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    University of California, Berkeley – May Commencement 2019
    Articles, Blog

    University of California, Berkeley – May Commencement 2019

    August 12, 2019

    (orchestra playing Pomp and Circumstance) – And now, please welcome
    from the 50 yard line the beginning of our stage party. First the Californians class of 2019, the student award recipients
    of the class of 2019 and our commencement performers of the amazing class of 2019. And now we have our distinguished faculty who will be led by the
    Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, Paul Alvisatos who carries the Berkeley mace, a symbol of authority. They will be followed by
    the official stage party. Ladies and gentlemans,
    the academic procession and the official stage party. Please welcome members
    of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal Council, led by chairwoman Charlene Nijmeh and vice
    chairwoman Monica Arellano and also Vicki Puro and Lucas in our land blessing ceremony. (speaking foreign language) – We are Muwekma Ohlone. Welcome to our ancestral homeland. (speaking foreign language) Hello, my name is Charlene Nijmeh. I am the chairwoman of
    the Muwekma Ohlone tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area. Consistent with the
    University of California’s values of community and diversity, the Muwekma Ohlone tribe was asked to offer a land acknowledgement and make visible the
    university’s relationship to native peoples for the first
    time in Berkeley’s history. And this is why we are
    speaking here today. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) Thank you. We would like to begin by recognizing that while we gather at the University of California Berkeley, we are gathering in the region our people
    have always called (speaking foreign language) which is part of the
    ancestral and un-ceded land of our people, the
    Muwekma Ohlone tribe, the successors of the
    sovereign Verona Band of the Alameda County. This ancient place
    (speaking foreign language) extends from what we know today as Berkeley Hills to the Bay shore. From the contemporary West
    Oakland to El Cerrito. The land on which this university sits was and continues to be a deeply significant place for the
    Muwekma Ohlone people. This campus extends to areas that held a (speaking foreign language) a traditional round house,
    a place of celebration and ceremony, as well as a shell mound, our traditional burial mound. So, as Berkeley is viewed
    as a special place today, we respectfully
    acknowledge that this place has been settled for millennia, loved beyond measure,
    and nurtured by the hands of our ancestors for many
    generations to ever count. We recognize that every member of Berkeley community has,
    and continues to benefit from the use and occupation of this land, since the institution’s founding in 1868. As we gather on this campus as members of the Berkeley community,
    it is vitally important that not only we recognize
    the history of the land on which we stand, but also, we recognize that we, the first people of this place, the Muwekma Ohlone people, are alive and flourishing members of the Berkeley and broader Bay area communities today. Because of the tenacity and strength of our ancestors and our elders, our people have been able to keep our culture close and we never
    left our indigenous land. Today we repair the sustained damages of colonization and we are focused on keeping our traditional culture strong while we work for a
    glorious, shining future following in the footsteps of those who came before us. Thank you, and on behalf of
    the Muwekma Ohlone tribe, we congratulate the class of 2019. Thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (speaking foreign language) – Muwekma Ohlone tribe
    San Francisco Bay area (speaking foreign language) Good day, my name is Monica Arellano. I am the vice chairwoman
    for the Muwekma Ohlone tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area. With me today is our chairwoman Charlene Nijmeh, who offered
    the land acknowledgement, my son Lucas Tuhesde Arellano,
    holding our tribal flag. We are Muwekma Ohlone. Welcome to our ancestral
    homeland, where we are born. (speaking foreign language) On behalf of our people, Muwekma La Gente, we would like to offer
    an official welcoming to our ancestral homeland. To this ethno-historic tribal territory of the inter-married
    (speaking foreign language) speaking tribal group. Today, the University
    of California Berkeley and surrounding towns reside in our Huchun ancestral Muwekma
    Ohlone tribal territory. We welcome everyone in attendance at the UC Berkeley graduation to our
    (speaking foreign language) our beautiful ancestral homeland. As traditionally done, and
    in honor of our ancestors, we offer an opening prayer in our native Chochenyo language as a blessing for today’s graduation
    and all the graduates. (speaking foreign language) The people’s prayer in Chochenyo. (speaking foreign language) Thank you very much, hope. (audience applauds) – Thank you. So we’re here to celebrate
    the amazing class of 2019, and let me tell you,
    a little bit of rain’s not going to stop this celebration. Berkeley students are resilient. They are passionate,
    and we will get through this rain in glory. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) It is now my honor to welcome some of the amazing class of 2019, so please welcome Monishaa Suresh, Danielle Satin, and Anthony White, who will sing our national anthem. Please rise if able, and
    please remove your hats. (Anthony vocalizes to match pitch) – Ready? ♪ Oh say can you see ♪ – ♪ By the dawn’s early light ♪ – ♪ What so proudly we hailed ♪ – [All Singers] ♪ At the
    twilight’s last gleaming ♪ – ♪ Whose broad stripes and bright stars ♪ – ♪ Through the perilous fight ♪ – ♪ O’er the ramparts we watched ♪ – [All Singers] ♪ Were
    so gallantly streaming ♪ ♪ And the rocket’s red glare ♪ ♪ The bombs bursting in air ♪ ♪ Gave proof through the night ♪ ♪ That our flag was still there ♪ ♪ Oh say does that star
    spangled banner yet wave ♪ ♪ O’er the land of the free ♪ ♪ And the home of the brave ♪ (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Wow, thank you. Just a sample of the amazing
    talent of the class of 2019. It is now my great honor to
    introduce our Chancellor. Please join me in welcoming
    the 11th Chancellor of the University of California
    Berkeley, Carol T. Christ. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you Dean Greenwell, and thank you Monishaa, Danielle, and Anthony for that amazing rendition
    of the national anthem. Proud parents, grandparents,
    brothers, and sisters, relatives, and friends of our graduates, welcome to the University
    of California at Berkeley. Welcome, too, to the many
    faculty, staff, alumni, community members and other honored guests who are joining us today. And welcome especially
    to those we have gathered this morning to celebrate, the members of the remarkable, the amazing, the marvelous, the extraordinary UC Berkeley graduating class of 2019. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) And truly those words fit. Among you are students like Pooya Amin, an immigrant from Tehran who had trouble adjusting to
    life in American schools, and yet today is
    graduating Summa Cum Laude with a triple major. And Thomas Manglonia, a budding reporter so passionate about journalism that he’s produced a story every week since sixth grade, and was just awarded the prestigious Truman
    Scholarship for public service. And Beatriz Hernandez,
    an actress and writer who created an organization called Colors of Theater to
    look how artists of color navigate the entertainment industry. And Christine Anibway, a
    gifted student of sociology, who is writing papers about the bonds that form between college athletes, just a week or two before she was chosen as a first round draft pick
    in the 2019 WNBA draft. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) As Berkeley’s 11th Chancellor, it’s my distinct honor and pleasure to preside over today’s ceremony as we send these and so many other brilliant young scholars
    off into the world. I’m sorry that the weather has not been as accommodating as we might have hoped. California was especially declared drought free a few months
    ago, but evidently, the rain gods thought it was wise to be extra cautious and
    give us a few more showers. Still, rain or no rain, this is a day of joy and celebration,
    of friends and family, of achievements and high hopes, of powerful endings, and
    beautiful new beginnings. Graduates, you are no doubt experiencing relief, elation, wonder, and apprehension. But in addition to all
    that, I hope you also hold a keen sense of accomplishment. You’ve completed a
    demanding course of study at the nation’s best public university. Today you join
    (audience cheers) Today you join the long line of alumni reaching back 151 years whose lives are forever intertwined
    with this great institution. Today you become one of nearly 500,000 living alumni world wide, who can proudly call themselves UC Berkeley graduates. While today we honor you
    and your achievements, we can’t let this occasion pass without also recognizing
    the family members and friends whose devotion and support have contributed mightily to your success. Please join me in thanking everyone who has helped you reach
    one life’s great milestones. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) For those here, who like
    me, have been immersed in the seasonal rhythms
    of higher education for a long time, there’s
    a pleasing familiarity in the customs and traditions
    of today’s ceremony. Seeing you all today,
    in your caps and gowns, links you with generations of Berkeley graduates who have come before you. Just as the many rituals you’ve taken up over the last several years,
    from morning coffee dates at Cafe Strada, to
    afternoon study sessions in Morrison Reading Room, to
    sunset hikes up to the big C. They’re all points of connection you share with Cal’s students of years past. But for all the similarity that this gives your college experience
    to that of previous students, your Berkeley is also
    colored by the particular set of events that took place here and in the world during
    your time on campus. Events that guided your class discussions, that you and your friends
    debated ’til late in the night, that may have shaped
    the decisions you made with regard to coursework, internships, or even your major. Indeed, your Berkeley,
    the time that you’ve been on campus, has been marked by an absolute litany of historic events. Your class saw the rise of the strongest woman candidate for president
    that the US has ever known, ultimately delivered a stunning defeat, in an election that
    upended American politics. You bore witness to the most pitched political battles in decades, over taxes, the economy,
    Supreme Court nominees, election meddling, trade
    deals, and a border wall. And even saw the government
    sputter to a halt during the longest shut down
    in our country’s history. You spent your days in
    study at an institution committed to knowledge and truth, amidst a climate in
    which alternative facts became acceptable in public discourse, and post truths was the Oxford English Dictionary word of the year. You’ve been at Berkeley at a time when the national
    conversation has been framed by urgent and probing issues of race, class, justice, and equality. As the Black Lives Matter movement challenged institutional
    racism in law enforcement, and as the #metoo movement
    toppled abusive men in positions of power, and looked to right historical wrongs. You saw people and
    nations jump into action to respond to the humanitarian crises in Syria, and Venezuela and Yemen. Yet also saw disdain for immigrants and refugees take hold
    here and around the world as fear and hatred of the other became a dominant theme in many
    countries’ national politics. In your time, catastrophic
    national disasters, from monsoons in south Asia
    to a hurricane in Puerto Rico, to wildfires up and down
    the California coast, have motivated national discussions about wealth and power
    and our responsibility to aid victims and help
    rebuild their communities, not to mention debates
    about, I’m sorry to say, the veracity of climate change. A host of man made disasters, too. Including racially and
    ethnically motivated acts of terror and mass shootings, have heightened tensions
    between communities renewed disputes about gun rights, and seen thousands take
    to the streets in protest. Many of these events, and the intense discussion about
    responsibilities and privileges that come with them, have directly touched our campus or had analogues here, and that is why I know your class is ready to take on the
    challenges facing the world. Because you already have. You’ve embraced opportunities to stand up, to speak out, to advocate,
    to lean in to controversial issues, to participate in public life, to ensure that you leave this place, a world in miniature,
    better than you found it. It was your classmates in
    the black student union who were behind the creation of the Fannie Lou Hamer Resource Center, and the ones who helped craft the African American initiative, which is now working to improve our campus climate for black students on campus. It was the work of survivors
    and student advocates among you, who in 2016 and 17 helped this university critically examine its policies and procedures for handling cases of sexual assault and harassment and take up the process of improving them. You modeled strength and resolve in support of our undocumented students, even as these students were villainized by the leaders of our country and threatened by anonymous chalkings and posters on campus. You pushed our campus to put
    sustainability at the fore, making us the largest university to commit to 100% clean energy and winning us an award
    for the coolest UC campus. Your advocacy in Sacramento helped legislators better understand the profound importance of higher education in creating a more just society. Your work through bridges, retention, and recruitment centers helped bring in and bring up students from backgrounds historically underrepresented
    on college campuses. Your organizing helped create the Berkeley Basic Needs Center, a hub of resources for students with food, housing,
    and financial insecurity. You helped us learn how we might reconcile a commitment to community alongside a belief in the university’s role as a public forum,
    open even to viewpoints we might find abhorrent, and you joined us in efforts last year to use dialogue not violence to bridge
    the partisan divide. Now you enter the world at large, and it’s ripe with even
    more intractable problems. Problems that are pervasive, that have many dimensions, that
    span national borders, that don’t care about partisan lines. Problems like the need for teachers in under-resourced
    public school districts. One that today’s commencement speaker, Wendy Kopp took on, just
    a year out of college. I hope that you will not
    retreat from these challenges. Even when things seem
    hopeless or pointless, you must not abandon civic life and a commitment to the public good. Stay aware, stay woke, even. Engage with the world, and its goings on. Take action, organize, volunteer, advocate, campaign, or enter
    public service yourselves, dissent, protest when it is needed. It will take a firm
    commitment to civic life to bring grace, justice,
    and beauty to this world. Let me close by sharing just a few lines from a speech that Robert Kennedy gave at the Greek theater
    here back in 1966. He said “All of us have the right “to dissipate our energies and talents “in any way that we wish, but those “who are serious about the future “have the obligation to
    direct their energies “and their talents toward
    concrete objectives “consistent with the
    ideals that they profess. “You are the most privileged citizens “of a privileged nation, for you have “been given the opportunity
    to study and learn here. “You can use your enormous privilege “and opportunity to seek
    purely private gain, “but history will judge
    you, and as years pass, “ultimately, you will judge yourself “on the ways in which
    you have used your gifts, “in your hands, not with
    presidents or other leaders, “is the future of your world, and the best “fulfillment of the qualities
    of your own spirit.” Thank you, may the education
    you have received here serve not just your lives,
    but your society as well. May your years ahead be richly
    rewarding and fulfilling, and may you enjoy much happiness. Though I will not say that
    this is your world to save, it is yours to shape alongside many others in this long but persistent
    march toward progress. Congratulations, good luck, and go bears. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) Thank you. Each year we honor our finest teachers by awarding them a
    distinguished teaching award through a very rigorous competition. The recipients of this ward are truly great and inspired teachers. It’s my pleasure to
    announce to you this year’s distinguished teaching award recipients. One of those faculty members is with us. Professor Shagan, will you please stand? (audience applauds) Ethan Shagan is a professor of history with a focus in early
    modern Europe and Britain. Professor Shagan cultivates
    a love of learning while fostering an environment where his students learn to interpret history through many lenses. I’d also like to recognize
    the faculty members who received the award
    this year who are unable to join us this morning. Robert Littlejohn, professor
    emeritus of physics, Andrea Roth, professor of law, and Steven Raphael,
    professor and James D. Marver Chair in Public Policy. Please join me in recognizing
    these outstanding teachers. (audience applauds) And now I’d like to
    introduce the 2019 winner of the Peter E. Haas Public Service Award, which recognizes a
    Berkeley alumnus or alumna who has made significant voluntary contributions to the
    betterment of society. Here with us today is David Lei, who graduated with a degree in business administration in 1974. He actually told me it was 1972, but he waited to get his degree because he didn’t want Ronald Reagan’s name on his diploma. (audience laughs) Giving back to the community has always been important to David. While in high school, he mentored students in San Francisco’s Chinatown and he co-founded the
    Chun Ngai dance troupe. While a student at UC
    Berkeley, David served on his first board as a volunteer with Chinatown North
    Beach Family Planning. After graduating, he was a social worker with Chinatown’s YMCA and Richmond’s model cities program, where
    he worked with at risk youth. David ultimately became
    a successful entrepreneur and continued to volunteer countless hours with local not for profits. For over 40 years, he has selflessly dedicated himself to bringing together generations of Chinese
    American communities through art, culture, and philanthropy. His leadership has resulted
    in greater awareness of the important role this community has played in our state’s history and his commitment to equity and inclusion has inspired appreciation of our region’s diverse communities. David is especially
    committed to increasing national and international awareness of the Chinese American
    experience in the United States. He spent much of his recent time working with the California
    Historical Society, the Chinese Historical Society of America, and our own Bancroft Library, piecing together historical documents
    and personal histories of early Chinese families. David Lei leads by example, something that Peter E. Haas
    would recognize and applaud. And now, please direct your attention to the video boards. (energetic Chinese music) – My name is David Lei. Welcome to Chinatown. I was born in Taiwan in 1949, when China turned communist, so my family had to leave. I immigrated to America in 1956. There was overt discrimination. Most of the Chinese had to spend their time in Chinatown,
    and our activities center around Chinatown. Our social lives were here. I was drawn into Chinese
    history and culture because of my involvement with dance. I want to know how these
    dances get started, where did they come from, and doing this research myself, I found out a lot more about myself. Like most Chinese, I’m a blend of many different philosophies, religion. Most of them speak about the same thing, and is to be in community, to serve. I think partially you’re born into family, keep some of the traditions. So you carry all some of the things your ancestor did. What the Chinese value is very important. They value reciprocity, discipline. Value education, respect for seniors. These values helped me to succeed in life, and so I want to pass
    it to my descendants. The contribution that the Chinese provided for America was much more
    than building the railroad, civil rights, immigrant
    rights, the concept of equal protection under the law, the right to a public education although you’re not a citizen, the concept of political asylum, all these are concepts that the Chinese brought about, even what
    makes you an American. Many of things that the Chinese were involved with in building the West is not recorded, it’s not documented, so I’m trying to get all the institutions down here to donate their
    paper, their history to be part of the history of the West and the contribution
    that this community made. Unless these are
    documented and in libraries like the Bancroft, where mainstream researchers go for the information, the Chinese will always be left out. We’ll always be the others. So for me personally,
    this is very important. I’m hope I make an
    impact on people’s lives for the better, more positive. And I do see the impact of things getting better in this community. Sometimes it comes from different places. You don’t know you’re making
    impact until years later. A kid will come back and say oh, I saw you perform at one of the schools when I was young, that’s why I learned to dance. So sometimes, you don’t know what impact you’ve made until years later. But is a wonderful feeling
    that you are changing lives, hopefully for the better. Here you go, here you go. (woman laughs) – Thank you. (laughter) (audience applauds) Please join me in welcoming David Lei. (audience applauds) (Chancellor Christ laughs) – Thank you. Chancellor Christ, distinguished faculty, parents, graduates, and guests, and for those out of town guests, welcome to sunny California. (audience laughs) But despite of the weather, the enthusiasm in this stadium is better
    than at a Warriors game. Go Warriors, beat Stanford. The late 1960s through the early 1970s was a period of activism
    and protests here at Cal. I graduated during this time. Many of my classmates, myself included, did not attend our graduation ceremonies as another form of protest. I am so grateful for this second chance to don cap and gown and share this moment of joy and accomplishment with all of you graduates, friends, and families. I must first thank Mrs. Peter E. Haas for creating this award, and thanks all the people who stuck out their necks to nominate me and to vouch
    for me for this award. They must not have known
    about my poor grades and my poor attendance record
    when I was a student here. So I stand before you feeling undeserving, humbled, and unprepared
    to accept this award. As many of you might be feeling about life after graduation. My advice, be in service to other, be involved, be idealistic. I was born Chinese, so I naturally look to Confucius for my values. One of the things Confucius preached that has been the key to my success is that leadership is not being served, but service to others. This is a philosophy I learned in my community involvement, but has also been good business. My clients knew I was truly looking out for them and because of this, they were willing to pay me
    a premium for my service. Being of service to
    others is good leadership and good business. I immigrated with my parents
    to this country in 1956 when the immigration quota for
    Chinese was just 105 a year. Just a 105 Chinese a year
    can immigrate to America until the immigration reform of 1965. This was beating lottery odds. Thus I feel so lucky to be an American. America, like other countries, operated with government and with corporations. However, America’s very unique with its preponderance of non-profits. Over one and a half million non-profits whose mission is do the
    best in their endeavors without the need for making a profit. As Americans, no matter what your passion, no matter what you care about, there’s a non-profit you can join, volunteer, or work for. And if there isn’t one, you can start one, as your commencement speaker Wendy Kopp did at about your age when
    she founded Teach For America. Working with non-profits,
    I’ve learned so much and met so many wonderful people. Even met Linda, my lovely
    young wife of 45 years. And lastly, stay idealistic. The idealism formulated in
    me during my Berkeley years sustained me all these years. During difficult times,
    when accepting of reality was the easy way out, my idealism pointed the way and made sure I did not give up and lose my way. To the class of two oh one nine, be of service to others, be
    involved, and be idealistic. Thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – It gives me great pleasure
    to acknowledge awards to some of our very many
    outstanding graduates. Please rise when I call your name. The Jake Gimbel prize is awarded to Colin Morokawa of Men’s Golf. (audience applauds) The Adam Ebsenshade prize goes to Toni Anne Williams
    of Women’s Gymnastics. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) The highest honor the university can give to students is
    the university medal. The following students are the
    university medal finalists. Please come forward for your certificates. The university medal
    finalist are Samantha Hao. (audience applauds) Congratulations, so wonderful. Yvonne Hao
    (audience applauds) Han, or Harry, Main-Luu. (audience applauds) And Tynan Perez. (audience applauds) Let’s give them all a
    warm round of applause. (audience applauds) It now gives me great pleasure to present the university medal to the most distinguished
    graduating senior on the Berkeley campus, Tyler Chen. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) Tyler Chen is a graduating senior studying material science
    and bioengineering, with a certificate in
    entrepreneurship and technology. Tyler hopes to continue to develop new technologies to tackle
    disease and disability. He has designed microfluidic devices for single cell genomics at UC Berkeley’s Streets Lab, and developed genomic tools at iGenomX and the Scripps research institute in San Diego. Tyler also led Berkeley Hyperloop to design and build one of the first prototype vehicles for the
    SpaceX hyperloop pod competition. In his free time, he enjoys practicing martial arts, tricking,
    telling super lame jokes, and doing the unexpected. In the fall, he’ll be starting a PhD in bioengineering at Stanford as a Knight-Hennessy scholar, where he hopes to build foundational neuro technologies to enable people with ALS and similar disabilities to communicate using their minds. Tyler dreams of continuing this path to one day build neuro interfaces that empower human connection and empathy. Tyler Chen, it is my honor to present you the university medal, congratulations. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Thank you, thank you. Do I sit back down? – You could put it down, yeah.
    (chuckles) I now invite Tyler to
    share a few words with us. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – [Female] Yeah, Tyler. – [Male] Yea, Tyler. (audience cheers) – What’s up guys? Hey, everyone. Wow, this is crazy. I didn’t realize the
    real perk of the medal is that I get to stay under this tent. Sorry, but okay. So, real quick, before I start. I just want to give a huge shout out to all the parents, families, and everyone who’s out there for us today. We wouldn’t be here
    without you, so thank you. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) I guess maybe I shouldn’t clap in front of the mic, sorry guys. Okay, there we go. My friends, teammates,
    classmates, fellow graduates, we made it, congratulations. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) You all know, it hasn’t been easy. In our time at Berkeley, we’ve pushed ourselves to the breaking point, trying to measure up to
    these lofty expectations the academic world has of us. And this need to be successful is kind of ingrained
    in Berkeley’s culture. You know, we have all these myths and legends about it. For the non-Berkeley students, everyone at Berkeley hears from day one about these cursed seals, these university emblems that
    are around Memorial Glade, and the legend goes you should never, ever step on those gold seals. Why? Because stepping on those seals means you get cursed with bad grades. Stepping on the seal
    means you lower your GPA. Stepping on the seal means you give up on Berkeley’s high academic standards. So, you know, every day we see these groups of students
    walking up Memorial Glade, and they all split to go around the seals. This curse is that powerful. So, just the other day, I was
    sitting there on the Glade, surrounded by the cursed Berkeley seals, and I had a rare moment
    where I could stop and think. So I’d like to take you
    there, and out of the rain. The sun’s beating down on Memorial Glade, in the heart of campus, which, graduates, you all know is a special kind of place. Because at Berkeley, they’ve
    taught us to do big things. But as I sit there on the glade, it’s the little things
    that catch my attention. There’s a guy using
    his laptop as a pillow. There’s a llama. (audience laughs) I hear snippets of conversation. Something about memes, and edgy teens. I look to my right, I look to my left, and I see beside me some of the best friends I have ever had. Perhaps, graduates, if you look at who’s sitting next to you right now, you can say the same thing. As I sit there, I know I’m going to miss this place. But I pick up my bag and
    walk past the library, up that asphalt path towards real life. I’m sure you can picture it, library’s on the right,
    glade is on the left and there’s this big hill up ahead. So, I’m walking and I hear
    this noise in front of me. And it gets louder. And it gets louder. And, this is a true story, I glance up and there’s this huge dude on a tiny bike and he’s barreling down
    the hill, right at me. First of all, raise your
    hand if that was you. (audience laughs) Okay, anyway, this guy’s
    coming right at me, and he doesn’t see me, I’m just terrified. I’m just standing there. And he’s definitely going to hit me, so I know I have to dodge,
    so I go to sidestep, and I look down at where my foot’s about to land, and I see it. (audience laughs) It’s the cursed Berkeley seal. And now I’m twice as scared, because the only way to avoid getting
    hit is to get cursed. And I definitely don’t wanna get hit so I just dodge, and just stand there. On the seal. And I can feel the curse, hitting me. (audience laughs) But, as the guy goes past me, I notice this guy’s actually singing. ♪ Hey, what a wonderful kind of day. ♪ (audience laughs) ♪ What a wonderful kind of day. ♪ And now I’m confused. I just almost got run over,
    and then I got cursed. This day is not wonderful. But in that moment, listening
    to that huge dude sing, I thought to myself, maybe
    this curse isn’t so bad. Maybe now’s the time. Maybe graduating from the academic ruler is the only way to find
    something that matters more. And that’s the true secret
    of the Berkeley curse. Realizing that there come’s a time when it’s okay to step on the seal. To graduate and move on. To stop living our lives
    by other people’s standards and let go of the rulers other use to measure our worth. Because only then can we choose to live by our own measure of success. It’s an exciting and
    scary world out there, and there are a lot of unsolved problems. You all know. At Berkeley, they’ve taught us that the equations to solve climate change are not online, that the solutions to inequality, war, and poverty are not handed out in discussion sections. And most importantly, we’ve learned that the answers other people use to solve last year’s problems may not be the right
    ones in today’s world. But that’s okay. Because Berkeley also taught us that life will throw problems at us and one day after
    graduating, we may wake up to find a huge dude, on a tiny bike, headed straight for us. As the curse bearing graduates of this fine university,
    we’ll know what to do. We’ll step on the seal. We’ll chart our own path,
    and we’ll lend an ear to listen to carefully for what the guy on the bike is
    singing quietly to himself. Hey, what a wonderful kind of day. Having spent the last
    few years with you all, I know our future will
    be just that, wonderful. Thank you, and congratulations. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you so much, Tyler,
    for those words of wisdom. It is now my honor to welcome Jesse Gil and Mackenzie Monroe,
    members of the class of 2019 gift committee to the podium with a special presentation
    to the university. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you. Good morning, faculty, friends, family and members of the
    graduating class of 2019. We are proud to be here as the student representatives of this
    year’s senior gift campaign. First and foremost, congratulations
    to the class of 2019. We would like to thank
    you for your donations. They are a testament to your commitment to maintaining Cal’s excellence for future Golden Bears. The senior class gift has been a long standing tradition that started with the class of 1874,
    whose gift was $48.10 towards text books. In recent years, the campaign has shifted to providing more than
    just benches and fountains. We now sponsor a vast
    array of student resources from night safety programs to libraries. And student groups to scholarships, in order to maintain Cal’s excellence for current and future students. To honor our senior class gift, a plaque will be installed
    outside of Dwinelle Plaza and will remain a symbol
    of the senior class’s dedication to helping future Cal students just as past alumni have done for us. – We, along with the rest
    of Cal Student Philanthropy, have been honored to
    lead the 2019 campaign, and we are happy to announce
    that this year, 1,894 seniors were inspired to leave their mark on Cal by making a contribution
    to the senior class gift. Thank you to all the
    seniors who gave back. We gave back because seniors before us made our Cal experience possible, and we will continue to do so, so that UC Berkeley can remain one of the top public
    institutions in the world. And now, without further
    ado, we would like to present Chancellor Christ
    with the class of 2019 senior gift of $73,541. Thank you, and go bears. (audience applauds) (Chancellor Christ laughs) – It’s a very big thank you to the senior gift committee and all the members of the class of 2019. It’s a great pleasure to receive this gift on behalf of the university. Your gift will serve to remind us and future generations of
    your spirit and generosity. Thank you. (audience applauds) – Hmm, ‘kay, hello again. My name is Jesse Gil. I am the president of
    the senior class council which has been hosting events to unite the graduating class since 1870. Today we are here to celebrate our growth and accomplishments. I am honored to introduce our
    keynote speaker, Wendy Kopp, CEO and co-founder of Teach for All and founder of Teach For America. As an undergraduate at Princeton, Wendy dreamed of creating a way for her peers to apply their talents towards solving the
    country’s biggest problems. She launched Teach For America to enlist outstanding graduates from universities across the country to teach underserved communities. That magnificent idea is now
    a revolutionary organization. A leader in the movement for educational equity and excellence. Close to 7,000 people of all academic disciplines are currently immersed in two year commitments in 51 regions across the United States. Overall, 60,000 people have joined Teach For America since its founding, and nearly 1000 of those dedicated members are graduates of UC Berkeley. In the last 10 years, Wendy has shifted her attention beyond our borders. Inspired by Teach For
    America, social entrepreneurs from different parts of the world have expressed interest in adapting the program to address educational inequality in their own homes. While the challenges facing children may differ from country to country, the root causes in systems
    of inequity are similar. In 2007, Wendy co-founded Teach For All, which today is a global network
    of independent organizations in 50 countries, all working to ensure that children everywhere have the education and support they need to fulfill their potential. In fact, the partner organizations in Pakistan and Brazil were both founded by Berkeley alumni. We’re honored to have such an inspiring woman here today to share her experiences and wisdom. Wendy Kopp, the graduating class of 2019 welcomes you to the podium. (audience applauds) – Thank you, Jesse. Thank you President Napolitano and the board of regents,
    Chancellor Christ, deans and faculty, distinguished guests, family, friends, and loved ones, and most especially, the
    University of California Berkeley class of 2019. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) I am so sorry about the rain. But I’m so honored to
    celebrate this day with you. This class is, has extraordinary
    strength and perspective. More than one in five of you are the first in your families
    to earn a college degree. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) And 90 dreamers are picking
    up your degrees today. (audience applauds) Each of you sitting here in cap and gown has worked so hard to get here. Let’s hear it again for the class of 2019. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) To the graduates’ families and friends, as the mother of four who has not yet made it across this
    finish line, I am in awe. Let’s hear it for them. (audience applauds) And, to the 53 graduates who are joining Teach For America, thank you. Your campus has sent more students to Teach For America than nearly any other school in the nation. (audience applauds) I am inspired by what Berkeley stands for and by your generation. JoJo Lam, a Berkeley
    alumna who is helping build Teach for Cambodia shared with me how much this institution influenced her. She said when you’re surrounded by people who care, it
    makes you want to care. World wide, Berkeley is
    known for student activism. As we heard from Chancellor Christ in your time here, you have acted against racism, sexism, sexual assault, basic needs insecurity, income inequality, anti-immigration policies, climate crises, suppression of free speech and many other systemic injustices. And even beyond this
    campus, your generation’s commitment to political
    and civic engagement surpasses that of any
    that have come before. That’s not just an impression. A survey of US college students showed that your class
    had the highest levels of interest in political and community engagement in 50 years. We need your ongoing engagement. We need each of you to get into the arena of addressing the world’s greatest injustices and societal
    threats as early as possible. After spending my senior year in college developing the idea for Teach For America, I set out to make it happen
    when I graduated 30 years ago. The journey to realize its potential, first at Teach For America, now across Teach For All, a global network
    of similar organizations in 50 countries and counting,
    has been challenging. Exhausting, messy. But there is not one year I would trade for a different path. I feel extraordinarily privileged to have found my way to
    this work early enough to have had the chance to understand the complexity of the issues, and to find my way to real solutions. Along the way, I’ve
    been able to work with, and become friends with, the most amazingly committed people. I even met my husband in this work, and had those four incredible
    kids I mentioned earlier. I’ve learned so much. Including from the more
    than 1000 Berkeley grads who have joined Teach For
    America over the last 29 years and who are now teachers, principals, civil rights and immigration attorneys, elected leaders and social entrepreneurs, tackling inequity from
    all levels and many sides. Most of you are heading
    into the working world where activism may not be
    part of your day to day. Many of you are heading to jobs in marketing, consulting,
    finance, law, technology. These are the right choices for you now, given the many pressures and the passions that led you to them, but you may find yourself encouraged to
    back off your activism. I urge you to continue with it and to stay conscious that many of the institutions you’re joining are built on and
    supporting the status quo, politically, socially, and economically. I think we all recognize that there are major problems with the status quo. We face many issues that seem intractable. Climate change, historic
    levels of inequality, multiplying global conflicts. And the way we’ve been
    addressing them isn’t working. We tackle one piece and
    create new problems, or we see only incremental progress. Or we are simply
    immobilized in a vitriolic and divided place. I’m betting on you to break us through. I’m betting on you to learn
    from previous generations, to bring your energy and ideas, and as the most diverse generation of college graduates yet, to bring your experiences, your family histories, your community backgrounds to the table. I’m betting on you to make meaningful progress in the struggle for justice, freedom, and a sustainable future. This is why I want to share with you the most salient lesson
    from my last 30 years, which is about the kind of leadership we need to reach our aspirations. I’ve learned that we need
    collective leadership. Our culture is rooted in the ideal of the individual leader. We hear the word leadership, and we imagine heroic superstars. We valorize the
    entrepreneurs, particularly here, so close to Silicon Valley. We wanna be our own bosses,
    to venture out on our own. This archetype deeply defines our vision of success in this country. But the more I see, the more I realize that individual leadership alone will not get us where we’re trying to go. When I started pursuing the
    idea of Teach For America as a 21 year old, I believed individual leadership was everything. I’d internalized, no doubt because of my experiences growing
    up in our western culture that if I wanted accomplish something I just needed to work
    harder and think harder. The experience of
    getting Teach For America off the ground and sustaining it only reinforced that mental model. Whether we lived or died seemed to me to rest on how much time I spent raising funds, on
    how good my plans were. And my whole theory of change for addressing the extreme and entrenched inequities facing
    children was to cultivate a bunch of individual leaders. To recruit and develop individuals with leadership potential,
    to help them succeed as teachers, so they had a real impact on kids and gain a deep understanding of the problem and its solvability, then to accelerate their individual paths as school system leaders, innovators, advocates, and political leaders who would pursue systemic change. But over time, what I’ve
    seen in communities, here and around the world, has led me to rethink my belief in
    individual leadership alone. I’ve been thinking about the need for collective leadership,
    a kind of leadership where individuals work
    together in a new way. Collective leadership asks diverse groups to maximize their differences rather than be immobilized by them. It encourages us to come together, to speak, to listen, reflect,
    understand the whole picture, develop shared vision for the future, and generate new solutions. Collective leadership recognizes that our power is so much
    stronger than my power. Over the past few years,
    I’ve been fortunate to spend time with Anseye Pou Ayiti, Teach for Haiti in Creole. At it’s outset, its incredible CEO, Nedgine Paul Deroly spent more than three years in the rural communities where her team was planning to work, building relationships and considering one question, as a people, when
    are we at our best in Haiti? Stemming from that question came conversations about education and what the community wanted to be
    true for its young people. Nedgine listened to reflections that repeatedly focused on respect for local culture, customs, and community. Collective leadership gathers entire communities to exert leadership. The people in these Haitian communities came together, listened to each other, and created a vision for what would be true for their kids by the
    time they are young adults, that they would have the education necessary to provide for their families, be proud and value their own heritage, and be active citizens and leaders committed to social justice for all. Almost five years into this work, this collective leadership has created transformational changes. To share just one example, although it’s technically outlawed, Haitian schools for decades have utilized
    corporal punishment as the primary discipline system. This practice is embedded in the country’s colonial past, passed down from generation to generation as it has been in many parts of our country and in the world. And yet in the five years
    since Anseye Pou Ayiti launched, whole schools have shed that entrenched approach and created positive discipline systems. This is deep change. Change that laws could not effect. How did it finally happen? It happened because diverse people came together, listened to each other, developed a vision, and realized that they would never get where they were trying to go
    using that old system. They chose to become more invested in the new vision than in the old ways. In our country, we too often fail to create the space necessary to bring the people from different
    perspectives together to develop new paths forward. Take what’s happening here in Berkeley’s backyard, in Oakland’s
    public school system. Thanks to so many committed individuals across the system, there are many things to be hopeful about. In the past 10 years
    alone, graduation rates have risen from 55% to 73%. Having first visited there 28 years ago, I can tell you that today, many more of Oakland’s children are on a path to college and to meaningful careers. Yet, there is still so
    much trauma in the system. Maybe some of you followed the news of Oakland’s recent teacher strike. Protesting untenable teacher salaries that are not enough to let teachers live sustainably here in the Bay Area. The successful strike and hard fought resolution resulted in an increase in teacher pay of 11% over four years. That is not nearly enough to keep up with rising housing and living costs in this area, and many are concerned that that deal will bankrupt the district. Why can’t we figure out how to enable teachers to live sustainably and take care of themselves and our children? What I know for sure, is that there are no easy answers, and there is no path to progress without dialogue
    and generative problem solving. We need all the actors: students, parents, teachers, advocates, employers, philanthropists, and government leaders to talk and to listen. We need them to consider
    together the whole picture. Not only teacher pay, but housing costs, pension costs, our willingness to pay taxes in support of
    public education and more. And yet this kind of discussion seems utterly impossible. It’s impossible because there is deep anger in the community. Particularly at the philanthropists who’ve been investing in the city and at any advocates or organizations that accept their support. Because it’s corporate leaders who have had a loud voice, even when they’ve played a role in perpetuating the income inequality at the
    root of Oakland’s issues. With so much anger and fear, there seems no way for
    people to come together, to get to know each other’s perspectives, and develop new solutions. So we’re stuck. And Oakland is just one example of dozens and dozens across this country where this same story plays out. To create different outcomes, we need to develop different capabilities than most of us have learned. We must learn to build authentic relationships across lines of difference. To see strengths in those from different walks of life and different
    ideological perspectives. To listen, and learn from each other. We must develop the muscle to think beyond our individual pursuits and hold the space necessary to bring diverse people together. And we must be literate with trauma, our own, other’s, and the world’s, so that we can have generative discussions even when others hurt us. Class of 2019, I wanna challenge you to lead us forward differently. To make it your life’s
    work to create dialogue. To make it your job to replace
    judgment with curiosity. To co-construct a vision of the future that works for all, not for some. You don’t need to wait to find yourself in a position of influence. We need you now. Seek out a conversation with someone who has a radically
    different point of view and listen generously. Be curious and willing to be surprised. Understand that just like you, they have hopes and fears, things they value, and things that make them feel vulnerable. Make time to do the inner work to understand yourselves. Know your deepest values, and take time for you own healing, because as we ground ourselves, we’re
    able to be more generous with others, and more generative in our public and collective spaces. Always look around the table and invite in voices that are not heard. And if you’re not the one who can offer an unheard perspective, something that can move our shared humanity forward, have the courage to speak up
    even when it feels difficult. Real progress requires moments of tension. If we approach those
    moments with generosity and curiosity rather resistance and blame, we can find entirely new ways forward. This may be slow in the beginning, but I’ve come to realize that many diverse people trusting each other and working together is the only path to achieving a just, peaceful,
    sustainable, inclusive world. I’m placing my hopes in you. With every generation, humanity
    goes through an evolution, and we’re going through one now. Your generation brings new wisdom, consciousness, and a yearning for justice. We need your imagination
    and collective spirit. I’m so excited to learn from you as you live into your potential as a generation of change makers and create the world we long for. Thank you class of 2019, and good luck. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – Thank you Wendy, for
    your inspirational words. It is now my honor to
    welcome Tiffany Moore, one of the amazing members
    of the class of 2019 as she shares her talents with you in a performance of Climb Ev’ry Mountain. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (orchestra plays Climb Ev’ry Mountain) – ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Search high and low ♪ ♪ Follow every byway ♪ ♪ Every path you know ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ ♪ A dream that will need ♪ ♪ All the love you can give ♪ ♪ Every day of your life ♪ ♪ For as long as you live ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ ♪ A dream that will need ♪ ♪ All the love that you can give ♪ ♪ Every day of your life ♪ ♪ For as long as you live ♪ ♪ Climb every mountain ♪ ♪ Ford every stream ♪ ♪ Follow every rainbow ♪ ♪ ‘Til you find your dream ♪ (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) – Thank you so much, Tiffany. And now, class of 2019, what
    you’ve been waiting for. I ask that all candidates for the degrees please rise if able for the conferring of the degrees by
    Chancellor Carol T. Christ. Please be aware that the cannon will sound after the Chancellor’s remarks. – By virtue of the authority vested in me by the president of
    the University of California, I grant you the degrees
    of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Bachelor of Arts, and Bachelor of Science. Congratulations, graduates. (audience cheers) You may now move your tassels from the right to the left side. (audience applauds)
    (audience cheers) (cannon bursts) (graduates laughing)
    (graduates clapping) Please remain standing as the members of DeCadence lead us
    in Hail to California, the university’s alma mater. (DeCadence matches pitch) – [Man] One, two, three, four. – ♪ Hail to California ♪ ♪ Alma mater dear ♪ ♪ Sing the joyful chorus ♪ ♪ Sound it far and near ♪ ♪ Rallying round her banner ♪ ♪ We will never fail ♪ ♪ California, alma mater ♪ ♪ Hail, hail, hail ♪ ♪ Hail to California ♪ ♪ Queen in whom we’re blest ♪ ♪ Spreading light and goodness ♪ ♪ Over all the west ♪ ♪ Fighting ‘neath her standard ♪ ♪ We shall sure prevail ♪ ♪ California, alma mater ♪ ♪ Hail, hail, hail ♪ Go bears. (audience cheers)
    (audience applauds) – It may be raining, but it’s raining Cal graduates today. (audience cheers) Thank you for attending the class of 2019 commencement ceremony. Congratulations to the
    class of 2019 graduates, and your families. Graduates please meet your family members at the Campanile. We wish you all a pleasant
    and safe afternoon. Again congratulations,
    and forever, go bears! (audience cheers) (drums beat)

    Fighting for Our Hometown
    Articles, Blog

    Fighting for Our Hometown

    August 12, 2019

    Images/videos while Andrew Wiand talks: Cityscape
    — “South Bend Indiana” (on screen); railroad and old Studebaker building, Wiand family
    pictures, old buildings, alleys, houses, old Studebaker factory buildings and cars coming
    of production line (black and white video); interspersed with Wiand walking the streets. Voice over of Andrew Wiand: “This is my city.
    My grandfather worked in the factories here. My parents met and fell in love here. They
    taught in the city schools while the factories closed and the jobs disappeared. I grew up
    with the knowledge that behind the façade of empty buildings was a spark of innovation
    that made this city great.” Wiand, Esteem Class of ’12, University of
    Notre Dame, speaking: “I’ve always been proud of South Bend’s past, but I’m even more proud
    to be part of its future.” Video of Wiand walking into train depot; group
    meeting in foyer. Narrator: “Andrew Wiand is a member of enFocus,
    a fellowship program in which graduates of Notre Dame’s Masters in Entrepreneurship work
    to create new ventures and improve existing systems for the city of South Bend and local
    businesses.” David Murphy, Assoc. Dean, Entrepreneurship,
    University of Notre Dame speaking: “The goal of the enFocus program is to capitalize on
    the student body here at Notre Dame and to bring an entrepreneurial spirit and cutting-edge
    technology skills to the real-world problems that we have in the community.” Show group meeting; group discussion; group
    outside Bendix Family Physicians office; group in front of Riley High School with South Bend
    Community School Corporation bus; group in front of South Bend Fire Department Central
    Fire Station. Narrator: “In their first year of operation,
    the enFocus team has helped save the South Bend community an estimated $3.2 million dollars
    through innovative initiatives with local health care providers as well as the city’s
    schools and fire department.” Video of enFocus team walking through fire
    department with firemen, looking at SUVs. Wiand speaking: “In the case of the fire department,
    we were able to analyze their operations and discover that they could save over a million
    dollars by deploying SUVs rather than fire trucks for the large amount of non-emergency
    calls that they receive.” Video of door of mayor’s office; video of
    enFocus fellows sitting outside while girls play. Mayor Pete Buttigieg speaking: “These entrepreneurs
    are solving real-world problems, they’re saving tax-payer money and their energy is contagious.
    The city needs allies and we’re very glad that we have an ally at Notre Dame.” Wiand walking on the street then looking at
    map with firemen. Wiand speaking: “It’s been unbelievable to
    be an active part of real change in my hometown. But what’s more exciting is that the enFocus
    model that we’ve developed here can be applied to other hard-hit cities all over the country. Flyover of Notre Dame campus and Golden Narrator: The University of Notre Dame asks,
    ‘What would you fight for?” Wiand: “Fighting for my hometown.” Murphy: “We are the Fighting Irish.”

    LAST CROSSING in the USA & End of the line (Abandoned Railroad)
    Articles, Blog

    LAST CROSSING in the USA & End of the line (Abandoned Railroad)

    August 12, 2019

    Hello ladies and gentlemen, you guys are going to witness today the last crossing in the continental United States. As well as the end of the line. The Southernmost railroad in the United States. There’s no more railroads South of this point. In the continental United States this is the CSX S line. As you can see that’s the S line Homestead Subdivision Milepost 66.90 It’s SW 10th Ave and 6th Street. So as you can see, the rails are not linked anymore. This would be an abandoned railroad. and I’m going to take you to the actual end of the railroad. This would be the Southernmost railroad in the United States. There isn’t anymore railroads in the continental US more South than this one. Up until 1984, the FEC went further, but that track was abandoned as well and later on removed. it’s now a busy way. This used to be an old SCL for you guys that don’t know. Actually an old SAL at that. It was built in the 1920’s to promote tourism to Homestead. This is the New Jerusalem Church of God and Christ. And this is where it officially ends. You can see 1926 Escrow Maryland The end of the line. So now I’m walking back North guys. This is facing Miami way. If you guys know the last time a train came to this stretch of track, please comment below. I’d love to know. I’m guessing it was maybe decades ago. So again were going to cross SW 6th Street over here. And here we have the Greater Williams Chapel Free Will Baptist Church. Look at that 2 churches within 1 block of each other. And then these are all the old wooden cross ties over here. Alright guys, please subscribe or like. Thank you for viewing. Take care, over and out.

    Abandoned Railroad From Seaboard Days
    Articles, Blog

    Abandoned Railroad From Seaboard Days

    August 12, 2019

    you hello ladies and gentlemen guys and gals
    RailROL82 here, your humble servants and your railroad archaeologist
    okay I’m gonna give you a bird’s-eye view right now of what I’m about to film
    this is an update video this is one of the first videos I filmed when I began
    my channel a couple of years ago that highway you see there is highway 112
    going West International Airport few blocks away so I’m a South East 14th
    Street and this is 10th Avenue or 10th court I’ll include the Google Maps in
    this location so you guys can follow along ok so what I’m standing on right
    now is what it used to be a team track back in the day this is where the real
    cars would back up to and then all these jacent warehouses would come and unload
    their merchandise over here now it’s turned into a somewhat of a I guess a
    waiting area for that trial station right there
    Travel is a local commuter train between Miami and West Palm Beach so let me go
    ahead and get the journey started ready this is a original seaboard airline
    railroad you can still see the old ties right there old wooden types coming up
    to the team truck this is officially the end of it
    oh look at that wait a second try to throw date you okay
    so I see some writing 1922 Oh 1925 it says right there one nine to five yeah
    you can’t see that I don’t you guys can see it on here but the shadow doesn’t
    you see very well okay and then I guess somebody thought it was uh amusing to
    bring no train on here has trained it well that’s an accurate picture I mean
    it’s a half accurate picture because I don’t know who Sierra Road is but the
    this was used by our team originally this 1925 to my knowledge there was no
    diesel back then so yeah you guys saw the ties original seaboard airline
    railroad when I was a kid in the 80s I remember seeing some action on this line
    like great-grandfather used to bring used to live around here and they used
    to bring me the CDs these trains up during the day
    hence my love for trains right now and then you see the palm trees which is
    very stereotypical of man the Royal Palms swinging in the wind there’s a
    missing one that’s probably victim to I hurricane or lightning let me see if I
    can take a seaboard a souvenir no way that things really aren’t you got that yeah hopefully yeah I don’t think
    they’re gonna pull these rails wheels are about to be 100 years old so
    right now there are 94 years old not bad right
    I wish I’d look that good when I was ready for then I’ll still be a relevant
    archaeologist and have many more subscribers okay so I’m walking north
    right now we’re coming up on South East and I think that sub is 12 what I’m gonna do is I’m gonna go on
    historic aerials calm and see when you can see uh when was the last time action
    was on these tracks I’m guessing late 80s early 90s
    here you have the rails tripping right there I thought I was gonna be easier to
    chip it on that thing it’s on it south okay so this is the southeast tenth
    court in southeast 12 street pavement market interestingly enough this trial
    came into service 1989 so in 1989 they were still usage here that’s why there’s
    a paper wagon that says railroad crossing now if you guys had a question
    as to whether or not this track was abandoned this solves this answers your
    question there’s no way our trains coming through that there’s no way our
    train is coming to you okay this rail here probably came this
    way where that mound is right there between those trees go over there see
    the community yeah I’m see any pavement markings for
    that one that one’s off yeah no that’s all done it’s all routes and stuff over
    there okay so back to the task at hand a hill on the railroad sounds like a
    movie a hill on the railroad this are you go technic wow that thing
    is hot as hell oof like Nene degrees well the temperature is 88 degrees out
    that thing’s probably harder than 80 80 degrees by this year see port balance gotta love it and know
    it’s probably a switch down here somewhere somewhere I don’t see so I’m
    emotionally attached to this rule like I said because my great-grandfather’s
    written here so to me it’s like part of the family I grew up with it it’s still
    here I’d hate for it to be gone someday so that’s why I came to check up on it
    three so often you know coming make sure it’s still taking care of bringing some
    water some food okay there you have more poon even working right there but yeah
    it’s a whole lot of shrubbery did not come a quick huh yeah some serious shrubbery in there too we all please nearby so I’m not gonna go
    in there but we can but we can follow this one so this is another one Cheers there’s another one here – oh wow
    okay start off on this bus walk or go leave work early what got some vision acres along guys know what that is so this keeps
    going over here and I thought very much this track is in service and realizes
    these bosses wouldn’t be parked right let’s see if over there we can see some
    more remnants of it surely can Yeah right this aerial partner airplane noise but
    this area was driving back in the day with rail activity you could see how
    many Spurs was here the sports birds less than a block from each other that’s where that one ends right there
    you can see the cutoff and that used to be a loading dock for you
    and this one won’t start off right there criminal active you ask me okay now
    we’ll go back and see that Oh oh yeah we didn’t see this one the first
    time Wow it’s nuts all these rails sorry about that
    is real just in the camp Julia side side guys all the wasted
    potential all the history here gone I hate to see that at least they didn’t
    pull the rails and a mr. so here you can enjoy them so yeah like to give me a
    thumbs up comment below tell me anything or asking anything you’d like to know
    about it take care if you haven’t subscribed
    please do so have a good one you

    Almost Untraceable Abandoned Railroad Remnants
    Articles, Blog

    Almost Untraceable Abandoned Railroad Remnants

    August 12, 2019

    ok ladies and gentlemen, RailROL82 here again with you today I’m gonna be doing a first for me I’ve never been
    to Texas and I’ve never filmed a Union Pacific Railroad and this is my first
    time so here we have the relay case Union Pacific Railroad Laurel Avenue
    Mall post 153 point 15 dot number and grade crossing High Line so let me take
    you or let me give you a little scenic view of what this little town looks like
    very Texas brick pavers and then we’re coming up on the line I’m not sure it lost all sense of
    direction here so this is one track to you and this is another track to you there’s a great crossing okay this is something I’ve barely seen
    before we got a female Siemens Sigma base Seamans gate mechanism we got a oddly
    placed ebo right there and forsaken LED lights I mean you go to the other side
    because it’s Sun over here okay you got a better view and then same deal and
    they said we have the emergency contact all right old here we go Siemens signal base Siemens
    gate mechanism Ebell were for it save trendline and those lights on passing
    here I’ve never seen those in the South Florida you guys know what they are
    please comment below I’d love to know you we see uh what was once an oil well I’m gonna try to find out day on the
    rails here nope don’t see what but I’m guessing they’re 30 new bent
    about it by the neck that they’re not the old stuff I don’t want to get too
    close because since this is not abandoned I don’t want I don’t know if
    there’s police looking or something so oh look my lucky day when I start
    selling these guys if you guys are interested in buying spikes that you
    know I’ll start them to you so this is my first door access to a Union Pacific
    Railroad I was hoping to see the Train actually I want an inside dog it’s a
    barbecue place here called City Oh oh look at this look at this abandoned
    line look at that the road archaeologists
    never let you guys out huh so probably all this year it used to be a spoiler right along this
    line wait we’ll go over there and see we
    catch something I think on this side they’re pretty much all removed
    everything I wonder if this funnel because that
    would have been doesn’t make sense he’s gonna say that where the old
    crossbuck would have been but now they said we have no traces of it knows where
    it moves on this side go back in give you one more look and a link to the Google Maps in six
    locations you guys come follow along if you want and maybe go on historic
    Ariel’s comm so we can see our historic aerials on this on this particular
    location see what it look like back in the days and we might see or this pearl
    went or who had serviced all righty guys thank you for viewing please subscribe
    or like comment if you can over and out

    Has Anyone Ever Actually Tied a Damsel in Distress to a Railroad Track?
    Articles, Blog

    Has Anyone Ever Actually Tied a Damsel in Distress to a Railroad Track?

    August 12, 2019

    A manly hero coming to the rescue of a beautiful
    damsel in distress has been a common trope since literally the earliest days of theater,
    going all the way back to the Ancient Greeks. As the centuries passed, mythical creatures
    were replaced by more mundane dangers- notable to the topic at hand is the common trope of
    top hat clad, magnificently mustachioed villains tying buxom damsels to railway tracks while
    a dashing hero rushes in to save the day. So where exactly did this railway trope actually
    come from and are there any known cases of someone actually doing this in real life? To begin with, while your first instinct might
    be to assume that this trope originated during the era of silent films, this isn’t quite
    correct, though it is true you can find isolated examples of this in a few surviving films. For example, the 1913 film Barney Oldfield’s
    Race for a Life is commonly touted as the first film to feature the “chained to a
    railway” scene, including a mustachioed villain wearing a fetching hat, a beguiling
    beauty tied to the railway tracks and a daring, last-minute rescue by a handsome hero. The thing is, this was a comedy specifically
    created to lampoon the trope. In another similar example, we have the 1917
    film Teddy at the Throttle in which the fair maiden, played by Gloria Swanson, humorously
    rescues herself from peril because the “dashing” hero arrives too late. To find the true origin of the trope, at least
    in terms of what popularized it, we have to go back to stage plays, with it commonly stated
    that Augustin Daly’s 1867 play, Under the Gaslight by American was first. This does indeed contain such a scene, in
    this case where a character named Snorkey is tied to the rails by a man named Byke. As he’s doing this, Byke exclaims, I’m going to put you to bed. You won’t toss much. In less than ten minutes you’ll be sound
    asleep. There, how do you like it ? You’ll get down
    to the Branch before me, will you? You dog me and play the eavesdropper, eh I
    Now do it if you can. When you hear the thunder under your head
    and see the lights dancing in your eyes, and feel the iron wheels a foot from your neck,
    remember Byke! Thankfully for Snorkey, in a sort of reversal
    of the gender roles in the scene, a damsel named Laura manages to come to his rescue
    and free him just before the train arrives. While, as noted, Daly is commonly given credit
    for coming up with the idea, it turns out this isn’t correct at all; it was simply
    his play that popularized it. For example, sticking with theater, if you
    dig a little deeper, a similar scene also appeared in a previous play called The Engineer
    released in 1863 in Britain. Nevertheless the effect the scene in Daly’s
    play had on the audience was so good that rival playwrights quickly began including
    “railroad scenes” in their own melodramas, much to Daly’s chagrin. To try to protect the concept he felt he’d
    come up with, he decided to sue those who used it in their own plays. Despite instances like a short story, Captain
    Tom’s Fright, released before Daly’s play featuring an extremely similar scene being
    used by the defense, the courts weren’t persuaded and the case became a landmark one
    in the history of copyright law in the United States. It was specifically ruled that copying the
    essence of a scene closely in other plays did indeed infringe on intellectual property
    rights, even if no words were copied and it wasn’t literally the exact same scene. Nevertheless, theatre promoters heroically
    ignored this ruling, continuing to rip Daly off anyway, presumably dually under the assumption
    that Daly wouldn’t get around to suing everyone and that if enough modifications were made
    to the scene they’d probably get away with it either way. Similarly back in the UK, the trope also spread
    like wildfire with one Nicholas Daly noting in his paper, Blood on the Tracks: Sensation
    Drama, the Railway, and the Dark Face of Modernity, “In October 1868 the railroad scene could
    be witnessed in five different plays at five different London theaters.” So that’s how the trope was popularized,
    but has anyone ever actually been tied to a railroad track in that way? It turns out, while it’s rare- yes. There are several known instances of this
    happening. For example, according to the August 31, 1874
    issue of the New York Times, a Frenchman identified by the paper as simply “Gardner” was killed
    in this exact manner after being robbed and left tied to a railway track. However, in this specific case the unfortunate
    Frenchman was able to partially free himself, with the result being only the lower half
    of his left leg being severed. Gardner survived long enough to offer a description
    of his attackers to the authorities before succumbing to his injuries. It’s noteworthy that this and several other
    known cases in the following decades came after the ubiquity of the trope in theater,
    despite that trains had been around long since. Thus, much like the idea of mobsters putting
    “concrete shoes” on people to send them to sleep with the fishes, it would seem this
    was first thought up by entertainers only to be copied in various isolated instances
    by real life people. As for a more modern example of the train
    trope, and one which actually includes a damsel, this involves another Frenchman, Guillaume
    Grémy, in 2017. Unfortunately for all involved, not only was
    Guillaume not sporting a magnificent moustache and top hat at the time of his crime, he also
    completely took the fun out of the thing. You see, Guillaume was suffering from severe
    depression at the time. When efforts to get back together with his
    estranged wife, Émilie Hallouin, failed, he decided on her 34th birthday to bind her
    to a high-speed railway track using, to quote a police spokesman, “strong adhesive tape”,
    and then stood over her as the train approached. Sadly, real life being real life, there was
    no dashing hero to save the day here and tragically for the couple, their toddler child and other
    respective children, the pair were killed instantly when the train hit them at a reported
    200 MPH… So, yes, indeed there have been several known
    cases of people being murdered via being placed on railroad tracks, but sadly, as far as we
    can tell, rescue after the villain places the victim on the tracks seems to be something
    only found in fiction. It has long been rumored that as part of its notoriously brutal selection
    process the SAS will tie prospective recruits to a railway track whilst blindfolded to teach
    them how to stay calm under pressure. The SAS trainers will then feign panic and
    pretend that something has gone wrong all while the sound of an oncoming train can be
    heard. In reality, the recruit is tied to an adjacent
    piece of track and trainers will observe what, if anything, the recruit does during their
    predicament. Beyond tying the living to tracks, there are
    also known cases of people putting the dead on tracks to try to get away with murder by
    making it look like an accident. Perhaps the most well-known example of this
    is the 1993 case of two year old James Bulger. We’ll spare you the truly horrific details
    of the murder itself at the hands of two young boys, but suffice it to say that in an attempt
    to make the death look an accident, the two kids placed the already mangled tiny body
    onto a railway track. It was subsequently run over, but this did
    little to hide the preexisting injuries and the police soon enough tracked down the two
    young perpetrators.

    SKY COURT | Episode 2 | Drama | ORIGINAL SERIES | english subtitles
    Articles, Blog

    SKY COURT | Episode 2 | Drama | ORIGINAL SERIES | english subtitles

    August 12, 2019

    Art Director NATALYA KOCHERGINA Make-up Artist ANNA ESMONT
    Composer ILYA SHIPILOV Camera Director
    SERGEY MACHILSKY R.G.C. Screenwriter and Director
    ALYONA ZVANTSOVA Executive Producers
    ALEXEY MOISEEV SECOND EPISODE The Peace Sector is over there. The Reflection Sector is over there. Each of the sides simply
    sends out a motorboat. So there are no demons or white-hot frying pans. So you are aiming to lose? That’s what I thought. I’m not aiming at anything. I just wanted you not to be afraid. On the other hand,
    who deserves the Peace Sector? Those who attained
    some sort of enlightenment in their mortal life. I don’t know… Mother Theresa, for example. Gandhi. I wonder what’s going on
    in the mind of a person who has to try a case? He irons his collar,
    polishes his shoes and casually, between
    breakfast and lunch, sends someone
    to hell or to heaven. — We don’t use these terms in our work.
    — And who are you? I wonder what was your last deed in life? First of all, we are conscripted
    into these positions. And it’s not for ever. And second of all, I’m helping
    a person to go in peace. So he would feel
    not like a pig, but like a person
    who’s done a lot of good. And the prosecutor’s position is the Reflection Sector itself. Because going through
    other people’s sins every day reminds you of your own. I think this hearing is trivial.
    Half an hour tops. So let’s go to a bar
    afterwards and drink a glass
    of something. A glass of what? Of nice Irish whiskey? Whiskey that doesn’t get you drunk? Just an illusion, the same as this knife, this wax, my hand. I prefer to think of myself
    as a special form of life. And I prefer to recognize
    that I don’t exist and stop playing. What are you doing?! Are you nuts?! What are you..? Underdeveloped Houdini! Excuse me, Sir Harry! What do you want to show? A finger disappearing
    into thin air? Or a new one growing? I do not enter
    into informal relations with trial participants. We do not create laws.
    We merely follow them. Is he here? Yes. Clean, groomed.
    You’ll get him in tip-top shape. Take this. And… …please put… …this on his neck. This. Oh! Sorry! — Thank you!
    — You’re welcome. This case could in fact have been comic and tragic
    at the same time. Think yourself. What could be more absurd than dying of waxing? Than a man dying of waxing? Than a 50-year-old man, a husband and a father, dying of leg waxing? The thing is
    my client has an allergy. He’s allergic to wax. He died in a second following him saying, “I’d like my legs to look nice.” But he lived
    a wonderful life. Together with his wife he raised
    three charming children and no doubt — no doubt! — he deserves a ticket
    to the Peace Sector if not for one terrible mistake. The defense is calling a witness. Antonio Amore! Antonio Amore who let it slip out
    in a bar a week ago that he missed his aim. We all know the activities
    of Amore family. Did I get caught
    or something? In this case
    it’s not about smuggling. Every single one of us
    in our mortal life got shot at least once by this wonderful family. A shot hits your heart
    and so a love is born. Which means passion, suffering, melancholy. Wait, did I get caught
    or something? So, March 23rd, this year. Antonio Amore missed. Bring in the weapon. This year, on March 23rd, Antonio Amore fired two guns with the aim of creating a mutual love. Who did you want to hit? Antonio Luigi Amore, you are warned against
    committing perjury as well as refusing to testify pursuant to Article 14 Chapter 72 of the Supreme Court Code. This chick… And a dude… This one? No, not this one. Here! Members of the jury, please notice that Antonio did hit
    the first victim. The first victim was a driving instructor who was then buying potatoes
    in a supermarket. But who else
    did you want to hit? Who should have been
    the second victim? She bent over. A terrible mistake took place. A woman, a folk dance teacher, bent over to pick up a grapefruit she dropped and in this moment… He happened to come
    in the line of fire. My client was shot in his heart. He didn’t have
    any other alternative except for, upon reaching the age of 52, desperately fall in love with a driving instructor. Stop-stop-stop! Objection! How come he didn’t have
    any other alternative? With all due respect to the powerful Amore family, I tend to doubt that a shot made by our so-called sniper could override everything that was a person’s life. Everything he held for normal, for right. Why? Because there are duties. There is integrity. What’s with the ‘so-called’? Eh, prosecutor? You said, ‘so-called sniper’? I hope you didn’t want
    to make fun of me. Else I will shoot. Do you want to suffer here, even after death? Eh? Prosecutor of the first degree? I want to suffer. I do. Puppy! What do you know about love? Except for shoot-and-run? You guys are so funny, by God! What love? What duties?! What integrity?! I’ll tell you one thing. Where would you all be if we could dual wield? But it’s only Don Sergio
    who can use two guns at once and yours truly. In all our love only one person
    is heart-wounded. The other one sells out for dough, for food, for water. — In 99.99% of the cases.
    — Actually, he’s right. Our band all members of which have died in the air crash of Flight
    Moscow to Magadan presents you
    this love song. He wanted to hurt you
    on purpose. Amores always bring pain,
    you know that. I know what you are thinking about. I understand it very well. But we can’t know that. There’s no need to. Were you and your wife
    shot with two guns..? Did you have it good? That’s it. That’s it? Yes. Let’s have a dance. Here. What’s this? Smuggled goods. Vodka was intercepted by a patrol. Beer is finished. But in fact, the similar effect is achieved
    with smuggled yogurt. My treat. Get burned or buried? What? You will get burned or buried. In 24 hours, earthly time. So what should I do now? Pee my pants? Aren’t you scared? Aren’t you? Of her forgetting you sooner than me? Rude. Actually, you got a regular yogurt. Mine is from out there and yours… …is locally produced. So it’s too early to be drunk. That’s the way we joke here. Want a body? What? You too? No! No-no-no-no!
    With all due respect — no! You are drunk! Have I ever broken anything? A finger on a ballet dancer. It was dislocated and fixed with tape. But still… I ask you..! Don’t! Don’t ask me for anything! As you wish. Looking where to put Nikitos? — Excuse me, and who might you be?
    — And you? The widow of that first one,
    under the juniper tree? Or of the second one that you will bury under some linden? Big-leaf linden? Excuse me, I don’t understand. You had a ceremony, you gave an oath to love till the dying day. It means till your dying day. Not just bury, stick a juniper in
    and off to the next one. Or maybe you didn’t love him? Your first husband? — Right from the start?
    — Let me go. You are hurting me. But hey! It was fun.
    And convenient. An apartment, a car…
    Right, darling? — Traveling, money, great sex.
    — Let me go. Or..? Sex wasn’t so good either? Andrey? I’m dreaming of you again, aren’t I? I knew it was you the moment you started
    talking about sex. Forgive me. This suit looks very nice on you. Oh, God! I miss you so much, Andrey! Tell me, why is the life so unfair? Just because some smart-ass in your… …Upstairs said
    that it has to be this way…? You were the best. The best, Andrey. Nikita was a kind and decent man. I don’t get it,
    why do you leave and I stay? Why? Prosecutor, what brings you
    to my humble abode? The shop is downstairs. it has a selection
    of artificial cheese, pizza, wine. I didn’t come for that. For smuggled goods? Oh dear! Is the world falling apart
    in front of my eyes or did Prosecutor come to ask help from Don Amore
    who can’t be put in prison yet should be kept
    at a distance? What do you want? For some Señor or Señorita
    down there on earth to start pining for you
    beyond any control? Or do you want to find out if at some point
    many years ago somebody made this kind of shot? Don Sergio, I… I’ve heard about the ways
    of this house. And before asking you
    for anything, — I…
    — Attorney of the first degree. …attorney of the first degree, will say the words
    that are usually said by those who ask. I’m an ordinary person, and I don’t always do
    the right thing. And? What were you doing
    in Amore’s house? It doesn’t matter. You are a prosecutor.
    You can’t rub elbows with him. Understand? You can’t! Or what? Amores always walk the line
    between good and evil. One wrong move — and that’s it. End of your powers. The Sector. What if I deserve the Sector no less — actually
    even more — than those who I send there? Venechka, I lived an empty life and died like a Ken doll in a make-believe gear on a make-believe battlefield. Don’t you think it’s too late to save me? The final session of the jury trial on the case of the deceased Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich is now open. I remind both parties that they should finish
    presenting arguments today and the jury members have to reach a verdict. Please, Prosecutor. Your Honor! Jury members! Let me remind you how this trial started several days ago. Lying. This exact word prompted the Counsel to make a cascade
    of knee-slapping jokes. Then it turned a regular telltale school student almost into a hero
    that saved a beauty,… We’ll lose. —…my widow…
    — Don’t die ahead of time. …if someone didn’t get it yet. So today I suggest to look the lie in the eye, to feel its heinous breath. Have a look at the screen. These events are almost
    twenty years old. The leftmost is our hero with a placid smile. And that’s a girl who was cruelly lied to and whose life was mangled like an old and boring toy. The prosecution would like
    to call its witness, Antonio Luigi Amore who made a single
    well-aimed shot twenty years ago. Antonio, tell us what happened on Zimny railroad stretch
    in Archangelsk Region twenty years ago? Antonio Luigi Amore, you are warned against
    committing perjury —…as well as refusing to…
    — Easy, man! I remember all that. Zimny railroad stretch, right? There was this construction brigade. A local girl. I didn’t dual wield
    at that time yet. Fired only one gun. From thirty meters away. Clean shot, right in the heart. Whose heart? The girl’s, of course. The eyes she had…
    The legs… Oh my! So twenty years ago
    with a well-aimed shot you planted love
    for the defendant —…in this girl’s heart?
    — Objection! Interfering with the witness. The witness didn’t state
    whom the victim came to love. Objection is sustained. Nah, nothing secret about that. This loser over here. I keep thinking… What you said last time was so touching. Duties, integrity… It’s all true. Why couldn’t he, say, accept her love, give her a dress as a farewell, and tell her, “Ciao, my love!
    I will always remember you”? So what did the defendant do? He said, “Meet every train
    from Moscow. I’ll come back to you soon.” I was drunk.
    I don’t remember her. Twenty years have passed. During these twenty years every Monday, Wednesday and Friday Anna Vladimirovna Borovskaya has been coming
    to meet Moscow trains. Anna Vladimirovna is 39 years old. At this time the prosecution rests. Counsel? Witness, you are excused. Your Honor, may I call
    the next witness? The prosecution has requested
    the testimony of a living person,
    realized through a dream. The living witness,
    hereinafter called Witness, will be called to this courtroom
    in his earthly sleep and questioned while perceiving it… I don’t remember her. All recollections
    of this dream-questioning will be erased at the moment of his awakening. The awakening on earth
    will occur fifteen minutes later according to the alarm set for going to work. Anna Vladimirovna Borovskaya. Anna Vladimirovna, do you remember this man? Yes or no? No. So at this day of the 39th year of your not so very cheerful life the face of this man
    doesn’t stir anything in you? Objection! Appealing
    to jury’s emotions. What exactly are you objecting? Do you think the witness lives a happy life? Let’s define the term ‘happiness’. Gentlemen, you are not allowed
    to speak at the same time. with the exception
    of cross-examination. Okay. Cross-examination it will be. If my colleague
    is fine with it, of course. Are you married? No. Do you have children? No. Do you have happy dreams? — Does she have happy dreams?
    — Yes. The witness occasionally
    has happy dreams of a) landscape, b) adventure, c) erotic nature. Happy dreams, that is the dreams causing
    a pleasant euphoria, accounts for 54% of the total number of dreams. How much time
    does a person spend sleeping? One third of his life. As a result
    of a simple calculation we see that during one sixth of her life Anna Vladimirovna is happy. How many married women, burdened with a family
    and a household, can boast with fifty four percent of happy scenic, adventure and… …erotic dreams? Let’s stay away
    from rhetorical questions and stick to the ‘yes or no’ pattern. Anna Vladimirovna, every Monday,
    Wednesday and Friday you go to meet the Moscow train
    arriving at 5:40 AM. — Is that right?
    — Yes. In any weather?
    Rainy, snowy, windy… Yes. Some compartments
    are still at sleep. Some have lights on. Passengers, still soft from the sleep,
    are drinking tea from the glasses. Objection!
    Irrelevant information. Sustained. The feeling you have
    when meeting the train… Can it be called hope? Yes. Is hope a nice feeling? Yes. So these twenty minutes a day, three times a week, on your way from home
    over the bridge can be added
    to the happy moments? The time is running out. Anna Vladimirovna,
    please concentrate. A person’s fate
    depends on your answer. If you could change your life, live it in another way, would you want
    to be waiting for the Moscow train three times a week, no matter rain, snow or wind? No. But tomorrow
    you will come to the station? Yes. And Friday,
    and next Monday? Yes. And in a month?
    And in a year? I was nineteen years old. I was a drunk and stupid asshole. I… I forgot. The jury will now retire
    to reach a verdict. The verdict. By voting 9—3 the jury has decided to find Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich not guilty on the Premise 1: Lying as humane concealing in the context of preventing
    smoking among teenagers; and guilty on the Premises 2 and 3: Lying as defamation of the deceased Rybakov, Denis Valeryevich; Lying as unfulfilled promises to the living Borovskaya, Anna Vladimirovna. Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich
    is sentenced to the return
    to the world of living for mandatory completion
    of unfinished business, namely meeting Borovskaya, Anna Vladimirovna and relieving her
    of false hope and responsibilities. What’s happening? Nikita Mikhailovich, you will be sent
    to the world of living in your own body. You will keep all the memories
    for eight hours. Exactly eight hours later you will forget everything
    that happened. The hearing on the case
    of Lazarev, Nikita Mikhailovich is now concluded. I will live a genuine
    and honorable life. It’s so stupid to waste it on idleness, parties… Acquisitiveness… I had one coming back like this about eighty years ago. He was so touching,
    “I will start a new life, free of envy, anger, acquisitiveness”… Took back his job
    in a bank in a week. One more month later he took a dump
    at a neighbor’s doorstep. Hello! What time is it? Midnight. Thank you. Take care. Anna Vladimirovna? Yes. I’m Nikita. To be honest,
    I don’t remember you. I’m Nikita. You don’t remember me? I’m that same Nikita
    who twenty years ago promised you to come back on this train. Aren’t you meeting the trains from Moscow? And waiting for Nikita? That is for me. I’m selling mirrors. The factory price is low, and folks from Moscow buy them. Here. So you are not waiting
    for anyone. And never were. You just sell mirrors. I don’t remember her. Quiet. Quiet.
    Or we’ll be done. Anna Borovskaya…
    Anna Borovskaya… Gentlemen… Cross-examination… Excuse me. Legs up higher, Antonio! You can do better! Uncle, the ladies don’t want
    to dance anymore. And you? Don’t you want
    to entertain your uncle who is covering
    for your perjury? Uncle, but you asked me yourself. Or was it a prosecutor? So show me your catalog. I strongly recommend the hotel. Can’t I appear
    to my own wife in a normal, regular setting? In a tank top and sweats? Men… No romance whatsoever. Are you in my dream again? Uh-huh. Second time in several days. Recently you came as a white-haired old lady. I will ask up there so you’d dream only
    of beautiful things. Ocean… Jungles… Guinea pigs… — I don’t want guinea pigs.
    — Why? I want you. These guinea pigs
    will be wonderful, with a long and silky fur. Andrey? Veronika, it’s me. I’m alive. I woke up
    in the morgue. Right in the coffin.
    They said it was a lethargy. The funeral is
    in an hour and a half. Don’t be scared. I’m really alive. Veronika? — I’m really alive.
    — Fine-fine. Stay there! Stay there! Morgue? Yeah. Yes-yes. I…. Stay there! Yes. Ran away… Stay there! Touch me. I’m warm. This isn’t a dream? I have weird dreams. He loves you very much. Loved you. How would you know? I don’t know. Just occurred to me. I love you very much. No regrets? And you? Me? I signed up
    for this because we should be facing
    the official investigation together. Oh, come on! The official investigation
    is launched against those who did something. And you mumbled
    just a couple of words during the cross-examination. — Oh yeah?
    — Uh-huh. And who was distracting the jury with the conversation
    about erotic dreams? So no regrets? You know that he would’ve been sent to the Reflection Sector. Nah! No way! I would’ve crushed you
    at the last session. Just because
    I really miss my wife. “I received a letter Zoyka wrote. Three words only in it — Miss me not!” Do you have a candy? Sure. One sec. Listen, what kind of presents
    do men give? Fur-coats, paintings, cars… And you! Got a man out of the morgue
    on the third day… This is so stupid. Nah. Pompous. Beautiful. Fresh! “Though we know there’s no train to come to our poor and godforsaken place…” We don’t use the term… “Aren’t you drawn by sorrow of my heart somewhere to the North and to the East? Zoyka?” Venya, look! This asshole left his socks
    right on the bedstand. What did you expect? He’s the master
    of the house now. Wait till he draws
    a mustache on your photo and fries the aquarium fish. Listen, what is it? Fingers are short. Knees are cracking. The nerve you have! Try wearing this,
    freaking esthete! You know that Avgust Karlovich
    made a complaint about you? How did he put it..? Using municipal bodies
    for non-official purposes and demoralization
    of the deceased. Wow! Happens.


    Nobody Showed You the History Of the US Like This (animation)

    August 12, 2019

    History of the US, kind of Hey, Mr. Banana, let’s be super quick about
    this. This is the US. It’s a wonderful gorgeous land where the
    dreams come true. All the good things are located there. Once upon a time, people in Europe, in Spain
    to be specific, decided to found a colony in North America. But they failed. Many Spaniards died of disease and the survivors
    abandoned the colony. Bummer. But there was this man who could make it happen. Pedro Menendez de Aviles. He built and founded the first permanent European
    settlement in what is now the USA. Well done, man. Later, however, English people tried to colonize
    America but they were lost on the voyage home. Losers! This is our land. Next year, they finally did it. And Queen Elizabeth allowed them to call the
    place Virginia, after her. Yay! More settlers arrived. And more! The more people the less food. Simple math. Plus, the natives got really-really angry
    and were ready to kill anyone who dared to chop a tree. The Queen of England wanted another colony. So, people called Separatists were strongly
    critical of the Church of England and they did not wish to belong to it. They all were packed and sent to help the
    new colony grow. Most of them died during the voyage. Sad. Those who survived were taught Native Americans
    how to grow crops. Thank you! Furthermore, English colonists spread over
    the coast of North America. By the way, did I tell you that the Europeans
    introduced many diseases to which the natives had little or no resistance? As a result, many natives died and their number
    declined sharply. Couldn’t they just bring wine, as civilized
    people do? The colonists vs the natives’ conflict began. Eventually, all the Indian Wars were won by
    the whites because of their superior technology. Everything was good and calm. BUT! From the end of the 17th century, many African
    slaves were transported to work on the plantations. In the early 18th century the African slave
    population in North America increased rapidly. Many black people were brought to North America
    on very smelly ships. The locals gave them food, chains and the
    ability to work. Yep, that was their understanding of “the
    help”. Slavery flourished for many years. Britain wanted full control over its colonies
    and it was kind of logical. The British felt that the colonies existed
    for the benefit of the mother country. The locals didn’t feel like sharing their
    toys with other kids in the playground. In the early 18th century the population of
    the colonies was about 300,000 and over a million by the end of it. The land was cheap in North America and it
    attracted many people hoping for a better life. That’s why Britain quite demanded that all
    the locals should stay at the same place and not to explore the land any further. You can’t tell us what to do!! The colonists objected to being told by the
    British government. We want freedom! At first sight, the British had many advantages. They greatly outnumbered the Americans and
    had much greater resources. However, they were handicapped by long lines
    of communication. (In those days it took a sailing ship 6 to
    8 weeks to cross the Atlantic). The British were forced to surrender. And it worked! Meanwhile, Lewis and Clark set out to explore
    more land to continue the expansion of the new states. In 1805 they reached the Pacific. Yay, we’ve got a big huge chunk of land. Let’s celebrate! The American economy also grew rapidly. It was all about cotton. Coal mining and manufacturing industries boomed
    as well. The US continued to grow rapidly and by 1860
    its population was 31 million. Whoa! HOWEVER! North and south were quite different economically
    and culturally. Sooo… Abraham Lincoln was elected the president. The Southern states didn’t want the president
    who would make them forget about free black labor. He firmly opposed the expansion of slavery
    into territories of the USA. I said no! Fighting began in 1861 and ended in 1865. THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, guys. Slaves would be made free in any states still
    in rebellion on 1 January 1863. And smart people also wrote the 13th amendment,
    which banned slavery. Yay! So, now was the time to rebuild everything
    that was destroyed and ruined and make the country shine bright like a diamond. In the late 19th century the USA was the fastest
    growing industrial nation in the world. Work-work-work! Railroad network also grew rapidly. Yeah, there were a looot of trains on the
    rails. Everything was really good. No, wait, it was better than good, it was
    super duper great. By 1910 the USA had overtaken Britain as the
    richest and most powerful nation in the world. By then the population of the USA had reached
    92 million. Also in the early 20th century, the USA built
    the Panama Canal. Why? No one knows. Or maybe because President Theodore Roosevelt
    decided to do it. Period. There was some time when nothing happened
    but then…. WAR! Again? No! The first world war! Why do we care? Right, let’s stay neutral. Something was happening in Europe and Russia,
    but then Germany finally pissed the US and in 1917 they declared war on Germany. Boom! German troops were pushed back until Germany
    surrendered on 11 November 1918. Meanwhile, women gained the vote. You go, girls! Many black people moved from the south to
    the north, especially to the big cities. They demanded to improve conditions for black
    people. And they did. Then everything became messed up again. The American economy began to falter. Many people bought stocks with borrowed money. As a result, the stock market became inflated. Prices rose to a very high level. Then they fell catastrophically. Man, what is going on?! When people lost their jobs they could no
    longer buy goods and demand fell so more people lost their jobs. The Depression. However, there was a good guy. President Hoover. He increased spending on roads, bridges and
    public buildings. It didn’t help. Go away, jackass! Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected President. Roosevelt assured the American people that
    the only thing they had to fear was fear itself. Mass unemployment ended. The second world war began. Trick or treat. In 1940 Germany conquered Denmark, Norway,
    Holland, Belgium, and France. The Japanese attacked the American Pacific
    fleet at Pearl Harbor. Not cool, guys, not cool. Congress declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy declared war on the USA. Some kind of a vicious circle. The country was working on a very huge dangerous
    bomb, the atomic bomb. An American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s
    first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the
    city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of
    radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another
    A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Omg omg omg! The American public suffered less than people
    in other countries because the USA escaped occupation or air raids. Unfortunately, Roosevelt did not live to see
    the end of the war. He died on 12 April 1945. This sucks. After the war, many Americans started thinking
    about their civil rights. African Americans had great success with non-violent
    campaigning. In December 1955 a woman called Rosa Parks
    sat at the front of a bus and refused to move. She was arrested. Black people then organized a boycott of the
    buses. Finally segregation on buses was ruled unconstitutional. One of the leaders of the boycotts was to
    become famous. He was the Baptist Minister Martin Luther
    King. Well played! Then the Kennedy era began in the country. He strengthened the American armed forces. He committed to landing a man on the moon
    by the end of the decade. Kennedy also created the Peace Corps. Nice man. Was shot. Sad. But, the Americans wanted to take all necessary
    measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent
    further aggression in Southeast Asia. Vietnam in particular. Great. Another war. The Vietnam War became increasingly unpopular
    at home. From 1965 onward anti-war demonstrations were
    held. President Nixon slowly withdrew US troops
    from South Vietnam. The last US troops left in 1973. From this time to the present day the US is
    becoming the fastest, coolest, biggest, richest countries in the world. Well, in fact, the biggest country is technically
    Russia, but they don’t seem to care about that! We have Bruce Willis, Hollywood, Taylor Swift,
    Obama and the Statue of Liberty and we don’t care! Today the USA is still the most powerful country
    in the world. Yay, the US! Do you want to learn a brief history of your
    country? Write your country name in the comments and
    it might feature in our next video!

    Add Lighting To Your Model Railroad With Arduino Pro Mini
    Articles, Blog

    Add Lighting To Your Model Railroad With Arduino Pro Mini

    August 12, 2019

    I’m going to show you how to get a scene
    similar to this on your model railroad with an Arduino sketch and a pro mini
    and some inexpensive LED so let’s get going with this right now so we can see
    how to do that I’m Tom Kvichak and this is Toms Trains and Things this
    channel was created to help other modelers who are in need of guidance in
    pursuing their dream of building a model railroad I have this area right here in
    a narrow portion of my layout which was pretty dead but I live ended up with
    some lights and changed around a few things on it to make it look like this
    the sketch that I use for this project will be seen in the next episode of
    Arduino Made Easy which will be out in a few days when you’re doing a project in
    Arduino the uno or mega is a good starting point for your project so you
    can experiment with everything on there to make sure you have it doing what you
    want it to do but once you get it going you’re gonna want to put it on your
    layout and you want to put a smaller version of it this is kind of bulky to
    put inside of a building or underneath your layout I’m gonna show you how I do
    it with a nano or a pro mini so you could break it down into a smaller
    version and still use your uno for other projects to test them out if you would
    like to see more videos like this go ahead and hit that subscribe button
    while you’re at it ding that bell so you could be notified whenever I have a new
    video coming out and while you’re at it go check out the playlist I have several
    playlists on my playlist page that you could go through and see everything
    about model railroading because I here’s the difference in size here’s your uno
    there’s your nano and then there there’s your pro mini I’m gonna do my project on
    a pro mini it’s a little bit smaller and I’ll show you why I’m gonna do it
    because I’m gonna mount it on – this circuit board right here I’m
    going to put it on this way and I’m gonna have all my outputs on the one
    side and I’ll use the rest of them from ground
    now I’ll solder it on here later on but what I want to show you now is if you’re
    going to use the pro mini you’re going to need an FTDI board and I showed you
    them before in another video I have one here that I bought separately which was
    about 15 dollars I bought this right here for almost the same price I think
    they were only about a dollar difference I think this was one dollar more and you
    get the FTDI board you get the pro mini and you get a few things to play around
    with that you could snap off and it’s called a protos snap pro mini whatever
    is out there in the stores is all they’re gonna get they don’t make them
    anymore but you’re going to need an FTDI board if you’re going to use a pro mini
    for the FTDI board this one here that comes by itself it has the header
    already soldered on there what I’m gonna do on this one here and I’m not going to
    put you through all the torture of watching me solder but we’re gonna put a
    header on here like this a 90-degree one so whenever we need to program it we
    could just plug in this right here like that and then plug in our USB cable
    right there I’m going to use a breadboard on it just to keep it aligned
    and then once we have that on there I’ll solder on this header here and then what
    we’ll do is we’ll put it on our circuit board here we have all the pins soldered
    on here right now we got the header for the FTDI and we could plug in like that
    and we got these headers on the bottom here to where we could plug it into our
    circuit board and we’re going to solder it in the circuit board I’m going to
    leave 6 pins on this side and 7 pins on that side okay just to make sure that
    this thing works I slaughtered all the pins on it well
    plug this thing in and there we go no if we want to when we want to put our
    program in there we could put it in there anytime once we have this on here
    like that there’s many different ways where we can get power from it we could
    use this barrel jack here and I’ll show you this could go on and anyway you
    could put that barrel jack in there that way you put your power wires on here and
    just plug it in and then run these wires over to your board there’s another way
    of doing it we have the little terminals this one is the larger one and you can
    see it skips skips a pin on there the this is a heavy heavy duty one as far as
    the electronics go now this one here this is fits two adjacent pins now I’m
    not going to use this one this one’s kind of delicate and I’m gonna use the
    heavier one or the blue one I have the pro mini solder to the board on here
    along with my power terminals now the next thing I’m going to do on here is
    solder the resistors on here I’m going to go from pin two all the way up to pin
    nine now there’s zero in one on there I’m not going to use just go from just
    gonna go right in a row because in between there is a ground and a reset
    pin so we’ll just leave those four pins at the beginning alone leave a little
    bit on each side because we’re just gonna bend them over to begin with I’m
    going to make one side and longer than the other and then on these over here
    I’m just gonna cut them all the way out this is the side I’m gonna fold over let’s get these out of the way here gotta get my goggles back on and what
    I’ll do let’s take the long end and just fold it over like this and we’ll start
    with pinda and this is where we’re gonna start off at we’re going to do these one
    at a time but you can see what I’m going to do on here is I’m going to fold this
    over and then solder it to the pin over here and we’ll just do that with all the
    resistors going up to there so that way we’ll have a resistor on each one of the
    pins and then do the same thing this way take one lead off of the led and solder
    it on to this end and then we’ll come along with a common ground over here and
    put all the grounds over here someplace if we need any more we can grab these
    pins over here but that’s how we’re gonna do it or going to start soldering
    the resistors on there now I’m gonna walk you through soldering the first
    resistor on here and I’ll just leave that up to your imagination for the
    other seven that I do on here it’ll all be the same I gotta get the soldering
    iron out of sleep okay you just ready from the best saw down there for right
    now get in there and put a little bit of flux on these two terminals here it’s about time for me to get another
    another one of these applicators now press down on the board and that
    will hold the resistor in place since I got it stand this straight up a little bit more solder out here yeah
    what I’m gonna do I’m going to lay this down flat like that
    one two three four fifth pin okay fifth being is number two so I’m in the right
    spot yes hair on the opposite side put a little bit of flux on that and we’ll be good to go
    soldering the lead from the resistor over to the pin on the board okay and it’s on there good and tight
    and so what we’ll do is we’ll just take the excess of this and just cut that off
    okay so now we got the resistor on pin number two here’s the other side okay I
    know what we’ll do whenever we know I’ll get all the
    resistors on here and whenever we’re ready to put the LEDs on there we can go we can go all the way down to this last
    pin let’s try that I’m gonna bend this down and I’m gonna pull it through the
    pin and then we’ll put the wire we’ll see if these holes are big enough
    for this and the wire from the LED you see how I got this going across here and
    we’ll solder the LED into this pin right here and then we’ll use these over here
    as ground for all the LEDs so that’s the first one so that’s what we got so far
    with the resistor on there all the resistors are going to look the same I’m
    going to stand them all up I added a couple extra resistors on here on the
    other side on pins 9 and 10 and then I worked on the power and I have the
    negative on this side the power on this side and as you can see over here the
    last pin says raw that is where your 5 volts come in if you have a 5 on one and
    then the ground is right next to it so that’s what I put the wires in there and
    I also put a ground bus in here you can see them right here too
    fourth pin is the ground wire and I just ran a wire over and soldered it all to
    all the little holes in there and these three pads on the end so whenever we get
    to put the LEDs on there we’ll just attach the ground on this side and then
    the power on this side where the resistors are the four pins on the
    inside we’re not going to be using on these on here and this is actually a
    four five six and seven which is analog inputs that we’re not going to be using
    so I’m not going to bother with them at all I’m not going to use any of these
    analog pins right here right now but maybe in the future and then also I
    marked this side here with the black sharpie so
    we know that that side is the ground side so here’s what it looks like right
    here I’ll take a picture of it so you could see it a little bit better than
    this right here we’re just about good to go and putting all the LEDs in the
    layout in and mounting this on on the bottom I have them aboard ready to go I
    have the sketch downloaded onto it I haven’t mounted on the standoffs now I
    don’t only put two standoffs on area because as you can see I had to drill
    out the holes on it and three of the holes on here are too close to the edge
    to drill out so only one was on the edge and I had to drill through one of these
    other holes close to where the resistor is it’s not going to make a difference
    there anyway but that’s just to get it off of the surface of the underside of
    the layout I have all my LEDs ready I’m going to use one already made up about
    this at Amazon I got a light pole actually ten of them but I tested it out
    and I’m going to use it with the 470 ohm resistor on this side here now I have my
    arc welder I’m using three LEDs on there and they’re the same LEDs as these right
    here I just have one I left one clear I put Canyon red or canyon orange on one
    of them for the glow and I painted one blue and it’s bright blue so we’ll see
    what that looks like when it’s finished I showed you in a previous video LED
    similar to these that I picked up at a craft store after Christmas the original
    price is about $7.99 I picked them up for about $2 and you get about 30 mini
    LEDs on there they’re real small LEDs and this is what I used in this project
    here and you could use them in any project I have these two by twos that I
    used for the legs and I just set it off on the side like
    this so I could lay the piece right up on top of it so it doesn’t hit the
    bottom right there here’s the scenery that we’re gonna be working on I have
    the tracks going along on the backside right here and this side is where the
    wall is so I have a pile of ties here I got some rail I got some a pallet over
    here with a barrel on it and I have my shed here this is a coal bin and I had
    my little guy I don’t have them secured but I’m going to add some coal in there
    I have some barrels over here let me see you can’t really see that but right
    there at the barrels and this shed right here is loose I think this was a this is
    a white metal building that I put together and we’re going to light this
    up we’re gonna light this up and we’re gonna mount this on top of this board
    right here I use this as a a walkway somewhere on something else and I had
    some extra so I’m just going to mount it on top of it like this put a light in
    here and then I’m gonna have a the street light pond on one side so we’re
    gonna get that to light up that’s going to be over here I’m gonna put my welder
    over here someplace and I’m gonna put some a little work
    area right here also well here’s the board mounted on the bottom with all the
    wires attached now I got no on the left-hand side you can see all the
    resistors on there I got all the one I got two three four five and six are left
    open and nine I left open seven eight and ten and eleven five six and nine is
    for future use on the analog pins and so here it is the bottom here we go I just
    got finished solder and everything and I got the clap holding up the the piece
    of scenery there so you know the ground wires are up on the top on the ground on
    the ground bus and I sawed it on there here’s the scene without the welder in
    there I had the welders lights don’t have the man in there yet I have a
    modern version of a welder that I have – this is a 1950 so I have to find a
    Lincoln welder sort of looks like an old propane tank a horizontal propane tank
    it’s a rocket it was a generator I have it hooked up to the computer so
    it’s flashing like that and I have four lights coming on and it’s in sequence and yeah a better shot at the weld let’s
    come over here because I haven’t good I have a glow in it also I have a white
    light a blue light and a red light or actually an orange light for the glow
    and what I did with the the lights in the buildings I painted them yellow
    straw yellow to make them look like a lamp from the 50s and the street like
    you get brighter than that but I put it on a thorn and 70 ohm resister workshop
    right there it’s a white metal I think at what are the Scenic’s and then the shed is Bar Mills model
    knit the two sheds that’s one of them and then I have a cold being over there
    that’s a tiki tiki model no one else and some barrels and stuff like that and
    it’s the ties that Paulo ties that I did myself and the rails over there and did
    myself it took the trees out for right now just to work on it and here’s what
    it looks like on the bottom I have the board with the FTDI breakout board on it and you could see I have right next to
    it I have the terminals for the for the power on there I just don’t have it
    hooked up right now and it’ll be hooked up a little bit later so the next shot
    will be with everything on there mounted up on the layout here’s a close-up of
    the welder you’ll notice that after the arc there is a glow that diminishes and
    it’s supposed to look red and in fact I have it is orange it’s called Canyon
    orange but it doesn’t look correct the camera doesn’t pick it up correctly
    now here’s an overall view of the scene and I have the lights sequencing on I
    have the streetlight and then I have the shed light and then the outside light on
    the shed and then I have the work shed light coming on and then finally the arc
    welder coming on on this sketch I don’t have anything actuated it I could put in
    a high AR sensor or a button or anything to activate this as it is right now I
    don’t have anything that activates it I’ll be doing that a little bit later
    after I do the sketch on or do we know made easy in fact this will be featured
    in our doing made easy later on this week now I’ll
    show you a darker view of it with the street light coming on time this out
    however you want or you could have all your lights come on it doesn’t matter
    however you write to sketch that I just did it this way so you could have make
    it look like somebody’s walking around turning lights on before the welder
    comes on and don’t forget later on this week we’re gonna have the Arduino made
    easy this sketch is going to be featured on there and we’ll be adding on to that
    sketch to put an IR sensor or a button or whatever we need to do to activate
    this scene right here I’m working on another project where I’ll be lighting
    up my buildings and adding interiors to him one block at a time I have my city
    streets set up so I could remove an entire block so it makes it easier to
    work on and that’ll be coming up in a future episode keep an eye out for that
    and we’ll see ya

    Why NASA hasn’t gone back to the Moon
    Articles, Blog

    Why NASA hasn’t gone back to the Moon

    August 12, 2019

    (dramatic music) – [Loren] At the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, big things are afoot. This massive factory floor
    holds major components for NASA’s new rocket, the
    Space Launch System, or SLS. It’s the centerpiece for
    NASA’s Artemis Program, a series of missions that will send the first woman to the Moon. When the SLS is finished, it’s going to be something to behold. Standing taller than
    the Statue of Liberty, the finished version of the
    rocket will rival the power of the Saturn V that took humans
    to the Moon during Apollo. – [Launch Control] Engine run-up, liftoff! – SLS is really going to be the backbone for going and exploring deep space. There’s no other rocket
    out there that can do that. – [Loren] But the finished rocket has been years away… for years. – So between now and June of 2020, we’d have to make that a reality. – This is 2019.
    – Yes, sir. – [Loren] The project has been plagued with delays and cost overruns, and today, 50 years
    after the Moon landing, it’s worth asking whether the US can reclaim its Apollo mojo. – [Mission Control] Apollo 11, this is Houston at one minute. Trajectory and guidance look good and the stage is good, over.
    (radio beeping) – The heart of the
    problem may be that NASA’s trying to do things too
    similarly to Apollo, and that might not work today. The perfect storm of money and politics that helped Apollo succeed
    just may never happen again. Apollo occurred during
    a very volatile time. It was the height of the Cold War, and the US needed a show of strength against the Soviet Union. President John F. Kennedy
    was advised that space could be a great way to
    prove America’s worth on the global stage, so he called on NASA to
    send a person to the Moon by the end of the 1960s. – We choose to go to the Moon. – [Loren] Congress backed
    up the proposal with cash, and NASA’s annual budget
    grew to more than 4 percent of the total federal budget in 1965. Today, NASA is maybe half a percent. Industry also rose to the challenge. NASA assembled an army of contractors, including Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company, and IBM. Together, they built the
    giant Saturn V rocket that eventually took humans to the Moon. (rocket rumbling)
    (violin music) Kennedy’s call to arms paid off. – [Neil] That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. (dramatic music) – [Loren] Today, a half-century later, NASA still wants to do big
    things with big rockets, and to build the SLS, they’re playing their greatest hits in hardware and expertise. The Space Launch System has
    a lot of Saturn V vibes, but some of that is dictated by physics. If you want to launch a lot of stuff off of Earth in one piece, you need a big rocket to break free of our planet’s gravity. But the SLS also shares
    a lot of technology from NASA vehicles of the past. For one, the SLS will be
    using the same main engines as the Space Shuttle, which
    flew from 1981 till 2011. – We know those engines very well. They’ve flown so many
    missions on the shuttle, so there’s not a lot of risk in those. And in engines, you know, new development of
    engines can be expensive, so we really traded risk
    versus the cost-benefit of it. – [Loren] Many of the Saturn V contractors have stayed in NASA’s inner circle, too, Boeing in particular. They acquired Douglas and North American, and they’re now the prime
    contractor on the SLS. Overall, the endeavor
    is a big job creator, responsible for thousands
    of jobs in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and more. Michoud itself is deeply
    embedded in the regional economy. – This facility actually
    was built to support the war effort in World War II, and it developed and we took it over at the Saturn program in the ’60s, and NASA’s been here ever since. – [Loren] All in all,
    the vehicle’s development can be found across America. – I would struggle to find a
    state that didn’t have a piece. The whole country’s involved. – [Loren] But that deep history,
    all the way back to Apollo, might also be a liability. – So human spaceflight
    programs since Apollo have made up the majority
    of the NASA budget, and the majority of those programs are performed by aerospace contractors. – [Loren] This is Lori Garver. She was the deputy administrator for NASA under President Obama. Lori says those contracts
    have been so long lived that they’ve locked NASA
    into certain technologies, mindsets, and dollars. – No one wanted to compete, and competition is where
    you drive down cost and advance innovation. This has been something that unfortunately has held back the program. – [Loren] The SLS has cost
    around $14 billion so far, which seems like a lot until
    you consider that Apollo cost roughly $264 billion
    in today’s dollars, according to analysis from
    the Planetary Society. Congress would probably never give NASA an Apollo-era budget again, but NASA is still trying to pull off an Apollo-like program
    for less with contractors who don’t have a
    reputation for cost saving, and some policymakers are taking notice. – NASA and the contractors
    have to execute. Failure to do so could have dire consequences for the program, and there will be no one else to blame. – [Loren] The politics
    of cutting the program entirely are tricky. Lori told us a very revealing story. During her tenure as deputy, she actually tried to
    cancel NASA’s last big plan to return humans to the Moon:
    the Constellation program. The way she tells it,
    that didn’t go over well. – The military industrial complex didn’t want to let go of their contracts, and that is a huge force to overcome. – Ms. Garver’s plan would
    cede control of the heavens to the Russians and the Chinese, probably for most of our lifetime. – And we weren’t able to overcome it. A combination of the contractors, some of the people within NASA who are really committed
    to keeping these jobs, sold Congress, and we
    were given an ultimatum that we had to do a big
    rocket or we wouldn’t get Commercial Crew and
    the technology programs and the Earth sciences
    programs that we wanted. So we took the deal. – [Loren] Constellation
    was ultimately canceled. – This is because the old strategy, including the Constellation program, was not fulfilling its
    promise in many ways. – [Loren] But the contractors
    and hardware endured, and one of the proposed
    rockets for Constellation was resurrected as SLS. And today, in spite of all
    the delays and overruns, there’s a faction in
    Congress, led by lawmakers from states where the SLS is built, who are dedicated to
    continuing the rocket, seemingly at any cost. – What’s important is to build that rocket and build it right, isn’t it? – [James] Yes, sir. – [Loren] This all adds up
    to a feeling that the SLS has become too big to fail, that NASA is trapped by its own mythology. – We have been trying to relive Apollo. – [Loren] So NASA’s core philosophy hasn’t changed much in 50 years, but what has changed? An entire private space
    industry has appeared, and they’re building capable rockets with a lot of power. In 2018, SpaceX debuted
    its Falcon Heavy rocket, which is currently the
    most powerful in the world. And other players like
    The United Launch Alliance and Blue Origin are
    developing heavy-lift rockets that could also get a lot
    of cargo into deep space. None of these rockets are as powerful as the SLS will be when it’s finished, but they represent serious competition. Some critics suggest that
    these private players could supplant the SLS entirely, getting NASA out of the
    business of building rockets. – [Journalist] The mighty
    Delta IV Heavy rocket. – [Loren] NASA obviously
    disagrees that any one rocket needs to beat out the others. – It’s not an either/or, it’s an and. We need all these pieces. We’ve got to have all of us
    working together, public and private. I can see in the future
    where it’s kind of like the intercontinental railroad
    where they were built, they were funded by the government, but eventually they were self-sustaining, and people could travel across the country and move and live elsewhere. That’ll happen in the future. – [Loren] Lori agrees that
    the commercial industry alone won’t take us back to the Moon. There’s just no money in it yet. – Going back to the Moon, I’m not sure what the private market is. Certainly Mars, same question. I know we have very wealthy
    people interested in doing it, and that’s wonderful. We need to be realistic about
    the fact that the government will continue to lead those
    programs as they did launch for quite a long time. – [Loren] NASA is working with
    private industry more, too. Rather than building their
    own human lunar lander, they plan to pick a
    commercial company or two to develop vehicles in their own way. Companies would get a lump sum of money, build the hardware, and
    would ultimately own the design and tech when they’re done. NASA is confident that we will
    return to the Moon in 2024, but maybe what’s missing
    is why we’re going back. NASA claims that the Moon is a great stepping stone to Mars as it will help prove
    out the technology needed to survive on the Red Planet. They say there’s more science to do. There are minerals and water to mine, and eventually, companies
    could make money there. But again, the urgency of the
    Cold War just isn’t there, and multiple polls show
    that most Americans don’t see the value in
    going to the Moon either. Lori, for one, thinks NASA needs
    to become essential again, and today, that might
    not mean building rockets or going to deep space at all. – My view, we need to win
    at something right now that NASA is uniquely skilled to do, and that is address climate change. The science is there;
    we have satellites 24/7, public and private, and
    recognizing that the things that we can do to fix it, we must do in the next 10 years. NASA, given that mandate,
    could take that hill. – [Loren] NASA, on the
    other hand, still sees space as a cause to rally behind. They’ve come this far with the SLS, and it’s still NASA’s job to rally. – We don’t leave any
    dollars on the Moon, right? Every dollar we spend
    is here in this country putting this together and going, but it’s the learning we get and the benefits for humanity
    that come out of this. We are on the leading edge,
    and we can choose as a country to follow or we can lead the world, and I choose to lead. (dramatic music) – [Mission Control] Apollo
    11, this is Houston. You are go for TLI, over.
    (radio beeping) – [Astronaut] Apollo 11, thank you. – [Mission Control] Roger that.