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Light rail transit | Wikipedia audio article

September 13, 2019


Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast
tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating
at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the
United States (where the terminology was devised in the 1970s from the engineering term light
railway), light rail operates primarily along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual
tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train that is lower capacity and lower speed
than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system.A few light rail networks tend
to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or even commuter rail; some of these heavier
rapid transit-like systems are referred to as light metros. Other light rail networks are tram-like in
nature and partially operate on streets. Light rail systems are found throughout the
world, on all inhabited continents. They have been especially popular in recent
years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy
rail systems.==History==Many original tram and streetcar systems in
the United Kingdom, United States, and elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s
as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except
for Blackpool, by 1962. Although some traditional trolley or tram
systems exist to this day, the term “light rail” has come to mean a different type of
rail system. Modern light rail technology has primarily
West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail
vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many
of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems (Stadtbahnen). Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized
German cities maintain light rail networks.The basic concepts of light rail were put forward
by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called “Major Urban Corridor
Facilities: A New Concept”. Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail
transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers
appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together
having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space
faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit (LRT) was introduced in North
America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.The first of the new
light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of
Edmonton, Alberta, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years later by Calgary,
Alberta, and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, and although Canada
has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems
in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local
railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed
by the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) in London. The historic term light railway was used because
it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the
DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom
was firmly established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992.==Definition==The term light rail was coined in 1972 by
the U.S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA; the precursor to the Federal Transit
Administration) to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in
Europe and the United States. In Germany the term Stadtbahn (to be distinguished
from S-Bahn, which stands for Stadtschnellbahn) was used to describe the concept, and many
in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, which is city rail (the Norwegian term, bybane,
means the same). However, UMTA finally adopted the term light
rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense
of “intended for light loads and fast movement”, rather than referring to physical weight. The infrastructure investment is also usually
lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board (Transportation
Systems Center) defined “light rail” in 1977 as “a mode of urban transportation utilizing
predominantly reserved but not necessarily grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled rail vehicles operate
singly or in trains. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities
and performance characteristics at moderate costs.” The American Public Transportation Association
(APTA), in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as: …a mode of transit service (also called
streetcar, tramway, or trolley) operating passenger rail cars singly (or in short, usually
two-car or three-car, trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is often separated from
other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are typically driven electrically
with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley [pole] or a pantograph;
driven by an operator on board the vehicle; and may have either high platform loading
or low level boarding using steps.” However, some diesel-powered transit is designated
light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the River Line
in New Jersey, United States, and the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel
multiple unit (DMU) cars. Light rail is similar to the British English
term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less
rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English
phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout
the English-speaking world. The use of the generic term light rail avoids
some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. The word tram, for instance, is generally
used in the UK and many former British colonies to refer to what is known in North America
as a streetcar, but in North America tram can instead refer to an aerial tramway, or,
in the case of the Disney amusement parks, even a land train. (The usual British term for an aerial tramway
is cable car, which in the US usually refers to a ground-level car pulled along by subterranean
cables.) The word trolley is often used as a synonym
for streetcar in the United States, but is usually taken to mean a cart, particularly
a shopping cart, in the UK and elsewhere. Many North American transportation planners
reserve streetcar for traditional vehicles that operate exclusively in mixed traffic
on city streets, while they use light rail to refer to more modern vehicles operating
mostly in exclusive rights of way, since they may operate both side-by-side targeted at
different passenger groups.The difference between British English and American English
terminology arose in the late 19th century when Americans adopted the term “street railway”,
rather than “tramway”, with the vehicles being called “streetcars” rather than “trams”. Some have suggested that the Americans’ preference
for the term “street railway” at that time was influenced by German emigrants to the
United States (who were more numerous than British immigrants in the industrialized Northeast),
as it is the same as the German term for the mode, Straßenbahn (meaning “street railway”). A further difference arose because, while
Britain abandoned all of its trams except Blackpool after World War II, eight major
North American cities (Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Newark, Cleveland,
and New Orleans) continued to operate large streetcar systems. When these cities upgraded to new technology,
they called it light rail to differentiate it from their existing streetcars since some
continued to operate both the old and new systems. Since the 1980s, Portland, Oregon, has built
all three types of system: a high-capacity light rail system in dedicated lanes and rights-of-way,
a low-capacity streetcar system integrated with street traffic, and an aerial tram system. The opposite phrase heavy rail, used for higher-capacity,
higher-speed systems, also avoids some incompatibilities in terminology between British and American
English, as for instance in comparing the London Underground and the New York City Subway. Conventional rail technologies including high-speed,
freight, commuter/regional, and metro/subway/elevated urban transit systems are considered “heavy
rail”. People movers and personal rapid transit are
even “lighter,” at least in terms of capacity. Monorail is a separate technology that has
been more successful in specialized services than in a commuter transit role.==Types==Due to varying definitions, it is hard to
distinguish between what is called light rail, and other forms of urban and commuter rail. A system described as light rail in one city
may be considered to be a streetcar or tram system in another. Conversely, some lines that are called “light
rail” are in fact very similar to rapid transit; in recent years, new terms such as light metro
have been used to describe these medium-capacity systems. Some “light rail” systems, such as Sprinter,
bear little similarity to urban rail, and could alternatively be classified as commuter
rail or even inter-city rail. In the United States, “light rail” has become
a catch-all term to describe a wide variety of passenger rail systems. There is a significant difference in cost
between these different classes of light rail transit. Tram-like systems are often less expensive
than metro-like systems by a factor of two or more.===Lower capacity===
The most difficult distinction to draw is that between light rail and streetcar or tram
systems. There is a significant amount of overlap between
the technologies, many of the same vehicles can be used for either, and it is common to
classify streetcars or trams as a subcategory of light rail rather than as a distinct type
of transportation. The two general versions are: The traditional type, where tracks and trains
run along the streets and share space with road traffic. Stops tend to be very frequent, but little
effort is made to set up special stations. Because space is shared, the tracks are usually
visually unobtrusive. A more modern variation, where the trains
tend to run along their own right-of-way, separated from road traffic. Stops are generally less frequent, and the
vehicles are often boarded from a platform. Tracks are highly visible, and in some cases
significant effort is expended to keep traffic away through the use of special signaling,
level crossings with gate arms, or even a complete separation with non-level crossings.===Higher capacity===At the highest degree of separation, it can
be difficult to draw the line between light rail and metros. The London Docklands Light Railway would likely
not be considered as “light rail” were it not for the contrast between it and the rapid
transit London Underground. In Europe and Asia, the term light rail is
increasingly used to describe any rapid transit system with a fairly low frequency or short
trains compared to heavier mass rapid systems such as the London Underground or Singapore’s
Mass Rapid Transit. However upon closer inspection, these systems
are better classified as light metro or people movers. For instance, Line 1 and Line 3 in Manila
are often referred to as “light rail”, despite being fully segregated, mostly elevated railways. This phenomenon is quite common in Chinese
cities, where elevated metro lines in Shanghai, Wuhan, and Dalian are called light rail lines. In North America, such systems are not usually
considered light rail.===Mixed systems===
Many systems have mixed characteristics. Indeed, with proper engineering, a rail line
could run along a street, then go underground, and then run along an elevated viaduct. For example, the Los Angeles Metro Rail’s
Gold Line “light rail” has sections that could alternatively be described as a tramway, a
light metro, and, in a narrow sense, rapid transit. This is especially common in the United States,
where there is not a popularly perceived distinction between these different types of urban rail
systems. It is even possible to have high-floor rapid
transit cars run along a street, like a tram; this is known as street running.===Speed and stop frequency===
In some areas, “light rail” may also refer to any rail line with frequent low speeds
or many stops in a short distance. This inherits the old definition of light
railway in the UK. Hong Kong’s Light Rail is an example of this,
although it is also called “light rail” because it is a lower-scale system than the rest of
the MTR. Sprinter in the San Diego area uses DMUs and
is targeted towards a commuter rail audience; however, because of the large number of stops
along the line, it is called light rail. Reference speed from major light rail systems,
including station stop time, is shown below. However, low top speed is not always a differentiating
characteristic between light rail and other systems. For example, the Siemens S70 LRVs used in
the Houston METRORail and other North American LRT systems have a top speed of 106 kilometres
per hour (66 mph) while the trains on the all-underground Montreal Metro can only reach
a top speed of 72 kilometres per hour (45 mph). Los Angeles Metro light rail vehicles have
higher top and average speeds than Montreal Metro or New York City Subway trains. The main difference is that Montreal Metro
and New York City Subway trains carry far more passengers than any North American LRT
system, and the trains have faster acceleration, making station-to-station times relatively
short in their densely populated urban areas. Most light rail systems serve less densely
populated cities and suburbs where passenger traffic is not high, but low cost combined
with high top speed may be important to compete with automobiles.===System-wide considerations===
Many light rail systems—even fairly old ones—have a combination of both on- and
off-road sections. In some countries (especially in Europe),
only the latter is described as light rail. In those places, trams running on mixed rights-of-way
are not regarded as light rail, but considered distinctly as streetcars or trams. However, the requirement for saying that a
rail line is “separated” can be quite low—sometimes just with concrete “buttons” to discourage
automobile drivers from getting onto the tracks. Some systems such as Seattle’s Link are truly
mixed but closed to traffic, with light rail vehicles and traditional buses both operating
along a common right-of-way. Some systems, such as the AirTrain JFK in
New York City, the DLR in London, and Kelana Jaya Line in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, have
dispensed with the need for an operator. The Vancouver SkyTrain was an early adopter
of driverless vehicles, while the Toronto Scarborough rapid transit operates the same
trains as Vancouver, but uses drivers. In most discussions and comparisons, these
specialized systems are generally not considered light rail.==Track gauge==
Historically, the track gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many
early systems. However, most light rail systems are now standard
gauge. Older standard-gauge vehicles could not negotiate
sharp turns as easily as narrow-gauge ones, but modern light rail systems achieve tighter
turning radii by using articulated cars. An important advantage of standard gauge is
that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built
machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail
vehicles to be moved around, conveniently using the same tracks as freight railways. Another factor favoring standard gauge is
that accessibility laws are making low-floor trams mandatory, and there is generally insufficient
space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow-gauge layout. Furthermore, standard-gauge rolling stock
can be switched between networks either temporarily or permanently and both newly built and used
standard-gauge rolling stock tends to be cheaper to buy, as more companies offer such vehicles.==Capacity=====
Efficiency===Energy efficiency for light rail may be 120
passenger miles per gallon of fuel (or equivalent), but variation is great, depending on circumstances.===Comparison with high capacity roads===
One line of light rail (requires 25′ Right of Way) has a theoretical capacity of up to
8 times more than one 12′ lane of freeway (not counting buses) during peak times. Roads have ultimate capacity limits that can
be determined by traffic engineering. They usually experience a chaotic breakdown
in flow and a dramatic drop in speed (colloquially known as a traffic jam) if they exceed about
2,000 vehicles per hour per lane (each car roughly two seconds behind another). Since most people who drive to work or on
business trips do so alone, studies show that the average car occupancy on many roads carrying
commuters is only about 1.5 people per car during the high-demand rush hour periods of
the day. This combination of factors limits roads carrying
only automobile commuters to a maximum observed capacity of about 3,000 passengers per hour
per lane. The problem can be mitigated by introducing
high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes and ride-sharing programs, but in most cases the solution adopted
has been to add more lanes to the roads. By contrast, light rail vehicles can travel
in multi-car trains carrying a theoretical ridership up to 20,000 passengers per hour
in much narrower rights-of-way, not much more than two car lanes wide for a double track
system. They can often be run through existing city
streets and parks, or placed in the medians of roads. If run in streets, trains are usually limited
by city block lengths to about four 180-passenger vehicles (720 passengers). Operating on two-minute headways using traffic
signal progression, a well-designed two-track system can handle up to 30 trains per hour
per track, achieving peak rates of over 20,000 passengers per hour in each direction. More advanced systems with separate rights-of-way
using moving block signalling can exceed 25,000 passengers per hour per track.===Practical considerations===
Most light rail systems in the United States are limited by demand rather than capacity
(by and large, most American LRT systems carry fewer than 4,000 persons per hour per direction),
but Boston’s and San Francisco’s light rail lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per
hour per track during rush hour. Elsewhere in North America, the Calgary C-Train
and Monterrey Metro have higher light rail ridership than Boston or San Francisco. Systems outside North America often have much
higher passenger volumes. The Manila Light Rail Transit System is one
of the highest capacity ones, having been upgraded in a series of expansions to handle
40,000 passengers per hour per direction, and having carried as many as 582,989 passengers
in a single day on its Line 1. It achieves this volume by running four-car
trains with a capacity of up to 1,350 passengers each at a frequency of up to 30 trains per
hour. However, the Manila light rail system has
full grade separation and as a result has many of the operating characteristics of a
metro system rather than a light rail system. A capacity of 1,350 passengers per train is
more similar to heavy rail than light rail. A bus rapid transit (BRT) system using dedicated
lanes can have a theoretical capacity of 3,600 passengers per hour per direction (30 buses
per direction, 120 passengers in articulated buses). BRT is an alternative to LRT, at least if
very high capacity is not needed. Using buses, roads can achieve a much higher
commuter capacity than is achievable with passenger cars. To have 30 buses per direction an hour, buses
must have priority at traffic lights and have their own dedicated lanes. Buses can travel closer to each other than
rail vehicles because of better braking capability. However, each bus vehicle requires a single
driver, whereas a light rail train may have three to four cars of much larger capacity
in one train under the control of one driver, or no driver at all in fully automated systems,
increasing the labor costs of high-traffic BRT systems compared to LRT systems. The peak passenger capacity per lane per hour
depends on which types of vehicles are allowed at the roads. Typically roadways have 1,900 passenger cars
per lane per hour (pcplph). If only cars are allowed, the capacity will
be less and will not increase when the traffic volume increases. When there is a bus driving on this route,
the capacity of the lane will be more and will increase when the traffic level increases. And because the capacity of a light rail system
is higher than that of a bus, there will be even more capacity when there is a combination
of cars and light rail. Table 3 shows an example of peak passenger
capacity. (Edson & Tennyson, 2003)==Safety==
An analysis of data from the 505-page National Transportation Statistics report published
by the US Department of Transportation shows that light rail fatalities are higher than
all other forms of transportation except motorcycle travel (31.5 fatalities per 100 million miles).However,
the National Transportation Statistics report published by the US Department of Transportation
states that “Caution must be exercised in comparing fatalities across modes because
significantly different definitions are used. In particular, Rail and Transit fatalities
include incident-related (as distinct from accident-related) fatalities, such as fatalities
from falls in transit stations or railroad employee fatalities from a fire in a workshed. Equivalent fatalities for the Air and Highway
modes (fatalities at airports not caused by moving aircraft or fatalities from accidents
in automobile repair shops) are not counted toward the totals for these modes. Thus, fatalities not necessarily directly
related to in service transportation are counted for the transit and rail modes, potentially
overstating the risk for these modes.”==Construction and operation costs==
The cost of light rail construction varies widely, largely depending on the amount of
tunneling and elevated structures required. A survey of North American light rail projects
shows that costs of most LRT systems range from $15 million to over $100 million per
mile. Seattle’s new light rail system is by far
the most expensive in the US, at $179 million per mile, since it includes extensive tunneling
in poor soil conditions, elevated sections, and stations as deep as 180 feet (55 m) below
ground level. This results in costs more typical of subways
or rapid transit systems than light rail. At the other end of the scale, four systems
(Baltimore, Maryland; Camden, New Jersey; Sacramento, California; and Salt Lake City,
Utah) incurred construction costs of less than $20 million per mile. Over the US as a whole, excluding Seattle,
new light rail construction costs average about $35 million per mile.By comparison,
a freeway lane expansion typically costs $1.0 million to $8.5 million per lane mile for
two directions, with an average of $2.3 million. However, freeways are frequently built in
suburbs or rural areas, whereas light rail tends to be concentrated in urban areas, where
right of way and property acquisition is expensive. Similarly, the most expensive US highway expansion
project was the “Big Dig” in Boston, Massachusetts, which cost $200 million per lane mile for
a total cost of $14.6 billion. A light rail track can carry up to 20,000
people per hour as compared with 2,000–2,200 vehicles per hour for one freeway lane,. For example, in Boston and San Francisco,
light rail lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per hour, respectively, in the peak direction
during rush hour.Combining highway expansion with LRT construction can save costs by doing
both highway improvements and rail construction at the same time. As an example, Denver’s Transportation Expansion
Project rebuilt interstate highways 25 and 225 and added a light rail expansion for a
total cost of $1.67 billion over five years. The cost of 17 miles (27 km) of highway improvements
and 19 miles (31 km) of double-track light rail worked out to $19.3 million per highway
lane-mile and $27.6 million per LRT track-mile. The project came in under budget and 22 months
ahead of schedule.LRT cost efficiency improves dramatically as ridership increases, as can
be seen from the numbers above: the same rail line, with similar capital and operating costs,
is far more efficient if it is carrying 20,000 people per hour than if it is carrying 2,400. The Calgary, Alberta, C-Train used many common
light rail techniques to keep costs low, including minimizing underground and elevated trackage,
sharing transit malls with buses, leasing rights-of-way from freight railroads, and
combining LRT construction with freeway expansion. As a result, Calgary ranks toward the less
expensive end of the scale with capital costs of around $24 million per mile.However, Calgary’s
LRT ridership is much higher than any comparable US light rail system, at 300,000 passengers
per weekday, and as a result its capital efficiency is also much higher. Its capital costs were one-third those of
the San Diego Trolley, a comparably sized US system built at the same time, while by
2009 its ridership was approximately three times as high. Thus, Calgary’s capital cost per passenger
was much lower than that of San Diego. Its operating cost per passenger was also
much lower because of its higher ridership. A typical C-Train vehicle costs only CA$163
(equivalent to $199 in 2018) per hour to operate, and since it averages 600 passengers per operating
hour, Calgary Transit estimates that its LRT operating costs are only 27 cents per ride,
versus $1.50 per ride on its buses.Compared to buses, costs can be lower due to lower
labor costs per passenger mile, higher ridership (observations show that light rail attracts
more ridership than a comparable bus service) and faster average speed (reducing the number
of vehicles needed for the same service frequency). While light rail vehicles are more expensive
to buy, they have a longer useful life than buses, sometimes making for lower life-cycle
costs.==Health impact====
Integration with bicycles==Light rail lines have various policies on
bicycles. Some fleets restrict bicycles on trains during
peak hours. Some light rail systems, such as the St. Louis
MetroLink, allow bicycles on the trains, but only in the rear sections of cars. Some light rail lines, like San Francisco’s,
allow only folding bicycles on board. In some systems dedicated bike parking is
available at select stations and others are integrated with local bike share systems.==Variations=====
Trams operating on mainline railways===Around Karlsruhe, Kassel, and Saarbrücken
in Germany, dual-voltage light rail trains partly use mainline railroad tracks, sharing
these tracks with heavy rail trains. In the Netherlands, this concept was first
applied on the RijnGouweLijn. This allows commuters to ride directly into
the city centre, rather than taking a mainline train only as far as a central station and
then having change to a tram. In France, similar tram-trains are planned
for Paris, Mulhouse, and Strasbourg; further projects exist. In some cases, tram-trains use previously
abandoned or lightly used heavy rail lines in addition to or instead of still in use
mainline tracks. Some of the issues involved in such schemes
are: compatibility of the safety systems
power supply of the track in relation to the power used by the vehicles (frequently different
voltages, rarely third rail vs overhead wires) width of the vehicles in relation to the position
of the platforms height of the platformsThere is a history
of what would now be considered light rail vehicles operating on heavy rail rapid transit
tracks in the US, especially in the case of interurban streetcars. Notable examples are Lehigh Valley Transit
trains running on the Philadelphia and Western Railroad high-speed third rail line (now the
Norristown High Speed Line). Such arrangements are almost impossible now,
due to the Federal Railroad Administration refusing (for crash safety reasons) to allow
non-FRA compliant railcars (i.e., subway and light rail vehicles) to run on the same tracks
at the same times as compliant railcars, which includes locomotives and standard railroad
passenger and freight equipment. Notable exceptions in the US are the NJ Transit
River Line from Camden to Trenton and Austin’s Capital MetroRail, which have received exemptions
to the provision that light rail operations occur only during daytime hours and Conrail
freight service only at night, with several hours separating one operation from the other. The O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa also has
freight service at certain hours.===Third-rail power for trams===When electric streetcars were introduced in
the late 19th century, conduit current collection was one of the first ways of supplying power,
but it proved to be much more expensive, complicated, and trouble-prone than overhead wires. When electric street railways became ubiquitous,
conduit power was used in those cities that did not permit overhead wires. In Europe, it was used in London, Paris, Berlin,
Marseille, Budapest, and Prague. In the United States, it was used in parts
of New York City and Washington, D.C. Third rail technology was investigated for
use on the Gold Coast of Australia for the G:link light rail, though power from overhead
lines was ultimately utilized for that system. In the French city of Bordeaux, the tramway
network is powered by a third rail in the city centre, where the tracks are not always
segregated from pedestrians and cars. The third rail (actually two closely spaced
rails) is placed in the middle of the track and divided into eight-metre sections, each
of which is powered only while it is completely covered by a tram. This minimises the risk of a person or animal
coming into contact with a live rail. In outer areas, the trams switch to conventional
overhead wires. The Bordeaux power system costs about three
times as much as a conventional overhead wire system, and took 24 months to achieve acceptable
levels of reliability, requiring replacement of all the main cables and power supplies. Operating and maintenance costs of the innovative
power system still remain high. However, despite numerous service outages,
the system was a success with the public, gaining up to 190,000 passengers per day.==Comparison to other rail transit modes
==With its mix of right-of-way types and train
control technologies, LRT offers the widest range of latitude of any rail system in the
design, engineering, and operating practices. The challenge in designing light rail systems
is to realize the potential of LRT to provide fast, comfortable service while avoiding the
tendency to overdesign that results in excessive capital costs beyond what is necessary to
meet the public’s needs.===Typical rolling stock===
The BART railcar in the following chart is not generally considered to be a “light rail”
vehicle (it is actually a heavy rail vehicle), and is only included for comparison purposes.===Train operation===An important factor crucial to LRT is the
train operator. Unlike rail rapid transit, which can travel
unattended under automatic train operation (ATO), safe, high-quality LRT operation relies
on a human operator as a key element. The reason that the operator is so important
is because the train tracks often share the streets with automobiles, other vehicles,
and pedestrians. If trains were fully automated on roads, nobody
would be there to stop the train if a car pulled in front of it. Light rail trains are actually very sturdily
built for passenger safety, and to reduce damage from impacts with cars.===Floor height===The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage
of partially or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles only 300 to 360
mm (11.8 to 14.2 in) above the top of the rail, a feature not found in either rapid
rail transit vehicles or streetcars. This allows them to load passengers, including
those in wheelchairs or strollers, directly from low-rise platforms that are little more
than raised sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access
to disabled passengers without using expensive and delay-inducing wheelchair lifts, while
also making boarding faster and easier for other passengers.===Power sources===
Overhead lines supply electricity to the vast majority of light rail systems. This avoids the danger of passengers stepping
on an electrified third rail. The Docklands Light Railway uses an inverted
third rail for its electrical power, which allows the electrified rail to be covered
and the power drawn from the underside. Trams in Bordeaux, France, use a special third-rail
configuration where the power is only switched on beneath the trams, making it safe on city
streets. Several systems in Europe and a few recently
opened systems in North America use diesel-powered trains.==Tram and other light rail transit systems
worldwide==Around the world there are many tram and streetcar
systems. Some date from the beginning of the 20th century
or earlier, but many of the original tram and streetcar systems were closed down in
the mid-20th century, with the exceptions of many Eastern Europe countries. Even though many systems closed down over
the years, there are still a number of tram systems that have been operating much as they
did when they were first built over a century ago. Some cities (such as Los Angeles and Jersey
City) that once closed down their streetcar networks are now restoring, or have already
rebuilt, at least some of their former streetcar/tram systems. Most light rail services are currently committed
to articulated vehicles like modern LRVs, i.e. trams, with the exception of large underground
metro or rapid transit systems. A number of UK cities have substantial light
rail networks including Nottingham, Manchester and a line between Birmingham and Wolverhampton,
with plans to extend out as far as Coventry.==See also

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