRED PEOPLE WITH A PAYROLL REACHING NEARLY
    50-MILLION DOLLARS IN 1980. TO DATE THE BUNKER HILL
    HAS TURNED OUT MORE THAN 40 MILLION TONS OF ORE
    CONTAINING 3.2 MILLION TONS OF LEAD . 162 MILLION
    OUNCES OF SILVER AND 1.3 MILLION TONS OF ZINC. NONE OF THE ORIGINAL CLAIM
    HOLDERS WOULD STILL BE OWNERS BY THE TIME THE
    BUNKER HILL BEGAN TO REACH ITS FULL POTENTIAL. THIS IS A COMMON SET OF
    CIRCUMSTANCES IN A MINING DISTRICT. MINES WERE ALMOST ALWAYS
    DEVELOPED BY SOMEONE OTHER THAN THE PROSPECTOR IS
    BECAUSE WITH HARD ROCK MINING IT IS NOT ENOUGH
    TO SIMPLY FILE A PROMISING CLAIM. YOU MUST ALSO HAVE
    THE KNOWLEDGE. MEANS AND CUNNING TO DEVELOP IT. (BENNETT) KELLOGG AND
    COOPER PECK AND ALL THE REST OF THE THEM THAT WERE
    INVOLVED IN THE INITIAL DISCOVERY OF BUNKER HILL
    MINE DID NOT HAVE THE KNOW HOW OR THE WHERE-WITH-ALL
    OR THE CAPITOL TO ACTUALLY DEVELOP A MINE AS BIG AS
    THE BUNKER HILL WAS GOING TO BE. UH THERE WAS ANOTHER GUY
    INVOLVED IN IT NAMED JIM WARDNER. MURRAY WAS WHERE JAMES
    WARDNER HAD CURRENTLY SET UP SHOP . BUT THE COEUR
    D’ALENE WAS NOT THE FIRST MINING DISTRICT
    HE’D BEEN IN. (AMONSON) WHEN HE CAME TO
    WARDNER HE WAS PROPRIETOR OF A STORE, AND, BUT HE
    WAS HE WAS SHARP, HE HAD A COMMAND OF YOU THE ALL
    THE OTHER THINGS THAT ARE GOING ON AROUND HIM
    BESIDES THE REAL SPECIFIC STORY. (BENNETT) NOW JIM WARDNER
    GOT IN TOO LATE TO THE ORIGINAL STAKING OF THE
    BUNKER HILL AND THE, THE SULLIVAN CLAIM WHICH WAS
    ACROSS THE CANYON FROM THE BUNKER HILL. BUT HE STAKED ALL THE
    WATER RIGHTS IN MILO GULCH BECAUSE HE KNEW ANY MILL
    THAT THEY BUILT TO PROCESS THE ORE OUT OF THE BUNKER
    HILL WOULD HAVE TO USE WATER. IF HE OWNED ALL THE WATER
    THEY WOULD HAVE TO CUT A DEAL WITH HIM AND THAT IS
    EXACTLY THE WAY IT WORKED. NOW WARDNER WAS A LITTLE A
    LITTLE DIFFERENT KIND OF A GUY. HE WAS A PROMOTER
    PAR EXCELLENT. HE GOT GOVERNOR HAUSER
    OVER IN MONTANA AND SOME OTHER PEOPLE TO INVEST
    MONEY IN BUILDING A SMALL MILL IT WAS A 100 TON A
    DAY MILL UP IN WARDNER GULCH TO PROCESS THE
    ORIGINAL ORE THAT CAME OUT OF THE BUNKER HILL MINE. THEY TRIED TO RUN IT FOR
    ABOUT TWO YEARS I BELIEVE AND FOUND OUT THAT EVEN,
    EVEN THOUGH THEY HAD THE WILL POWER TO DO IT, THEY
    DIDN’T HAVE THE RESOURCES. (NARRATOR) THE OPERATION
    WAS SOLD IN 1887 TO PORTLAND FINANCIER SIMEON
    REED FOR 650-THOUSAND DOLLARS. THE TRANSACTION BROKERED
    BY WARDNER WAS CONSIDERED AN EXTRAVAGANT PRICE IN
    ITS DAY AND MARKED THE FIRST TIME THAT BIG
    OUTSIDE FINANCING HAD BEEN BROUGHT INTO THE VALLEY. ANOTHER EARLY ENTREPRENEUR
    THAT CAME TO THE DISTRICT WAS A WOMAN NAMED
    MAY ARKWRIGHT. (AIKEN) SHE WAS INCREDIBLY
    GREGARIOUS, SHE HAD A REAL SKILL OF KNOWING
    EVERYBODY’S NAME, BEING A SYMPATHETIC LISTENER, AND
    ESPECIALLY AT A TIME WHEN THERE WEREN’T VERY MANY
    WOMEN IN THE DISTRICT, AHM, PEOPLE WERE REALLY
    INTERESTED IN HAVING SOMEONE LIKE THAT THAT
    THEY COULD TALK TO, WHO WAS FRANKLY NOT
    A PROSTITUTE. (NARRATOR) MAY WORKED AS
    A COOK FIRST IN THE MURRAY AREA. THEN AFTER KELLOGG’S
    DISCOVERY IN WARDNER. SHE TOILED AS LONG AND
    HARD AS THE MINERS. YET SHE DIDN’T COUNT ON HARD
    WORK ALONE TO GET AHEAD. IN 1886 WHEN SHE LEARNED
    THAT A NARROW GAUGE RAILROAD WAS GOING TO
    BE BROUGHT IN FROM THE MISSION DOCK AT CATALDO.
    SHE SHREWDLY LEARNED WHERE THE TRACK WOULD BE LAID
    AND THEN OPENED HER OWN EATERY CLOSE BY. IT WAS IN WARDNER
    JUNCTION. NOW KNOWN AS KELLOGG AND SHE LEFT
    A BIG IMPRESSION. (AIKEN) SHE WAS
    A VERY LARGE WOMAN. AT SOME TIME IN HER
    LIFE, SHE WEIGHED MORE THAN 200 LBS, AND SO
    COOKING WAS VERY IMPORTANT TO HER, AND BY ALL
    ACCOUNTS, SHE WAS A TERRIFIC COOK, AND
    MINERS WERE WILL TO PAY A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF
    MONEY TO HAVE HER MEALS, AND ESPECIALLY IF YOU WERE
    MINING AND PROSPECTING, WHAT YOU DIDN’T WANT TO
    DO WAS SPEND TIME COOKING. AND SO, SHE WAS ABLE TO
    MAKE A GOOD LIVING ON RUNNING THIS,
    THIS RESTAURANT. AND ONE OF THE CUSTOMERS
    AT THE RESTAURANT WAS AL HUTTON, WHO WAS
    A TRAIN ENGINEER. AND HE WOULD COME AND
    EAT, FELL IN LOVE AND GOT MARRIED. (NARRATOR) FOR MOST THAT
    WOULD BE ENOUGH TO QUALIFY AS A HAPPY ENDING. BUT
    THIS IS NOT THE LAST TIME WE’LL HEAR ABOUT WHAT FATE
    HAD IN STORE FOR MAY AND LEVI HUTTON. (NARRATOR) MAGGIE HALL
    IS ANOTHER WOMAN WHO HAS BECOME PART OF THE
    VALLEY’S LEGEND AND LORE. BUT SHE IS BETTER KNOWN BY
    THE NAME OF MOLLY B’ DAMN. THIS PHOTO PURPORTED TO
    BE OF HER. CONCEALS THE HARDSHIPS OF
    HER YOUNG LIFE. SHE EMIGRATED FROM IRELAND
    TO NEW YORK WHERE SHE MARRIED A MAN THAT SOLD
    HER FAVORS AS A MEANS OF REVENUE. SHE ARRIVED THROUGH A
    SNOW STORM, AND ON HER ROUTE, ON ROUTE, BETWEEN
    THOMPSON FALLS AND MURRAY SHE PICKED UP A MOTHER AND
    A CHILD WRAPPED THEM IN HER FUR COAT AND BROUGHT
    THEM ON INTO MURRAY. SO SHE WAS THE HERO THE
    MINUTE SHE GOT TO MURRAY. SHE RODE UP IN FRONT OF
    THE SALOON, WHICH PHIL O’ROURKE WAS THE BAR
    TENDER SHE ANNOUNCED THAT HER NAME WAS MOLLY
    VERDONE, AND SHE WAS TAKING CABIN #1. AND HE SAID MOLLY BE DAMN,
    AND THAT’S WHERE SHE GOT THE NAME MOLLY BE DAM,
    BECAUSE HE COULDN’T PRONOUNCE VERDONE. (NARRATOR) MOLLY BECAME
    THE HEAD MADAME OF THE DISTRICT. AND APPARENTLY
    WAS A FIGURE THAT COULD TURN TIN TO GOLD. MOLLY WOULD COME INTO
    TOWN, NOT WALLACE, BUT INTO MURRAY, AND SHE’D SAY
    THAT SHE HAD A LONG HOT DRIVE, AND THAT
    SHE NEEDED A BATH. I’D BE HAPPY TO GET INTO
    THE TUB, BUT I DON’T WANT TO SIT ON TIN. IF YOU’LL THROW SOME GOLD
    DUST, I’LL BE HAPPY TO GET IN. SO THE MINERS WOULD ALL
    THROUGH JUNKS OF GOLD DUST OR HANDFULLS OF GOLD DUST
    INTO THE TUB AND SHE WOULD LITERALLY DISROBE AND GET
    INTO THE TUB AND TAKE A BATH, TEASING THE MINERS
    ALL ALONG, FLASHING THEM AS THEY WENT BY, AND
    OFFERING TO WASH HER BACK AND SORT THINGS. (NARRATOR) MOLLY’S IS ONE
    OF THE FEW NAMES KNOWN OF THE HUNDREDS OF HER
    COUNTERPARTS WHO CAME TO THE DISTRICT. OUT NUMBERED ABOUT TWO
    HUNDRED TO ONE PROSTITUTES WERE AN INTEGRAL PART
    OF THIS OTHERWISE BRUTAL MASCULINE WORLD. THEY WERE THE FIRST
    PIONEER WOMEN, THEY WERE THE WOMEN WHO HAD THE GUTS
    TO COME INTO THESE MINING CAMPS AND, AND TAKE
    CARE OF PEOPLE AND PUT THEMSELVES OUT. AND THEY DIDN’T REALLY, I
    THINK A LOT OF THEM, THEY DIDN’T COME TO TOWN JUST
    TO BE PROSTITUTES, THEY WERE LOOKING FOR HUSBANDS. THAT DIDN’T NECESSARILY
    ALWAYS HAPPEN. THEY HAD TO MAKE A LIVING,
    SOME OF THEM HAD CHILDREN TO FEED, SOME OF THEM WERE
    DESTITUTE, THEY REALLY DIDN’T HAVE A LOT OF
    CHOICES IN THOSE DAYS. WOMEN’S RIGHTS WEREN’T
    WHAT THEY ARE TODAY. (NARRATOR) YET EVEN FROM
    THE FRINGES WOMEN LIKE MOLLY MADE AN INDELIBLE
    MARK ON HISTORY. IT MAY BE JUST LEGEND BUT
    SHE IS REMEMBERED AS A WOMAN WITH A CARING
    IF NOT GOLDEN HEART. SHE DIED OF SMALL POX,
    SHE WENT OUT AND TOOK CARE OF THE MINERS WHO WERE
    AILING, AND SHE WENT OUT INTO THE HILLS AND INTO
    THE GOLD FIELDS AND TOOK CARE OF THEM AND CONTACTED
    THE DISEASE HERSELF. TO THIS DAY, SHE’S SO
    POPULAR THAT SOMEBODY EVEN PUTS FLOWERS ON
    HER GRAVE YEARLY. (HART) THAT’S ONE OF THE
    AMAZING THINGS ABOUT THE WEST, IS THAT IT WAS
    INCREDIBLY DIVERSE. AND THESE PLACES WERE MORE
    DIVERSE THEN THAN THEY ARE TODAY. (AMONSON) THERE WERE SOME
    INDIVIDUALS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ANCESTRY THAT
    WERE ACCEPTED IN THIS AREA. NOT VERY MANY, BUT THERE
    WERE SOME, AND SOME YOU KNOW, LIVED HERE AND I
    DON’T THINK THEY WERE BOTHERED. THERE WERE A HANDFUL OF I
    BELIEVE JEWISH PEOPLE IN HERE AND I DON’T THINK
    THEY WERE BOTHERED. (NARRATOR) THEY MAY NOT
    HAVE BEEN BOTHERED .BUT THERE WAS DEFINITELY
    A HIERARCHY AMONG THE VARIOUS ETHNIC GROUPS
    PRESENT IN THE DISTRICT. (AMONSON) FOR INSTANCE,
    IF A PERSON WAS A SCANDINAVIAN, YOU WERE
    SOMEWHERE DOWN ON, ON THE LIST, BUT YOU WEREN’T
    NEAR THE BOTTOM. AND ITALIANS WERE, WERE
    FAIRLY CLOSE TO THE BOTTOM PEOPLE OF ENGLISH DESCENT
    AND MAYBE EVEN GERMAN DESCENT WERE UP FAIRLY
    CLOSE TO THE TOP. (BENNETT) AND JUST LIKE
    THE OLD STORIES YOU READ ABOUT ANY OF THE FIRST
    WAVES OF PEOPLE THAT CAME FROM EUROPE INTO THIS
    COUNTRY UH THEY WERE MISTREATED THE SAME
    AS ANYONE ELSE AND THE ITALIANS WERE
    A GOOD EXAMPLE. UH WE HAVE NEWSPAPER
    CLIPPINGS OF FATALITIES AND THERE WERE A NUMBER
    OF THEM IN THE EARLY DAY MINES AND WHICH THEY WOULD
    NEVER EVEN SAY THE GUYS NAME THEY’S SAY A DEGO
    FELL DOWN THE SHAFT AT THE STANDARD MAMMOTH
    MINE AND WAS KILLED. AND THEY NEVER GAVE HIS
    MINE OR ANYTHING AND THAT’S HOW LITTLE PEOPLE
    THOUGHT OF THE NEW GROUPS THAT WERE COMING
    INTO THE COUNTRY. SO THERE WAS UH THERE WAS
    A FAIR AMOUNT OF PREJUDICE AGAINST PEOPLE, CERTAINLY
    AGAINST THE CHINESE UH, UH THEY WERE BROUGHT OVER TO
    WORK ON THE RAILROADS AND DID A GREAT JOB ON THAT
    BUT THEY WERE TOTALLY DISLIKED IN THE CDA. THERE WERE VERY FEW
    OF THEM THAT WERE EVER ALLOWED TO LIVE IN THE
    CDA DISTRICT, THEY WERE ESSENTIALLY RUN
    OUT OF TOWN. AND I KNOW OF NO CASE
    THAT THEY ACTUALLY WORKED UNDERGROUND IN THE CDA. (NARRATOR) IN THE SPRING
    OF 1884 LOCAL NEWSPAPER MAN ADAM AULBACH
    EXPRESSED THIS SENTIMENT. IN HIS PAPER THE COEUR
    D’ALENE SUN. “THIS CAMP, LIKE LEADVILLE, WILL NEVER
    FEEL THE CURSE OF CHEAP COOLIE LABOR . IF HE
    INSISTS ON COMING , HOWEVER, LET HIM BRING A
    ROAST HOG, PLENTY OF FIRE CRACKERS AND COLORED PAPER
    AND ALL THE ESSENTIALS OF A FIRST CLASS
    CHINESE FUNERAL. HE NEEDN’T BOTHER
    TO BRING THE CORPSE. IT WILL BE IN READINESS.” (BENNETT) WELL MINING EVEN
    BACK IN THOSE DAYS WAS WAS CONSIDERED A REASONABLY
    WELL PAID OCCUPATION. WE TALK ABOUT $3, $3.50 A
    DAY DOESN’T SEEM LIKE VERY GOOD WAGES TO US AND THOSE
    WERE SIX OR SEVEN DAY A WEEK WAGES. UH BUT IT WAS A GOOD
    LIVING COMPARED TO WHAT OTHER LABORERS COULD MAKE
    ELSEWHERE IN THE COUNTRY AT THE TIME. (NARRATOR) BUT TO EARN
    THOSE WAGES THEY FACED ONE OF .IF NOT THE MOST
    DANGEROUS JOB IN THE COUNTRY. (BENNETT) WORKING
    UNDERGROUND WAS VERY VERY DANGEROUS. THERE WAS NO SAFETY
    EQUIPMENT IN THOSE DAYS. UH NOT NECESSARILY BY
    DESIGN OF THE COMPANY THERE WAS JUST NO
    SAFETY EQUIPMENT. WE HAD NO STEEL TOED
    BOOTS, WE HAD NO HARD HATS, WE HAD NO
    SAFETY LAMPS. UH, THERE’S LOTS OF
    UNDERGROUND PICTURES OF THE MINERS WITH THEIR
    CANDLES AND CANDLESTICK HOLDERS STUCK IN THE WALL
    AND THAT WAS THE ONLY LIGHT THAT THEY
    HAD TO WORK BY. (NARRATOR) IN THIS WORLD
    OF TWILIGHT THEY WOULD LABOR TO THE RHYTHM OF
    SLEDGE HAMMERS HITTING HAND STEELS AT 40
    BEATS PER MINUTE. WHEN ONE MAN HELD THE
    STEEL WHILE ANOTHER HAMMERED .IT WAS
    CALLED DOUBLE JACKING. A MAN PERFORMING BOTH
    TASKS WAS CALLED A SINGLE JACK. (BENNETT) HOW FAST HOW
    DEEP A HOLE CAN YOU DRILL IN HOW SHORT A PERIOD OF
    TIME AND THEY BECAME VERY, VERY GOOD AT THIS. BUT IT WAS AN INDICATION
    OF HOW DANGEROUS THE WORK WAS. VENTILATION UNDERGROUND
    WAS VERY, VERY POOR. THERE WAS NO FORCED
    VENTILATION SYSTEM LIKE THERE IS IN MODERN
    MINING TODAY. UH THE BLASTING POWDER
    WHEN IT WOULD BE DISCHARGED WAS VERY TRICKY
    STUFF TO WORK WITH AND WHEN NITROGLYCERIN WAS
    DEVELOPED AND THEY MADE THE ORIGINAL DYNAMITE IT
    WAS ALSO VERY TRICKY STUFF TO WORK WITH AND
    VERY DANGEROUS. (NARRATOR) AT THE TURN
    OF THE CENTURY AUTOMATED DRILLS CALLED WIDOW MAKERS
    REPLACED HAND DRILLING. THEY WERE FASTER
    . BUT NOT SAFER. (BENNETT) THOSE DRILLS
    DRILLED DRY AS WE CALLED IT. THERE WAS NO LUBRICANT
    THAT WENT DOWN THE BIT. TODAY A MODERN DRILL THAT
    IS USED UNDERGROUND HAS A HOLLOW STEM AND WATER
    IS FORCED DOWN THAT STEM LUBRICATES THE BIT AND
    WASHES THE CUTTINGS OUT OF THE HOLE AND ALSO
    KEEPS THE DUST DOWN TREMENDOUSLY. WELL DRILLING WITH A
    SOLID DRILL GENERATED HUGE AMOUNTS OF DUST. THE VEINS IN THE CDA ARE
    HOSTED IN MANY CASES IN A ROCK WE CALL QUARTZITE. IT IS A VERY PURE FORM
    OF SILICON AND OXYGEN. SILICON DIOXIDE. OR QUARTZ. AND IT GENERATED ALL THIS
    FINE DUST, WHICH CAUSED SILICOSIS. SO EMPHYSEMA SILICOSIS
    WERE SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS AT THE BEGINNING
    OF AUTOMATED DRILLING. (NARRATOR) EXCEPT FOR THE
    LONGEST DAYS IN SUMMER . THE MINEWORKER GOES TO
    WORK BEFORE THE SUN COMES UP AND COMES HOME AFTER
    THE SUN GOES DOWN. IN THEIR WORLD OF
    SHADOWS . THEY OFTEN FEEL OVERWORKED .SUPPRESSED AND
    EVEN ABUSED BY THE OWNERS. (BENNETT) IF YOU GOT HURT,
    TOO BAD, YOU WERE OUT OF BUSINESS. NO HEALTH INSURANCE, NONE
    OF THE THINGS THAT WE TAKE FOR GRANTED TODAY. UH IF YOU, YOU KNOW
    WERE OUT OF PUT OUT OF COMMISSION IN MINING
    THAT WAS IT, YOU WERE ESSENTIALLY ON THE DOLE
    AND SO WAS YOUR WHOLE FAMILY. (NARRATOR) IN 1890 THE
    US GOVERNMENT OFFICIALLY CLOSES THE
    AMERICAN FRONTIER. BY THEN THERE IS A CLEAR
    DIVISION IN THE VALLEY BETWEEN MINE OWNERS
    AND MINE WORKERS. EACH GROUP HAS ITS
    OWN LOOSE FORMS OF ORGANIZATION THAT WILL
    SOON COME TO BLOWS. (NELSON) THE MINE WORKERS
    WERE ORGANIZING IN THEIR UNIONS, HAD BEEN
    ORGANIZING FOR 20 YEARS, AND FINALLY CAME TO A
    POINT WHERE THE INTERESTS OF THE OUTSIDE INVESTORS
    AND THE INTERESTS OF THE MINE WORKERS WERE SO
    DIVERGENT THEY EXPLODED. (AIKEN) THERE ARE SEVERAL
    ISSUES THAT SPARKED THIS DISPUTE. ONE IS A HUGE
    TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, WHEN YOU THINK HISTORICALLY,
    ANYTIME THERE’S A CHANGE IN TECHNOLOGY THAT CREATES
    STRESS FOR BOTH WORKERS AND MANAGEMENT. AND IN MINING IN THE
    1890S, THERE’S JUST THIS TIDAL WAVE OF
    TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE WHERE THE WORK GOES FROM BEING
    DONE PRIMARILY BY HAND TO BEING DONE PRIMARILY WITH
    MACHINES, WITH PEOPLE OPERATING THEM. AND WHEN THAT HAPPENS,
    FEWER PEOPLE ARE NEEDED TO DO CERTAIN KINDS OF, OF
    WORK, AND THAT CAUSES STRESS, AND TRADITIONAL
    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WAGES EARNED AND WORK DONE
    NO LONGER MAKE ANY SENSE. (NARRATOR) EVERYDAY
    THOUSANDS OF MEN GO UNDERGROUND IN
    THE SILVER VALLEY. THE MINERS ARE PAID THREE
    DOLLARS A DAY FOR THEIR LABOR AND THE MUCKERS
    MAKE 2.50 A DAY. (AIKEN) A MINER IS THE
    PERSON WHO DROVE THE HOLE, AND THEN PUTS THE POWDER
    IN, AND THE OTHER FOLKS ARE CALLED MUCKERS, THE
    PEOPLE THAT SHOVEL OUT THE ORE. AND WHEN YOU HAVE NEW
    TECHNOLOGY, IT TAKES FEWER OF THE MINERS AND MORE
    OF THE MUCKERS, AND SO COMPANIES HOPED THAT THEY
    COULD PAY THE MUCKERS LESS MONEY. MANY OF THE MUCKERS WERE
    ACTUALLY DISPLACED MINERS WHO OBJECTED TO THE
    DECREASE IN THEIR STATUS. (NARRATOR) IN 1891 THE
    VARIOUS LOCAL MINERS’ UNIONS ARE ABLE TO WIN A
    50-CENT PAY RAISE AT ALL THE MINES IN THE COEUR
    D’ALENE DISTRICT BUT ONE. THE BUNKER HILL ALONE HELD
    OUT UNTIL AUGUST WHEN IT TOO RELENTED TO THE
    UNIFORMED UNDERGROUND PAY INCREASE. IT IS A VICTORY FOR
    THE WORKERS AND THEIR FLEDGLING UNIONS THAT
    WILL BE SHORT LIVED. ACROSS THE ENTIRE COUNTRY
    AN ECONOMIC PANIC IS BREWING. (BENNETT) AND OF ALL THE
    PANICS THEY’VE HAD UP UNTIL THEN IT WAS
    THE MOST SEVERE. UH THE MINES WERE CLOSED. UH FACTORIES ALL OVER
    THE COUNTRY WERE CLOSING. AGRICULTURE WAS IN
    DIRE, DIRE STRAIGHTS. COMMODITY PRICES WENT
    TO NEXT TO NOTHING. TYPICAL OF WHAT HAPPENS
    DURING A DEPRESSION. (NARRATOR) ON NEW YEARS
    DAY OF 1892 THE MINE OWNERS SHUT DOWN ALL
    OPERATIONS DUE TO DISPUTES OVER SHIPPING COSTS
    WITH THE RAILROADS. THE MINES REMAIN CLOSED
    THE ENTIRE WINTER . LEAVING MINERS AND THEIR
    FAMILIES WITH NO MEANS OF SUPPORT. WHEN THE OWNERS DECIDED TO
    REOPEN THE MINES THE WAGE OFFERED IS BACK DOWN AT
    THREE DOLLARS PER TEN-HOUR DAY. MOST MINERS REFUSE
    TO RETURN TO WORK. THEY SUSPECT THAT THE
    CLOSURE HAD LESS TO DO WITH RAILROAD COSTS AND
    FAILING METAL PRICES THAN IT DID WITH FORCING THEM
    TO ACCEPT REDUCED WAGES. THE MINERS ARE ALREADY
    DOCKED FOR MEDICAL CARE . LOST AND BROKEN EQUIPMENT
    . AND HOUSING AT COMPANY BEANERIES. IN RESPONSE . THE OWNERS
    BRING IN STRIKE BREAKERS. THEY ARE MOSTLY IMMIGRANTS
    TRAINED IN FROM OUTSIDE THE DISTRICT WHO HAVE
    NO IDEA THAT THEY ARE STEPPING ONTO
    A BATTLE FIELD. BY JULY BOTH SIDES HAVE
    BROUGHT IN WEAPONS . ARMED GUARDS ARE POSTED BEHIND
    BARRICADES AT THE LARGER MINES IN BURKE CANYON
    TO PROTECT THE NON-UNION MINERS. COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN THE
    TWO GROUPS HAS CONTINUED TO DETERIORATE . BUT
    UNBEKNOWNST TO THE MINERS . THE OWNERS ARE STILL
    INFORMED ABOUT WHAT IS GOING ON WITHIN
    THE UNIONS. THE NEWLY FORMED MINE
    OWNERS PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION HAS BROUGHT
    IN MEMBERS OF THE FAMED PINKERTON DETECTIVES TO
    INFILTRATE THE UNIONS AND ACT AS SPIES. (BENNETT) THE MOST
    SUCCESSFUL ONE OF ALL THE PINKERTON DETECTIVES WAS A
    MAN NAMED CHARLES SERINGO. AND SERINGO WAS SO GOOD
    AT HIS JOB HE BECAME THE SECRETARY OF
    THE GEM UNION. AND OF COURSE WAS SENDING
    MESSAGES RIGHT BACK TO THE MINE OWNERS ABOUT
    EVERYTHING THAT WAS GOING ON IN THE UNION IN GEM IN
    THAT WHOLE AREA OF BURKE WHICH WAS A MAJOR, MAJOR
    MINING AREA AT THIS TIME. THE THING THAT TOUCHED OFF
    THE WAR OF 1892 WAS THAT THE GEM UNION DISCOVERED
    THAT CHARLES SERINGO WAS A PINKERTON DETECTIVE. SERINGO WAS STAYING IN A
    BOARDING HOUSE IN GEM AT THE TIME AND HE HAD CUT A
    TRAP DOOR UNDER HIS IN THE FLOOR UNDER THE BED IN HIS
    BOARDING HOUSE AND WHEN HE HEARD THE UNION GUYS
    COMING TO GET HIM HE GOT DOWN, WENT THROUGH THE
    TRAP DOOR, CRAWLED OUT UNDER THE BOARD SIDEWALKS
    IN GEM AND ESCAPED INTO THE WOODS. THE GEM MINE WAS BEING
    OPERATED BY SCABS AT THE TIME. IN FURY, THEY WENT DOWN
    TO THE GEM MINE AND OPENED FIRE ON THE WORKERS
    AT THE TIME. THERE A COUPLE OF PEOPLE
    THAT WERE KILLED IN THE ENSUING GUNFIRE. (NARRATOR) THE FIGHTING
    ESCALATED AND SPREAD TO THE FRISCO MINE WHERE THE
    MINERS DEMONSTRATED THEIR SKILLS WITH EXPLOSIVES. AT THE GEM MILL GUNPLAY
    KILLED THREE UNION MEN AND TWO ON THE OWNER’S SIDE. AT THE FRISCO MINE ONE MAN
    ON THE OWNER’S SIDE DIED BEFORE A WHITE FLAG WAS
    WAVED OVER THE RUBBLE OF THE ONCE FOUR STORY MILL. FROM THERE MORE THAN 500
    ARMED MINERS SURROUNDED MINES LIKE THE BUNKER HILL
    AND CONVINCED OWNERS TO SEND THEIR NON UNION
    WORKERS OUT OF THE DISTRICT WITHIN 48-HOURS. THE SHORT LIVED BATTLE
    LASTED ONLY A WEEKEND BUT THE AFTERMATH RESONATES
    THROUGH HISTORY. (BENNETT) WHAT HAPPENED AS
    A RESULT OF THAT WAS THE MINE OWNERS ASSOCIATION
    CALLED THE GOVERNOR OF IDAHO AND EXPLAINED THE
    SITUATION AND ASKED TO HAVE THE STATE MILITIA
    BROUGHT UP FROM BOISE TO QUELL THE PROBLEM. (NARRATOR) IDAHO HAD JUST
    BECOME A STATE IN 1890 AND ITS GOVERNOR NORMAN B. WILLEY WASTED NO TIME
    IN TURNING TO PRESIDENT HARRISON TO HELP ANSWER
    THE MINE OWNERS’ PLEAS FOR RESCUE. FOUR COMPANIES OF THE
    FOURTH INFANTRY STATIONED AT FORT SHERMAN WERE
    THE FIRST ON THE MOVE. ON JULY 14TH GOVERNOR
    WILLEY DECLARED MARTIAL LAW IN SHOSHONE COUNTY
    . THERE BY BYPASSING THE AUTHORITY OF THOSE COUNTY
    OFFICIALS WHO MIGHT BE SYMPATHETIC TO THE UNIONS. IN ALL .15-HUNDRED FEDERAL
    AND STATE TROOPS MARCHED WITHOUT RESISTANCE
    INTO THE DISTRICT. THEY ROUNDED UP 600
    MEN AND PLACED THEM IN HURRIEDLY CONSTRUCTED
    HOLDING AREAS IN WALLACE AND WARDER. MANY SCHOLARS SAY THAT
    CONCENTRATION CAMPS BEGAN WITH THE BOAR WAR IN
    1905 BUT SOME DISAGREE. (NELSON) THEY STARTED IN 1892,
    RIGHT HERE IN NORTHERN ID. AND BASICALLY THE
    CONCENTRATION CAMP WAS SOME WOODEN BUILDING,
    WIRES AND PLANK FENCES AROUND THAT, PATROLLED
    BY SOLDIERS AND THEY JUST COLLECTED ALL THE MINERS
    THAT THEY POSSIBLY COULD THAT DIDN’T HAVE AN EXCUSE
    WHERE THEY WERE THE DAY OF THE EXPLOSION AND THE
    THREW THEM IN THE BULLPEN AND, AND, AND THEN
    KEPT THEM THERE. AND THEN WHAT THEY DID WAS
    IN ORDER TO TRY TO BREAK THE UNION, THEY WENT
    AFTER THE LEADERS. (NARRATOR) THE STATE OF
    MARSHALL LAW LASTED FOR FOUR MONTHS AND OF THE
    600 INCARCERATED . ONLY 17 WERE EVER CONVICTED
    OF ANY CRIME. (BENNETT) THING THAT
    HAPPENED AS A RESULT OF THE 1892 WAR LABOR WAR AS
    IT’S CALLED WAS THAT ALL OF THESE LITTLE UNIONS GOT
    TOGETHER AND FORMED WHAT WOULD BECOME KNOWN AS
    THE WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS. THIS WAS HEADQUARTERED OUT
    OF COLORADO AND FOR THE FIRST TIME ALL OF THESE
    UNIONS OF BUTTE MONTANA AND CDA ID AND LEADVILLE
    CO AND ALL THE CITIES IN UTAH THAT HAD MINES BECAME
    ONE UNIT WITH WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS. THEY HAD MONEY, THEY
    HAD POWER, THEY HAD NO WHERE-WITH-ALL AND THEY
    WOULD GIVE THE MINE OWNERS ASSOCIATION A RUN
    FOR THEIR MONEY. (NARRATOR) THERE IS NO DENYING
    THAT THOSE FIRST TO ARRIVE IN THE DISTRICT WERE
    VERY INDEPENDENT. (HART) IF THEY HAD A MULE,
    THEY HAD A PAN, AND NOT MUCH ELSE. I MEAN, THEY WERE NOT
    TRAVELING WITH FAMILY, THEY WERE
    TRAVELING, ALONE. THEY SPENT A LOT OF TIME
    OUT IN THE WILDERNESS BY THEMSELVES, THEY DIDN’T
    NEED ANY SERVICES, AH, TO SPEAK OF. ALL THEY NEEDED TO DO
    WAS TO BE ABLE TO GET RE-OUTFITTED ONCE IN A
    WHILE, AND THAT WAS ABOUT IT. (NARRATOR) WHERE THEY
    RE-OUTFITTED AND RECREATED WERE ROUGH PLACES THAT
    ATTRACTED KINDRED SPIRITS. SOME OF THE RISK TAKERS
    ATTACKED TO COEUR D’ALENE’S WERE ALREADY
    ON THEIR WAY TO BECOMING LEGENDS OF THE WEST. (DOLPH) WYATT ERP AND HIS
    BROTHER AND HIS WIFE, HIS 3RD WIFE JOSEPHINE, CAME
    FROM AH, TEXAS, ALL THE WAY UP HERE. AND ON THE WAY THEY
    STOPPED IN MISSOULA, AND THAT’S WHERE HIS THEIR
    BROTHER, HIS BROTHER JAMES LIVED. (NARRATOR) THE EARP
    BROTHERS ARRIVED EARLY AND ESTABLISHED THE WHITE
    ELEPHANT SALOON. (DOLPH) AND THEY HAD THEIR
    OWN DANCE HALL LATER, AND THINGS, AND THEY
    HAD A LOT OF CLAIMS. (NARRATOR) ANOTHER FAMOUS
    PERSONALITY TO PASS THROUGH WAS CALAMITY JANE. (AMONSON) NOW THERE’S A
    FAIRLY WELL DOCUMENTED AH, AH, REFERENCE TO THE FACT
    THAT SHE HAD MET MOLLY BE DAM ON THE TRAIN
    ON THE WAY IN. AND AH, AT THAT TIME SHE
    DECIDED THAT SHE DIDN’T WANT THAT PARTICULAR
    COMPETITION, AND SO SHE PROCEEDED ON THE SPOKANE
    FALLS AND MOLLY BE DAM CAME OVER THE HILL
    00:55:08;08 AH, TO MURRY, AND THEN AT SOME LATER
    TIME, AH, CALAMITY JANE CAME IN FROM
    SPOKANE FALLS. AND I THINK THAT’S
    PROBABLY A BELIEVABLE ACCOUNT. (NARRATOR) THE STORY
    IS THAT CALAMITY JANE ESCORTED SOME DANCE HALL
    GIRLS TO TOWN FOR A SHOW. WHICH IS PLAUSIBLE BECAUSE
    THE SALOONS WERE THE HEART OF THE COMMUNITY. (AMONSON) THE TERM
    FUNCTIONAL ALCOHOLIC WAS PROBABLY CONSIDERED A NO
    BRAINER IN THOSE DAYS SO, MY APOLOGIES TO ALCOHOL
    ANONYMOUS, BUT IT WAS JUST A MUCH A PART OF DAILY
    LIFE AS EATING BREAKFAST OR DINNER OR
    ANYTHING ELSE. (NARRATOR) THOUGH DRINKING
    ALWAYS SEEMED TO BE A PART OF MINING TOWNS . ONCE THE
    HARD ROCK MINING STARTED IT DIDN’T TAKE LONG FOR
    THE SENSE OF COMMUNITY TO BROADEN. (AIKEN) THESE ARE SKILLED
    WORKERS THAT HAVE A REAL, AHM, CAMARADERIE AND A
    STREET ACCORD BECAUSE OF THE RISK THEY TAKE ON
    A, ON A DAILY BASIS. YOU HAVE TO KNOW THAT THE
    MINER NEXT TO YOU IS DOING HIS JOB CAPABABLY, THAT
    THE PERSON THAT PUT THE TIMBER IN DID THAT
    CORRECTLY, THAT THE OTHER PERSON THAT’S DOING THE
    EXPLOSIVES IS GOING TO BE DOING THE RIGHT THING. BECAUSE YOUR VERY LIFE
    DEPENDS ON THE SKILL OF THAT OTHER PERSON. SO THERE’S A LOT OF CLOSE
    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MINERS. (NARRATOR) AND THESE
    RELATIONSHIPS CARRIED OVER FROM THE MINES REFLECTING
    ON THE WAY THEY AND THEIR FAMILIES LIVED IN
    THEIR COMMUNITIES. (AIKEN) BEING THE WIFE OF
    A MINER OR THE MOTHER OF MINER OR THE SISTER OF A
    MINER REQUIRES A SPECIAL KIND OF PERSON AS WELL. BECAUSE EVERYDAY YOU SAY
    GOODBYE TO THEM, AND THEY MAY NOT BE COMING BACK. THERE AREN’T VERY MANY
    OCCUPATIONS THAT ARE LIKE THAT, AND ALSO MINING
    COMMUNITIES ARE SO ISOLATED, EVERYBODY’S
    IN THE SAME SITUATION. SO YOU HAVE A MUCH
    MORE CLOSE-KNIT KIND OF RELATIONSHIP, I THINK,
    AMONG AHM, WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN, AS WELL AS
    AMONG MINERS THEMSELVES. (NARRATOR) SO THOUGH THEY
    WERE ISOLATED THEY DID WORK HARD AT HAVING ALL
    THE TRAPPINGS OF SOCIETY. (HART) YOU DID HAVE
    SCHOOLS, YOU DID HAVE CHURCHES, AHM, ALL OF
    THOSE INSTITUTIONS WERE WELL ESTABLISHED IN THE
    EAST, YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT PEOPLE WHO CAME AT LEAST
    FROM THE MIDWEST OR THE EAST. THEY WERE BRINING THEIR
    INSTITUTIONS WITH THEM. AHM, AND AH, I THINK THAT
    ALL HAPPENED VERY QUICKLY. (AIKEN) SO LITTLE
    COMMUNITIES ARE ESTABLISHED IN
    THE SILVER VALLEY. AND MINING COMPANIES
    ATTEMPT TO FOSTER THAT. BECAUSE THEY THINK THE
    STRONGER COMMUNITY TIES ARE THEN THE MORE STABLE
    THE WORKFORCE WILL WILL BE. (NARRATOR) WALLACE
    BECAME THE HUB OF THESE COMMUNITIES AS IT GREW
    INTO THE FINANCIAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE MINES. BY 1903 IT EVEN RATED
    A VISIT FROM THEODORE ROOSEVELT WHILE HE
    CAMPAIGNED FOR REELECTION TO THE WHITE HOUSE. (NELSON) THE MINING THAT
    PLACE WAS TAKING PLACE IN THE COEUR D’ALENE, MADE IT
    ONE OF THE MOST POPULATED AND RICHEST PLACES IN
    THE WEST IN THE 1890S. YOU KNOW, THERE WEREN’T
    BIG TOWNS, SO YOU KNOW, SPOKANE BECAME A TOWN
    AFTERWARD, AS A RESULT OF THE MINES IN THE COEUR
    D’ALENE, NOT VICE VERSA. (NELSON) IT BROUGHT
    ATTENTION, IT BROUGHT PEOPLE, AND IT BROUGHT
    ENORMOUS AMOUNTS OF MONEY TO THE INLAND NORTHWEST. (NARRATOR) TRANSPORTATION
    WAS ALWAYS AN ISSUE IN THE COEUR D’ALENE’S. IN THE BEGINNING SIMPLY
    GETTING WAGONS IN AND OUT OF THE DISTRICT WAS AN
    ARDUOUS TASK THAT REQUIRED MULTIPLE RIVER CROSSING
    ON NEARLY NONE EXISTENT TRIALS. THE NEXT FORM OF
    TRANSPORTATION INTRODUCED WAS THE STEAMBOAT. HUGE DOCKS WERE
    CONSTRUCTED TO ACCOMMODATE THEM AT COEUR
    D’ALENE CITY. (AIKEN) .THEY BUILT THIS
    HUGE DOCK BETWEEN WHAT WOULD NOW BE THE CDA
    RESORT AND TUBBS HILL, IT WAS JUST ONE OF THE
    BIGGEST CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN IN CDA, AND
    THEY USED IT TO UNLOAD ALL OF THESE VARIOUS THINGS,
    AND IT WAS REALLY THE CENTER OF THAT WHOLE
    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM. (NARRATOR) SHIPS WITH
    NAMES LIKE KOOTENAI AND THE GEORIGIE OAKES WOULD
    SET SAIL UP THE LAKE LOADED WITH SUPPLIES
    AND PASSENGERS. THEY WOULD MAKE STOPS AT
    HARRISON BEFORE EMBARKING UP THE SOUTH FORK OF
    THE COEUR D’ALENE. ON THIS INLAND PASSAGEWAY
    THEY WOULD STEAM THROUGH THE CHAIN LAKES UNTIL
    THE RIVER WAS NO LONGER PASSABLE. THERE ANOTHER DOCK WAS
    BUILT AT THE CATALDO MISSION. UNTIL THE ARRIVAL OF THE
    FIRST NARROW GAUGED TRAINS . PASSENGERS AND SUPPLIES
    HAD TO COMPLETE THE JOURNEY TO THE MINING
    DISTRICT BY HORSEBACK OR WAGON. WHEN THE MINES FIRST
    STARTED TO SHIP ORE OUT OF THE VALLEY IT WOULD BE
    LOADED IN TO GUNNY SACKS PACKED ONTO TO WAGONS
    RELOADED ONTO THE STEAMERS AND FERRIED TO
    COEUR D ALENE. FROM THERE IT WOULD
    FINALLY BE LOADED ON TO RAILCARS. AS PLEASANT AS THE SHIPS
    COULD BE TO RIDE ON IN THE SUMMER . THE BITTER
    WINTERS SOURED THE APPEAL. AND FOR SUPPLIES THE
    MULTIPLE HANDLINGS WERE INEFFICIENT AND
    DROVE UP COSTS. EVERYONE KNEW A BETTER
    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM WAS NEEDED. (AMONSON) RAILROADS
    WERE THE LOGICAL THING. I THINK SOME PEOPLE
    VERY EARLY ON SAW THAT. AND SO YOU GET PEOPLE LIKE
    DC CORBIN AH, TRYING TO DECIDE HOW THEY’RE GOING
    TO SERVICE THIS AREA. AND THEY’VE GOT SOME
    PROBLEMS, THEY GOT A LAKE, THEY’VE EITHER GOT TO GO
    AROUND THE LAKE THIS WAY, THEY’VE GOT MOUNTAINS
    ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LAKE, AH, IF THEY DO GO
    ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE LAKE, THEY’VE GOT WHAT’S
    ALREADY DESIGNATED INDIAN RESERVATION. (NARRATOR) THEY ENDED UP
    COMING IN FROM BOTH WAYS . BUT IN THE INTERIM
    D.C. CORBIN. WHO WAS ALREADY INVOLVED WITH THE
    STEAMBOATS . BUILT NARROW GAUGED TRACKS FROM CATALDO
    ALL THE WAY UP TO BURKE. IN A RELATIVELY SHORT
    PERIOD HOWEVER THESE WOULD BE REPLACED AND CORBIN
    BOUGHT OUT AS THE NATION RAIL COMPANIES RACED TO
    COMPLETE LINES INTO THE VALLEY. (BENNETT) UNION PACIFIC
    WAS IN FIRST AND THEN THE NORTHERN PACIFIC CAME
    IN RIGHT BEHIND THEM (NELSON) AND THAT’S WHY
    YOU SEE THE FAMOUS PICTURE OF BURKE, WHERE THE TRAIN
    TRACKS GO DOWN THE MAIN STREET OF TOWN. THE CANYONS WERE SO NARROW
    THAT THEY HAD TO BUILD THE TRAIN TRACKS ON THE ROAD,
    THERE WAS NO OTHER PLACE TO BUILD THEM. (NARRATOR) ALONG WITH
    TRAINS THE VALLEY WAS FULL OF OTHER INNOVATIONS
    USUALLY DRIVEN BY A NEED TO IMPROVE MINING
    OPERATIONS. IN THE VALLEY’S NARROW
    CANYONS THERE WASN’T ALWAYS ROOM TO BUILD THE
    MILL NEXT TO THE MINE. SO GETTING ORE FROM THE
    MINE TO THE MILL WAS ONE OF THE FIRST MOTHER’S
    OF INVENTION. THE SILVER MOUNTAIN’S
    FAMED GONDOLA IS NOT THE FIRST HIGH WIRE ACT TO
    PERFORM IN THE VALLEY. FIRST THERE WERE
    THE ORE TRAMS. THEY WERE MORE EFFICIENT
    THAN WAGONS . BUT THE REOCCURRING HAZARD OF TONS
    OF ORE RAINING DOWN ON THE TOWNS BELOW BROUGHT
    ABOUT THE TUNNEL ERA. THE KELLOGG TUNNEL IS NOW
    TWO MILES LONG AND HAS BEEN SHUTTLING ORE
    AND MINERS THROUGH THE MOUNTAIN TO THE BUNKER
    HILL CLAIM FOR ALMOST A HUNDRED YEARS. IN THE BEGINNING. THE
    PLANTS THAT SEPARATED THE ORE FROM THE WASTE ROCK OR
    TAILINGS AT THE MINES WERE POWERED BY STEAM . AND
    KEEPING THE PRESSURE UP REQUIRED ENORMOUS
    AMOUNTS OF TIMBER. (NARRATOR) IN 1887 THE
    TIGER MINES WERE BURNING A THOUSAND CORDS A
    MONTH AT THEIR MILL. (BENNETT) AT THE TIME THEY
    DISCOVERED THERE WAS THIS NEW THING CALLED
    ELECTRICITY THAT WAS COMING ON THE MARKET AND
    PATSY CLARK WHO WAS THE MINE MANAGER OF THE TIGER
    MINE THOUGHT THAT HE COULD SAVE A LOT OF MONEY OVER
    ALL THIS WOOD POWER IF HE BOUGHT A PORTABLE
    GENERATOR, AND THEY BOUGHT WHAT WAS CALLED AN EDISON
    GENERATOR, IT WAS THE LARGEST PORTABLE ELECTRIC
    GENERATOR IN THE WORLD OF ITS KIND AND INSTALLED
    IT AT THE TIGER MILL. AND THEY SOON DISCOVERED
    THAT BY USING ELECTRICITY THEY COULD SAVE A LOT OF
    MONEY OVER HAVING TO DEAL WITH THIS CUT WOOD. THE UH CLARKS THOUGHT
    SO MUCH OF IT AND THE ELECTRICITY WAS SO
    SUCCESSFUL THAT THEY THEN BEGAN TO NEGOTIATIONS WITH
    THIS BRAND NEW COMPANY CALLED WASHINGTON WATER
    POWER TO SEE ABOUT BRINGING ELECTRIC
    POWER FROM POST FALLS. IN 1903 ELECTRIC POWER WAS
    BROUGHT INTO THE DISTRICT ON THE LONGEST ALTERNATING
    CURRENT LINES EVER BUILT ON THE PLANET. THEY WERE 75 MILES LONG. THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED IN
    THE COEUR D’ALENE MINING DISTRICT WERE INNOVATIVE.
    DETERMINED AND TOUGH. EACH YEAR WHAT MAN HAD
    BUILT NATURE SEEMED DETERMINED TO
    TRY AND DESTROY. (NELSON) WE HAD AVALANCHES
    ALL THE TIME, AND THEY BUILT A RAILROAD OVER
    THE SUMMIT NEAR WALLACE DIRECTLY TO MT IN ORDER
    TO HAVE A MORE DIRECT CONNECTION. AND, THE ONE THAT WENT
    OVER THE SUMMIT WENT VERY HIGH, TO A PLACE WHERE
    THERE WAS A LOT SNOW, AND THEY HAD AVALANCHES
    ALL THE TIME. AND THEY ALWAYS CAME DOWN,
    INTO THE CENTRAL VALLEY AND CLOGGED WITH THE
    RAILROAD, CLOGGED UP THE RIVER, AND IT MADE IT VERY
    DIFFICULT TO LIVE THERE IN THE WINTER. (NARRATOR) INVARIABLY THE
    AVALANCHES WOULD WIPE OUT HOMES AS WELL. IN BLACK BEAR AS WELL AS
    OTHER TOWNS IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON FOR ENTIRE
    COMMUNITIES TO JOIN IN THE EXCAVATION EFFORTS. (NARRATOR)FIRES WERE
    ANOTHER SEASONAL OCCURRENCE. IN 1890 MUCH OF WALLACE
    WAS DESTROYED BY FIRE SO THEY REBUILT WITH BRICK
    .BUT IN AUGUST OF 1910 WINDS UNITED NUMEROUS
    SMALL FOREST FIRES IN TO AN APOCALYPTIC BLAZE. (NELSON) IT CAME SO FAST
    THAT THEY COULDN’T STOP FROM DESTROYING
    PRETTY MUCH THE WOODEN RESIDENTIAL AREA ON
    THE SIDE OF THE HILL. BUT THEN IT STARTED
    BURNING THE BRICK BUILDINGS DOWNTOWN. AND IT WAS AMAZING THING,
    AND THEY SAID TRAINS LEAVING TOWN WITH CINDER
    FLYING DOWN ON TOP OF THEM AS THEY EVACUATED WOMEN
    AND CHILDREN, THEN MEN, THE HOSPITAL, EVERYBODY
    EVENTUALLY GOT OUT, AND, AND, AND BARELY ESCAPED
    AND THEN THEY STOPPED IT BEFORE IT BURNT THE
    OTHER HALF OF THE TOWN. AND IT WAS AMAZING AN
    EVENT FOR THAT TOWN, BECAUSE IT DESTROYED IT. (NARRATOR) THE FIRE OF
    1910 BURNED THREE MILLION ACRES AND LEFT
    85 PEOPLE DEAD. IT SEEMED EACH SEASON
    COULD BRING ITS OWN DISASTER AND SPRING
    WAS NO DIFFERENT. HILLSIDES STRIPPED OF
    FLOWAGE BY FIRE . TO HEAT HOMES . BUILD TOWNS AND
    PROVIDE TIMBERS FOR THE MINES .WERE LITTLE
    USE AS WATER SHEDS. (NELSON) SO, WHEN IT
    STARTED RAINING, IT WAS LIKE A CONCRETE SPILLWAY
    RIGHT INTO THE RIVERBED AND IT PILED
    UP DOWN STREAM. AND THE RESULT OF THAT IS
    AH, AS WE KNOW, WAS THAT IF FLOODED OUT THE TOWNS
    DOWNSTREAM, ALMOST ON AN ANNUAL BASIS, AND
    BASICALLY THEY JUST LET IT WASH AWAY, THEY REBUILT
    THE BUILDINGS AGAIN, AND WAITED FOR NEXT YEAR. I MEAN, IT WAS KIND OF A
    STRANGE ATTITUDE, BUT AH, THAT’S WHAT THEY DID. SOME OF THE HEARTACHES
    SUFFERED BY RESIDENTS OF THE SILVER VALLEY WERE
    BROUGHT ON BY THEIR OWN LACK OF ENVIRONMENTAL
    PRACTICES. (BENNETT) BY THE TURN OF
    THE CENTURY THERE WERE EASILY A DOZEN MAJOR
    MINES THAT WERE PRODUCING SEVERAL HUNDRED TONS OR
    MORE A DAY IN THE CDA AND ALL TAILING WE WERE
    TALKING ABOUT WERE BEING THROWN OUT INTO
    THE CREEKS. (AIKEN) AND WHEN IT
    FLOODS, THAT MEANS THAT THOSE MINE TAILINGS ARE
    SPREAD INTO FARM LANDS, AND FARMERS COMPLAINED
    CONSTANTLY, AND IN FACT SUED MINING COMPANIES
    ABOUT THE IMPACT THAT THOSE TAILINGS HAD
    ON THEIR PROPERTY. IT WAS JUST REALLY HARD
    FOR THEM TO HAVE RESOURCES TO COMBAT THESE COMPANIES. AND ALSO, BECAUSE COURTS
    DECIDED THAT MINE, MINING WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF
    THE ECONOMY, AND THEREFORE IT WAS WORTH ANY DAMAGE
    THAT WOULD TAKE PLACE TO THE SMALL FARMER. IT WAS A DIFFERENT TIME
    AND A DIFFERENT MIND SET. IT WAS MORE IMPORTANT TO
    HAVE A JOB AND HOME THAN A PRISTINE ENVIRONMENT. THE SMELL OF SULFUR FROM
    THE TAILINGS AS THEY OXIDIZED SIMPLY MIXED
    WITH THOSE OF GARBAGE AND SEWAGE TO CREATE THE AROMA
    OF EVERYDAY LIFE IN A TURN OF THE CENTURY
    MINING TOWN. (BENNETT) NOW CANYON CREEK
    WOULD OF COURSE BE THE AS POLLUTED AS ANYTHING
    ELSE IN THE SOUTH FORK DRAINAGE. AND THE PEOPLE TOOK IT
    AS A MATTER OF COURSE. UH THERE WERE MILL
    TAILINGS THEY HAD TO GO IN THE CREEK THERE WAS NO
    OTHER WAY THAT THEY COULD GET RID OF THEM
    AT THE TIME. THAT WAS THEIR LIVELIHOOD. UH THEY THREW ALL THEIR
    SEWAGE WENT IN THE CREEK. ALL OF THEIR GARBAGE
    WENT IN THE CREEK. YOU JUST THREW YOUR STUFF
    IN THE CREEK; IT WAS THE WAY IT WAS DONE. EVEN IN THE EARLY DECADES
    OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY WHEN THE SMELTER WAS BUILT
    THE POLLUTION WAS JUST FACTORED INTO
    THE EQUATION. (BENNETT) THEY KNEW UH
    WHERE THE SMELTER PLUME WAS GOING TO GO AND
    PURCHASED SMOKE EASEMENTS FOR THAT SMELTER. IN OTHER WORDS, JUST LIKE
    THEY HAD DONE WITH THE FARMERS. UH, THEY BOUGHT THE RIGHT
    TO POLLUTE THE LAND, THEY BOUGHT THE RIGHT TO
    POLLUTE THE AIR OVER THE PEOPLE’S PLACES BY
    SMELTER EASEMENTS. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAD
    NO INTEREST IN SUCH THINGS BACK IN THOSE DAYS. (NARRATOR) THE MINE OWNERS
    ASSOCIATION HAD ORIGINALLY BEEN SET UP TO DEAL WITH
    POLLUTION ISSUES . BUT AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
    ITS FOCUS WAS FIXED ON LABOR CONCERNS. (NARRATOR) BY 1899 THE
    WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS HAS DEVELOPED A
    POWERFUL BASE IN THE COEUR D’ALENE MINING DISTRICT. MERCHANTS AND ELECTED
    OFFICIALS ALIKE ARE UNION SUPPORTERS. THE UNION HAS A SAY IN THE
    OPERATIONS OF EVERY MINE IN THE DISTRICT BUT ONE. (AIKEN) WELL, THE MANAGER
    OF THE BUNKER HILL WAS A MAN NAMED FREDERICK
    BRADLEY, WHO WAS STAUNCHLY ANTI-UNION AND STAUNCHLY
    CONSERVATIVE IN HIS PULSES. AND THE INVESTORS IN THE
    BUNKER HILL, PEOPLE LIKE WILLIAM FOSTER OF THE
    CLOCKHILL BANK, CYRUS MCCORMIC, THE REFER GUY,
    AHM, EDMOND RYERSON OF THE CHICAGO IRON PERSON, THESE
    ARE ALL FOLKS THAT HAD STRONGLY ANTI-UNION
    BACKGROUNDS, AND WERE DETERMINED TO
    KEEP UNIONS OUT. NOT JUST FOR FINANCES, I
    THINK PART OF IT’S A MONEY ISSUE, BUT IT’S PARTLY
    AN ISSUE OF MANAGERIAL CONTROL FOR THEM. THEY WANT TO HAVE FREEDOM
    OF ACTION WHEN IT COMES TO THEIR OWN MINES. (NARRATOR) THE UNION’S
    STRENGTH IS SUFFICIENT TO FORCE ALL THE MINES
    BESIDES BUNKER HILL TO AGAIN PAY WORKERS THREE
    DOLLARS AND FIFTY CENTS A DAY. BUNKER HILL REFUSES
    TO COMPLY … DESPITE INCREASED PRESSURE
    FROM THE UNIONS. BY THE END OF APRIL MASS
    RALLIES DESIGNED TO GEAR UP OPPOSITION HAVE
    BECOME COMMON PLACE. (AIKEN) AND THESE ARE
    MINERS, AND I SUSPECT THAT SOME LIQUOR WAS CONSUMED
    AT THESE MEETINGS, AND THE LONGER THE MEETING WENT ON
    THE MORE THEY TALKED ABOUT HOW ANGRY THEY WERE
    ABOUT THE SITUATION. THEN THEY DECIDED TO
    DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT. ON APRIL 29TH WHAT THEY
    DO IS HIJACK THE TRAIN IN BURKE THAT IS ENGINEERED
    BY LEVI HUTTON. (AIKEN) AND THEY FORCED
    HIM AT GUNPOINT TO GO FROM UP THE CANYON DOWN TO
    WARDNER, AND AS THE TRAIN WENT ALONG, THEY WOULD
    CONTINUALLY STOP AND TAKE ON MORE MINERS. AND THE MORE MINERS THERE
    WERE, AND THEY PROBABLY DRANK MORE AND
    THEY GOT ANGRIER. (NARRATOR) NUMBERING 800
    STRONG THE MINERS MAKE THEIR WAY TO THE BUNKER
    HILL CONCENTRATOR THAT HAD JUST BEEN COMPLETED THE
    PREVIOUS YEAR AT A COST REPORTED TO BE
    250-THOUSAND DOLLARS. AT 2:26 IN THE AFTERNOON
    THERE IS AN EXPLOSION .THEN IMMEDIATELY
    A SECOND AND THIRD. PIECES OF MACHINERY
    AND LUMBER ARE BLOWN TO KELLOGG A MILE AWAY . AND
    WHEN THE DEBRIS SETTLES ONLY SPLINTERS OF THE
    BUNKER HILL MILL REMAIN. THE MINER’S CELEBRATORY
    MOODS WILL NOT LAST. FOR THIS TIME IT IS
    GOVERNOR FRANK STEUNENBERG THAT ANSWERS A
    CALL FOR HELP. THOUGH A UNION SUPPORTER
    . STEUNENBERG NOW BELIEVES THAT THE WESTERN
    FEDERATION OF MINERS SHOULD BE DESTROYED
    LIKE A BLIGHT. IDAHO’S NATIONAL GUARD
    HAS BEEN SENT TO THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR IN
    THE PHILIPPINES . SO AGAIN FEDERAL TROOPS
    ARE CALLED IN. THIS TIME IT IS THE BLACK
    INFANTRY MEN OF THE 24TH REGIMENT STATIONED AT FORT
    SHERMAN WHO MARCH AGAINST THE INSURGENTS. (AIKEN) THAT WAS NOT
    UNUSUAL FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN TROOPS TO BE USED
    IN INCIDENCES OF LABOR VIOLENCE, BECAUSE PEOPLE
    KNEW THAT THAT WOULD INFLAME THE SITUATION
    MORE, BUT, MY SUSPICION IN THIS CASE WAS THAT. THAT’S WHO WAS AVAILABLE
    AND SO THAT’S WHO THEY SENT. (NARRATOR) ONLY THOSE
    MINERS AT WORK IN THE MINES DURING THE EXPLOSION
    ARE BEYOND SUSPICION. MEANING THIS TIME 700 MEN
    ARE PLACED IN THE BULLPENS . MARTIAL LAW DECLARED BY
    STEUNENBERG SUSPENDS THEIR LEGAL RIGHTS SO THERE
    ARE NO SPEEDY TRIALS. AS THE WEEKS OF
    INCARCERATION DRAW INTO MONTHS . THREE MEN DIE
    OF DISEASE WHILE A FOURTH GOES MAD AND DROWNS
    HIMSELF IN THE RIVER. ONE OF THOSE INCARCERATED
    . DESCRIBED AS “A WILLING TOOL OF THE RIOTERS”
    IS LEVI HUTTON. THE ENGINEER IS A QUIET
    MAN . HIS WIFE MAY ARKWRIGHT HUTTON IS NOT. SHE EXPRESSES HER OUT RAGE
    TO ANYONE WHO WILL LISTEN UNTIL HER HUSBAND
    IS RELEASED. (AIKEN) MAY …HUTTON WAS
    INCENSED ABOUT THIS, AND IN FACT, WROTE A SCATHING
    BOOK ABOUT THE WHOLE EPISODE. (NARRATOR) LIKE BEFORE
    FEW PEOPLE HELD IN THE BULLPENS ARE EVER TRIED
    AND FEWER STILL GO TO JAIL . BUT THE ATTACK ON THE
    BUNKER HILL DESTROYED MORE THAN THE MILL . IT
    DESTROYED THE UNIONS STRENGTH. UNDER MARSHALL LAW THE
    GOVERNOR SENT HIS OWN PEOPLE INTO THE DISTRICT
    AND BASICALLY ABOLISHED THE LOCAL COUNTY
    GOVERNMENT. (AIKEN) THEY IMPEACHED
    THEM ALL AND REPLACED THEM WITH OTHER FOLKS, AND THE
    ONLY PERSON WHO WAS LEFT THAT HAD BEEN ELECTED TO
    OFFICE IN SHOSHONE COUNTY, WAS DR. FRANCE, WHO WAS
    THE BUNKER HILL COMPANY’S PHYSICIAN, BUT WAS ALSO
    THE COUNTY CORONER. AND SO HE BECAME THE SORT
    OF HEAD OF THIS NEW LOCAL GOVERNMENT, AND THEY SET
    UP A WHOLE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU WHOSE JOB WAS TO
    SCREEN APPLICANTS FOR WORK IN THE MINE. AND YOU COULD NOT GO TO
    WORK UNLESS YOU HAD A PERMIT FROM FRANCE AND
    BARTLET SINCLAIR, THE NAME OF THE GOVERNOR’S….
    WHEREIN HE SAID, THAT YOU WERE NOT A MEMBER OF THE
    WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS, YOU HAD NOT BEEN
    A MEMBER OF THE WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS, AND
    YOU WOULD NOT JOIN THE WESTERN FEDERATION
    OF MINERS. THEY CALLED THIS THE
    YELLOW DOG CONTRACT, OR AGREEMENT. (AIKEN) THE MINERS HELD
    GOVERNOR STEUNENBERG RESPONSIBLE FOR MUCH OF
    THEIR PLIGHT IN 1899, AND THEY DETESTED HIM. NOT ONLY FOR WHAT HE HAD
    DONE REGARDING MARSHALL LAW IN THE BULLPENS, BUT
    ALSO BECAUSE WHAT HE HAD DONE CONCERNING THE
    POPULACE WHO WERE THEIR ELECTED FOLKS WHO THEY,
    THEY FELT OUGHT TO BE RUNNING THE COUNTY. AND SO THEY THOROUGHLY
    DISLIKED HIM AND HE WAS AHM, A VILLAIN TO PEOPLE
    IN THE CDA AREA AS A RESULT OF THAT. SIX YEARS LATER . LONG
    AFTER HE HAD LEFT OFFICE .STEUNENBERG WAS
    ASSASSINATED WHEN A BOMB EXPLODED AS HE OPENED THE
    GATE TO HIS CALDWELL HOME. (AIKEN) EVENTUALLY A
    MAN NAMED HARRY ORCHARD CONFESSED TO PLANTING THE
    BOMB AND SAID THAT HIS PLANTING THE BOMB WAS PART
    OF A WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS CONSPIRACY, AND IT
    ESPECIALLY INVOLVED THE SILVER VALLEY, NOT JUST
    BECAUSE OF STEUNENBERG’S INVOLVEMENT, BUT FREDERICK
    BRADLEY HAD HAD 2 ATTEMPTS ON HIS LIFE AS WELL. (NARRATOR) THE LEADERS OF
    THE WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS INCLUDING BIG BILL
    HAYWARD WERE TRIED IN BOISE AT TRIALS THAT
    MADE HEADLINES AROUND THE GLOBE. DESPITE HARRY ORCHARD’S
    TESTIMONY THEY WERE ACQUITTED. HARRY ORCHARD SPENT THE
    REST OF HIS LIFE IN THE BOISE PRISON FOR ADMITTING
    TO ACTS OF TERROR THAT RESULTED IN THE DEATHS
    OF 17 PEOPLE INCLUDING STEUNENBERG. THE IRONY IS THAT AT ONE
    POINT ORCHARD HAD A CHANCE TO BE PART OF THE ONE
    THING EVERYONE IN THE SILVER VALLEY DREAMT OF. (AMONSON) THE HERCULES I
    THINK IS ONE OF THE BEST EXAMPLES OF RAGS TO RICHES
    STORIES THAT YOU CAN COME UP WITH IN THE WESTERN US. (NELSON) AND IT WAS
    CENTERED ON TWO BROTHERS, THE DAY BROTHERS, AND IT
    INCLUDED THE BARBER SHOP OWNER WHO WAS GUS PAULSEN,
    AND IT INCLUDED A BOARDING HOUSE AH AHM, OWNER WHO
    WAS MAY ALBRIGHT HUTTON, INCLUDING HER HUSBAND
    LEVIE HUTTON, WHO WAS A RAILROAD ENGINEER. THESE WERE PEOPLE, THEY
    WERE MERCHANTS AND AND MINERS, IN WALLACE, WHO
    DID WHAT A LOT OF PEOPLE DID AH, WHO HAD JUST A
    LITTLE EXTRA MONEY OR A LITTLE EXTRA TIME, THEY
    WENT OFF AND DID A LITTLE MINING CLAIM
    ACTIVITY THEMSELVES. (NARRATOR) IT BEGAN IN
    THIS VALLEY IN AUGUST OF 1889. AFTER A FIRE HARRY DAY
    AND FRED HARPER FOUND A PROMISING OUTCROP
    PREVIOUSLY HIDDEN BY UNDERBRUSH. THEY LOCATED ADJOINING
    CLAIMS CALLED THE HERCULES AND FIREFLY. HARPER SOON SOLD OUT .
    HOWEVER THE DAYS TOOK ON PARTNERS TO FINANCE THE
    SLOW DEVELOPMENT OF THE MINE. AT ONE POINT EVEN HARRY
    ORCHARD WAS BRIEFLY A SHAREHOLDER. (AMONSON) HE HAD A GROCERY
    BILL AND HE HAD A GAMBLING DEBT BILL, AND THERE MIGHT
    HAVE BEEN A THREE-WAY EXCHANGE THERE TO PAY
    OFF THAT GAMBLING DEBT. AH AH, BUT ANYWAY,
    ESSENTIALLY THEN, DAN CARDNER WAS THE ONE WHO
    WHO ENDED UP WITH HARRY ORCHARD’S 1/16 INTEREST. FOR ROUGHLY 12 YEARS
    THE DAY FAMILY AND THEIR VARIOUS PARTNERS WORKED
    THE CLAIM AS TIME AND MONEY ALLOWED. (AMONSON) AND THEN FINALLY
    AUG, PAULSEN BROKE INTO WHAT WE CALL COMMERCIAL
    ORE IN JUNE OF 1901, AND FROM THE TIME THEY LOOKED
    AT THOSE SAMPLES OF ORE, AH AH THEY KNEW THAT
    THEY HAD AH, A VERY RICH COMMERCIAL ORE BODY. AND IT, TH AT IF THIS WAS
    PROPERLY DEVELOPED, THAT THEY WOULD ALL BE
    VERY COMFORTABLE. AND OF COURSE, IT TURNED
    OUT THEY WERE MUCH MORE THAN COMFORTABLE. (NARRATOR) THE OWNERS OF
    THE HERCULES TRULY STRUCK IT RICH . THEY ALL
    BECAME MILLIONAIRES. (AIKEN) THE MAIN
    DIFFERENCE IS THAT THE PEOPLE WHO WERE THE
    HERCULES PARTNERS, THE PAULSENS, THE DAYS, AND
    THE HUTTONS, CONTINUED TO OWN THE HERCULES
    THROUGHOUT IT’S HISTORY, AND KEPT THE MONEY
    PRIMARILY IN ID, BUT ALSO EVENTUALLY THEY MOVED TO
    SPOKANE AND BUILT HOUSES THERE AND HAVE BUSINESS
    CENTERS THERE, BUT THEY REALLY ARE LOCAL PEOPLE,
    AND THEY CONTINUE TO BE LOCAL PEOPLE THROUGHOUT
    THE HISTORY OF THAT MINE. AND OPERATE THE MINE
    THEMSELVES, WHICH IS VERY UNUSUAL. (NARRATOR) EVERYONE WHO
    CAME TO THE COEUR D’ALENE MINING DISTRICT WAS IN
    SEARCH OF A SILVER LINING AND IN THE CASE OF THE
    HERCULES THOSE INVOLVED LITERALLY FOUND IT. FOR SOME THE DREAMS
    OF RICHES WERE NEVER FULFILLED . FOR OTHERS THE
    SILVER LININGS CAME IN THE FORM OF A HOME .FAMILY AND
    COMMUNITY FORGED FROM THE MINERALS OF THE
    SILVER VALLEY ITSELF. MANY OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS
    THAT BROUGHT THIS STORY TO LIFE WERE TAKEN WITH THIS
    VERY CAMERA AND ARE THE LIFE’S WORK OF
    TWO PHOTOGRAPHERS. AFTER COMING TO THE VALLEY
    FOR THE GOLD RUSH, THOMAS NATHAN BARNARD SET UP HIS
    HOUSEHOLD AND A STUDIO IN WALLACE. BY THE END OF 1898 HE
    WAS MAYOR OF WALLACE AND NEEDED AN ASSISTANT. NELLIE JANE STOCKBRIDGE
    ANSWERED HIS CALL. FOR MORE THAN SIX DECADES
    SHE FAITHFULLY PRESERVED THE WORLD AROUND HER.
    PROVIDING US A PICTURE WINDOW BACK IN TIME.